In my two graphs the overall trend is when the temperature is increased the absorbance of the beetroot is increased. At no point in my two graphs do you see the absorbance decreases when the temperature is increased. For example if you look at my average absorbance graph at 25°C the absorbance is 0.35, and at 35°C the absorbance is 0.53. So there is an increase in absorbance. ====================================================================== A cell membrane is made up of many different molecules these include phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, glycolipids and glycoproteins. Each of these all has specific functions in the cell membrane. Phospholipids make up the basic structure of the membrane, forming a bilayer. They have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, with the tales being non polar its very difficult for ions and polar molecules to pass through the membrane, so the phospholipids act as a barrier to water soluble molecules. Therefore the only way water-soluble molecules can get through the membrane is through the protein. Protein in the membrane acts as hydrophilic passage ways or transport route for ions and polar molecules to diffuse into the membrane. Protein control what substances enter and leave the membrane. There is specific protein types for different substances, these are known as protein carrier cells. Cholesterol role is different compared to protein and phospholipids, its role is to give the membrane support and strength. Cholesterol determines how fluid the membrane is. It helps to control the fluidity, stopping it from becoming too fluid or too rigid, preventing the membrane from bursting. Cholesterol structure is very similar to a phospholipid, it too has a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tale, which allows it to fit neatly in the phospholipids. Glycolipids and glycoproteins role is to help stabilise the membrane, with their carbohydrate chains that extend out into the water surface forming hydrogen bonds with the water molecules. [IMAGE] In the experiment the diffusion between the beetroot membrane and the solution stayed the same in terms of the kinetic energy being the same having no effect on the leakage of the membrane. So the kinetic energy of the diffusion never changed and didn’t affect the experiment. So the leakage was at room temp as the beetroot cylinders was only heated

for 1 minute. but most of the time they still acted as a barrier to ions and polar molecules even if there was gaps between them. which is the reason for the absorbance increasing when beetroot is heated at higher temperatures. The beetroot was cut 21mm every time to allow the same surface area at each different temperature. which wasn’t measured. Only leakage at room temperature was measured. I believe the molecule that was permanently damaged was the proteins in the membrane. The higher the temperature the more the protein has changed in shape. as the membrane becomes more fluid. Using a thermometer to check the temperature at the start of when the beetroot was put in the boiling water and at the end of the minute . Proteins are hydrophilic channels for ions and polar molecules. also allowing certain substances enter and leave the membrane and if the proteins specific shape is changed this will cause the cytoplasm and other substances contained within the membrane to leak out. So there was more diffusion of the anthocyanin in higher heated beetroot cells. If any anthocyanin did leak out through the gaps of the phospholipid or if the phospholipid burst when heated it would have leaked into beaker. 2. but that was due to the shape of the protein being changed. This means there is a slight chance of substances getting through past gaps between the phospholipids. Evaluation Evaluation of procedure The things that were kept the same to be a fair test are: 1. This has been shown by a steady increase in anthocyanin (polar molecule) leaked out of plant cells as the temperature increases. But the reason why the leakage was different for the beetroots at different temperature was during the 1 minute they were heated a molecule in the membrane was permanently damaged. so not much leakage takes place. What happens is at high temperatures the phoispholipids don’t fit together as easily. when temperature is increased the 3D shape of the protein is changed causing it to become denatured. So this is what has caused more leakage from beetroot cells. My reason for this is a protein is affected by temperature. Also during the 1 minute the beetroot membrane was heated the phospholipids were changed but this was only temporary. so they cooled back down when the leakage occurred. once the beetroot was back at room temperature the phospholipids changed back to their original form. At low temperatures such as 35ºC-45ºC the 3D shape of the proteins isn’t changed too much. not the kinetic energy.

4. 5. This will make the results much more accurate and reliable. The temperature may not be dead on the required temperature. so it could be a random effect on the results Use a thermostatic water bath.the thermometer was used to measure the temp of the water using a Bunsen burner. which was 25 minutes. Shaking the test tubes unevenly before putting in colorimeter . Using the same sized cork borer when cutting up the beetroot. 3.not always cutting the beetroot straight and sometimes cutting them vertically. Limitation described Effect on result Suggested improvement Justification of improvement Temperature control. So there is less chance of the beetroot being cut vertically if it is not rushed. It could also be said that the results will be more reliable as a better piece of equipment is used Cutting of discs. this was so the beetroot juice was washed out. causing the surface are to be different on the beetroot cylinders Always increasing Take extra care when cutting the beetroot. Or use a different piece of equipment rather than a knife such as a mini plastic mitre block or something similar to a egg slice. A thermostatic water bath is much more accurate as it keeps water at the required temperature. Accuracy of the effect of temperature on beetroot.when taking the beetroot out. This meant an average was taken for each temperature. Each beetroot was washed before being put in hot water. Keeping each beetroot in the solution for the same amount of time.

There was no mistakes in group 1 as that was my group. It can be a random effect on the results Leave the beetroot in distilled water for 6 minutes This means each set of beetroot in each test tube will be washed for the same amount of time. The reason why I think this is group 1 absorbance had excellent results. This means there was an error in the colorimeter.It can be a random effect on the results Shake each test tube a certain number of times before putting in the colorimeter. Also it may not have been at 35ºC and the temperature was lower. But in group 2 absorbance at 65°C to 85°C the absorbance was 2 abilitrary units. Another anomalous result was in group 3 at 35ºC where the absorbance decreases. Washing the beetroot. Overall the average absorbance results looked good.some beetroot cylinders were washed more than others. This could have been caused by many of faults during the method. and group 3 absorbance was good it was only group 2 absorbance that had a lot of anomalous results. Evaluation of evidence In my average absorbance graph/table there is no anomalous/ odd results. Also I think same reason applies for the anomalous result at 45ºC in group 2 and group 1. But I believe it may be due to the cutting of the beetroot discs not being cut straight. as there was a nice pattern. Some beetroot will have juice still inside. This means the results will be more accurate. . which formed a nice joined line on the graph and seem to be reliable. This means each test tube will be equal in the number of shakes therefore making the results more accurate. I believe this could have been caused by the beetroot not being left in the water at 35ºC for one minute and was taken out to early. This means the results will be more reliable. and being cut diagonally which increases the surface area therefore increase the result. we did every thing the best we could and being very careful.

Percentage of errors The formula that is used to find out due to measuring equipment is: Minimum measurement Actual measurement Errors due to thermometer 25ºC So you apply the formula above: Now add and subtract 4% of 25ºC (which is 1) to 25ºC. these are:: Lowest point Highest point · Ruler (21mm) 4% 4% · Syringe (10cm3) 5% 5% · Clock (1min) 2% 2% · Colorimeter 7% 0.02 + 85= 86.53% Lowest point Highest point Compound error 18% 11.25=24 85ºC Now add and subtract 1. 1 + 25=26 1.02 + 85=84.53% .02 1.2% of 85ºC (which is 1.02 Errors due to absorbance Many instruments contribute to absorbance error.02) to 85ºC 1.

The absorbance compound error at my highest point had a major effect on the result. as show on my average absorbance graph. . The percentage of errors of the equipment puts a question mark on the accuracy and reliability of the results. it doesn’t effect the results that and shows the thermometer is quite reliable. and has a major effect on the result. it shows the equipment used for absorbance cause a massive error.The percentage of error of the thermometer isn’t too bad. While at the lowest point shows the compound error is high (17%).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful