Alternative fuels

José Colomar Iker Estébanez Juan Carlos Ferri Josep García Ernest Young

Master in Energy Systems Renewable Energy Alternative Fuels

Index
INTRODUCTION THE HUBBERT PEAK THEORY GASOLINE TYPE BIOFUELS ETHANOL (OR BIO-ETHANOL) BUTANOL METHANOL P-SERIES HYDROGEN DIESEL TYPE FUELS VEGETABLE OILS BIODIESEL OTHER TYPES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION COMPRESSED OR LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PROPANE SYNFUEL EXTERNAL COMBUSTION STEAM ORGANIC WASTE NO COMBUSTION ELECTRIC SOLAR CELL CARS BIOETHANOL WORKING PRINCIPLE PROS AND CONS OF USING BIOETHANOL HYDROGEN INTRODUCTION MAIN CHARACTERISTICS PROS & CONS OF USING IT AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL OBTAINING HYDROGEN STEAM REFORMING PARTIAL FOSSIL FUEL OXIDATION WITH DEFECT OF O2 ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER BIOMASS PHOTO BIOLOGIC PRODUCTION HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON BOARD THE VEHICLE COMPARING THE COSTS OF DIFFERENT WAYS OF OBTAINING HYDROGEN USE OF HYDROGEN IN AUTO MOTION HYDROGEN COMBUSTION IN ICES 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19

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FUEL BATTERIES BIODIESEL INTRODUCTION OBTAINING BIODIESEL PROS AND CONS OF USING BIODIESEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL POLLUTION REDUCTION BENEFITS OF SWITCHING FROM REGULAR DIESEL TO B20 OR B100 BIODIESEL PRODUCTION OVER THE WORLD NATURAL GAS INTRODUCTION PRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS BENEFITS WEBOGRAPHY

20 22 22 22 23 24 24 26 26 26 27 28

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Introduction
To start with, an alternative fuel can be defined as any material or substance, other than petroleum, which is consumed to provide energy to power an engine. In the last decades it has become clear that the production of oil will no longer supply the demand (see The Hubbert peak Theory). Therefore, different technologies are being developed which can take petroleum’s place. In this project, a variety of such technologies will be exposed and then some of the most spread will be explained. The aim of the project is to show the alternatives society has to choose from, altogether with the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

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The Hubbert peak theory
According to Hubbert’s theory, for any given geographical area, from an individual oil field to the planet as a whole, the rate of oil production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve. Early in the curve (pre-peak), production increases due to the addition of infrastructure. Late in the curve (post-peak), production declines due to resource deplection.

Hubbert’s peak refers to a singular event in history, which is the peak of the entire planet’s oil production. According to Hubbert’s theory, the rate of oil production in earth will enter a terminal decline. However, production peaks are not easy to predict, but in retrospect. U.S. oil production peaked in 1971. The peak of world oil discoveries peaked in 1962. Estimations for Hubbert’s peak range from 2005 to 2025. Note that some scientists believe that the Peak Oil has already taken place. It must be said that oil production is in decline in 33 of the 48 largest oil producing countries.

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Classification
The aim of this point is to show the wide variety of technologies that era being developed to substitute petroleum. Therefore, different fuels will be enounced and succinctly described. A more comprehensive approach of the most significant fuels can be found in the next chapter. One may think that most of them will not prosper. Nevertheless, it is very likely that most of them will, as far as each of them is appropriate for different backgrounds. Regarding the criteria of the encyclopaedias, different technologies have been grouped by affinity in five categories, such us: gasoline type biofuels, diesel type biofuels, other types of internal combustion, external combustion and no combustion.

Gasoline type biofuels
Ethanol (or Bio-ethanol)
Derived from crops, ethanol can be used as a fuel either alone in a special engine or as an additive to gasoline (see BioEthanol).

Butanol
Butanol or butyl alcohol, is a 4 carbon structured alcohol. It can be produced by fermentation of biomass. It better tolerates water and is less corrosive than ethanol, which makes it more suitable for distribution through existing gasoline pipelines.

