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Annual, Perennial and Biennial plants Annuals Plants that live for one year or less are categorized into annuals. In short, annuals are seasonal flowering plants that bear flowers only for three to four months. Cultivated through seeds, annuals grow, bloom, make more seeds, and die; the entire cycle being carried out in one year’s time. These plants generally find their place in gardens as they add color, effect, and change the entire layout. Examples: Asters, dianthus, bachelor button, phlox, balsam, basil, cosmos, petunia, marigold, salvias, watermelon, pea and lettuce.
Biennials Biennials are plants that last for two years. Their cycle of growing from seed to fruition, including blooming and death, takes place over a period of two years. Just like annuals, biennials are also seasonal flowering plants, though they flower only during the second year of planting. Some biennials are shortlived perennials. Examples: Foxglove, Echium wildpretti, parsely, carrot, celery, and mustard.
Perennials The perennial has been derived from the Latin term ‘perennis’, which means ‘many years’. Flowering plants that live for years and bear flowers season after season are called perennials. These plants, once planted, need not be replanted every year. Most of them start bearing flowers after two years when they are old enough to bloom. However, if you wish to change the layout of your garden frequently or occasionally, perennials should not be your pick.
. They will also consume small frogs and occasionally mice and small birds. The fluid in the bottom of the tube contains digestive juices that will ingest the insect prey. spearmint. gerbera. They use photosynthesis for the process of nutrition. they can be deleterious to their hosts. They normally grow in marshlands. They have an advantage over plants growing on the ground as they have a relatively better access to sunlight. geranium. Examples: Mosses and orchids Pitcher Plants They are carnivorous plants. Water Lily Bleeding Heart Tomato Epiphytic Plants They depend on other plants for support growing on trunks and branches. They obtain nutrients from the air or water around them. water lily. They usually bear a single. sage. acidic and nitrogen poor soil. The insect traps of a pitcher plant can be quite large and attractive.Examples: Bleeding heart. anthurium. They get their nitrogen intake by eating insects. sweet potato. They can also absorb nutrients through their root systems. They are also dubbed ‘air plants’. Though they are not parasitic. which block an insect from climbing up the tube and escaping. The inside of the tubular shaped leaf is lined with downward pointing hairs. large and nodding flower. borage. Pitcher plant is also called a meat eater. tomato and gingerroot. bogs and areas of waterlogged.
These plants have the capability to store water. Pentas. Ixora. Examples: Mosanda. eye-fetching framework in any garden design. Several plants have developed the typical spikes and spines to prevent them from being eaten by animals. And their rich array of form. Flowering shrubs provide a long-lived. Shrubs Flowering shrubs are those that flower almost throughout the year and will have bushy shape and size. which greatly reduce transpiration. and flowers can yield year-round rewards. Hibiscus. low-fuss. Desert perennial species survive by being dormant during dry periods of the year. fruit. Lantana Pentas Ixora Mosanda . Plant species like cacti and succulents. They spring to life when water becomes available. have dense flesh which is capable of storing large amounts of water. They usually have few or no leaves. foliage.Desert Plants These plants are adapted to the arid and hostile environment of a desert. They also have the ability to use water efficiently.
Ornamental shrubs : Ornamentals are those which will not flower but are best for their evergreen foliage. Magnolia. Creepers & Climbers Creepers : These plants can be grown along the top of the compound wall or as a cover for walls. Trees take a number of years to mature. Bougainvilleas Bougainvilleas Bignonia venusta Allamanda . shade trees. Hydrangea Paniculata. Examples: Juniperus. or at the entrance as an arch. Eranthemum. Aralia. Like. Acalypha Hispida. Shade trees and ornamentals grow on a framework of older branches and need only infrequent maintenance pruning. Tuja compacta. Cassia javanica etc. Jacquemontia. Jacaranda. and Crotons Crotons Juniperus Tuja compacta Flowering and Ornamental Trees Tress can be flowering trees. ornamentals etc. Cornus Florida (Flowering Dogwood). shapes and ornamental look. Cassia fistula. allamanda. Some attractive dwarf/medium height flowering trees or ornamental trees would be ideal for a home garden. These can be trimmed or trained into various shapes and sizes. fruit trees. passiflora (fashion flower). Examples: Bignonia venusta. Flowering trees can be pruned after flowering or fruition. Tecoma argentea.
