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Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting
BIANCA SHARE1, NICK SANDERS2, & JUSTIN KEMP1
School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria and 2Victoria Institute of Sport, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (Accepted 12 January 2009)
Abstract Controversy surrounds the inﬂuence that caffeine has on accuracy and cognitive performance in precision activities such as shooting and archery. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two doses of caffeine on shooting performance, reaction time, and target tracking times in the sport of clay target shooting. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was undertaken by seven elite male shooters from the double-trap discipline. Three intervention trials (2 mg caffeine Á kg71 body mass (BM); 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM; placebo) were undertaken, in which shooters completed four rounds per trial of 50 targets per round. Performance accuracy (score) and digital video footage (for determination of reaction time and target tracking times) were gathered during competition. Data were analysed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. No differences in shooting accuracy, reaction time or target tracking times among the three intervention trials or across the four rounds within each intervention were observed (P 4 0.05). The results indicate that ingestion of 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM does not provide performance beneﬁts to elite performers of clay target shooting in the doubletrap discipline.
Keywords: Caffeine, shooting, accuracy, reaction time
Introduction Caffeine is classiﬁed as an ergogenic agent because of its ability to increase mental alertness and attentiveness, enhance psychomotor performance, increase vigilance and mood, prolong endurance, and reduce reaction time and perceptions of fatigue (Australian Sports Commission, 2005; Brice & Smith, 2001; Graham, 2001; Jacobson & Edgley, 1987; Magkos & Kavouras, 2004; Sinclair & Geiger, 2000). In January 2004, caffeine was removed from the Prohibited Substance List by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA, 2005), thereby permitting its unrestricted use in sporting competition. The beneﬁts of caffeine as an ergogenic agent in endurance-based sports have been studied extensively (Conway, Orr, & Stannard, 2002; Cox et al., 2002). In contrast, little research has concentrated on the inﬂuence of caffeine on performance in target sports (e.g. shooting), in which success at the elite standard requires mental alertness, prolonged concentration, optimal ﬁne motor skill, and muscular endurance (Rossi & Zani, 1991). Related research has focused on military personnel under military training conditions, with marksmanship being un-
affected by (Gillingham, Keefe, Keillor, & Tikuisis, 2003; Johnson & Merullo, 1999; Tharion, ShukittHale, & Liberman, 2003) or beneﬁting from (McLellan et al., 2005) caffeine ingestion. As a result, the effects of caffeine on performance during competition in shooting are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether caffeine ingestion, at two different doses, provides beneﬁts to performance (i.e. shooting accuracy) or measures related to successful performance (e.g. reaction and tracking times) in the Olympic sport of clay target shooting. The study was conducted with elite performers in the double-trap discipline under competitive conditions to obtain data that were relevant to sports performance.
Methods Participants Seven elite male clay target shooters in the doubletrap discipline (mean age 28.4 years, s ¼ 9.4; stature 1.79 m, s ¼ 0.06; body mass 92.4 kg, s ¼ 14.3) participated in the study. ‘‘Elite’’ was deﬁned as
Correspondence: J. Kemp, School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, St. Patrick’s Campus, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ISSN 0264-0414 print/ISSN 1466-447X online Ó 2009 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/02640410902741068