Methanol
Also known as methyl alcohol, methanol might be an alternative to gasoline especially because it is very easy to manufacture it from methane, the main constituent of natural gas. Moreover, it can also be obtained from biological sources. There are, however a couple of serious problems to be overcome. Firstly, methanol is a highly toxic product and expensive exposure to it may even cause blindness. Secondly, it is volatile and would therefore increase the risk of fires and explosions in car accidents. Besides, higher volatility also means more evaporative emissions.

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P-Series
P-Series fuel is a blend of natural gas liquids (pentanes plus), ethanol, and the biomass-derived co-solvent methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF). P-Series fuels are clear, colourless, 89-93 octane; liquid blends designed to be used alone or freely mixed with gasoline in any proportion. These fuels are not currently being produced in large quantities and are not widely used.

Hydrogen
The use of hydrogen as fuel is probably the most followed investigation line in the car manufacturing industry. Mainly because it is a clean energy that can be found everywhere. On the other hand, the techonology need to use it as a fuel is not simple neither cheap. In spite of the difficulties, manufacturers are nowadays releasing the first hydrogen car models, with which they hope to develop the new market.

Diesel type fuels
Vegetable oils
Many vegetable oils have similar properties to Diesel fuel, except for lower oxidative stability and higher viscosity. If these handicaps can be overcome, vegetable oils may substitute diesel fuels. Vegetable oils are often referred to as Waste vegetable oil (WVO) if it is oil discarded from restaurants, or Straight vegetable oil (SVO) to distinguish it from biodiesel. It is important to clarify the difference between vegetable oil used as a fuel and vegetable oil used to get biodiesel. Unfortunately, the first one is often referred to as biodiesel, although such a denomination is incorrect.

As an interesting fact, it might be mentioned that best known vegetable oils are those extracted from hemp seeds and stalks. Such crops are becoming more and more popular.

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Biodiesel
The word biodiesel refers to any diesel equivalent processed fuel, derived from biological sources. Therefore, it is a processed fuel which is ready to be used in common diesel-engined vehicles, which distinguishes it from SVO or WVO, used as fuels in some modified diesel vehicles. Despite it contains no petroleum; biodiesel can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. Little or no modifications are needed to use it in common compression-ignition diesel engines.

Other types of internal combustion
Compressed or liquefied natural gas
Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons, being methane (CH4) the main one. The points that make natural gas an interesting alternative fuel are, mainly, its clean burning, and its commercial availability to end users. Because of its gaseous nature, when used as a vehicle engine fuel natural gas must be stored onboard either in a compressed gaseous state (CNG) or a liquefied state (LNG). As an interesting fact, it can be mentioned that Sweden is the world leading natural gas user.

Propane
Motor fuel propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has been used as fuel in light and medium-duty vehicles around the world for over 60 years. Propane is produced as a by-product of natural gas processing and crude oil refining. The interest in propane as an alternative fuel stems mainly from the availability of a infrastructure of pipelines, processing and storage facilities for its efficient distribution.

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Synfuel
Synfuel or its long form, Synthetic fuel, is any liquid fuel obtained from coal or from natural gas. Synthetic fuels require a high quantity of crude oil in order to be competitive with petroleum fuels. However, as petroleum prices rise up, synthetic fuels become a better option. Its main advantages are that the availability of the row material is enough to meet demand for the next hundred years, that there is no need to convert vehicle engines to use a different fuel and that a new distribution network needs not to be built.

External combustion
Steam
Steam engines are external combustion heat engines. They are based upon Rankine’s cycle. They burn fuel which produces heat. This heat is used to raise the temperature of the working fluid (water) in a confined space, which at the same time is used to increase the pressure. This pressure exerts force against a piston in the engine. The piston makes the wheels turn and so the car moves along. The main advantages of steam cars are that they use less volatile fuels and that they are more efficient than gasoline cars. What is more, less expensive fuel oil or kerosene can be used to power the steam car.

Organic waste
Organic waste is that which comes from animals or plants. It is usually found in biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) and can be used to power cars by the combustion produced by its gasification.

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No combustion
Electric
Electric cars are a very reasonable alternative to combustion. Howover, some energy is needed to power an electric car and such energy does often come from some combustion process.

Solar cell cars
Solar cars were first built by manufacturers and universities. The sun energy collector cells proved to be too large for consumer cars, but that is no more the case. Development continues on solar cell design and car power supply requirements such as heaters or air-conditioning fans.

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BioEthanol
Working principle
Bioethanol is an alcohol product produced from corn, sorghum, potatoes, wheat, sugar cane, even biomass such as cornstalks and vegetable waste. When combined with gasoline, it increases octane levels while also promoting more complete fuel burning that reduces harmful tailpipe emissions such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Bioethanol is a readily available, clean fuel that can be utilized in combustion engines in different ways: Hydrous ethanol (95 percent by volume) contains some water. It is used directly as a gasoline substitute in cars with modified engines. Anhydrous (or dehydrated) ethanol is free of water and at least 99 percent pure. This ethanol can be blended with conventional fuel in proportions of between 5 and 85 percent (E85). As a 5 percent additive it can be used in modern engines without modification. Higher blends require modified engines as run on so-called flexible fuel vehicles. Finally, BioEthanol is also used to manufacture ETBE (ethyl-tertiarybutyl-ether), a fuel additive for conventional petrol.

To be able to use the BioEthanol as pure fuel (E100) they need to take to end a series of modifications in the engine, not to alter significantly the consumption; These are: To To To To To increase the relation of compression. change the mixture of fuel / air. place spark plugs resistant to major temperatures and pressures. place conduits resistant to the assault of tar after caulking. add a mechanism that should facilitate the take-off in cold.

The most common and simple form of utilization of this fuel is in partial form up to 15 % (E10 or E15) without being a necessary any modification in the engine, though small modifications in the relation of compression and relation air / fuel, it can improve the power. As the attaché of alcohol increases in the mixing, the combustion liberates pollutants' minor quantity to the atmosphere, especially CO.

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PROs and CONs of using BioEthanol
PROs As it is domestically produced, its use can reduce dependence on imported oil and boost the agricultural sector. Its burning is about 10 % more efficient than gasoline’s. FFVs are available and becoming more affordable. CONs Ethanol has less energy content than gasoline. Therefore, more fuel is needed to run the samen distance. Fueling stations are yet difficult to find. Production is yet limited, although it is growing rpidly. Infraestructure for fueling and distribution is yet insufficient. It will take time to automotive and fueling industries to develop the required infraestrcture.

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An example of BioEthanol combustion consumer car: Ford Focus FFV
Ford is to become the first major manufacturer to launch a bioethanolpowered car in the UK when deliveries of the Focus FFV begin in early 2006. The first FFV is currently being tested in Somerset, where locally-grown wheat is being used to produce the bioethanol fuel that powers its 1.8-litre engine.

The FFV produces 70 per cent less carbon dioxide than its petrol equivalent, and develops 123bhp. The car runs either on E85 bioethanol fuel, which is a mix of 85 per cent ethanol and 15 per cent petrol, or on petrol. Initially the Focus FFV will be available only as a fleet purchase, priced at £14,095, although it may become available to private buyers if bioethanol fuel becomes more readily accessible.

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Hydrogen
Introduction
Climatic change can have very serious consequences, and what it is more important, irreversible. The combination of hydrogen and electricity represents one of the most promising routes to make reality the sustainable energy, whereas the fuel batteries constitute the most efficient device to turn hydrogen, and possibly other fuels, in electricity. Hydrogen is not a primary energy like the coal and the gas, but it is an energy vector. Initially the hydrogen will be obtained using the existing power systems based on different vectors and conventional primary sources. Later the renewable energies will become the most important source for the hydrogen production. The hydrogen regenerated and produced from nuclear sources and the systems of conversion of energy based on fossil fuels with capture and safe storage (fixation) of the CO2 emissions, constitute power routes almost completely carbon free. The fuel batteries will be used in an ample variety of products: portable devices such as movable telephones and laptops, that they will use batteries of very small size, movable applications like cars, transport vehicles, buses and ships, until the generators of heat and energy in stationary applications in the domestic and industrial sectors. The future power systems will also include improved converters of conventional energy based on hydrogen (motors of internal combustion, motors of Stirling or turbines), thus like other power vectors (heat and electricity directly produced from renewable energy and biofuels for the transport).

Main characteristics
Hydrogen is the lightest and simple atom in the periodic system, with atomic number 1 and weight atomic 1.00794 g/mol. In standard conditions of pressure and temperature it is a non-toxic but very flammable diatomic gas, colourless and odourless. It has a specific gravity of 0.0899g/l (the air is 14,4 times heavier). Its boiling temperature of only 20.27 K (- 252.88 ºC) and a fusion temperature of 14.02 K (- 259,13ºC). Hydrogen is by far the most common element in universe. Nevertheless, it does not constitute a directly usable fuel and so it is not an energy source, but an energy vector.

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Its power density is three times superior to that from gasoline. Its combustion with oxygen produces water and heat, according to the reaction: H2 + 1/2O2 H2O

According to present numbers, the hydrogen production is distributed of the following form:
Source Natural gas Petrol Coal Electrolysis Total Amount in billions of Nm3 Percentage per year 240 48 150 30 90 18 20 4 500 100

Fuel cells, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. U.S. Departament Energy

Pros & Cons of using Hydrogen as an alternative fuel
PROs Low energetic density in volumetric base. Containers tanks are required great and heavy. High availability. It can be produced from very different raw materials. Stable and non corrosive “Clean” fuel. The combustion of hydrogen with oxygen produces just water. CONs Low energetic density in volumetric base. Container tanks are required great and heavy. Both transport and storage are expensive and of a complex installation.

Obtaining Hydrogen
At the present time, 95% of the hydrogen is obtained from fossil fuels. However, there are different ways in which it is obtained. The most significant one are to be commented.

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Steam reforming
Hydrogen is obtained from hydrocarbons, fundamentally from the natural gas. The main component of natural gas is methane CH4 and the reaction basically consists in separating carbon from hydrogen. The process takes place in two stages: In the initial phase, the natural gas becomes hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The second stage consists of producing additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide from the carbon monoxide produced during the first stage. The carbon monoxide is heated with a steam current to high temperature obtaining hydrogen and dioxide carbon. Resulting hydrogen is stored in tanks. Most of hydrogen used by the petrochemical industry it is generated this way. The process has efficiency between 70 and 90%. The following global reaction represents the process: CH4 + H2O => CO + 3 H2 CO + H2O => CO2 + H2

Partial fossil fuel oxidation with defect of O2
A hydrogen mixture is obtained that later is purified. The amounts of oxygen and water steam are controlled so that the gasificación continues with no need of energy contribution. The following global reaction represents the process: 1’4 CH + 0’3 H2O + 0’4 O2 => 0’9 CO + 0,1 CO2

Electrolysis of water
The passage of the electrical current through water produces dissociation between hydrogen and oxygen, components of the molecule of water H2O. The hydrogen takes shelter in the cathode (pole loaded negatively) and oxygen in the anode. The process is much more expensive that the reformed with steam, but it produces hydrogen of great purity. This hydrogen is used in the electronic industry, pharmaceutics or nourishing. H2O + Power => H2 + ½ O2

Photo electrolysis is a similar process where electrical current comes from sun energy.

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Biomass
Biomass can be used as a source for hydrogen by two different procedures. Gasification of biomass: biomass is put under to a process of incomplete combustion between 700 and 1200ºC. The resulting product is a fuel gas composed fundamentally by hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide. Pyrolysis: It is the incomplete combustion of biomass in oxygen absence, at 500ºC. vegetal coal and gas mixture of carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen and light hydrocarbons are obtained.

Photo biologic production
For example, cianobacterium and green seaweed can produce hydrogen, using only solar light, water and hydrogenasa like an enzyme. At the moment, this technology is in period of investigation and development with efficiencies of conversion superior to 24%. More than 400 varieties of primitive plants have been identified to produce hydrogen.

