# May 9th, 2012

eufisica's eBook
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Refraction
May 9th, 2012

My compilation of Physics posts from eufisica's blog. I hope you enjoy it!

Magnifying the Universe
May 9th, 2012

Magnifying the Universe is an interactive infographic that illustrates the scale of over 100 items. From galaxies to insects, nebulae and stars to molecules and atoms. And more... Click to view in full screen and start using it: Copyright 2012. Magnifying the Universe by Number Sleuth.

Snell's law (also known as the Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water and glass. Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. Since the velocity is lower in the second medium (v2 < v1), the angle of refraction θ2 is less than the angle of incidence θ1; that is, the ray in the higher-index medium is closer to the normal. In optics, the law is used in ray tracing to compute the angles of incidence or refraction, and in experimental optics and gemology to find therefractive index of a material. The law is also satisfied in metamaterials, which allow light to be bent "backward" at a negative angle of refraction (negative refractive index). Although named after Dutch astronomer Willebrord Snellius (1580–1626), the law was first accurately described by the Arab scientist Ibn Sahlat Baghdad court, when in 984 he used the law to derive lens shapes that focus light with no geometric aberrations in the manuscript On Burning Mirrors and Lenses (984).[1][2] Snell's law states that the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction is equivalent to the ratio of phase velocities in the two media, or equivalent to the opposite ratio of the indices of refraction:

The Soundry: The Physics of Sound
May 9th, 2012

Physics: The science of matter and energy and of interactions between the two; the physical processes and phenomena of a particular system. Table of Contents • What is Sound? • Properties of a Sound Wave • Speed of Sound • Constructive and Destructive Interference • Diffraction • The Doppler Effect • Intensity via library.thinkquest.org Posted via email from eufisica's posterous Watch my playlist about sound and waves:

with each as the angle measured from the normal, as the velocity of light in the respective medium (SI units are meters
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May 9th, 2012

per second, or m/s) and as the refractive index (which is unitless) of the respective medium. The law follows from Fermat's principle of least time, which in turn follows from the propagation of light as waves. in Wikipedia Learn more about the mathematics of refraction in physicsclassrom. Watch this video about refraction in gases (MIT):

What particle... ?
May 9th, 2012

Sean Carroll (theoretical physicist at California Institute of Technology) create a great diagram called "What particle are you?", a funny way to learn more about the Standard Model.

Albert Einstein
May 9th, 2012

Albert Einstein in 1921. Credit: Wikimedia Commons Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity , effecting a revolution in physics . For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics . While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect ". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole. inWikipedia Discover more related to Albert Einstein The History Channel video: You can watch more videos here.

Credit: Sean Carroll

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