Assignment 2

“Summary of the articles and implementation of philosophical assimptiions on the research of articles”.

Submitted by :
Shakeel Ahmed 11443

Submitted to:
Miss Afshan

Though. The unequal status of women in Islamic societies is due to the connection of gender with various forms of exclusion. Social.1 level) factor contributing to the sales growth of their businesses. The purpose of using this method was to test the effect of a all five sets of variables one by one on the growth of women-owned Enterprises. independent mobility. (business growth) and independent variables. cultural norms and actual practices related to a woman’s status and role vary widely and are sometimes highly contradictory. In certain classes. attitude (Storey. Based on previously established multivariate model. and being allowed to meet with opposite gender play a decisive role in both sales and employment growth of women owned enterprises in an Islamic country like Pakistan. social values and islamic traditions Summary: This ground breaking study seeks to explore the variables contributing to the growth of women owned enterprises in Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The first comprises entrepreneurs’ characteristics such as behavior.. Most of the women’s entrepreneurship development theories have emerged primarily from research carried out in developed countries with specific social norms and values regarding women’s participation in economic activities. “The biggest barrier to growth for any women entrepreneur is her male family members if they are not supportive. and technological changes have helped introduce a new social structure which facilitated women’s gradual movement to the public arena from the confinement of their homes. The second category of the factors influencing the business growth is the business itself in terms of its structure and goals. A couple of the interviewees appreciated the importance of these factors as follows: “Any woman entrepreneur’s family has to trust her as far as meeting with opposite gender is concerned. Depending on the multivariate nature of the relationship between dependent variable.. The study showed that women’s independent mobility was highly significant (at . It further discovers that moral support of immediate family. Religious prescriptions. There is a general consensus that growth in enterprises is a complex process. economic. an explicatory method was applied as well involving a process of analytic induction by face to face in depth interviews of 50 women entrepreneurs. including education and training that create higher expectations in some industry sectors (Henry et al. First by classifying variables into predetermined blocks and then using the general to specific approach. in particular their ability to make rational decisions about its operation (Bridge et al.. 2005). political. Until she has restrictions on her mobility and access to other business owners (most of whom are men). and social capital as one of the factors restricting their growth (Chell aher business activities. 1994). The same is evident in Pakistani society as well. 1998). it uses two econometric approaches. human. and their social capital which influences access to resources (Brush et al. The literature mainly describes factors thought to influence small business growth in two categories. 2004). significant progress has been made by women in the last few decades. Statistical analyses and in-depth interviews confirm that women entrepreneur’s personal resources and social capital have a significant role in their business growth. personality. and they can be her biggest strength if they are supportive of The literature describes women entrepreneurs’ endowment in financial.Entrepreneurial Capital. their capabilities.01 level) and meeting with opposite gender was significant (at 0. multiple regression analysis was performed. women’s interaction with men is only frowned upon and in others it is highly objectionable. 2008). the performance of its management. The research investigating women-owned businesses has developed considerably over the past two decades. In addition to quantitative findings. it is near to impossible to develop and grow . although not uniformly so (Roomi and Harrison.