Hydrogen production on board the vehicle
Hydrogen on board production out of methanol fuel for its consumption in situ seems to be the most suitable alternative. The hydrogen can be obtained by three different catalytic routes: Partial oxidation with oxygen or air: CH3OH + ½ O2 => CO2 + 2 H2 Reformed with water steam: CH3OH + H2O => CO2 + 3 H2 Decomposition: CH3OH => CO + 2 H2 Hydrogen on board production out of ethanol fuel, where the following reaction takes place: CH3CH2OH + 3H2O => CO + CO2 + 6H2 In this case carbon monoxide is produced, which is a poison of the membrane of proton interchange of the fuel batteries. The production of hydrogen from the primary matter (hydrocarbons or water) needs important amounts of energy. The investigation is centred now in knowing if the use of renewable energies without carbon is possible: to obtain hydrogen of the water from photovoltaic, geothermal or hydraulic energy.

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Comparing the costs of different ways of obtaining hydrogen

International Energy Agency (IEA)

Use of hydrogen in automotion
Hydrogen can be used in the transport industry in mainly two different ways. It can be used as fuel in an alternative motor of internal combustion and it can also be used in fuel batteries. In fuel batteries, electrical energy is obtained from the opposite process to electrolysis and such energy is used to power an electrical engine. Hydrogen for the process can be obtained in the vehicle itself (by some of the previously mentioned means) or refuelled at stations. Each one of these alternatives requires different technology and infrastructure and present advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, present researches search for the most efficient and economically affordable method. The investigation field is very extensive, so we will be centered in the present developments showing some examples and comparing the alternatives.

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Hydrogen combustion in ICEs
Regarding the use of hydrogen, car manufacturers have developed special vehicles in which traditional internal combustion engines are replaced by electrical engines. In these, energy is created on board, in the fuel cells out of hydrogen, as explained before. Moreover, some manufacturers like BMW or Mazda have been trying to go further by developing vehicles that can work indifferently with hydrogen and normal gasoline. Mazda Rx8 Hydrogen In March 2006 Mazda began to commercialize its rotary engine Mazda Rx8 Hydrogen in Japan. The rotary engines adapts to alternative fuels like hydrogen better than traditional alternative piston engines. A rotary engine works in four different phases (admission, compression, explosion and escape), each of which takes place in different cameras. The rotor pushes the fuel mixture into each of the cameras. By such means, temperatures do not get so high and risk of detonation is dismissed. The exit to the market of the hydrogen cars is slow because the vehicle manufacturers wait for hydrogen to be available while at the same time fuel providers wait for hydrogen vehicles to be operative. So Mazda has prepared its own station that will comprise of a public network that already prepares the Norwegian State.

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BMW 7 Series Hydrogen

BMW will begin to commercialize its own hydrogen car by April 2007. This vehicle has a 12 cylinder alternative engine with a 200 HP power. It has a 140 litre hydrogen deposit, with a 350 km autonomy. In addition, it has conventional fuel feeding due to the incomplete provision network of hydrogen. What makes the engine different are its particular hydrogen valves.

Fuel batteries
Fuel batteries are electrochemical systems where the energy of a chemical reaction turns directly into electricity. Unlike the electrical battery, a fuel battery does not finish nor needs to be recharged; it keeps working while fuel and oxidant are provided. A fuel battery consists of two parts. Fuel – namely hydrogen - is injected in the anode, while oxidant – usually air or oxygen - is introduced in the cathode. Both electrodes of a fuel battery are separated by a conductive ionic electrolyte. Its operation principle is the contrary to the one of electrolysis. For example, in water electrolysis, wateris separated into its two components, hydrogen and oxygen, whereas in a fuel battery an electrical current would be obtained by means of the reaction between these two gases: 20/28

Hydrogen + Oxygen =>

Electricity + Water

Manufacturers as General Motors, Toyota, DaimlerChrysler or Ford are working in development of fuel batteries. Fuel battery vehicles are powered with hydrogen, but the technology is cleaner since the combustion of a hydrogen mixture with air continues producing some small polluting emissions (NOx and CO). The fuel battery generates electrical energy used in electrical motors that drive the wheels of the vehicle. Hydrogen is difficult to store and a hydrogen network does not exist.In addition, there is no plan to implement one yet. For that reason, some companies involved in the development of fuel battery advocate to obtain hydrogen inside the car itself, from a fuel like gasoline or methanol.

