The Messa"e of the Loca =.ati!e?

for the 100 years from the Annexation of Macedonia
ho# random #as the inexp icab e fact that the rate of extermination of the -e#s of Thessa oniki by the .a'is is the ar"est amon" the ma/or cities of 0urope or the fact of the destruction of -e#ish cemeteries and monuments in Thessa oniki by the Greek authorities durin" the 1econd 2or d 2ar or the fact that after the defeat of the .a'is, they did not return them to those #ho sur!i!ed. To these e!ents #e, the Macedonians, can certain y en"a"e first and foremost because #e are the .ati!es, the Loca s, as they ca us, residents of this p ace and any historica chan"es concern us, first and foremost. 2e, ho#e!er, are in!ited as spectators, app auders, spine ess actors. .o $ eadin" history scientist$ amon" those #ho #i participate in the historic anni!ersary conference #i dare to depict the rea history. To testify to #hat actua y happened before, durin" and after the e!ents of 1912 and ho# those are re ated in the meanin" of iberation. This e!a uation #e, the Macedonians, the .ati!es of Macedonia, the Loca s as they ca us, ha!e to do first and foremost. 2e ha!e to do it and submit it for the youn"er to kno#. Liberation means re ief from the re"ime imposed by forei"ners that restricts the freedoms of indi"enous to the ri"ht of expression, "o!ernment and in exercisin" their ri"hts o!er their o#n and. 2hat happened, ho#e!er, to the !ast ma/ority of nati!es #ho #ere not Greek&speakin" or ,oman& orthodox3 To those Macedonians #ho spoke Listen Macedon Macedonian or 4 ach an"ua"e or to Mus im Listen modern Greek Macedonians3 These communities #ere more than 567 of the indi"enous popu ation. This year marks 100 years since the annexation by 8y the chan"es in 1912, our freedoms, not on y #ere Greece of the southern part of Macedonia, in 1912. not restored, but #ere e!en imited . A ready, many entities ha!e be"an their ce ebrations The and that had been sei'ed by the (ttoman to commemorate in a festi!e #ay $the iberation of con9uerors and had been con!erted to their o#n Macedonia from the Turkish yoke.$ estates, #as not returned to us nati!es, but #as "i!en The foca point is, of course, the head city of either to Greeks and ord as estates, or distributed to Macedonia, Thessa oniki. ne# sett ers #ho took the p ace of the Turks. The The municipa ity has p anned numerous e!ents. %n #ea th resources of our country that #ent throu"h the the $axis of action$, history has a dominant ro e. %n exp oitation of the (ttomans, had passed to the this context and accordin" to the schedu e, $a three& exp oitation of the ne# ru ers. day scientific conference is or"ani'ed in (ctober More than ha f of the oca s #ere forced to f ee their 2012, at the ne# )oncert *a , #ith internationa home and: some to sa!e their i!es, others to escape interest and participation of scientists from a o!er the bruta oppression of the ne# re"ime and others the #or d. The or"ani'ation #i be done by eadin" because of economic oppression. history scientists. A so an exhibition for the 100 Those Macedonians #ho #ere ki ed, imprisoned, years+ history of the city is p anned in the port+s exi ed or dri!en into forced exi e these 100 years, are #arehouse )+$. much more than those #ho suffered the same in the About the non&Greek&speakin" and non ,oman& ;00 years of Turkish occupation. orthodox communities i!in" in Macedonia at that The administration of our country #as not passed to time, particu ar reference is made on y to the *ebre# the .ati!es, as it #ou d had in a rea iberation. one. A specia exhibition tit ed $The -e#s in <o icemen, army officers, teachers, priests, bishops, Thessa oniki. %nde ib e marks in the area$ is administrators, prefects, etc. a came from or"ani'ed by the Archaeo o"ica Museum of <e oponnese, )rete, the 0ast. Thessa oniki in cooperation #ith the -e#ish Museum The indi"enous Macedonians, except the informers, of Thessa oniki and #i operate durin" the entire #ere not appointed to the 1tate /obs. (n y after the year.$ )i!i 2ar =197>&1979? they be"an to be appointed to (f course, the $Top history scientists,$ #ho #i o#er positions in the pub ic ser!ices. 0!en this did participate in the history conference, #i not dea #ith

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not happen to ascribe /ustice, but because, after the creation of the ,epub ic of Macedonia #ithin the @u"os a! federa state and the position of AA0 for a unified and independent Macedonia durin" the )i!i 2ar, sho#ed as !ery ike y the oss by Greece of southern Macedonia. 1ma concessions aimed at miti"atin" the indi"nation of the nati!es and as a means of erosion and assimi ation. 2ith the ne# re"ime our mother ton"ue, not on y did not rep ace the Turkish one of the in!aders, but #as banned, persecuted, au"hed at, s andered. The traditions and customs came under contro . )u ti!ation of oca Macedonian cu ture #as banned. They e!en banned the use of son"s at #eddin"s and ce ebrations. 2e #ere forbidden e!en to dec are same nationa identity and ori"in #ith our co&nationa s #ho expatriated as economic mi"rants or as co& nationa po itica refu"ees. (n y due to the support of internationa or"ani'ations and si"nature by Greece of internationa treaties on human ri"hts, #e are ab e to free y express ourse !es Thanks to these besto#ed freedoms #e can ta k free y about the rea history of our country and our peop e. Thanks to ne# techno o"ies, especia y the internet, our !oice can reach e!ery corner of the country and the #or d. The east #e can and #e o#e to do is to restore our di"nity, history and basic human ri"hts. 1ince ear y 1990 #e address the officia authorities and #e ask them to e iminate a forms of racia discrimination. Bor measures to be taken as remedy for the in/ustices that made us to end up as third c ass citi'ens and economica y disad!anta"ed e!en compared to ,ussian&pontious #ho sett ed in our oca ities durin" the 1990+s. (ur ri"htfu re9uest for remo!a of the racist exc usion for Macedonian po itica and economic refu"ees from the ri"ht of repatriation and rehabi itation, somethin" that #as done for a other expatriates, #as not fu fi ed. %nstead of it, a massi!e sett ement of ,ussian& pontious #ho abusi!e y are ca ed $repatriates$, #ho had ne!er i!ed or #ere "one from our area, took p ace. %n order for these ne# sett ers to sett e and stay in our country, the state "a!e them pri!i e"es, #hich #ere on y for insta ation in Macedonia and Thrace. They #ere "i!en fa!orab e oans for house purchase, "ratuitous in fact, preferentia y recruited in pub ic ser!ices, had preferentia treatment in trade and professiona acti!ities, etc. And a this #as done #hi e the nati!es #ere and remain economica y disad!anta"ed, #ith hi"h proportion bein" unemp oyed, sma & ando#ners, sma business o#eners, underemp oyed artisans. %t is ob!ious that this po icy ser!ed to reinforce the sett ement of forei"n popu ations in Macedonia, to further a ter the composition of the popu ation at the expense of the oca s. %t is the ast sta"e of a po icy that be"an the decade of 1910. A so then, the state of Athens sent the ma/ority of refu"ees in Macedonia to a ter the composition of the popu ation at the expense of oca s. Those popu ations #ere forced to ea!e their ancestra and, to ser!e a c assic co onia po icy. They

#ere !ictims of that po icy. 8ut #ere used as a""ressors because they p ayed the ro e of the abuser, p ayin" the ro e as "endarmes of the .ati!es. The past 1ecurity batta ions and <A( members ike& minded peop e pro!ocati!e y p ay that ro e e!en today. 8y ea!in" their homes, #ith Greece+s si"nature and the consent of the 2estern a ies, those refu"ees became sett ers & bodies and hosta"es of the Greek co oni'ation. They found themse !es in a !ery uncomfortab e position, to be eft #ithout home and or to p ay the ro e of co oni'ers. .ecessari y they chose the second of t#o e!i s and so turned into operators of a racist po icy. The .ati!es appeared in their eyes as suspicious bodies of $8u "arians$, of $1 a!s$ or of $<an&s a!s$ and ast of $1kopians$ #hich impin"ed or had $territoria ambitions$ to $our Macedonia.$ 1o #e appeared as a potentia enemy to them and #e had to di ute or to surrender and assimi ate. 1o these sett ers became bodies of racist or"ani'ations and propa"anda po icy of the state of Athens a"ainst the non Greek&speakin" .ati!es. .ot on y they did not responded to our ca s for support to our /ust cause, but they supported massi!e y the racist officia state po icy. They /ustified and supported it po itica y. 8ut e!en those #ho did not, they supported it passi!e y. They sa# the racia discriminations, persecutions, in/ustices and kept si ent. The second, after the need, key factor on #hich the antimacedonian racism re ied on, are the innumerab e ies #hich feed on the citi'ens of this country. Many of the ies re"ard the $ iberation of Macedonia.$ ,ea stru"" es for the iberation of Macedonia #ere done by Macedonians themse !es. *o#e!er, they are surrounded by innumerab e ies, distortion and s ander. The b ack propa"anda disp ays them as stru"" es of the $sa!a"e 8u "arians$, or 1erbs, or $<an&s a!ists$ #hich had territoria c aims to Macedonia. They hide the truth that says those stru"" es #ere made by the oca inhabitants of Macedonia. Memoirs and officia reports exp icit y state Macedonia as the p ace of ori"in of the po itica eadership of the iberation or"ani'ation 0.M.0.(. =Macedonians %nterna ,e!o utionary (r"ani'ation?, founded in Thessa oniki =1C92?, as #e as of the chieftains and rebe s. This information, ho#e!er, is on y a!ai ab e to researchers and heretic.citi'ens They systematica y hide the fact that the dominant s o"an of those fi"hters #as $Macedonia for Macedonians$ and a manifestos speak of an independent Macedonia, in #hich a ethnic and re i"ious communities #ou d coexist e9ua y and the (ttoman 0mpire+s po#er, a"ainst #hich they #ere fi"htin", it #ou d ha!e been rep aced by the po#er of the .ati!es. %ndeed, 8u "aria had aspirations in Macedonia, and 1erbia, too. These aspirations Greece in!oked to /ustify its o#n aspirations. 8ut #ere they /ustified3 %n none of the oca ethnic communities in Macedonia had been de!e oped a po itica mo!ement in fa!or of the union of their country #ith nei"hborin" states or its partition amon" them. .one ca ed Macedonia .orthern Greece, or 1outhern 1erbia, or 1outh&

2

2estern 8u "aria. 8ut neither in Greece, 8u "aria or 1erbia anyone ca ed it so. 0!eryone ca ed it p ain Macedonia. %n the stru"" e for iberation of Macedonia, participated most y the non&Greek speakin" =macedonian speakers D ! ach speakers? Macedonians, as Greek speakers #ere i!in" main y in the o# ands and urban centers. Moreo!er, the Greek&speakin" peop e #ere under the tute a"e of the patriarcha priesthood that recommended $obedience to the ru ers.$ Eurin" the Macedonian iberation stru"" e no opposition, nor conf ict or ri!a ry e!er #ere created amon" the oca s. .e!er Greek&speakin" of Macedonia did comp ain about any attack or pressure by non&Greek speakin" Macedonians and ne!er asked for some protection from Greece. %nstead, a the testimony and the i!in" rea ity speak of a on" astin" harmonic co&existance. %n the iberation stru"" e of the Macedonians, the Greek&speakin" did not participated, but did not undermined it, either. The ri!a ry #as nurtured ater, #ith mea"er resu ts, fortunate y, by those #ho did not #ant the unity of the .ati!es of Macedonia. Those #ho imp emented the tactic of $di!ide and con9uer.$ Those that fou"ht to di!ide the insur"ent Macedonians, to rei"n o!er them and o!er their and. The main di!isi!e ro e #as p ayed, of course, by the dip omatic machanism of Greece in Macedonia and the mechanism of the patriarcha priesthood. And they had their reason. After the rebe ion of 1905, named % inden uprisin" as the aunch coincided #ith the ce ebration of <rophet 0 i/ah day, the creation of an autonomous Macedonian state appeared as !ery ike y. This #ou d ha!e annu ed the expansionist ambitions to the north of the kin"dom of Greece. (n the other hand, the patriarcha c er"y of )onstantinop e to the possibi ity of iberation of Macedonia sa# a repeatition of #hat happened #ith the iberation of other 8a kan peop es. 0!ery nation had created its o#n autocepha ous church and, as a conse9uence, ead the f ock of the <atriarchate to imit itse f in the boundaries of the (ttoman 0mpire. 0!en the Greek&speakin" Greece estab ished its o#n independent church, #hich the <atriarchate had characteri'ed as schismatic. Their re ations #ere restored in 1C;0, but #ithout abo ishin" the autocepha ous of the Greek )hurch. .o#, a so inside the (ttoman 0mpire the patriarcha priesthood had the 8u "arian 0xarchate as a competitor #hich #as tryin" to #in a 1 a!ophone =Macedonians, <omaks, 1erbs? and the ri"ht of the 4 achs to create their o#n churches and schoo s had been reco"ni'ed. 1o, for not osin" its inf uence in Macedonia, it had to undermine the iberation stru"" e of its peop e. And it did this in a !ery dirty #ay. As its dip omats in Macedonia #rite in their memoirs themse !es, Greece and the bishops & especia y German Aara!an"e is of Aastoria & co aborated #ith the in!aders and he ped to suppress the Macedonian iberation mo!ement. That co aboration ed to e!en more Macedonian popu ations to remo!e from the <atriarchate and to their approach to the 0xarchate,

#hich had kept much better attitude to#ards the separatist mo!ement and a so the )atho ic )hurch =Fniate&Fnionists?. *a!in" ost most spiritua contact #ith Macedonian peop e, it tried to restore its ranks #ith deceit and !io ence. Their main too #as ac9uisition, s ander and di!ision. Aara!an"e is himse f mentions in his memoirs the case of ac9uisition of )aptain Aotta from ,ou ia and )aptain 4an"e is from 1rebeno, and a so the attempted ac9uisition of Mitro 4 achou =a 4 ach?. *o#e!er, as they #ere unab e to brin" back the Macedonian popu ation by hypocritica promises, persuasion, ac9uisition and s ander, they resorted to !io ence. They acted to create mercenary bodies ed by officers of the Greek army. The fact that no eader and no mercenary body #as created by Greek& speakin" peop e of Macedonia, demonstrated the harmonious re ations bet#een Macedonian indi"enous peop es #ith different nati!e an"ua"e. Those mercenary "an"s, bapti'ed $makedonomachous$=macedonian fi"hters? by the state and re i"ious propa"anda, did not come to Macedonia to hit the (ttoman con9uerors or the 8u "arians #ho supposed y in!aded Macedonia, but the rebe ed Macedonian popu ation. 2ith murder, destruction of !i a"es, ac9uisitions, threats, b ackmai and terror they tried to restore them by force to the tute a"e of patriarcha priesthood. Those #ho they, themse !es, dro!e a#ay #ith their treacherous, undemocratic and anti&)hristian beha!ior. This dirty "ame =1907&190C? they present today as $Macedonian stru"" e.$ 0!en today, the successors of those bishops, starrin" Thessa oniki+s Anthimos, are eadin" to spread ies and s ander a"ainst the Macedonian iberation mo!ement. They ta k about the fa sification of history, #hi e they themse !es are the bi""est counterfeiters. The thief shouts to scare the and ord. (b!ious y they ha!e the fear of $the thief and the iar on y durin" the first year =century? are happy++. They encoura"e ordinary be ie!ers to repent for their e!i acts by #hich they harmed their fe o#&men, to confess to them, but they themse !es ne!er do it. They in!ite others to ref ect on #hether they ha!e escaped the ri"ht track, but this does not app y to themse !es. 2e Macedonians ha!e a particu ar reason to dea and disc ose the ro e of ,oman&orthodox priesthood. %t undermined our iberation and no# it is starrin" in the underminin" of our stru"" e for redress of in/ustice, freedom of expression, the restoration of truth. %t fears the truth as the de!i the incense.

The course of the Roman-orthodox priesthood
)hristianity be"an as a re i"ious mo!ement of the humb e and contempted. %t denounced the "reed of and ords and merchants, exp oitation and oppression of the #eak. Bor this reason, it suffered persecution by the ,oman po#er. 8ut #hen the ,oman po#er found that the o d Greco&,oman re i"ions, to #hich it #as based on unti then, had de"enerated and #orn

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out, it decided to rep ace it #ith a ne# and uncorrapted one. Moreo!er, this ne# re i"ion #as adoptin" the !ie# of many 0astern re i"ions about a hi"her God and the kin"s and priests as his representati!es on earth. Many kin"doms of the 0ast had on" supported the sur!i!a on this princip e. Thus, they adapted it to their po#er and exhibited the emperors and kin"s a on" #ith the bishops and priests, as the representati!es of God on earth. %n addition, express y its founder, -esus )hrist, is stated as $Ain" of Ain"s$. This he ped peop e+s sub/ection to their spiritua and therefore their po itica po#er. %t is no coincidence that )hristianity #as adopted and imposed as the officia re i"ion by the 0astern ,oman 0mpire. Much of the popu ations of its eastern pro!inces, especia y in )appadocia, )i icia, 1yria, <a estine, #ere a ready )hristians. These popu ations it sou"ht to #in in support for its authority in those areas. The con9uerors and tyrants a #ays sou"ht to assimi ate by re i"ion the popu ations of the countries they impin"e. More contemporary examp e is the )hristiani'ation of the .ati!es of America. The 0uropean co onia ists a on" #ith the expeditionary corps they sent a so missionaries. %f you con!ince the .ati!es that you are the representati!e of the true God, then they subordinate themese !es more easi y. (f course, the rea )hristians refused to p ay this ro e, but they did it those #ho #ere charmed and "reedi y s#a o#ed the bait of "oods of the secu ar po#er. 2ith those, the emperors did their /ob and the re i"ious be iefs of those #ere imposed. %t is no coincidence that a the 0cumenica )ounci s, #hich formed the officia )hristian doctrine, #ere con!ened by the emperors. They appointed the patriarchs and bishops, they determined the basic princip es of )hristianity, they chased a other re i"ious be iefs as non&correct faiths. A typica examp e is the fact of the prosecution of %cons as ido atrous symbo s that #as made by emperors, but a so by emperors the enforcin" of %cono atry #as done. The reason, of course, #as mysticism, the theofobia =fear of God? and despotofobia =fear of bishops? that the ima"es inspired in the i"norant be ie!ers. %n addition, most of those #ho #ere dec ared saints #ere bishops and emperors. The resu t of this unho y a iance #as the theocratic feuda system imposed by the ,omans on the sub/ected peop es. The ,oman 0mpire #as not created by the !o untary poo in" of some peop e. The ,omans imposed themse !es by force of arms as con9uerors and beha!ed as con9uerors. 8y force they sei'ed the and of other peop e and turned them into he ots and s a!es or imposed them unsustainab e taxes #ithout offerin" anythin" to them. This po#er re#arded the preachers of )hristianity by imposin" as mandatory the ne# re i"ion and persecutin" a others, inc udin" the Greek one. %t bui t ma"nificent temp es, such as 1t. 1ophia, founded monasteries, "ranted ar"e tracts of and and ar"e amounts of money from pub ic funds for their maintainance. %n turn, the most pri!i e"ed c er"y yie ded these #or d y benefits by makin" propa"anda in fa!or of the $Ain"s on earth$,

representati!es of the hea!en y Ain". They are ca in" themse !es Bathers, representati!es of the hea!en y Bather. Thus, accordin" to their scriptures, the $s a!es of God$ became easi y their s a!es, too. A key e ement of the ritua became the pompous appea to the hea!en y Ain" to donate $!ictories to the rei"n .... and store throu"h your cross by the constitution.$ And the constitution for #hich they made prayers, #as the feuda and s a!ery one. The emperor #ho imposed )hristianity as officia re i"ion, #as dec ared saint, a thou"h he #as, for the sake of po#er, the s ain e!en of his son. They spread the rumor that he pre!ai ed o!er his opponents because he sa# a !ision of a cross #ith the inscription $%n this you #in.$ A historians a"ree that the stru"" e in #hich )onstantine, the 1aint and Great, pre!ai ed, #as a ruth ess po#er stru"" e, fu of !io ence, intri"ue, distribution of offices, pri!i e"es and territories. %t is impossib e that the God of )hristians fa!ored someone of such ruth ess kind of contenders of po#er. 1imp y, )hristianity from an inte ectua & phi osophica operation, had become a po itica too . Then the patriarcha priesthood #as re#arded and became the second stron"est authority after the institution of kin"ship. This re"ime, in order to sur!i!e, chased anythin" that undermined the spiritua and po itica authority o!er the sub/ected peop es. %t chased #hate!er threatened the spiritua darkness in #hich it #as based. Anythin" it #ou d open the eyes of the citi'ens. %t pre!ented the de!e opment of critica thinkin" and free spirit, for they #ere morta threat to the obscurantist and feuda authority. 2ithin this frame, it persecuted a so Greek phi osophy, of #hich they appear today as hypocritica defenders and heirs. Bor the rest, conspicuous y they denounce hypocrisy. This c erica &feuda a iance persecuted a socia & re i"ious and re!o utionary mo!ements. The most important of these, the <au icians in Asia Minor and the 8o"omi es in the 8a kans, #ere chased from one side by the state&mi itaristic mechanism #ith s au"hterin" and destroyin" their #ritin"s and their communities, and from the other side by the c er"y #ith ca umniation, s anderin" and excommunocation. They #ere condemned as heretica , and they #ere indeed heretica . 1tru"" in" to e iminate fraud, hypocrisy, rape, exp oitation, oppression, obscurantism and the use of theofobia =fear of God? for authoritarian purposes. Brom the #ord heretic arose the #ord exheretiko =in "reek meanin": exce ent?, ie that #hich comes from =ex? heretic. %n retrospect the ex&heretic pre!ai ed on to be considered the best, out of the ordinary, specia . They are the ideas, opinions and persona ities of the ex&heretics =exce ents?. %e those #ho 9uestioned the estab ished !ie#s, that usua y #ere imposed by conser!ati!es to sustain ideo o"ies and re"imes that a o#ed them to exp oit their o#n peop e and to i!e rich y as parasites on them. These ex&heretics, by cha en"in" the !ie#s of incumbent re"imes, ed humanity to ne# disco!eries, rationa ideas and kno# ed"e and contributed to ibera i'ed democratic societies. 1o, usua y they #ere persecuted by authoritarian re"imes and #ere excommunicated by

4

the church as =ex? heretics. Macedonians, to"ether #ith the Thracians, can be proud that in their home and and from their ancestors the mo!ement of 8o"omi es =10th&17th centuries? #as de!e oped. They are descendants of ex&heretics =exce ent? ancestors. Moreo!er, the !ery #ord 8o"omi es =4o"omi oi in Greek? is macedonian and deri!ed from the #ord bo"a =God? and mi i =dear?. The 8o"omi es ar"ued, amon" other thin"s, that from God does not arise any po#er to peop e o!er peop e, God has no representati!es on earth and therefore the bishops decei!e the peop e. They re/ected the hierarchy, the ceremonies and sacraments of the )hurch and sa# the #orship of ima"es as ido atry. They refused to en ist and participate in the #ars of kin"s or pay taxes, because they did not reco"ni'e the ri"hts of feuda princes, kin"s and the )hurch on earth, and the ike. 2ithout the expensi!e sacerdota !estments =amfiaGsacerdota !estments& $meta&amfi&esi$ in "reek means $dressed #ith sacerdota !estments$Gin dis"uise, mas9uerade? the priesthood does not inspire theofo!ia and #ithout the ritua s and mysteries does not submit the i"norant be ie!er in physica and metaphysica fears and dependencies, nor hypnoti'es a part of his brain in order to make it inaccessib e to critica thinkin". %nstead of the mystirous ritua s of the priesthood, and apart from their theo o"ica be iefs, the 8o"omi es made popu ar ce ebrations and ceremonies honorin" the ife "i!in" forces of nature =fire, #ater, sprin"s, seasona chan"e, ferti ity, sun, moon, etc.?, as other indi"enous peop es of 0urope did. The fact that they had re/ected the priesthood and ritua s of the imperia church, sho#s that those ceremonies #ere not rites of sacramenta character of the priesthood, but #ere popu ar feasts in honor and in contact #ith natura forces. These fo k ritua s =pa"an?, the c er"y presented to the i"norant f ock as ido ater #ith Greek thou"ht and ifesty e =$the Greek #ay$?. %t is no coincidence that the adherents of 8o"omi es in the 2est #ho #ere ca ed )athari =<ure?, are considered forerunners of the 0uropean 0n i"htenment, the ,eformation, the <rotest =<rotestant?. The patriarcha status 9uo, seein" the co apse of the ,oman 0mpire and the risk of osin" its secu ar pri!i e"es, immediate y a ied #ith the ne# po itica po#er that be"an to pre!ai in the re"ion, the (ttomans. %t is a so kno#n it assisted to the fa of )onstantinop e, #ith its propa"anda that the fa in" of the )ity is God+s #i . They preferred the sub/u"ation to the (ttomans, instead of the union #ith the )atho ics, #hich #as entered as a condition for the defence of 8y'antium by them, from the (ttoman threat. The pretext of doctrina differences #ith )atho ics, as they c aim, it #ou d be re iab e if they had sou"ht the union of the (rthodox churches. %n such a case, 8y'antium #ou d ha!e had a ies a (rthodox and especia y the most po#erfu , the ,ussians. 8ut that #ou d ha!e re9uired e ected <atriarch and *o y 1ynod of a the (rthodox churches. 1omethin" simi ar to #hat happens in the )atho ic church, #here the <ope is e ected by representati!es of a

)atho ics. Today he is a German, #hi e the former #as a <o ish. This democratic process that #ou d ha!e ead to the unity of a (rthodox churches and #ou d make the <atriarchate rea y 0cumenica , #as not pursued by the c er"y, because it simp y did not ser!e its narro# po itica &economic interests. Thus, the cross #ith the $herein the !ictory++ #as defeated by the crescent moon of %s am #ith the b essin"s of the priesthood, but the <atriarchate remained the second most po#erfu institution after the 1u tan. .ot on y it did not ose the pre!ious pri!i e"es, but increased them by "ainin" a so po itica responsibi ities. The patriarchs and bishops #ere appointed as po itica representati!es of the ,oman ="enus? .ation =,um Mi iyet?. This "enus, ie, #hich has nothin" to do #ith ethnicity and inte"rates a those it can by its propa"anda acti!ities, is a creation of the remnants of the ,oman ru in" c ass that a ied #ith the po#er of the (ttomans to keep its pri!i e"es. %t is a creation of the ,oman and (ttoman con9uerors. 1ince then, patriarchs and bishops appear as ethnarchs or $ ords of the .ation$. 1ince then, they adopted the dress and miter simi ar to the dress and the cro#n of medie!a kin"s and emperors. There, the roots are of their in!o !ement in the "ame of po#er in modern Greece po itics. *a!in" ensured from the (ttoman 0mpire authority the responsabi ity of education of their )hristian sub/ects, they continued to b ock the cu ture of free critica spirit, #hich #ou d ha!e a o#ed the emer"ence of the 0n i"htenment a so on their territory, as it happened in the 2est. Any bri"ht spirit that appeared, #as excommunicated as heretica , #as s andered and iso ated or forced to f ee to the 2est. %n this #ay they pre!ented the cu ti!ation of those e ements of ancient Greek ci!i i'ation, in the areas #here they had de!e oped, extendin" the medie!a obscurantism unti today. This inte ectua sta"nation has resu ted direct y a so to a cu tura , socia , phi osophica , scientific, po itica and economic sta"nation to #hich they condemned the peop e they dominated. Their pre!a ence in Greece is direct y re ated to the current economic crisis, #hich is a product of inte ectua and socia decay in #hich they condemned it. They are primari y responsib e that the ad/ecti!e "raiky os, comin" from the term Graikos, ended up to mean the de ayed, the unci!i i'ed. *o#e!er, these miserab e peop e, the "ra!edi""ers of the ancient Greek spirit, present themse !es today as the rescuers of it. (f course, hypocritica y and tumidi y, they denounce hypocrisy. The 1u tan "a!e them the Banar district, #here, apart from the patriarchate, the $ ords of the .ation$, kno#n as <hanariots. bui t their uxurious !i as These )hristian eaders #ere senior officia s of the (ttoman state, #ho esa ers and supp iers of the (ttoman court and army or $tenants taxes$. %n other #ords, they payed a rent to !i'iers and pashas and after they pocketed mu tip e taxes from the peop e. Members of these fami ies, except %nterpreters =ministers, dip omats?, heads of the f eet, etc., #ere appointed as ru ers of the Eanubian countries. 1o, many of them made hu"e fortunes impo!erishin" their nationa s.

5

The remo!a of the patriarcha priesthood from the princip es of )hristianity and its incorporation into the o i"archic structures of domination ed to the remo!in" of the ma/ority of fans from it. 2ith the abo ition of the ,oman po#er #hich imposed )hristianity by force, a !ery ar"e number of )hristians /oined %s am and other faiths. The )hristians #ho f ed Asia Minor and 0astern Thrace after the 8a kan 2ars, reached on y 1.; mi ion, #hi e tens of mi ions #ere in 8y'antium. This, to"ether #ith the fact that no peop e defended the 8y'antine re"ime, e!en #hen the capita of )onstantinop e #as besie"ed by the (ttomans, sho#s that the former sub/ect peop es did not re"arded it as somethin" of their o#n. %t paid his po icy to treat its citi'ens as s a!es. The re ati!e y "ood ima"e that the ma/ority of Modern Greek has of 8y'antium, is due to the re ocation of the ru in" c ass =<hanariots, homo"eneous, c er"y? in Greece, #hich became the ru in" c ass and imposed its propa"anda. The 8a kan peop es, a on" #ith thro#in" off the (ttoman yoke, they cast off the spiritua tute a"e of patriarcha priesthood, by foundin" their o#n autocepha ous churches. They remo!ed a the pri!i e"es the church and monasteries had and nationa i'ed most of the hu"e tracts of and =foundations?, #hich #ere "ranted to them by the ,oman and maintained by the (ttoman 0mpire. The c er"y kne# !ery #e that the same #ou d ha!e happened #ith the creation of a tru y free Macedonian state. Apart from its /urisdiction o!er Macedonia, it #ou d ose possession of hu"e tracts of and, #hich #ou d be a ocated to serfs #ho cu ti!ated it, as #e as many residentia rea estate and its secu ar pri!i e"es. 1o, it resorted to undermine the stru"" e for the iberation of Macedonia by the Macedonians themse !es. %t used the ecc esiastica machinery of propa"anda as a po itica too to b ame the Macedonian iberation mo!ement, to corrode it from the inside, to di!ide it. *o#e!er, the (ttoman po#er on #hich for so many centuries it #as based on, #as headin" to#ards the ine!itab e co apse. The c er"y kne# that it had become ike a parasitic c imbin" p ant. A one cou d not sur!i!e and stand upri"ht. %t had to seek support in another po itica po#er. Amon" the ne# y estab ished )hristian 8a kan states, the on y one #i in" to offer such support, #ith profit in mind, of course, #as the kin"dom of Greece. And Greece, #hich in its effort to expand in 1C9H to Macedonia suffered a debac e, needed the support of the patriarcha priesthood in the ro e of Bifth <ha anx for its expansionist p ans.

The course of the Kingdom of Greece
The idea s of iberty, democracy and /ustice #ere those that roused the Greeks =1C21?, ike other 8a kan peop es, a"ainst (ttoman tyranny. The ma/ority of the insur"ents #ere inspired by the princip es of the 0n i"htenment, as expressed main y by the Brench ,e!o ution =1HC9?. Leadin" exponent of those pro"ressi!e !ie#s in the 8a kans #as ,i"as 4e estin is =4 ach from the former s a!ophone

4e estino in Thessa y, 1H;H&1H9C?. *is en i"htenin" and or"ani'ationa #ork, ho#e!er, #as !io ent y interrupted. The <atriarchate excommunicated him and e!entua y he #as betrayed to the o i"archic Austrian authorities by the ,omios =,oman? dea er E. 0conomou and #as handed o!er to (ttomans #ho stran" ed him. 8y the same pro"ressi!e princip es a so the proc amations of the Bi iki 0teria =Briend y 1ociety?, estab ished in 1C17, #ere inspired, to iberate the 8a kan peop es. That or"ani'ation has pioneered in the re!o ution of 1C21, #hich ed to the creation of independent Greece. The state that #as created, #hich is direct y re ated to us, the Macedonians, ho#e!er, had abso ute y nothin" to do #ith the princip es of freedom and democracy. The prospect of creatin" an independent state in southern 8a kan peninsu a, direct y interested the "reat po#ers, #hich, of course, sa# it as a mean to ser!e their interests. After the defeat of .apo eon, the o i"archic po#ers of 0urope had reor"ani'ed and imposed their authoritarian po#er in the ma/or 0uropean countries. They cou d not, ho#e!er, i"nore the fascination the princip es of the 0n i"htenment exerted on the 0uropean peop es. Thus, they inte"rated them in their po itica rhetoric, to be ab e to inf uence them. (n the other hand, the kot'ampasides =e ders? and k eftarmato oi =armed bandits "roups?, #ho #ere a part of the (ttoman authorities participatin" in the oppression of the peop e, sa# in the prospect of estab ishin" an independent state, the possibi ity to become bosses themse !es and to inherit the pri!i e"es of the unti then ru ers. To these, many <hanariots #ere added #ho, after the 1C21 uprisin" in the Eanubian countries, had ost the confidence of the (ttomans and started to experience prob ems. Moreo!er, many of them had taken care to /oin the Briend y 1ociety a ready and had ac9uired substantia contro of it. %mmediate y after the first successes of the rebe s, the batt e to contro the ne# state be"an. That conf ict ed to ci!i #ar =1C25&1C2;?, in #hich the "reat po#ers #ere not a oof, and he ped the (ttoman forces to suppress the re!o t. (f the 2,000,000 pounds oan "ranted by 0n" and in 1C2;, on y ;21,>27 pounds #ent to army or"ani'ation and administration. The rest #as misapproprieted by midd emen and po iticians to buy off mi itary men and e ders and to subdue the true iberation forces. %n the sprin" of 1C2H the re!o ution #as !irtua y stif ed. The ma/or po#ers =8ritain, Brance, ,ussia? inter!ened, on y then, as they sa# their interests threatened. 1o, in -u y 1C2H, in absentia of the 1u tan and the rebe s, they decided to estab ish an independent Greek state. The 1u tan, ho#e!er, refused to comp y, as he had a ready mana"ed to 9ue the re!o t. Then, the patrons forces inter!ened mi itari y. Their f eet destroyed the (ttoman f eet =8att e of .a!arino, (ctober 1C2H?, #hi st in Au"ust 1C2C Brench army a so anded in the area . Thus, the 1u tan, seein" that his opponents are not /okin", he #as forced to #ithdra# its forces #ithout a fi"ht and to reco"ni'e the independence of Greece.

6

%ndependence, ho#e!er, from the (ttomans did not ead to an independent state, but to a dependent one on the patron po#ers. These, not on y appointed the supreme ru er =the 8a!arian Ain" (tto? and the three& member ,e"ency =Armansber", Mauer, 0ideck? but did not appoint one sin" e Greek. They framed the state apparatus #ith forei"n di"nitaries, as #e as the mi itary administration, exc udin" those #ho made the iberation stru"" e. To the popu ation+s reaction that fo o#ed, they responded #ith !io ence. )ommander Ao okotronis #as imprisoned and condemned e!en to death, a on" #ith other re!o utionaries. Amon" the prisoners #as a so our Eimitrios Aaratasos, Macedonian, #ho, except his macedonian nati!e an"ua"e, spoke a so Greek. They did not "et any other choice, except to comp y and be reconci ed #ith the ne# situation. A ies to the forei"ners throu"hout this process #ere the <hanariots and the $homo"enous$ =those of same birth&race?. They arri!ed to do the same they did durin" the (ttoman yoke: to "o!ern and to make money by administratin", purchasin", ootin" the pub ic #ea th, the taxes and to exp oit the #eak peop e. Birst president of the .ationa Assemb y #as appointed the <hanariot A exander Ma!rocordatos =%ta ian from Genoese fami y of )hios?. The first Greek )onstitution #as drafted by the %ta ian 4incen'o Ga ina to"ether #ith, a so of %ta ian ori"in, <hanariot Theodore .e"ri. (f %ta ian ori"in =4enetian? #as a so the first "o!ernor of Greece, %oannis Aapodistrias =)apo E+%stria of the 4ittori fami y?. The three parties that #ere created primari y by those $homo"enous Greeks$ #ere characteri'ed as Brench, 0n" ish and ,ussian, accordin" by #hom and #ho they supported. The imposed re"ime #as as authoritarian as the (ttoman con9uerors+ one. %t took ne# stru"" es and the re!o ution of 1eptember 5, 1C75 for the kin" to "rant a constitution. This did not pre!ent him from interferin" in the "o!ernance of the country. The indi"nation of the peop e ed to a re!o t that forced him to resi"n. 8ut the 8ritish and Brench po#ers, appointed their o#n monarch a"ain, the Eanish Geor"e =1C>5?. As it appeared that the state #as not !iab e, the 8ritish ceded the %onian %s ands to Greece =1C>7?. And thus enhance their inf uence in the protectorate. Bor the same reasons, they ceded to Greece a so Thessa y and Arta =1CC1?, #ithout any prior rebe ionn or expansionary #ar by Greece. That "rantin", of course, had no character of iberation of the Thessa ians. %t "a!e another chance to the $homo"eneous$ to buy for !ery cheap price the (ttomans+ estates and make themse !es nothin" ess but as bruta exp oiters of the peasants. Thirty years ater, the indi"nation of the Thessa ians ed to riots and the b oody e!ents of March 1910 =Ai e er?, #hich forced the re"ime to make some expropriation of estates and "i!e the most barren ands to the rebe ious peasants. Thessa y #as not iberated, but #as "ranted. The Thessa ians, as pre!ious y the Moraites and ,oume iotes, #ere not iberated in the true sense of the #ord, but mere y chan"ed masters. The ideo o"ists and rea re!o utionaries !ery time y

sa# the bad course of thin"s. The eadin" teachers of the Genous =.ation?, Adamantios Aorais =1H7C& 1C55?, hi"h i"hted in time the dan"ers of choosin" a forei"n ru er, around #hom, he predicted, a ad!enturist and anti&democratic e ements #i ra y. *e named as such the <hanariots as $tourkopri"kipes$= Turkish&princes? and the *omo"enous as $psoroarchontes$ =scabies&ru ers?. 2hen, informed of the authoritarian "o!ernment of Aapodistrias, the bruta !io ation of the constitution, the imposition of censorship, etc., in the t#o book ets he pub ished, $2hat is in the interests of iberated from Turks Greece to act, to a!oid to be ens a!ed by Turkish kind of )hristians$, he denounced him as a tyrant, an instrument of o i"archy and ur"ed the peop e to armed re!o t. The most important ideo o"ica exponent of that iberatin" re!o ution, thou"ht that the $ iberated from Turks Greece$ #as ens a!ed $by Turkish kind of )hristians $ The situation deteriorated e!en further #ith the se ection of the 8a!arian and ater the Eanish kin". Appointment in the pub ic ser!ices, pub ic procurement, concession of and, oans, "rants, etc. depended on ho# oya to the re"ime #as each citi'en. *ere is rooted the current $c ient$ re ationship bet#een citi'ens and po itica parties in po#er, #hich e iminates democracy in practice . The depended on that po#er !oters are !otin" #ith criterion to keep this status and not for the "ood of society. This ru e is the main reason #hy monarchs, dictators and authoritarian party eaders so easi y imposed their po#er. 0!en today the eaders of ma/or parties beha!e as so!erei"nes. The parties created by the re"ime, had as basic phi osophy the con9uest of the state to ser!e the persona interests of the party apparatus and the p under of pub ic funds. This phi osophy has been maintained to date, #hich ed to the recent economic crisis. The ru in" c ass created in this #ay, it sho#ed today ho# patriotic it is. ,ather than return the capita it had in deposits abroad, it took out a so those it had inside the country. %n!estments made in pre!ious years in nei"hborin" countries, they did not brin" them back to support our $home and$ in this difficu t time and to offer #ork to the Greeks. %t sho#ed once a"ain, ho# it percei!es patriotism and #hat kind of patriotism #as the one that ed to the $ iberation$ of Greece and, ater, of Macedonia. 8ut by the concept of home and, it dopes its citi'ens to be ab e to use them in its ad!enturist p ans. 2ith that kind of Greece #e, the Macedonians, ater, #i ha!e to dea , that has nothin" #hatsoe!er to do #ith the princip es of freedom and democracy. 0!en the e ementary democracy #e en/oy in the recent decades, is due to the country+s accession to 0uropean or"ani'ations and institutions. The ne# re"ime in order to ser!e its p ans, had to form a simi ar ideo o"ica consciousness in its o#n nationa s. As it is indicated in the #ord itse f, consciousness is a about kno# ed"e =a#areness?. Thus, the mu ti&nationa a oy of ,omioi =,omans?, Ar!anites =A banian?, 4 achs, he eni'ed 1 a!s, Arabs, %ta ians, Branks, )ata ans, etc. be"an to be bombarded by the ne#s about descent from the

7

ancient Greeks. %t had to rep ace the oose a#arness of the ,omios, that made them !u nerab e to the %ta ian states =,omans, 4enetians, Genoese?. Bor the same reason the 0astern (rthodox.#as set as the officia re i"ion. Moreo!er constitutiona y #as defined, instead of the ori"in or the mother ton"ue of the citi'ens, that: $Those indi"enous inhabitants of the territory of Greece #ho be ie!e in )hrist are Greek$ =Artic e %%?. This forced the Mus ims A banians to con!ert for retainin" the ri"ht to remain in their ancestra homes. 1o, those Greeks, #ho #ere remnants of the mu tinationa 0ast ,oman 0mpire, be"an to be descendants of the ancient Greeks. This ser!ed #e the interests of 8ritish and Brench in their effort to reduce the stron" inf uence of ,ussia in the ne# state. %t is no coincidence that the first Greek Academy, the %onian Academy =1C27?, #as founded by the 8ritish, #ho then occupied the %onian %s ands, in order to rep ace the %ta ian an"ua"e #hich #as unti then the officia one, #ith the Greek one. To this he ped the 0uropean, romantic, phi he enic current that #anted the re!i!a of ancient Greek cu ture and peop e, in the p ace #here it had de!e oped. (n the substance, these by necessity and ima"ination Greeks had no bio o"ica and cu tura continuity #ith the peop e of the ancient Greeks, #ho had scattered, mer"ed and assimi ated #ith do'ens of other nations under the Macedonian and ,oman 0mpires. %t had disappeared as a separate peop e for o!er t#o mi ennia. Athens, #hich #as the center of the ancient Greeks, in 1C21 #as a mu tinationa to#n #ith some ei"ht thousand inhabitants, #ith the ar"est ethnic "roup bein" Ar!anites =A banians?. The term Greek meant the Greek&speakin" or the fo o#er of Greek re i"ion and phi osophy, the $participatin" in the Greek cu ture.$ %t #as the same #ith the term Latino, #hich meant the Latin speakin". The modern inhabitants of )entra and 1outh America, 1pain, ,omania, etc. are ca ed Latino because of the cu ture and especia y the an"ua"e, not because they ha!e some bio o"ica continuity from the ancient Latin or any ori"in from the country of the ancient Latins, La'io. To ser!e its expansionist p ans the ru in" c ass of Greece cu ti!ated the a#arness to its nationa s that they are heirs, except of the ancient Greek co oni'ation, a so of the Macedonian and 0astern ,oman 0mpire =8y'antium?. 1o, it imp anted in them the a#areness that the competitors of its expansionist p ans, Turks, ,ussians, 8u "arians, Macedonians separatists, etc. 1erbs are enemies, of the $no& brother y$ no# Greek .ation. The main competitor to the 8ritish and Brench in the 8a kans, the ,ussians, #ere the cause to cu ti!ate in its o#n nationa s a so an intense co&antis a!ic consciousness. The modern Greek #as tau"ht that the $1 a!ic peop es are inferior, #ithout cu ture and " orious history. They are in!aders in 8y'antine 8a kan territories of #hich on y they =the Greeks? are e"a heirs.$ The teachers and priests do not say to them that the <e oponnesians, #ho #ere the backbone of the modern Greek state, are he eni'ed 1 a!s, #ho ca ed themse !es by the 1 a!ic name Moraites, their home and they ca ed Moria and their

