The middle ages 1.

It was a means of carrying on some kind of government on a local basis where no organized state existed ,a system based on mutual obligation 2. They give him service in the form of military service and attendance at court to give advice, food and loyalty 3. Soil exhaustion was avoided, two thirds of land came into annual use, increase in food supply ,better plowing, more effective employment of animals 4. Labor shortage and serfs were able to use their scarcity value in order to obtain their freedom 5. Neighboring towns in northern Germany joined togther for mutual protection 6. Supervised the affairs of a specific trade craft, they provided that work should be done by reliable and experienced persons provided a means of vocational education and marked out a career for young men improved social positions for workers. 7. (pg:37 in textbook) The mingling of class in England, the willingness of the townsmen to follow the leader ship of the gentry and of the gentry to respect the interests of the townsmen helped to root representative institutions in England more deeply than in other countries during the medieval era. England was a small country so no provincial or local parliamentary bodies which might jealously cut into the powers of the central body with which the king could make local arrangements without violating the principle of representative government. The elected members of the House of Commons very early obtained the power to commit their constituents; the king insisted the votes be binding. Constituents were not allowed to repudiate the vote of their deputies nor to punish or harass them when they came home as often happened in other countries. Parliament thus exercised power as well as rights. 8. A statement of vassal’s rights 9. People lost faith in the church, loss of creditibility for the church 10. Dreamed of a unified Christian world, he intervened in politics, recognized as a supreme arbiter because of him the king of France got married, king of England accepted an unwanted archbishop..(textbook bottom of pg 40) The renaissance in Italy 1. Rebirth 2. Thinkers, writers, and artists rejected this view of the world, they believed that life should be exciting and that human activity could cover a vast range, they saw nothing wrong with enjoying wealth, people should do be and think what they liked and feel free to experiment and explore, individualism was encouraged, also a great sense of civic duty and citizenship. 3. The writings of the roman Cicero were considered expert guidance on civic duty and citizenship. 4. Architecture: Greco-roman designs such as columns and domes were very popular, non religious buildings were designed and erected on a grand scale that had previously been reserved for churches and cathedrals. Sculpture: human form was sculpted as a thing of beauty, nude statues (Michelangelo’s David) painting: oil painting, 3-dimesnional effect, portraits were individualistic and resembled the subject.

textbook pg72-erasmus of Rotterdam 4. spanishness was being catholic 4. Gutenberg 8. 10. the lives of the vast majority of people were not changed at all The northern renaissance 1. the northern renassiacem 6. They wanted Catholicism to be the main religion to unite their two kingdoms Aragon and castile. most advanced geographical world maps 2. 6. poise grace and courtesy were the key ideas Machiavelli(1513) Eliminated god and religion from the whole area of government and suggested that effective governments always act in their own selfish interests including if necessary. mathematical conceptions of the universe were laid. 11. and fighting. production of the first European books printed with movable type. 12. He did not claim it was desirable. 13. laid the foundations for a mathematical conception of the universe 3. An individual can communicate with god on his own with no need of priests . only observed that this was what successful rulers did Lorenzo Valla writing to express feelings. –it was not as secular as initially –not such sharp peak from the past. Henry vii of England (1485-1509)-Louis xi of France(1461-1483)-Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain(1479-1504) 2. reveal innermost thoughts.5.not just for practical purposes Francesco Petrarch it only affected the rich. Leonardo da vinci. 8. 9. they attracted the support of the middle-class town people who wanted conditions of peace in order to carry on their businesses. or fellow-worshippers The new monarchs 1. it was more of a flow a slow development-encouraged the idea of human understanding and control of phyiscal naturereached more people 7. lying breaking promises.sacred buildings. They used re born Roman law which said that the ruler was sovereign and could make laws his own to over-rule all the feudal and common law built up during the Middle Ages. mysticism. all worldly pretensions and ambitions 5. the earth was round and not flat and it orbited around the sun. He preserved order and justice 3. discuss issues. 7. and to explore moral philosophy and meaning.bellini. They raised taxes from these people to put together armies of foot soldiers .Michelangelo Textual criticism Manners behavior and education. Raphael.