& Burton. To coincide with peak plasma caffeine concentration (James. Following testing. Participants were also required to record their weekly caffeine consumption and tobacco usage. JVC AA-P3OU. reaction time. The estimated mean selfreported habitual caffeine consumption of participants was equivalent to approximately six cups of instant coffee (range: 1–12 cups) per day. On each test day. On each trial day.2 at: http://www. The order in which each participant engaged in the three conditions was determined randomly. caffeine was ingested 60 min before starting the ﬁrst round of each trial. Data collection was conducted over a period of 4 weeks. having competed at Olympic or World Championship competitions. In each round. On the days of testing. where cartridge discharge was indicated by the appearance of smoke from the gun barrel. and this food intake regimen was replicated before each subsequent trial. Three shuttered (1/250 s) digital video cameras (Panasonic VSK 0651. participants were given GlucodinTM glucose tablets (Boots Healthcare. In the placebo trial. and to drink adequate ﬂuids. participants ﬁred 50 cartridges at 50 clay targets. which de-interlaced the video to operate at 50 frames per second. as tablets broken into multiple fragments with ﬂuid in cups). 1990) before the start of competition for each trial.g. Each participant’s body mass was used for determination of the supplement dose for each treatment condition (i. and (iii) placebo (glucose). The three treatment trials were: (i) 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 body mass (4 mg Á kg71 BM). where time zero was taken as the point at which the clay targets were ﬁrst visible on the video vision.6). ﬁlming at 25 frames per second.e. Experimental design and procedures All test procedures were conducted in accordance with the shotgun safety regulations of the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF. participants were asked to abstain from all caffeinated and alcoholic food and beverage products. systolic and diastolic blood pressure (OMRON. deﬁned as the time elapsed from clay target release (i.2. participants were required to rest quietly for 15 min before the recording of resting heart rate (Polar S610. Share et al. Fragments were weighed with an electronic laboratory balance and combined to provide the correct dose per participant. Vealey.6 to 2.e. participants completed four rounds. Canon Pal DV CamCorder MV600i). . Ryde. thus the maximum possible score at the end of four rounds of competition was 200. (ii) 2 mg Á kg71 BM. Each trial was separated by at least 7 days to allow for an appropriate period for caffeine wash-out. two clay targets were released simultaneously from an underground trap house per attempt. In the 24 h before each test session. presented to participants in multiple fragments in 30 ml of lemon/orange drink in opaque plastic cups. Australia) in a similar fashion (i. similarly. Japan) were measured for the establishment of mean arterial pressure (MAP). participants also completed a caffeine supplementation questionnaire to provide insight into any sideeffects (e. The angle and height of release was known to participants and was kept consistent across all four rounds for the entire study. 1991). respectively. with a round taking a mean time of 16. Additionally. anxiety. To standardize the diet. and tracking time of target 1 (TT1) and target 2 (TT2). Australia). Kempele). tremor) experienced due to caffeine ingestion. deﬁned as the time to the ﬁrst movement by the participant after release of the targets from the trap house.e.html) under normal competition conditions at an outdoor Olympic standard shotgun range.8 kg per participant. Body mass ﬂuctuation over the three test days ranged from 0. and the study was performed in a double-blind fashion. which received approval from the local research ethics review committee. caffeine administered in mg Á kg71 BM). at the conclusion of the study. Caffeine was administered as pharmaceutical-grade NODOZTM tablets (Key Pharmaceuticals.2 min (s ¼ 2. All shooters provided written informed consent to participate in the study. were mounted 3 m behind the participants to capture the shooting competition. vision on the camera) to ﬁrst and second cartridge discharge. Total score (referred to as ‘‘performance accuracy’’) was calculated by counting shattered clay targets (1 point per shattered target).662 B. This analysis was performed using the Swinger PLUS software program. during which time each participant completed three different treatment trials (below). Before each round of competition. heart rate was recorded during competition. see section 9.org/rules/ english/2006/27_shotgun_2005_2nd. Kinematic analysis of the video footage was used to determine: . stature and partial nude body mass (weigh-in dressed only in trousers) was . Rhodes. In accordance with ISSF rules. the experimenters provided food and beverages. Competitive anxiety was measured via the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens.issf-shooting. headache. food diaries were kept by each participant in the 24 h before the ﬁrst trial. to refrain from performing strenuous exercise. recorded upon arrival. 2005.