p ace had infinite y more 1 a! names than Greek ones. As about the "reek&speakin" peop e, at east there #as some sense to be ca ed Greeks, ie somethin" simi ar to the Latin speakin" named as Latino. Bor non Greek&speakin", ho#e!er, it re!ea ed the "rotes9ue ideo o"y of the A banian&speakin" Greek, the 4 ach =Latin?&speakin" Greek, the Turkish& speakin", the 1 a!&speakin" Greek, etc. ,ecent y, arose a so the ,ussian&speakin" ,osopontioi, Geor"ians, Armenians, A'eris, )hechens, etc. #ith $Greek ori"in.$ 2hi e in other 0uropean countries a those #ho #ent #ere economic mi"rants, in Greece came as $repatrieted$. Bor the rest, they ar"ue that Greece is ethnica y homo"eneous, c ean. $There are no nationa minorities ... e!en the 2. Thrace Turks are Greeks, simp y Mus ims by re i"ion.$ The idea of superiority and purity, a on" #ith the idea of #ron"ed *e enism, #hich has $historica $ ri"hts to #here the ancient Greek co oni'ation, the Macedonian and the 8y'antine 0mpire, as #e as the Aoine Greek an"ua"e had spread, formed the ideo o"ica basis for usin" this peop e for expansionist purposes. %t #as the Great %dea by #hich they satureted their nationa s. %t is perhaps the most extreme chau!inist nationa ideo o"y #or d#ide. The idea of the ,oman 0mpire homin" #as adopted by the eader of the %ta ian fascist party, Musso ini, and therefore he #as characteri'ed as one of the bi""est fascists. The fact that the princip e of superiority and purity #as the dominant ideo o"y of the fascist re"imes of Germany & %ta y does not concern the modern Greeks. These are fascist princip es on y #hen others adopt them. 2hen modern Greeks adopt them, they are democratic. The con9uerors and co oni'ers are bad, on y #hen are the others, especia y if #e are the !ictims. (ur o#n con9uerors and our con9uests are fair, heroic, pious and " orious. (ur o#n con9uests are ca ed iberations. %t is a nationa ri"ht and duty. Anyone #ho doubts that, is automatica y a tenderer and an anti&Greek. The on y difference bet#een modern Greek nationa ism and the .a'i, is the si'e. 4ictims of the .a'is #ere a 0uropean peop es, #hi e of the Greeks on y the #eak north#ard nei"hborin" peop es. The rea moti!es of the Greek estab ishment #ere re!ea ed durin" the subse9uent expansionist #ars. %f it cared about the iberation of e!en /ust the Greek& speakin" peop e in Macedonia, it cou d try to rouse them a"ainst the in!aders durin" the expansionist #ar of 1C9H. %t did not, thou"h. After the % inden uprisin", it cou d try to turn them a"ainst the separatist or"ani'ation 0.M.0.(. =Macedonian %nterna ,e!o utionary (r"ani'ation?. %t did not, but e!en if it tried, it #ou d had achie!ed nothin". %t undermined the reconstruction of the iberation mo!ement of the Macedonians =1907&190C? by mi itary saturated #ith into erance, by the Great %dea and by mercenaries. %f it considered Macedonia part of Greece, it #ou d not make a forma a"reement #ith 1erbia and 8u "aria before the Birst 8a kan 2ar =1912?, to share it under $mi itary occupation$. .obody makes an

8

a"reement #ith others to share #hat it is its o#n. %n addition, in the roya decrees issued =51&10&1912? for the administration of the occupied areas, it characteri'es it $con9uered countries$ and ne# countries. %n the Treaty of A iance it made #ith 1erbia =19&;&1915?, the #ord iberation is comp ete y absent,. The #ords that dominate are $possessions$, $ and distribution$, $occupation$, $occupied territories$, $con9uered countries.$ And it e!en determined its c aims to the ine $to the south of Ai kis ....#i direct... a itt e bit east#ard of the Gu f of 0 eftheron ...$. That is, it did not e!en c aim Ai kis, 1erres, Erama, Aa!a a, #here there #as so id Macedonian popu ation and the separatist mo!ement of @ane 1andanski #as particu ar y stron". %t kne# it cou d not c aim and keep those areas. *o#e!er, the position of disad!anta"e of 8u "aria, #hich had occupied those areas, after the A iance of Greece, 1erbia, Montene"ro, ,omania and the Turkey+s offensi!e, had created prospects for Greece to con9uer more territories. %t kne#, ho#e!er, that it cou d not keep those ands in the future #ithout ha!in" dischar"ed those indi"enous popu ations, so it took care to di ute them. A on" #ith the attacks by the fi!e states to the 8u "arian army, it made attacks a"ainst ci!i ians and oca popu ation. Eurin" its $heroic$ march, the "reek army bombed, except the fe#, due to its mu ti&front stru"" e, 8u "arian mi itary forces, a so the ci!i ian popu ation of to#ns and !i a"es in its path. %t destroied Ai kis, found first on its path, and ki ed many !i a"ers in the surroundin" !i a"es, #ith the resu t to terrori'e those #ho sur!i!ed and make them ea!e their homes to sa!e themse !es from the ferocity of the in!aders. 1uch thin"s neither the .a'is did. This terrified a so the oca popu ation of other areas, resu tin" in thousands to f ee their homes, hopin" to return after the end of hosti ities. %t #as the first phase of a mass ethnic c eansin". The po itica eadership of Greece kne# !ery #e that those crimes #ou d ead to reprisa s a"ainst patriarcha and Greek&speakin" popu ations. 8ut, as pro!ed to be, it sou"ht to use those peop e as sett ers in areas in #hich it made ethnic c eansin". Thus, those disp aced peop e shou d not comp ain for the beha!ior of those #ho uprooted them from their homes, and et+s see #ho actua y is to b ame. (nce they sett ed in the areas and properties of the !ictims of the Greek ethnic c eansin", it #as natura for them to co ect the hosti e fee in"s and re!en"e of the rea beneficiary o#ners of those sites. Today, the sett ers #ho sett ed in those areas in Greece ce ebrate #ithout shame, perhaps out of i"norance of the rea facts, those atrocities as $ iberation$, to"ether #ith the chau!inist state apparatus This tactic #as not an iso ated e!ent, but became an on"oin" nationa phi osophy. 1ix years ater the same army, by the commands of the same chau!inistic eadership, did the same crimes a"ainst the Turkish ci!i ian popu ation of Asia Minor. After the successfu operation in Macedonia, it thou"ht it cou d repeat it a so there. )ount ess !i a"es #ere bombed, burned and ooted, !i a"ers and ci!i ians ki ed or raped. 1o, count ess #ere the cara!ans of terrified ci!i ians #ho

f ed to the interior of Asia Minor. The po itica eadership of Greece kne# that it #ou d pro!oke reta iation by the Turks a"ainst the Greeks of Asia Minor, but hoped to estab ish popu ations in those areas it had e!acuated by bruta ity. The facts, ho#e!er, #ere comp ete y different from those of Macedonia, #here it had a ies in the other 8a kan states and the support of 2estern a ies. Moreo!er the Macedonian iberation mo!ement #as #eakened after the suppression of the % inden uprisin" =1905? by the (ttomans, the Anti&macedonian 2ar =1907&190C? of he enic parami itary "an"s and the underminin" stru"" e of the bishops. That is #hy, apart from the Asia Minor )atastrophe, it did not suffer a Macedonian )atastrophe, as #e . %n Asia Minor it #as a one, #ith opponent stron" peop e. The 2estern A ies #anted Turkey as an a y, too, and so they a!oided to support the Greek expansionism. 1o, the hurt and an"ry Turks, in their counter&offensi!e, not on y dro!e the Greek army, but, in reta iation, expe ed a so the )hristian popu ation, #hich Greece had intended to use for its expansion p ans. Brom a that tra"edy, citi'ens earn on y the atrocities of the Turks durin" the offensi!e and not #hat caused them. The fact that 4eni'e os, #ho ordered that campai"n, not on y ost the e ections in .o!ember 1920, but he e!en fai ed to be e ected deputy, sho#ed that the peop e #ere far from a"reein" #ith the expansion p ans of the re"ime. That barbaric beha!ior of Greece to a its nei"hbors, ead to the painfu modern "enera conc usion, that $Greece is surrounded by enemies.$ This eads many to fee a""rie!ed, embittered and hosti e to their nei"hbors $#ho hate, en!y and conspire a"ainst the territoria inte"rity of our country$, because they hide or do not #ant to earn themse !es, #hat suffered the nei"hbors from it. .orma y, after the restoration of democracy, states apo o"i'e for the crimes committed a"ainst other peop e. Greece did ne!er do it. The Macedonians #ho remained in "reek territory, apart from persecution, in/ustice, terrorism and oppression, #ere forced to under"o an unprecedented b ack propa"anda. They had e!en to accept it #ithout ob/ection, other#ise they #ou d ha!e been suspicious. They had to for"et #hat they kne# about their history, their ori"in, their identity. 0xcept bu yin", a so ies, misrepresentation and s ander #ere routine y used. The main ob/ecti!e #as the for"ery of modern history. The stru"" es made by the nationa iberation or"ani'ation 0.M.0.(. for independent Macedonia, are presented as stru"" es not aimed at the iberation of Macedonia, but its annexation by 8u "aria. At this he ps i"norance of the truth that the inte"rated in the <atriarchate Macedonians #ere characteri'ed as Greeks, and those inte"rated in the 0xarchate as 8u "arians. The ones periodica y inte"rated to )atho icism =Fniate&Fnionists? are a so characteri'ed by the <atriarcha s as 8u "arians or schismatics. The Go!ernment of Greece kne# the truth. %t sent, in the sprin" of 1907, four officers in 2estern Macedonia in order to do fie d#ork. Their report stated c ear y that the rebe s made sure to imp ant $in

9

the Greek =ie patriarcha ? Macedonians a macedonian conscience, independent of any other race. I...J ... 1o, after they cou d, #ith art, de!e op in Macedonians the broad idea of independence ... $. Bor )aptain Aota, #ho #as patriarcha , they #rote that $he fou"ht bra!e y a"ainst the Turkish army, #ithout descriminatin" (rthodox and schismatic, seein" a in a )hristian brotherhood and one Macedonia.$ To the same conc usions reached a so the 1ecretary of the 0mbassy of Greece in %stanbu Geor"e Tsormpat'o" ou after an officia mission to )entra and 2estern Macedonia: $8oth the upper dream of the Macedonians and the re e!ant pro"ram of the true re!o ution of Macedonia ha!e no po itica inf uence from the #i and aspirations of the 8u "arian he"emony.$ A so stated that: $Macedonians chieftains and perhaps a so the chiefs, /ust on a sin" e term of their contract after the country, "et, so far, their "reat stren"th: by the term to aim on y to freedom of the Macedonians as Macedonians. I...J % !enture, ho#e!er, to think that it is impossib e that % am mistaken on my fo o#in" impression: that, as it is today, the re!o ution in Macedonia is not 8u "arian and /ust not a sin" e harm to *e enism has occured to its present de!e opment but the maximum benefit comes from it.$ %n the report there is the ans#er to the ies about the si'e and participation in the re!o ution of the Macedonians: $... in the country the re!o ution is much #ide y spread o!er than common y is thou"htI...J a , #ithout exception, the !i a"es and estates are !ersed to the common idea in fa!or of iberation and Greeks IMacedonians patriarcha J fanatics are important representati!es of the rebe "an"s in to#ns and !i a"es and are not fe# those #ho are secret y armed fo o#ers of the "an"s. I...J The (rthodox Greeks Iie patriarcha J as it #as confirmed to me by the former bishop of <e a"onia, had co aborated #ith the rebe s in brother y unity for freedom I...J The on y actors of the rebe ion that the Greek Macedonian peasant fed and hid, #ere not 8u "arians but as "enuine Macedonians as himse f.$ %n Tsormpat'o" ou report there is the ans#er of #hat kind of $Greeks$ the rebe s hit: $The 500 or 5;0 unti today our Ipatriarcha MacedoniansJ !ictims by the s#ord of the rebe s #ere !ictims not of 8u "arian I0xarchistsJ "reek&hate or of any 8u "arian idea, but simp y of re!en"e, pure y bandits+ !ictims, or rather of the fee in" of these for se f&mainenance because they #ere denounced or s andered and repeated y comp ained to partisan opponents as dan"erous pursuers and fanatica snitchers of rebe hideout.$ 1uch informers had been executed by the Macedonians partisans, doin" exact y #hat a the rebe s do. The same did the ,esistance to the co aborators of the occupiers durin" the .a'i occupation =1971&197;?. Those #ho undermined the re!o ution for the iberation of Macedonia, no# praise these informers exact y in the same #ay they #ou d ha!e praised the co aborators of the .a'i, if the .a'i occupation did not end. 8esides, the officia representati!es of Greece in Macedonia ha!e recorded the he p to the con9uerors in their reports

and in the memoirs of the bishop of Aastoria, German Aara!an"e is. The Greek consu in 8ito a, A.Aypraios, #rote in his report =ar.;;7627&H&1905?: $This past Briday bu "arophone (rthodox !i a"ers came and informed me in confidence that on the 20th of this month, 1unday, <rophet 0 ias feast day, is ine!itab y dec ared the re!o ution, and set me the points of concentration of the rebe s. This, % did not miss to announce to the Go!ernor&Genera ... $. %n the report of -u y 2>th, prepared by the secretary of the consu ate %on Era"oumis, they #rite: $rebe ed popu ations are no# con!inced that are fi"htin" for iberation, and it is impossib e no# to ha t this re!o utionary mora e. 8ut a so 4 achs and A banians are fa!orab y disposed to#ards the mo!ement, not because it is 8u "arian, but because it is considered iberationa and as a resu t of this, many of them are participatin" to it, and as for the others, they are not #i in" to sho# any reaction to it. 2hene!er #e can, #e he p Turkish authorities to suppress the mo!ement, but #ith no success at a , nor it is possib e for us to find more a"ents as interceptor of re!o utionaries. $ These informers and co aborators of the occupiers, the saboteurs of a nob e peop e+s iberation stru"" e, expressed in the most cynica #ay the interests of the predatory c ass #ho ra!a"ed the #ea th and s#eat of the citi'ens of the kin"dom of Greece. The on y thin" that interested it #as to increase the territories and popu ations for exp oitation. The oomin" co apse of the (ttoman 0mpire, sooner or ater, #ou d ha!e ead to !indication of the iberation stru"" es of the Macedonian peop e. This stru"" e had to be undermined, in order for them to take the p ace of the (ttoman con9uerors, in the same ro e. And because, as they #rite in their reports, they had no fans in Macedonia #i in" to p ay this hideous ro e, they #i brin" officers and mercenaries =1907&190C? to undermine the hea!i y in/ured by the (ttoman counteroffensi!e Macedonian iberation mo!ement. The situation #i fa!or the con9uerin" aspirations of the Greek chau!inism, #hich #i sho# its rea face in Macedonia. %t #i face it pure y as #ar booty and #i beha!e to Macedonians in a far #orse than (ttoman con9uerors #ay. .ot enou"h, it #i force the Macedonians to honor as iberators those chau!inistic scums that undermined their stru"" e for freedom. They erect statues of those #ho co aborated #ith the in!aders, #ere bou"t and betrayed, murdered, destroyed, raped, extorted, bou"ht, s andered. Those #ho, in current conditions, #ou d be referred to the %nternationa )ourt in The *a"ue for crimes a"ainst humanity. The misnomer *e enism and spurious (rthodoxy passed in Macedonia as barbarism and obscurantism. The #orst, ho#e!er, of a this, is that they forced a ar"e portion of the Macedonians to be ashamed of their roots, their identity, their ori"in, their history. The main teachin" too #as the manipu ation of the concept of the term Greek and 1 a!. 2hi e both terms are on y in"uistic and mu tinationa , they presented

10

them as nationa . Greeks ha!e been sho#n of a hi"h and " orious ori"in, #hi e the 1 a!s are presented of inferior ori"in, unci!i i'ed and in" orious. Fs, the Macedonians, they sho#ed as 1 a!ici'ed Greek Macedonians. The concept 1 a! durin" the ) assica and *e enistic periods did not exist. .e!er there has been someone or some peop e that ca ed themse !es 1 a!s. The term #as first used by the ,omans and main y by 8y'antines. They ca ed 1 a!s or 1th a!ous or 1k a!inous the popu ations that sett ed in each and e!ery parts of the 8a kans, from the ear y sixth century. Their crad e is considered to be )entra 0urope, focusin" on the )arpathian Mountains and stretchin" from ,omania to <o and. 8efore this "eneric name beein" stuck to them, #ere reported in !arious popu ations, such as Getes, Eacians, 4astarnes, )e ts, etc. The main characteristic of those #ho sett ed in the 8a kans, as #e as those #ho remained in their ori"ina birthp ace, #as the ack of mi itary structure and he"emones. *ence, #here they sett ed, they did not created states. They #ere most y farmers, breeders, artisans, etc. A key e ement of their socia or"ani'ation #as the c an =community? that #as commanded by an 0 der, #ho represented it in the counci of 0 ders of the ethnic "roup =hence the concept of the modern 1enate?. <o#erfu states ha!e created he"emonic mi itarist mechanisms, #hich by force of arms exp oited first the rich resources of their country and their peop e and then extended their exp oitation, by expansionist #ars, o!er other countries and peop es. This ensured #ea th to the ru in" c ass, #hich created an impressi!e cu ture. %mpressi!e pa aces, to#ers, temp es, fortified cities to "uard their #ea th, their freedom to tra!e , to "et education, to cu ti!ate the arts and sciences. Those be on"in" in the ru in" c ass =ru ers, nob es, ando#ners, mi itary officers, officia s, c er"y, boot ickers etc.? #ere not #orkin", as for this porpuse they had the s a!es and serfs. The #ord s a!e is the Latin e9ui!a ent of the 8y'antine #ord dou os. Brom there comes the "reek #ord dou ia, the ob/ect of #hich is the /ob. The /ob #e ca dou ia because it #as somethin" that concerned on y the ser!ants and not the ru in" c ass. The ru in" c ass is not s a!e&#orkin". These centra 0uropean nations, #ho i!ed in the northern border or the 8a kan pro!inces and instead of ha!in" s a!es #orkin" for them, they made their $/ob$ by themse !es, the ,omans =8y'antines? characteri'ed t as s a!es =in Latin s=k? a!os?. 0!en no# in 0n" ish and Brench the dou os is ca ed s a!os =s a!e?. These 1 a!s, therefore, #ho did not ha!e s a!es to do their #ork and they made it by their o#n =se f?, considered unthinkab e and unacceptab e to be themse !es the s a!es of others. This po itica cu ture they did not abort #hen many of them emi"rated to the then ,oman 8a kans. *ere, ho#e!er, they had to face the 8y'antine feuda re"ime, that those #ho #ere #orkin" it #anted to exp oit as s a!es. These fo ks, ho#e!er, accordin" to the fe# historica data, does not seem they had troub e in the peacefu coexistence #ith pre&existin" peop e. .o#here are

