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20 Fall, 2002

Unit 10

St. Venant Torsion Theory

Readings:

Rivello 8.1, 8.2, 8.4

T & G 101, 104, 105, 106

Paul A. Lagace, Ph.D.

Professor of Aeronautics & Astronautics

and Engineering Systems

Paul A. Lagace 2001

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

III. Torsion

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 2

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

We have looked at basic in-plane loading. Lets now consider

a second building block of types of loading: basic torsion.

There are 3 basic types of behavior depending on the type of

cross-section:

1. Solid cross-sections

classical solution technique

via stress functions

2. Open, thin-walled sections

Membrane Analogy

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 3

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

3. Closed, thin-walled sections

Bredts Formula

In Unified you developed the basic equations based on some broad

assumptions. Lets

Be a bit more rigorous

Explore the limitations for the various approaches

Better understand how a structure resists torsion and

the resulting deformation

Learn how to model general structures by these three

basic approaches

Look first at

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 4

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Classical (St. Venants) Torsion Theory

Consider a long prismatic rod twisted by end torques:

T [in - lbs] [m - n]

Figure 10.1 Representation of general long prismatic rod

Length (l ) >> dimensions

in x and y directions

Do not consider how end torque is applied (St. Venants principle)

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 5

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Assume the following geometrical behavior:

a) Each cross-section (@ each z) rotates as a rigid body (No

distortion of cross-section shape in x, y)

b) Rate of twist, k = constant

c) Cross-sections are free to warp in the z-direction but the

This is the St. Venant Hypothesis

warping is the same for all cross-sections

warping = extensional deformation in the direction of the axis

about which the torque is applied

Given these assumptions, we see if we can satisfy the equations of

elasticity and B.C.s.

SEMI-INVERSE METHOD

Consider the deflections:

Assumptions imply that at any cross-section location z:

d

_

dz

,

z k z

(careful!

a constant

Rivello uses !)

rate of twist

(define as 0 @ z = 0)

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 6

Figure 10.2 Representation of deformation of cross-section due to

torsion

(for small )

undeformed position

This results in:

consider direction of + u

u (x, y, z) = r (-sin )

v (x, y, z) = r (cos )

w (x, y, z) = w (x, y)

independent of z!

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 7

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

We can see that:

r y

2

x +

2

sin

y

r

x

cos

r

This gives:

u (x, y, z) = -y k z (10 - 1)

v (x, y, z) = x k z (10 - 2)

w (x, y, z) = w (x, y) (10 - 3)

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 8

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Next look at the Strain-Displacement equations:

u

0

xx

x

v

0

yy

y

w

0

zz

z

u

(consider: u exists, but

x

0

v exists, but

v

0

)

y

No extensional strains in torsion if cross-sections are free

to warp

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 9

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

u v

+ z k + z k 0

xy

y x

cross - section does not change shape (as assumed!)

v w w

yz

z

+

y

k x +

y

(10 - 4)

w u w

zx

x

+

z

k y +

x

(10 - 5)

Now the Stress-Strain equations:

lets first do isotropic

1

xx

E

[

xx

(

yy

+

zz

)

]

0

yy

1

[

yy

(

xx

+

zz

)

]

0

E

1

zz

E

[

zz

(

xx

+

yy

)

]

0

xx

,

yy

,

zz

0

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 10

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

(

2 1 + )

0 0

xy

E

xy xy

2 1 + )

yz

(

E

yz

(10 - 6)

1/ G

(

xz

2 1 + )

xz

(10 - 7)

E

only

xz

and

yz

stresses exist

Look at orthotropic case:

1

xx

E

11

[

xx

12

yy

13

zz

]

0

1

yy

E

22

[

yy

21

xx

23

zz

]

0

1

zz

E

33

[

zz

31

xx

32

yy

]

0

xx

,

yy

,

zz

0 still equal zero

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 11

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

1

yz

G

23

yz

1

xz xz

G

13

Differences are in

yz

and

xz

here as there are two different

shear moduli (G

23

and G

13

) which enter in here.

for anisotropic material:

coefficients of mutual influence and Chentsov coefficients

foul everything up (no longer simple torsion theory). [cant

separate torsion from extension]

Back to general case

Look at the Equilibrium Equations:

xz

z

0

xz

xz

( , x y)

yz

z

0

yz

yz

( , x y)

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 12

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

So,

xz

and

yz

are only functions of x and y

xz

+

yz

0 (10 - 8)

x y

We satisfy equation (10 - 8) by introducing a Torsion (Prandtl)

Stress Function (x, y) where:

y

xz

(10 - 9a)

x

yz

(10 - 9b)

Using these in equation (10 - 8) gives:

_

+

_

0

x y,

y

x

,

Automatically satisfies equilibrium (as a stress function is

supposed to do)

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 13

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Now consider the Boundary Conditions:

(a) Along the contour of the cross-section

Figure 10.3 Representation of stress state along edge of solid cross-

section under torsion

outer contour is stress-free

surface (away from load

introduction)

Figure 10.4 Close-up view of edge element from Figure 10.3

xz

(into page)

yz

(out of page)

x

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 14

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Using equilibrium:

F

z

0

(out of page is positive)

gives:

xz

dydz +

yz

dxdz 0

Using equation (10 - 9) results in

dy

,

_

+

_

dx 0

x

,

dy

,

_

+

dx

_

,

d

x

And this means:

d = 0

= constant

We take:

= 0 along contour (10 - 10)

Note: addition of an arbitrary constant does not affect

the stresses, so choose a convenient one (0!)

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 15

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Boundary condition (b) on edge z = l

Figure 10.5 Representation of stress state at top cross-section of rod

under torsion

Equilibrium tells us the force in each direction:

F

x

zx

dxdy

using equation (10 - 9):

y

R

dxdy

y

L

y

where y

R

and y

L

are the geometrical limits of the cross-

section in the y direction

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 16

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

y

R

dx

[ ]

y

L

and since = 0 on contour

F

x

= 0

O.K. (since no force is applied in x-direction)

Similarly:

F

y

zy

dxdy 0

O.K.

Look at one more case via equilibrium:

Torque

[

x

zy

y

zx

]

dxdy

x

B

x

x

dxdy +

y

y

L

R

y

y

dydx

x

T

where x

T

and x

B

are geometrical limits of the cross-section

in the x-direction

Integrate each term by parts:

AdB AB BdA

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 17

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Set:

A x dA dx

dB dx B

x

and similarly for y

x

[ ]

x

B

dx

]

dy +

[ ]

y

y

R

dy

]

dx

x

T

y

L

= 0 = 0

since = 0 in contour since = 0 in contour

2 dxdy (10 - 11)

Up to this point, all the equations [with the slight difference in stress-strain

of equations (10 - 6) and (10 - 7)] are also valid for orthotropic materials.

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 18

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Summarizing

Long, prismatic bar under torsion

Rate of twist, k = constant

w

yz

= kx +

y

w

xz

= - ky +

x

y

xz

x

yz

Boundary conditions

= 0 on contour (free boundary)

2 dxdy

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 19

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Solution of Equations

(now lets go back to isotropic)

Place equations (10 - 4) and (10 - 5) into equations (10 - 6) and

(10 - 7) to get:

w_

yz

G

yz

G

k x +

y ,

(10 - 12)

xz

G

xz

G

k y +

w

_

(10 - 13)

x

,

We want to eliminate w. We do this via:

x

{Eq. (10 - 12)}

y

{Eq. (10 - 13)}

to get:

yz

xz

2

w

2

w

_

x

y

G k +

+ k

y x

,

x y

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 20

and using the definition of the stress function of equation (10 - 9) we

get:

2

2

x

2

+

y

2

2Gk (10 - 14)

Poissons Equation for

(Nonhomogeneous Laplace Equation)

Note for orthotropic material

We do not have a common shear modulus, so we would get:

+

( )

+

( )

2

2

2

2

2

x

k G

w

x y

G G

xz yz yz xz

We cannot eliminate w unless G

xz

and G

yz

are virtually the

same

+

y

G

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 21

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Overall solution procedure:

Solve Poisson equation (10 - 14) subject to the boundary

condition of = 0 on the contour

Get T - k relation from equation (10 - 11)

Get stresses (

xz

,

yz

) from equation (10 - 9)

Get w from equations (10 - 12) and (10 - 13)

Get u, v from equations (10 - 1) and (10 - 2)

Can also get

xz

,

yz

from equations (10 - 6) and (10 - 7)

This is St. Venant Theory of Torsion

Application to a Circular Rod

Figure 10.6 Representation of circular rod under torsion cross-section

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 22

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Let:

C

1

(x

2

+ y

2

R

2

)