especially when good teachers quit. first by classifying variables into. By identifying factors that help to foster organizational commitment among university academics. Altinay and Altinay. Government should take the lead in revising the provision of these services. there is a pressing need to change the current public transport system. This would help by changing the stereotypical images of women in society and encourage family support and help. this study aimed to provide guidelines to education managers to come up with policies . In the present study organizational commitment has been defined as the relative strength of an individual’s identification with. and consequences of organizational commitment. teaching skills. 1999. there should be the ‘true interpretation’ of the status of women in an Islamic society. This would not only provide a source of inspiration for women to make specific career choices. Thirdly. thereby enabling more women to access transport services allowing them to travel more freely in the course of running their enterprises. Over the past three decades. the present study examined the influence of organizational commitment on two organizational outcomes— job performance and turnover intentions. There is a need to change the current thinking at school level to promote the inclusion of women in economic activities. Moreover. facets of job satisfaction. high turnover among teachers. 2006). This could be facilitated by publishing images of inspirational and positive role models of successful women entrepreneurs. an impressive amount of research efforts have been devoted to understanding the nature. and experience. illustrates the factors contributing to the growth of women owned businesses in Islamic Republic of Pakistan. They operate in the local market. 1982). This is because good 41 quality teachers take with them their research. and involvement in. The findings also suggest that most of the women entrepreneurs are concentrated in low growth oriented. right to own property and the right to manage their own enterprises). The only other option left is to jump on the band-wagon and work in traditional women based businesses where margins are quite low and competition is cut throat”. can have high costs and implications for the education system. Antecedents and concequences of organizational commitment Summary: The purpose of this study was to determine if selected personal characteristics. Firstly. This ground breaking work fills the gap in the literature of women’s entrepreneurship development in Islamic societies. where most of their customers are womenpre-determined blocks and then using the general to specific approach (Basu and Goswamy. Thereby encouraging young women to develop entrepreneurial ambitions. handicrafts and textiles sectors. There are quite a few implications of the findings of this pioneering work. and the two dimensions of organizational justice (distributive justice & procedural justice) significantly explained variance in the organizational commitment of Pakistani university teachers. antecedents. In addition. a particular organization (Mowday et al.her business. This study. One of the reasons for educational qualifications being an important influencing factor for compound employment growth. Secondly. services. but will also create an environment for family members to provide encouragement as female entrepreneurs seek to establish enterprises. based on two econometric approaches. print and electronic media should play its role of portraying the appropriate images of a modern ‘Muslim woman’ (who has the right to acquire knowledge through education.. The focus of the present study is to identify the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment among Pakistani university teachers.

For the purpose of this research the researcher constructed three multiple regression models. The research officer then visited the relevant respondents at their respective institutions and cities and requested them to fill out the questionnaires. This study aims to analyse the influence of informal institutional factors on women’s entry into entrepreneurial career and how women exercise agency to cope up with the constraints posed by these factors. Research has shown that age is positively related to organizational commitment (Steers. motivated.39. In the first model. largely embedded in its socio-cultural environment has important implication for women’s entrepreneurial activity in the country. The hypothesized relationship between organizational commitment and each of the selected personal characteristics. organizational commitment was regressed against the facets of job satisfaction. tenure. The data wer gathered by administering a questionnaire among the selected sample of teachers teaching in the chartered universities/degree-granting institutions operating in the 3 major cities of Pakistan: Lahore. Pearson Product Moment Correlations were run between commitment and each outcome variable (job performance and turnover intentions) to test hypotheses four and five. 140 questionnaires were delivered to the participating universities for distribution. it can be concluded that institutions which seek to retain their faculty members by building strong organizational commitment are in a better position to reap the benefits of a more dedicated. The findings of this research revealed that personal characteristics. facets of job satisfaction. and Peshawar. In the second model. Hypotheses four and five were tested by using correlation analysis. The selected facets of job satisfaction as a group were found to be most closely related to commitment (R2 = 0. Langowitz & . level of education. The main objective of this research was to study the behavioral outcomes of organizational commitment.35). and job involvement. organizational commitment was regressed against personal Characteristic variables. and both distributive and procedural justice significantly explained variance in the organizational commitment of Pakistani university teachers. trust in university management. they are likely to put more effort on behalf of their respective institutions and thereby perform at higher levels than their uncommitted counterparts. procedural justice. Islamabad/Rawalpindi and Peshawar. and reliable teaching staff. Adjusted R2 = 0. In the third model. Islamabad/Rawalpindi. Contextual Analysis of women entrepreneurial activities in Pakistan Summary: The role of women in Pakistani (Patriarchal) society. Thus fostering commitment among the academic staff is an important and viable organizational objective. Data were collected from full-time faculty members teaching in 33 universities in the three major cities of Pakistan: Lahore. In total. The first three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis. Women’s entrepreneurship is an emerging and growing phenomenon around the globe which has attracted considerable attention of researchers during the last few decades (Brush. 1981). 1992. and at the same time.which would enable them to attract and retain top level faculty at their respective universities. marital status. organizational commitment was regressed against the two dimensions of organizational justice: distributive justice and. The personal characteristics included in this research were age. The results of this study revealed that highly committed faculty members are likely to continue their association with their current institutions. this study aimed to find out the influence of organizational commitment on job performance and turnover intentions. Specifically. Angle & Perry. Mathieu & Zajac. 1990. and the two dimensions of organizational justice and the justification of including each of these variables in the present study is discussed below. 1977. facets of job satisfaction.