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Biodiesel
Introduction
Biodiesel constitutes a group of biofuels that are obtained from vegetable oils as soy, rape and sunflower (two main cultivations of oily in the European Union). The biodiesel are mono-alkyl esters of the vegetable oils obtained by reaction of these with methanol, by means of reaction of transesterification which produces glycerin as secondary product. The physical properties of mono-alkyl esters are so similar to those of common diesel that both can be mixed in any proportion to be used in conventional diesel vehicles. What is more, there is no need to introduce modifications in the basic design of the engine. Nevertheless, it is necessary to swap the rubber conduits of the car into viton ones when biodiesel proportion in the mix is higher than 5%. This is due to biodiesel attacking the first. As opposed to ethanol, the mixtures with biodiesel do not modify very significantly great part of the physiochemical and physical properties of the diesel oil, such as their calorific power.

Obtaining biodiesel
The process of transesferification consists of mix the oil with aglycerin which the industry can take advantage from. The source of vegetable oil is used to being oil of rape, since is a species with high content of and other cosmetica light alcohol, normally metanol, and leaves as residues of value addition Oil, that adapts well to the climates colds. Nevertheless other varieties with greater performance exist by hectarea, such as the palm, the jatropha curcas etc. Also oils used can be utilized (for example, oils of fried food), in whose case the commodity is very cheap and, besides, they recycle themselves what in another case would be residues.

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The biodiesel does not count in the carbon dioxide production because is supposed that the plants absorbed that gas in their growth, so, because of it, aid to contain the emission of greenhouse gases. In reality the account is not so simple, therefore the metanol that is employed in its production is used to obtaining itself of the petroleum, for which the balance of CO2 is not nil. It would be able to obtain metanol of the wood, that serious a renewable source; nevertheless turns out to be more costly. On the other hand, the glycerin can also burn, therefore neither its combustion counts in the production of CO2.

PROs and CONs of using biodiesel as an alternative fuel
PROs Biodiesel is produced from oilseed crops, animal fats and waste cooking oils. Emissions from using biodiesel are far cleaner than those of diesel. CONs Some users have reported problems when using biodiesel at low temperatures. There is a slight increase in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Additives are being researched to solve the problem.

Biodiesel reduces waste oils that otherwise would have to be disposed. Biodiesel can be locally produced, which rises local economies.

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Pollution reduction benefits of switching from regular diesel to B20 or B100
Particles Total unburned hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Greenhouse gases Sulfates Plycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons B20 -12 % - 20% -12% +2 to +4 % - 40 % - 20 % - 13 % B100 -47 % -67% .48% +10 % - 80 % - 100 % - 80 %

The table represents the emission per hundred changes from regular diesel.

Biodiesel production over the world
A very wide range of crops are used for small-scale biodiesel production around the world, but there are a few popular choices. The first, and most common, was rapeseed or canola. Rapeseed-oil is an ideal raw material for a European climate which tends to have cold winter conditions. Other raw materials used are palm-oil in Malaysia and sunflower oil in France and Italy while soybean-oil became the raw material of choice in the USA. In Nicaragua the locally available oil of Jatropha curcas plant is processed.

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This table show the world’s leading biodiesel productions. country Germany French Italy Belgium England Austria Sweden Total capacity install (tn/year 2000) 550.000 290.000 240.000 110.000 2.000 20.000 11.000 1.270.000 Production (tn/year 2000) 415.000 286.000 160.000 86.000 2.000 20.000 6.000 1.005.000

:SAGPyA, “Biodiesel: El pasado del futuro” by Eugenio F. Corradini.

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Natural gas
Introduction
Natural gas is domestically produced and readily available to end-users through the utility infrastructure. It is also clean burning and produces significantly fewer harmful emissions than reformulated gasoline or diesel when used in natural gas vehicles. In addition, commercially available medium- and heavy-duty natural gas engines have demonstrated over 90% reductions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter and more than 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) relative to commercial diesel engines. Natural gas can either be stored onboard a vehicle as compressed natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 or 3,600 psi or as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at typically 20150 psi. Natural gas can also be blended with hydrogen.