n ¼ 5) or across the four rounds 2 (P ¼ 0.239) observed between the 4 mg Á kg71 BM and placebo trials (n ¼ 7) for either tracking time of Results Performance accuracy Figure 1 presents performance accuracy results. all participants (n ¼ 7) undertook both the 4 mg Á kg71 BM and placebo trials. UK). with no main effect (P at best ¼ 0.301.635. No main effect Figure 1. Bars represent mean reaction time + standard deviation. 4 mg Á kg71 BM. Zp ¼ 0. s ¼ 10. No differences were observed across the 3 days of testing for ambient temperature (mean 11. Similarly. the mean total score accumulated across all four rounds of competition for the 4 mg Á kg71 BM (150. n ¼ 7) or among rounds (P ¼ 2 0. Zp ¼ 0. number of broken clay targets). No signiﬁcant main effect was identiﬁed among the three trials or across the four rounds. Elite clay target shooters ingested 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 7).2%. n ¼ 5) when the 2 mg Á kg71 BM trial was considered. Digital video footage of each participant captured during shooting competition was analysed by the Swinger PLUSTM software program.e. tracking time of target 2. s ¼ 2. With respect to these analyses.202). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences among the three trial conditions (i.2).285) was found between 71 4 mg Á kg BM and placebo trials or across rounds. 2 mg Á kg71 BM. ambient temperature. . and placebo (155. and thus a 3 6 4 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare measures across the three trial conditions.0 targets) trials was not different 2 (P ¼ 0. reaction time. and hence a 2 6 4 repeated-measures ANOVA was performed on these data. Hit/miss scores recorded by a scorer throughout the shooting competition were analysed for any changes in performance accuracy (i. A sub-group of participants (n ¼ 5) also undertook the 2 mg Á kg71 BM trial. and (ii) repeated-measures ANOVA was used when comparing the three trial conditions (n ¼ 5).362. Bars represent mean score + standard deviation.5 m Á s71. wind speed. s ¼ 10. Figure 2.102.406.436. 2 Zp ¼ 0.1 targets).380. no differences were observed among the three trials (P ¼ 0. and placebo) and across the four rounds of each trial for performance accuracy.2).146. No signiﬁcant main effect was identiﬁed among the three trials or across the four rounds. Mean reaction time (RT) for each round of shooting under caffeine and placebo conditions. showing the number of clay targets struck in each round of competition. Similarly. 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 5) or a placebo (no caffeine) (n ¼ 7). s ¼ 17. Reaction time Figure 2 illustrates the mean reaction time for each of the four rounds within each trial. 2 mg Á kg71 BM (151. Tracking time Target tracking times of target 1 and 2 for each trial across the four rounds are shown in Figures 3 and 4 respectively. 663 2 (P at best ¼ 0. Consequently. n ¼ 7).78C. Elite clay target shooters ingested 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 7). Zp ¼ 0.9 targets). No main effect was observed between the 4 mg Á kg71 BM and placebo trials 2 (P ¼ 0. Zp ¼ 0. and relative humidity were measured with the Kestrel 4000 Weather Tracker (Lymington.Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting Before each round.107. 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 5) or a placebo (no caffeine) (n ¼ 7).05. 2 Zp ¼ 0. heart rate.062. tracking time of target 1. and mean arterial pressure. humidity (mean 72. Statistical analysis The Shapiro-Wilks normality test (used when n 5 50) was used to verify that the data were normally distributed. s ¼ 15. Statistical signiﬁcance was set at P 5 0.304. to test for differences in CSAI-2 data: (i) a dependent t-test was used for the 4 mg Á kg71 BM and placebo trials (n ¼ 7). and no differences were found among the three trials or across the four rounds when 2 mg Á kg71 BM was included in the analysis. s ¼ 1. Mean score for each round of shooting under caffeine and placebo conditions.e.4) or wind speed (mean 2. Zp ¼ 0.
2).2). No signiﬁcant main effect was identiﬁed among the three trials or across the four rounds.. mmHg. which occurred 4–5 h after the initial ingestion of caffeine. mean and peak heart rate responses during competition were not signiﬁcantly affected (P at best ¼ 0.382) in resting heart rate (mean 73 beats Á min71. Elite clay target shooters ingested 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 7). Bars represent mean tracking time of target 1 + standard deviation.4. 17. 1999). Physiological responses The ingestion of caffeine (4 mg Á kg71 BM or 2 mg Á kg71 BM) produced no changes (P at 2 best ¼ 0.6. self-conﬁdence: 25.2. reaction time or target tracking times during shooting competition.485) in mean scores being observed between the 4 mg Á kg71 BM and placebo trials for cognitive anxiety (16. Zp ¼ 0. No signiﬁcant main effect was identiﬁed among the three trials or across the four rounds.1. 2 Zp ¼ 0. or across the four rounds. s ¼ 6. no differences (P at best ¼ 0. when plasma caffeine concentrations would be returning to baseline. 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 5) or a placebo (no caffeine) (n ¼ 7). Mean tracking time of target 2 (TT2) for each round of shooting under caffeine and placebo conditions. The lack of an ergogenic beneﬁt of caffeine on shooting accuracy is similar to outcomes reported in other investigations. s ¼ 3. s ¼ 7.451) were observed among the three trial conditions for the three sub-components of anxiety. s ¼ 9. 200.2.5 vs. s ¼ 4. compared with the third and fourth rounds of competitions.9. Psychological measures The CSAI-2 assesses three sub-components of anxiety. 2 Zp ¼ 0. When the scores of the 2 mg Á kg71 BM trial (n ¼ 5) were included (cognitive anxiety: 15.18. somatic A-state. no difference was found in shooting accuracy during a simulated sentry duty task of military volunteers who consumed 200 mg of caffeine compared with a placebo trial (Johnson & Merullo. 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 5) or a placebo (no caffeine) (n ¼ 7). s ¼ 8. These two doses of caffeine produced no beneﬁcial outcomes to the performance. Mean tracking time of target one (TT1) for each round of shooting under caffeine and placebo conditions.8 vs.9. n ¼ 5) or mean arterial pressure (mean 106. while doses of 100.193.2. no variation in performance accuracy or in the temporal variables was observed in the ﬁrst and second rounds. Share et al. Figure 4.8). Our aim was to examine what effects the ingestion of 4 and 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM might have on performance (i. and 300 mg had no effect on shooting accuracy during a marksmanship simulation task Figure 3. mean 73 beats Á min71. s ¼ 3. Elite clay target shooters ingested 4 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM (n ¼ 7).3 vs. s ¼ 5. s ¼ 5. 23. Digital video footage of each participant captured during shooting competition was analysed by the Swinger PLUSTM software program. score).162.96. n ¼ 5) to that observed in the placebo trial. Zp ¼ 0. when plasma caffeine concentration would be greatest (Marks & Kelly. Across the four rounds of competition. s ¼ 4.7.326) were observed among the three trials or the four rounds for tracking time of target 1 or target 2. 2003). s ¼ 9.664 B.3) or selfconﬁdence (25. n ¼ 7. mean 103. somatic anxiety: 14. 15. s ¼ 6. and state self-conﬁdence.e.349) by caffeine ingestion. this is the ﬁrst study to report the effects of caffeine ingestion on elite sport shooting performance. Similarly. For example. Anxiety values for each trial condition were collated (score out of 36). 2 no differences (P at best ¼ 0.77 . Bars represent mean tracking time of target 2 + standard deviation. as well as on temporal variables suggested to be important to success in clay target shooting. The sub-components are cognitive A-state. with no differences (P at best ¼ 0.05 mmHg. Similarly. a 300 mg caffeine dose produced no improvement in riﬂeﬁring accuracy of military reservists during a live-ﬁre operation (Gillingham et al. 1973). Digital video footage of each participant captured during shooting competition was analysed by the Swinger PLUSTM software program. 2 Zp ¼ 0. Similarly. Discussion To our knowledge. n ¼ 7.080.105. target 1 or target 2 or across the four rounds.0. s ¼ 5.4.137. somatic anxiety (15.