and tuberous begonia. such as onion. Examples are Clerodendrum thomsoniae (Bleeding Heart). another plant. such as crocus and gladiolus. lentic habitats includes lakes and ponds. Real bulbs are created in layers with an outer scale. corms. dahlia. river. sea or marine habitat. Bulbs are further categorized into real bulbs. ponds. and lily. a wall or trellis. and tubers and tuberous roots.Climbers : These are the plants with soft stems that grow only with a support. Cissus rhombifolia (Grape Ivy). and marshes or in wet soils. Bulb plants grow. Tulips Bluebells Daffodils Plants in Different Habitats Hydrophytes (Aquatic Plants) Aquatic plants or Hydrophytes are plants which grow in regions where there is plenty of water like. flower. lake. Tubers and tuberous roots bear stems or roots that store food. the leaves remain for some time and disappear for the next complete year. while the stem and the leaves move upwards. lotic habitat includes . The aquatic habitats can be further classified in to fresh water habitat. They rely on something else for support. tulips. Clematis montana (Clematis) etc. and bluebells. Different types of climbers have devised many crafty ways to hold on to whatever they grasp. tulip. The roots grow downwards from the bulb. Common examples are daffodils. Corms appear to be bulbs from outside though they have a different structure within. Examples include potato. Jasminum multipartitum (Starry Wild Jasmine). Bleeding heart Grape Ivy Bulbs Bulbs are specific stem structures that are planted beneath the soil and always stay underground.
Wolffia. Aloe. Nelumbium Xerophytes Eichhornia Plants. Drought Enduring Xerophytes (Succulents). floating but rooted hydrophytes. altered salt concentration. The plants experiences several physical factors and have developed several adaptation accordingly to survive in these habitats. pressure fluctuations in water. are called xerophytes. Nymphaea. Plants in dry habitats are generally classified into three types namely Drought escaping plants (Drought evaders). Argemone mexicana. Cassia tora. Examples: Eichhornia. Marsilea. Pistia. Nelumbium. Opuntia. Asparagus Cassia Tora . Potamogeton. The factors which affect the plants in these habitats are availability of O2 and light. submerged hydrophytes (floating and rooted). and physically and physiologically dry habitat (Slopes of mountains). Opuntia.streams and rivers experience.succulent perennial) Examples: Solanum xanthocarpum. Utricularia. Asparagus. Hydrilla. Sagittaria. Vallisneria. Agave. etc. Rock surface). and amphibious hydrophytes. physiologically dry habitats. Lemna Victoria regia. Typha. resistance against moving water. Ceratophyllum. and Drought resisting plants (Non. free floating hydrophytes. Euphorbia. which grow in xeric conditions or dry habitats. Plants living in aquatic habitats includes. Xeric habitats are the places where available water is not present in adequate quantity. Xeric habitats are further classified into three type’s physically dry habitats (Desert. Limnophylla heterophylla.
Nepenthes Utricularia .Mesophytes (Terrestrial Plant) Common land plants are known as mesophytes. Lithophytes feed off moss. communities of grasses and herbs and communities of woody plants. grassland habitat. Mesophytes are classified into two main community groups. they grow in situations which are neither too wet nor too dry. Bromeliads Staghorn Ferns Litophytes Lithophytes are a type of plant that grows in or on rocks. Examples of lithophytes include several Paphiopedilum orchids. the pitcher plant. Nepenthes campanulata. litter. meadows etc. These plants cannot grow in habitats of more water or they survive in dry places. Mesophytes survive in habitats like forests habitat. crop land habitats. namely. Aerial Plants Aerial Plants are plants that live in air or wind the wind serves as the water of the plants. Epiphytic plants are also known as air plants and staghorn ferns. and even their own dead tissue. orchids and bromeliads are the most well known. and several Utricularia species. nutrients in rain water.