Production and properties of natural gas
Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons— mainly methane (CH4)—and is produced either from gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production. Gas streams produced from reservoirs contain natural gas, liquids, and other materials. Processing is required to separate the gas from petroleum liquids and to remove contaminants. In addition, natural gas (methane) can also come from landfill gas and water/sewage treatment. First, the gas is separated from free liquids such as crude oil, hydrocarbon condensate, water, and entrained solids. The separated gas is further processed to meet specified requirements. For example, natural gas for transmission companies must generally meet certain pipeline quality specifications with respect to water content, hydrocarbon dewpoint, heating value, and hydrogen-sulfide content. A dehydration plant controls water content; a gas processing plant removes certain hydrocarbon components to hydrocarbon dewpoint specifications; and a gas sweetening plant removes hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur compounds (when present).The interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel stems mainly from its clean burning qualities, its domestic resource base, and its commercial availability to end users. Because of the gaseous nature of this fuel, it must be stored onboard a vehicle in either a compressed gaseous state (CNG) or in a liquefied state (LNG).

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Chemical Properties: The main constituent of natural gas is methane, which is a relatively unreactive hydrocarbon. Natural gas as delivered through the pipeline system also contains hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane; and other gases such as nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and water vapour.

Natural gas benefits
Natural gas is one of the cleanest burning alternative fuels available and offers a number of advantages over gasoline. In light-duty applications, air exhaust emissions from natural gas vehicles are much lower than those from gasolinepowered vehicles. In addition, smogproducing gases, such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, are reduced by more than 90% and 60%, respectively and carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, is reduced by 30%-40%. For heavy-duty and medium-duty applications, natural gas engines have demonstrated more than 90% reduction of CO and particulate matter and more than 50% reduction of NOx relative to commercial diesel engines. According to the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC), as of 2005 there are 130,000 light- and heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicles in the United States and 5 million worldwide. Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are designed to run only on natural gas; bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fuelling systems that enable the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general, dedicated NGVs demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bifuel vehicles because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have to carry two types of fuel, thereby increasing cargo capacity and reducing weight.

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Webography
In order to accomplish the current project, the following web pages have been consulted. The authors of the project would like to thank the following for their accuracy, clarity and conciseness. English wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page U.S. Department of energy: http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/ General Motors: http://www.gm.com/automotive/innovations/altfuel/ Eco for the world: http://www.eco4theworld.com Renewable fuels, LTd.: http://www.renewablefuels.co.uk U.S. national biodiesel board: http://www.biodiesel.org/ Encarta online encyclopedia: http://encarta.msn.com/ Steam automobile club of America: http://www.steamautomobile.com/ U.K. Institute of science in society (ISIS) : http://www.isis.org.uk/index.php ZAP: http://www.zapworld.com/ Tesla motors: http://www.teslamotors.com/index.php?js_enabled=1 WASTE: http://www.waste.nl/ NY state department of environmental conservation: http://www.dec.state.ny.us/ Invest Northern Ireland: http://www.investni.com/index/ West Virginia University: http://www.wvu.edu/ ONI: http://www.oni.escuelas.edu.ar/ Motorpasion: http://www.motorpasion.com/ Abengoa Bioenergy, LTd.: http://www.abengoabioenergy.com/ Crisis energética: http://www.crisisenergetica.org/ Engineering faculty of the Universidad de Buenos Aires: http://www.fi.uba.ar/ European commission energy research: http://ec.europa.eu/research/energy/index_en.htm International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (HIA) : http://www.ieahia.org/ Fuel cell store : http://www.fuelcellstore.com U.S. National Renewable energy laboratory: http://www.nrel.gov/ CIEMAT: http://www.ciemat.es/ Oregon department of Environmental Quality: http://www.deq.state.or.us Canadian renewable fuels association: http://www.greenfuels.org/ Springvale Business: http://www.springvale.biz/ Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung: http://www.ifeu.org NaturalGas.Org: http://www.naturalgas.org/

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