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# Energy balance in Jacket

Q
J
= U
J
A
J
(T
R
-T
A
)
U
J
= f(reaction solution, jacket fluid) see Table

U
J
=
50+80
2

Btu
h ft
2
5.678
W
m
2
K
Btu
h ft
2

=369.07
W
m
2
K

Table Range of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Jacketed/ Agitated Liquid
(Source: M Walas,1990)

Note: Highlighted box indicates selected design of heat exchanger coefficient is taken
for average value, reactants stream is regarded as organic solution
Table 2.8 Standard size of CSTR Sizing (Source M.Walas)
Rated Capacity
gal
Actual capacity
gal
Jacket area
ft
2
Outside
diameter in
Straight shell in
3000 3272 256 90 108
3500 3827 283 96 111
4000 4354 304 102 111
5000 5388 353 108 123

Note : Highligted box indicates selected CSTR sizing in this design
At actual capacity, 14.08 m
3
=3719 gal, so the nearest value is taken in table which is
3827 gal
Rated Capacity , V
r
=3500 gal = 13.25 m
3
Jacket / Agitated Liquid
Jacket fluid Fluid in vessel Wall Material Btu/ h
O
F .ft
2
Steam Aqueous Solution Carbon Steel 70-130
Steam Organic Solution Carbon Steel 60-110
Cooling water Aqueous solution Carbon Steel 60-110
Cooling water Organic Solution Carbon Steel 50-80
Organic Oil Heavy Organic Carbon Steel 30-50
Area of jacketed A
j
=283 ft
2

)
Q
J
= U
J
A
J
(T
R
-T
A
)
Q
J
=369.07
W
m
2

283ft
2

0.3048m
2
1ft
2
(70-65)
Q
J
=49kW

Since Q Q
J
, spiral coil is needed for additional cooling medium.
Heat from cooling coil, Q
c
is needed to cooled down the reactor is

= (2542-49)kW =2493 kW

1) Determination of reactor design pressure
2) Determination of reactor design temperature
3) Determination of suitable material for construction
4) Determination of cylindrical wall thickness
5) Determination of suitable closure for the reactor
7) Determination and selection the suitable support for reactor support
8) Determination nozzles and holes

Design pressure, P
D
= (P
i
) x 1.1
= 1.013 bar x 1.1
= 1.1143 bar
= 0.1143 N/mm
2
Materials of Construction

There are many types of material that used to construct pressure vessel, for
example from plain carbon steels, low and high alloy steels, and reinforced
plastics. The stability of the material for fabrication (welding) as well as the
compatibility of the material with the process is the main factor of the selection
of a suitable material [12].
In this process, the most suitable material used is stainless steel due to
toughness and the suitability with the reaction environments. In chemical
industry, the most frequently corrosion resistance material used is stainless
steels.
There are wide of range of stainless steels are available, with
compositions tailored to give the properties required for specific applications.
They can be divided into three broad classes according to their microstructure:

1. Ferritic: 13-20 per cent Cr, < 0.1 per cent C, with no nickel
2. Austenitic: 18-20 per cent Cr, > 7 per cent Ni
3. Martensitic: 12-10 per cent Cr, 0.2 to 0.4 per cent C, up to 2 per cent
Ni

Type 304 (in BS1501 is 801B or so-called 18/8 stainless steels) are the
most generally used stainless steel. It contains minimum Cr and Ni that give a
stable austenitic structure. The carbon content is low enough for heat treatment
not to normally needed with thin sections to prevent weld decay [12].
Weld decay is the intergranular corrosion in chemical plant. This is
caused by the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries in a
zone adjacent to the weld. Weld decay can be avoided by annealing after
welding, or by using low carbon grades (<0.3 percent C), or grades stabilized by
the addition of titanium or molybdenum [12].

Therefore, it can be concluded that Stainless Steel 304 is the best
material to be used in designing the reactor.