including cooking oils. dry places but the largest ones are found in the hot. daisy. lettuce. and teas. Ferns Ferns are the most superior spore bearing type of plants. but a significant number are also shrubs. and on other plants. sweetening agents. Asteraceae or Compositae. stems or roots. Mosses Mosses and most liverworts have simple stems and tiny. damp tropic regions. artichokes. The spadix is usually accompanied by. (the aster. ferns and their genus all reproduce by means of spores. members are often colloquially known as aroid. or sunflower family). a spathe or leaf-like bract. sunflower seeds. and sometimes partially enclosed in. Each spore contains a small quantity of vital genetic matter in a compact sheathe. Many are tiny single celled plants.Many economically important products come from composites. Several genera are also very popular . Around 15. Many ferns grow in cool. Also known as the Arum family. They can be found growing on the plain land. comprise the largest family of vascular plants.000 species of ferns are there in existence now according to scientific researches Flowering plants Araceae are a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants in which flowers are borne on a type of inflorescence called a spadix. Algae thrive in a moist or wet environment. They habitually live in mild. Most members of Asteraceae are herbaceous. but some seaweeds are huge. Algae The simplest plant of this type is algae. They do not have leaves.Spore Bearing Plants Algae. mosses. damp regions. vines and trees. slender leaves. on rocks. but some can live in very cold places. These are minute and are formed inside the sporangia that look like fine powder.
with the horticultural community. and heleniums. various heaths and heathers (Erica. especially in the tropics.500 species. zinnias. Many well-known plants of the Ericaceae live in temperate climates. such as cranberry. The only other genus in the family. Medicago sativa (alfalfa). huckleberry. which are among the best known members of Fabaceae. bean family or pulse family. the heath family or the heather family is a plant family.000 species. Calluna vulgaris etc. Cassiope. and hermaphrodite flowers. blueberry. the Spurge family are a large family of flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7. or with poor soils. and white star sedge (Rhynchospora colorata). Euphorbiaceae. The Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) are a large and economically important family of flowering plants. and a number of Lupinus species.The species of this family are found throughout the world. Daboecia. but some. from which the Ancient Egyptian writing material was made. Pisum sativum (pea). and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice). Features distinguishing members of the sedge family from grasses or rushes are that members of the sedge family have stems with triangular crosssections. Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges. A number of species are also weedy pests in different parts of the world. Phaseolus (beans). Cicer arietinum (chickpeas). and Indigofera with around 700 species. This family also includes cotton-grass (Eriophorum). Most are herbs. The Ericaceae consists of herbs. which is commonly known as the legume family. The largest genera are Astragalus with more than 2. nutsedge or nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus. All but one of the species are in the genus Begonia. the large genus of Carex. sawgrass (Cladium). simple and without stipules. many are associated with wetlands. shrubs and trees with leaves that are usually alternate or whorled. . dwarf shrubs. Members of the genus Begonia are well-known and popular houseplants.Some well-known sedges include the water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) and the papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus). azalea and rhododendron. While sedges may be found growing in all kinds of situations. comprising mostly calcifuges (limehating) plants that thrive in acidic soils. The genus Symbegonia has recently been reduced to a section of Begonia as recent molecular phylogenies have shown it to be derived from within that genus. these include marigolds. Phylogenetic work supports Hillebrandia as the sister taxon to the rest of the family. chrysanthemums. pea family. which superficially resemble grasses or rushes. including: Cytisus scoparius (broom) and Pueraria lobata (kudzu). and their leaves are spirally arranged in three ranks (grasses have alternate leaves forming two ranks). growing in many different environments and climates. is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and has a single species. Arachis hypogaea (peanut). are also shrubs or trees. Other large genera include Crotalaria with 600 species and Mimosa with 500 species. spike-rush (Eleocharis). Hillebrandia. Acacia with more than 900 species. dahlias. Ericaceae. A number are important agricultural plants. a common lawn weed). Some are succulent and resemble cacti.). including: Glycine max(soybean). Ceratonia siliqua(carob). Begoniaceae is a family of flowering plants.