. DeMartino & Barbato. Jamali. 1992. Findings in the literature indicate that these barriers include: less favorable credit conditions (Marlow & Patton. the decision of a woman to work outside is dependent on her family’s choice and after marriage a woman is expected to live with her husband and husband’s family. As a result of these transitions over the period. FWBL (First Women Bank Limited) and SME Bank which are helping women in getting fair access to finance. 1999a). Bryman & Bell. In Pakistani culture. Joint family system or extended family structure has both positive and negative consequences on women’s entrepreneurship in Pakistan. 2010). an interpretive approach (Creswell. women were given a demographic survey to fill as a source of background information. At the end of each interview.. The Pakistani society. Tambunan. yet their contribution remains silent and largely hidden because of the gender bias in both the labour force and society. Sexton & Bowman-Upton. o far. In this context. The interview data is transcribed and thematic analysis is used for the emerging themes. before marriage. 2009). Women play significant role in both business creation and employment generation contributing to the economy effectively. Overall findings suggest that in Pakistan. is an amalgamation of various cultural influences that society converged during different periods over the history such as British inheritance. exclusion of women from both formal and informal networks (Carter. the Government of Pakistan has establihed specialized institutions such as SMEDA (Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority). Roomi. tribal customs and cultural practices in the name of religious (Islamic) teachings towards working women. economic and religious environment (D’Souza et al. the extrinsic factors relate to external environment such as family orientation. 2007. 1991. Indepth interviews have been conducted with 20 Pakistani women entrepreneurs from urban area to explore their perceptions about the influence of socio cultural beliefs and attitudes on their entrepreneurial career choices. 2006). 2000) and negative stereotypes associated with women as ‘less serious’ entrepreneurs (Lewis. 2003. religious and American influences (Khilji. 2000. There is a growing concern that relatively little is known about the nature of women entrepreneurship in developing countries (Jamali. 2003. Environmental factors are of significant importance to the emergence and implementation of social actions (Mair & Marti. 2009. 2005). characterized as patriarchal. diverse cultural practices are prevalent. Various studies have argued that emergence of women entrepreneurship in a society primarily depends on the nature of challenges they face during entrepreneurial development. Bryman & Bell. valuable insights can be gained through understanding of macro level conditions that may act as enabling or restricting the entrepreneurial activity within social context in which entrepreneurship exists. political and economic arena and the influence of socio-cultural factors associated with busines (Ituma & Simpson. 1995).Minniti. such as characteristics of women entrepreneurs in terms of their profile. 2009). Brush. background and experience (Anna et al. Urbano et al. 2003). although women are constrained . Face to face qualitative interviews were conducted to gain rich data in terms of participants’ narratives to explore the phenomenon (Weiss. The socio-cultural norm of ‘Izzat’ (honor) has significant influence on the entrepreneurial abilities of women. 2007). Indian influences (after partition). which are contrary to the actual Islamic teachings. 2004. 2000. From philosophical and methodological perspectives. The interviews were aimed to explore the contextual factors that underpin their experiences and have unique influences on women entrepreneurial activity in Pakistan. Researchers have also devoted their attention to explore the challenges/barriers women encounter as they pursue their entrepreneurial endeavors. 2009. motivation. 2008) is adopted to capture the contextual factors that influence women’s entrepreneurship in Pakistan. From philosophical and methodological perspectives. Majority of the research conducted on women’s entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries primarily focused on individual level (micro) factors. Kitching and Woldie. 2011). an interpretive approach (Creswell. 2008) is adopted to capture the contextual factors that influence women’s entrepreneurship in Pakistan. A qualitative approach is used to explore the lived experiences of women entrepreneurs. These challenges are often embedded in country’s social. Pakistani society has established orthodox beliefs.