(2005) reported improvements in shooting accuracy with caffeine. The caffeine protocol elected for this study was similar (with modiﬁcations) to that used by Corey. their participants performed under conditions of severe operational stress and sleep deprivation.au/nutrition).e. This point is also relevant to the elite nature of the participant cohort in the current study. Similarly. Therefore. 2002). in the present study. Cunningham (unpublished data) found that the ingestion of 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM improved total mean score by 5. the ﬁndings may only apply to shooters in this category.e. 300 mg of caffeine caused a marked increase in body sway 40 min after caffeine ingestion compared with a placebo trial (Franks. 1998). In contrast.. As this study was restricted to elite male clay target shooters from the double-trap discipline. Therefore. shooting accuracy). 300 mg of caffeine did not inﬂuence target detection time. 1987).0–4.e. .7 points. In contrast. however. despite not reaching statistical signiﬁcance. Caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant and may heighten cardiovascular responses (James. suggesting that caffeine produces no practical (or performance) beneﬁt to elite clay target shooters. the caffeine doses of 4 and 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM administered in the current ﬁeld-based study produced no changes in reaction time or target tracking times. Hagedorn. Similarly. importantly. targets hit). like shooting. Hensley. 1975). In the current study. in a live-ﬁre assignment (Gillingham et al. In summary. shooting accuracy in the double-trap discipline of clay target shooting. which is the primary indicator of performance. in the current study. 1991). McLellan et al.ais.7 points during a 72-arrow round competition. target tracking times or. before archery competition.org. 2003). and tremor (Conway et al. is an Olympic sport in which success is determined by the ability to shoot and accurately hit a distant target. while Horst and Jenkins (1965) reported that heart rate responses were unaffected by the consumption of 2. Konttinen. mean and maximal heart rate during competition). 2003). 1987) and target detection (Johnson & Merullo.5 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM. such as headache. Cunningham (unpublished data) suggested that such results are not surprising in a group of elite athletes performing a sport-speciﬁc task because they are trained to focus on routine and technique. 1999). & Viitasalo. caffeine ingestion at doses of 4 and 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM provided no ergogenic beneﬁt to reaction time. This effect was not observed with a dose of 6 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM because total mean score decreased by 7. arm trembling was reported after a single cup of coffee or caffeine administration of 300–600 mg of caffeine (Jacobson & Edgley. heart rate and mean arterial pressure at rest. the sideeffects reported by the participants on trial days where caffeine was ingested may help to explain why caffeine provided no ergogenic beneﬁt. Cunningham (unpublished data) found no variations 665 in heart rate and blood pressure in elite archers following the ingestion of 2 and 6 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM. Shooting accuracy in competitive closed-skill sports may be inﬂuenced by the ability to control heart rate (Couture et al. Similarly. Therefore. With respect to temporal variables.Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting compared with a placebo trial (Tharion et al.. were reported here. the caffeine supplementation side-effects questionnaire revealed that commonly associated side-effects. levels of state anxiety and self-conﬁdence before the start of shooting competition in our cohort were not inﬂuenced by caffeine ingestion when assessed by the CSAI-2.. suggesting that temporal beneﬁts associated with caffeine ingestion might be better observed under laboratory-based conditions than in the ﬁeld. caffeine does not improve shooting accuracy in sport or military-based contexts. Lyytinen. both doses of caffeine (4 and 2 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM) produced lower scores (i. 1999. Hensley. As a result. it could be inferred that elevations in the cardiovascular responses of a shooter during competition are undesirable. there were no signiﬁcant effects of caffeine ingestion on the cardiovascular parameters monitored (i. anxiety. somatic and cognitive anxiety and levels of selfconﬁdence (also assessed by the CSAI-2) remained unchanged following the administration of 2 and 6 mg caffeine Á kg71 BM. In contrast. AIS sports supplement program fact sheet: Caffeine (retrieved 12 2006 from: http:// www. Finally. however. engagement time (time from target detection to ﬁring a riﬂe) or marksmanship skill (i. Archery. References Australian Sports Commission (2005). especially in terms of shooting accuracy. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration can induce arm and hand tremor that may interfere with performance. With respect to psychological measures. This change was suggested to be practically meaningful at the elite standard. Cunningham (unpublished data) reported that. Similarly.. laboratory-based research has reported beneﬁcial effects of caffeine ingestion on reaction time (Jacobson & Edgley. For example. it would appear that under conventional conditions. Cunningham (unpublished data) in a study of elite archers. there appears to be no support for attributing the absence of improvements in performance accuracy to changes in cardiovascular activity. & Starmer.
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