This satisfies = 0 on contour since x

2

+ y

2

= R

2

on contour

This gives:

2

2

x

2

2C

1

y

2

2C

1

Place these into equation (10-14):

2C

1

+ 2C

1

2Gk

Gk

C

1

2

Note: (10-14) is satisfied exactly

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 23

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Thus:

Gk

(

x

2

+ y

2

R

2

)

2

Satisfies boundary conditions and partial

differential equation exactly

Now place this into equation (10-11):

2

dxdy

Figure 10.7 Representation of integration strip for circular cross-section

R +

Gk

- R -

R -

2

2

y

y

2

2

(

R

2

y

2

x

2

)

dxdy

-R

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 24

1

]

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

+

Gk

R

R

(

R

2

y

2

)

x

x

3

3

1

]

1

y

y

2

2

R

R

2

2

dy

4

R

/

Gk

3

R

(

R

2

y

2

)

3 2

dy

+R

/

Gk

4 1

y

(

R

2

y

2

)

3 2

+

3

R

2

y R

2

y

2

+

3

R

4

sin

1

y

1

3 4

2 2 R

1

R

= 0 = 0

3

R

4

2

This finally results in

R

4

Gk

2

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 25

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

Since k is the rate of twist:

k

d

, we can rewrite this as:

dz

d

dz GJ

where:

R

4

_

J = torsion constant

2

for a circle

,

= amount of twist

and:

GJ = torsional rigidity

Note similarity to:

d w

dx

M

EI

2

2

where:

(I) J - geometric part

(E) G - material part

EI = bending rigidity

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 26

To get the stresses, use equation (10 - 9):

Gkx x

yz

x J

xz

Gky

J

y

y

Figure 10.8 Representation of resultant shear stress,

res

, as defined

Define a resultant stress:

zx zy

2

+

2

J

x

2

+ y

2

= r

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 27

The final result is:

r

J

for a circle

Note: similarity to

x

Mz

_

,

always acts along the contour (shape)

resultant

Figure 10.9 Representation of shear resultant stress for circular

cross-section

Cross-Section

No shear

stress on

surface

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 28

Also note:

1. Contours of : close together near edge higher

Figure 10.10 Representation of contours of torsional shear function

2. Stress pattern () creates twisting

Figure 10.11 Representation of shear stresses acting perpendicular to

radial lines

magnitudes of

res

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 29

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

To get the deflections, first find :

d

dz GJ

(pure rotation of cross-section)

integration yields:

z

+ C

1

GJ

Let C

1

= 0 by saying = 0 @ z = 0

Use equations (10 - 1) and (10 - 2) to get:

z

u yzk y

GJ

z

v xzk x

GJ

Go to equations (10 - 12) and (10 - 13) to find w(x, y):

Equation (10 - 12) gives:

w

yz

kx

y G

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 30

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

using the result for

yz

:

w Gkx

kx 0

y G

integration of this says

w(x, y) = g

1

(x)

(not a function of y)

In a similar manner

Equation (10 -13) gives:

w

xz

+ ky

x G

Using

xz

= -Gky gives:

w

Gky

+ ky 0

x G

integration tells us that:

w(x, y) = g

2

(y) (not a function of x)

Using these two results we see that if w(x, y) is neither a function of

x nor y, then it must be a constant. Might as well take this as zero

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 31

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

(other constants just show a rigid displacement in z which is

trivial)

w(x, y) = 0

No warping for circular cross-sections

(this is the only cross-section that has no

warping)

Other Cross-Sections

In other cross-sections, warping is the ability of the cross-section to

resist torsion by differential bending.

2 parts for torsional rigidity

Rotation

Warping

Ellipse

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 32

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

x

2

y

2

_

C

1

a

2

+

b

2

1

,

Equilateral Triangle

C

1

x 3y +

2

_

3y a x +

1

a

_

a x +

2

_

3

,

3

,

3

,

Rectangle

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 33

MIT - 16.20 Fall, 2002

C

n

+ D

n

cosh

n y

_

cos

n x

n odd

b

,

a

Series: (the more terms you take, the better the

solution)

These all give solutions to

2

= 2GK subject to = 0 on the boundary. In

general, there will be warping

see Timoshenko for other relations (Ch. 11)

Note: there are also solutions via warping functions. This is a

displacement formulation

see Rivello 8.4

Next well look at an analogy used to solve the general

torsion problem

Paul A. Lagace 2001

Unit 10 - p. 34

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