Religion is associated with their business success. Implication of philosophical assumptions on the articles: Sr. they are able to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities and make their own career choices. religion. societal attitudes. Formal and informal language used in the research. suggesting active agency of women entrepreneurs. There is interdependence and interplay of various informal institutional factors in shaping entrepreneurial identities and career choices within this constrained environment. . Realistic approach used for getting results based on reality of the topic of the research. In the light of women entrepreneurs’ narratives. Women used religious descriptions as a mean to justify their entrepreneurial activity.by a complex set of socio-cultural influences.no Philosophical assumptions Entrepreneurial Capital. In this respect. The interview data further suggests that women exercise their agency as a mean of negotiating gender roles within household and society. gender norms and values. Women’s capacity to exercise agency is largely dependent on household context within which their choices are embedded. it is conclusive that women’s entrepreneurial career choices are determined by socio-cultural structures of the society. social values and islamic traditions Positivism Contextual Analysis of women entrepreneurial activities in Pakistan Interpretivism 1 Research Paradigm Ontology (Researcher view of reality) Epistemology (Research + researcher relation) Antecedents and concequences of organizational commitment Pragmatism 2 Research based on objectivism subjectivism Pluralistic 3 Whole research based on objectives defined earlier of the research and researcher is on a distance from research. Research based on scientific perception and researcher is closed to the research 4 5 Axiology ( researcher view of research) Rhetoric (Language of the research) Researcher is unbiased in his research Researcher is biased in his research Researcher used formal language based on the study and objectives of the research Informal language used due to informal institutional factors such as family support. Researcher and respondents are free for their opinion in this research. (objectivism + subjectivism) and researcher is closed to the research. the institution of marriage and family are important indicators in explaining women’s entrepreneurial activity in Pakistan.

Islamabad/Rawalpindi and Peshawar. Qualitiative research used. “Women entrepreneurs in Oman: Some barriers to success. A. stepwise multiple-regression was used With stepwise regression. Basu. 8 Research method Quantitative methodology of research used and data is analyzed on spss and multiple regression used for results. (1989). In total. “Determinants of South Asian Entrepreneurial Growth in Britain: A Multivariate Analysis. Goswami (1999). & A. S. 57-70. L.” Journal of Small Business Management. 8: 339–46. Warren. McElwee (2003). 27 (1). “Female entrepreneurs: are they really any different?..” Career Development International.6 Methodology Induction approach used by researcher 7 Strategy of Inquiry Interviews and questionnaire based on open ended questions method used from 767 entrepreneur women of Pakistan Induction approach used by researcher because very little is known about the women entrepreneurship in Pakistan especially in the context of sociocultural environment and agency of women entrepreneurs. and G. 140 questionnaires were delivered to the participating universities Research is based on pragmatic approach and used Both type of questions in the questions (open ended and close ended) To determine which variable was most closely related to organizational commitment of faculty members. R. Data were collected from full-time faculty members teaching in 33 universities in the three major cities of Pakistan: Lahore. . Face to face structured interviews conducted from 20 women for study Both methods are used for the research induction and deduction. qualitative research helped the researchers to seek meanings of participants’ experiences and life stories in order to gain in-depth understanding of how women contextualize their experiences within their socio-cultural environment. Refference:       Al-Riyami.” Small Business Economics. Birley. 13. 32-37..

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