Ferdinand Magellan (1521) Vasco de Gama (1498) John Cabot(1497) The steady growth of the population and the slow process of inflation caused by the increase in population and increase in volume of money in circulation. and encouraging entrepreneurship-trade treaties negotiated between england and france in 1496 and a century later between france and the ottoman empire-charters were issued for setting up trading companies overseas. controlling wages. 9. –increased secularism-mysticism from the northern renaissance-rejection of medieval thinking and practice-new monarchs defying the pope-invention of the printing pressdeclining prestige of the papacy-middle classes in the towns-social and economic protest against the corruption of the church 2. 10. They wanted to be masters of their own territory in religious matters too. The reformation: Calvin and Luther 1. no knowledge of distant demand. using pike and longbow. 7. 8. and dyers from turkey. It was illegal to be poor so people were forced to work-exports encouraged by giving subsidiesimports were discouraged by imposing tariffs-silk industry and wool industry introduced-skilled labor such as flemish weavers. the unemployed were put to work. no money for capital) Division of labor.could challenge and defeat the supremacy of the feudal lo9rds on traditional horseback The commercial revolution 1. Ruler was sovereign More exports and fewer imports thus a favorable balance of trade would be created. no knowledge of overseas markets and customers and what prices they might pay. Martin Luther . 5. each was state-supported with special rights. Frequent attendance to church and religious festivals-giving alms(charity)to the poorfasting at certain times during the year-going on pilgrimages 4. 2. 6. they broke away from the old restrictive practices of the guilds and gave their work to people outside the towns. With financial backing to oversee the whole operation from production through sale.opening of trade routes and widening of trade area and markets They were geared to modest local operations only producing to order for a limited number of customers. 3. were poached from other countrieslimitation of the power of the guilds by regulating admission. no finance to tie up unsold goods(too specialized. 4. it was an assertion of their nationhood 3.who.

In Geneva. He did away with 5 of the 7 sacraments 9. A representative of pope Leo X was travelling through Germany selling indulgences 7. 16. Baptism. 19. Switzerland. and masses-rejected the belief in purgatory and wanted monasticism to be eliminated-he did away with reducing the 7 Christian sacraments retaining only baptism and communion-he rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation while affirming that god was still somehow present in the bread and wine(consubstantiation)-attacked and upbraided the prelates(church leaders)for their luxurious lifestyle. Denounced infant baptism. –declared the claim of the clergy to be different from the laity was an imposture and that they should find the Christian truth in only the bible-denounced the reliance on fasts. pilgrimages. bells and images of Christ and any other form of color was frowned upon.a small minority who live a saintly life against all temptations 18. he believed in internal spiritual freedom but in worldly matters. Protesting about their social and economic conditions. An inward realization of spiritual peace and fulfillment-an inner grace-that only you could know existed and which you could not prove had occurred to you. saints. 8. Ministers wore black gowns and church buildings were very dark. 15. 10. to find the Christian truth themselves in ONLY the bible. 6. and that a good Christian should show allegiance to the authority of the state 13.5. only the chosen ones.wanted individual rights 11. That the priest converts the bread and wine into the flesh and blood of christ 17. That god had already decided who would get to heaven. practiced polygamy 12. No authority to define true Christian belief. Luther: supported the right for government to rule effectively. individuals might read the bibleand freely make their own interpretations according to their conscience.communion-confirmation-confession -marriage-holy orders-anointing the sick . The ruler of the state of Saxony and other north German princes 14. That each state in the empire could decide whether it wished to be catholic or Lutheran.relaxed some of his criticisms of the clergy and came to believe that they were necessary. Supported the authority . abolished private property. Calvin: no government had the right to control religious affairs or to pass laws about religion. stained glass music.

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