A number of melastomes are regarded as invasive species once naturalized in tropical and subtropical environments outside of their normal range. also known as the pepper family. Flowers are perfect. Rosaceae (the rose family) are a medium-sized family of flowering plants. Moraceae — often called the mulberry family or fig family — are a family of flowering plants comprising about 40 genera and over 1000 species. including about 2830 species in 95 genera. Some species of Andrachne. Most are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions.Lamiaceae or Labiatae. and the number of genera in the family is likely to change as the classification is further refined. and usually with 3-7 longitudinal veins arising either from the base of the blade. The vast majority of peppers can be found within the two main genera: Piper (2000 species) and Peperomia (1600 species). . spreading open in light and closing in darkness. with over 1200 species. and borne either singly or in terminal or axillary. and Uapaca provide edible fruit. The leaves of melastomes are somewhat distinctive. all of these numbers should be seen as underestimates . shrubs and small trees. including many edible fruits (such as apples. is a family of flowering plants. The Piperaceae. but many other species are involved. or pinnately nerved with three or more pairs of primary veins diverging from the mid-vein at successive points above the base. banyan. Baccaurea. Most species are deciduous. such as basil. less so in temperate climates. Sorbus (260). shrubs or trees. plinerved (inner veins diverging above base of blade). Crataegus (260). The plants are frequently aromatic in all parts and include many widely used culinary herbs. apricots. However. Antidesma.610 currently accepted species in five genera. and Phyllanthus are in cultivation. The name is derived from the type genus Rosa. lavender. decussate. cherries. Melastomataceae (alternatively Melastomaceae) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics. breadfruit. Some of the genera are poorly defined. The largest genus by far is Prunus (plums. Phyllanthaceae is a family of flowering plants in the eudicot order Malpighiales. one of the largest genera of flowering plants. rosemary. Several economically important products come from Rosaceae. Cotoneaster (260). the leaflets showing "sleep movements". savory. mulberry. and Osage-orange. sage. and perilla. Margaritaria. marjoram. being opposite. with the great majority of the 900 species in the genus Oxalis (wood sorrels). Members of this family typically have divided leaves. Roses can be herbs. but some are evergreen. also known as the mint family. shrubs. Examples are Koster's curse and Miconia calvescens. are a small family of eight genera of herbaceous plants. The family also includes Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant). A few species of Antidesma. Among the largest genera are Alchemilla (270). has more than half of the species in the family. peaches. plums. Phyllanthus. apricots and almonds) with about 430 species. Melastomes are annual or perennial herbs. and Rubus (250).much taxonomic work is left to be done here. oregano. Orchis (type genus) and many commonly cultivated plants. The Oxalidaceae. usually referred to as the orchid family. or wood sorrel family. Included are well-known plants such as the fig. The group contains roughly 3. The genus Phyllanthus. paniculate cymes. or small trees. Orchidaceae. mint. such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. is a large family of flowering plants. thyme.
daisy. raspberries. sweet woodruff. gambier. cinchona (whose bark contains quinine). and hawthorns). Other common plants included are gardenia. pears. variously called the madder family. and ornamental trees and shrubs (such as roses. and strawberries). Species are concentrated in warmer and tropical climates around the world. almonds. or sunflower family) Vernonia BEGONIACEAE Begonia . Nicotiana (tobacco). peaches. Solanum (potato. Examples of Flowering Plants FAMILY GENUS Pictures ARACEAE (Arum Family) Anthurium ASTERACEAE (aster. Lycium barbarum (Wolfberry). bedstraw family or coffee family. The family is also informally known as the nightshade .or potato family. eggplant). Mandragora (mandrake). rowans. tomato. belladonna (deadly nightshade). meadowsweets. chili pepper). partridgeberry. and noni. and Petunia.cherries. firethorns. Physalis philadelphica (Tomatillo) . Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry flower). ixora. Solanaceae are a family of flowering plants that include a number of important agricultural crops as well as many toxic plants. photinias. Rubiaceae is a family of flowering plants. The family includes Datura (Jimson weed). Capsicum (paprika.
CYPERACEAE (sedges) Carex ERICACEAE (Heath or Heather Family) Erica EUPHORBIACEAE (Spurge Family) Euphorbia FABACEAE (Legume Family) Astragalus LAMIACEAE (Mint Family) Salvia .
MELASTOMATACEAE Miconia MORACEAE (Fig Family) Ficus ORCHIDACEAE (Orchid Family) Dendrobium OXALIDACEAE (Wood Sorrel Family) Oxalis PHYLLANTHACEAE Phyllanthus .
PIPERACEAE (Pepper Family) Peperomia ROSACEAE (Rose Family) Rosa RUBIACEAE (Madder Family) Psychotria SOLANACEAE (Nightshade or Potato Family) Solanum .