mentioned conf icts, e!ictions or submissions to ne# peop e, simp y because they had no mi itary mechanism. %n addition they sett ed in sparse y inhabitated due to pests =most y p a"ue? areas. The most important thin" #as the fact that the o d fo ks #ere a ready s a!es to the ,omans =8y'antine?. 1o, the o d s a!es fe t c oser to the ne#comers $s a!es$ #ho #ere carriers of anti&fauda and e!en iberatin" ideo o"y. This faci itated the mer"in" and the assimi ation of one another . (f course, there ays a so the fact that no#here is mentioned a case of the o d popu ation to prepare themse !es to defend the 8y'antine tota itarian re"ime from $in!asions$. The anti&feauda po itica cu ture of these 1 a!s had as resu t the abo ishion of the 8y'antine po#er in <e oponnesus for 21C years =;CH&C0;?, in the better kno#n sociopo itica re!o ution in Asia Minor, ead by a 1 a! =Thomas C21&C25? and the most important socia &re i"ious mo!ement of the 8o"omi es =4o"omi oi in Greek, 10th&17th century?, starrin" these $1 a!s.$ %n practice they sho#ed that they are the bi""est opponents of s a!ery of the peop es and of the medie!a 8y'antine obscurantism. The fact that they assimi ated easi y #ith the o der popu ation, sho#s that they #ere re ated peop es. Moreo!er, the 8a kan <eninsu a is the southern ed"e of centra 0urope #hich is considered the birthp ace of those 1 a!s. This sho#s a so the case of the 8u "arian s a!i'ation. The Moesians =Thracian peop e?, the country of #hom the 8u "arians sett ed in the Hth century, can not had been s a!isi'ed by the 1 a!s #ho sett ed there on y a century before =>th? and in a time #hen there #ere no teachers, or e!en an ecc esiastica system. )ommon sense says that they must ha!e had a an"ua"e re ati!e to the north of the Eanube nei"hbors+ one. Thracian an"ua"es cannot ha!e disappeared and their p ace be taken by the an"ua"es of some $1 a!s$ #ho sett ed in their ands, especia y since they did not ha!e an educationa system, or po itica and re i"ious po#er, #hich norma y imposes the an"ua"e. )ommon sense says that they had the same or re ated an"ua"es. The emperor Tra/an, #ho con9uered Eacia =modern ,omania? in the be"innin" of the second century, says that there he found the 1 a!s, #ho then "ot Latini'ed. The current ,omanian an"ua"e is an a oy of Latin and 1 a!ic an"ua"es. Bor the case of Macedonia, #hich direct y concerns us, it is not simp y one of the centra pro!inces of the empire in the >th century. The emperors #ho ru ed 8y'antium at that time =-ustinian Eynasty =;1C&>10? had ori"in from the re"ion of 1kop/e. That is to say, they #ere $1kop/ans.$ The historian of the Greek .ation A. <apari"opou os says the rea name of the 0mperor -ustinian =;2H&;>; ? #as Fpra!da =,i"hteous?, #hich is $s a!ic.$ This sho#s that the an"ua"e of the re"ion of 1kop/e #as re ated to the an"ua"e of those #ho probab y sett ed there ater. Moreo!er 1kop/e =mentioned in ancient sources as 1koupi or 1kopi? retained the same name a so after the so ca ed arri!a of ne# popu ations, su""estin" cohabitation and re ated ori"ins. 2here si'ab e or"ani'ed mi itari y peop es sett ed,

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they a so imposed their name. 1o Moesia became 8u "aria, Eacia became 1erbia, % yria became A bania & )roatia, <e oponnese became Morea etc. The fact that somethin" simi ar did not happened to Macedonia, demonstrates a sma number of immi"rants sett ed there or that they had no mi itaristic structure or both. The city of 1kop/e #as destroyed by an earth9uake in ;20 and rebui t by -ustinian and therefore #as referred to as -ustiniana <rima =first?. This indicates a specia care of the emperors to their hometo#n. )onsiderin" the fact that 8y'antium under -ustinians reached its peak, then it can on y be exc uded the case of sett in" popu ations as in!aders or con9uerors in the re"ion A so, no source does mention any expu sion of popu ation nor is there any reference to a peop e #ho #ere expe ed from Macedonia. %t seems much more ike y -ustinians had fa!ored the estab ishment of some re ati!e popu ation from the north, to stren"then their position in the po#er stru"" e a"ainst the empire by competitors from (rient. %t+s no coincidence the fact that the hosti e and scornfu descriptions for the so&ca ed 1 a!s no# come main y from the patriarcha priesthood, #hich pre!ai ed on Anato ia+s =)appadocia, <ontus, )i icia, 1yria, etc.? pre ates. The fact that our ancestors did not use the name 1 a!s, can be attested a so by Grekoman Macedonians. %t is not possib e for Macedonians not to kno# their o#n ori"in themse !es but this to be #e kno#n to the 0astern pre ates and peop eK 1omethin" simi ar to the name of the 1 a!s happened most recent y about the name of the .ati!es of America. They ne!er ca ed themse !es %ndians. Birst 0uropean exp orers and sett ers ca ed them this #ay because they be ie!ed they had arri!ed in the 0ast %ndies by sai in" #est, round the 0arth. Bina y, a thou"h it #as found that the .e# Land =simi ar to the .e# Territories in Greece? is not the %ndies, the oca inhabitants to be ca ed %ndians pre!ai ed, because the 0uropean sett ers did so. These, no# so&ca ed 1 a! peop e of )entra 0urope #ho i!ed 9uiet y for centuries, #ithout disturbin" any nei"hbor and #ithout fee in" the need to bui d stron" states, from the fifth century be"an to recei!e pressure from in!asions, main y from the east. There #ere not in!asions of economic mi"rants ookin" for better i!in" conditions, #ithout botherin" others or to exp oit other #eaker peop e, but hordes #ith mi itary structure and authoritarian cu ture. They sub/u"ated and exp oited them or imposed taxes or pressured them to emi"rate. *uns, *un"arians, 8u "arians, <echene"s, Turks, etc. came to their ands and made states. This situation no# imposed on them the need of mi itary or"ani'ation, indi!idua y or #ith other peop e. More recent y, in the north#est they mixed #ith Germans and created German states. The German& 1 a! state of <russia, forerunner of today+s Germany, had a 1 a!ic name, as 1 a!ic is a so the name of the current capita , 8er in =8er in?. %n the northeast, some mo!ed east and min" ed #ith Binns, 1cythians, Tatars, Mon"o s, etc. and made the ,ussian nation

and state. The 4enetians min" ed #ith their con9uerors the Lombards and constitute today+s northern %ta ians. %n the 8a kans, they #ere nationa s of the 0astern ,oman 0mpire and then of the (ttoman 0mpire. The ad!ent of the 0n i"htenment and the co apse of authoritarian empires enab ed the 0uropean peop es to emancipation and se f&determination. The historica circumstances did not a o# Macedonian peop e to reach the desired resu t, since before the co apse of the (ttoman 0mpire, became the tar"et of predatory re"imes that had been created around it. Today is the ast case of peop e of 0urope, #ho not on y fai ed to "et se f&determination, but sti are e!en pre!ented to emancipation inside the states in #hich the parts of its home and #ere annexed. Listen, then, Macedon! Listen modern Greek! The comp etion of 100 years from the annexation of southern Macedonia by Greece et it be an occasion for a rea re!ie# of its imp ications for us, the indi"enous Macedonians. Let+s see the brute rea ity and dare say the #ho e truth, no matter ho# unp easant it is. The nationa poet of Greece E.1o omos said that $nationa is the true.$ These 100 years did not et us taste the fruits of freedom, democracy and /ustice. These #ere years of bruta oppression and extreme !io ation of our ri"hts. 2e #ere forced to renounce our nationa identity, our history, our re ati!es, our co&nationa s. They turned us,in fact, a"ainst them, makin" us /anissaries. They $he eni'ed$ us by the most extreme fascist methods. They banned our mother ton"ue and chan"ed our names and the names of our !i a"es and cities, #ithout askin" us and #ithout a o#in" any form of protest. %f #e accept this kind of he eni'ation, first y #e #ou d /ustify the fascist practices of its enforcement and #e #ou re#ard the crimes committed a"ainst our ancestors, and, second y, #e #ou d become a peop e #ithout roots, #ithout its o#n identity, #ithout di"nity, #ithout history. 0!en if #e #ou d dec are Greeks, they #ou d not be ie!e us, thou"h they do not dec are this pub ic y. They, inside them, #ou d au"h at us, but they #ou d hide their contempt. %nternationa treaties, especia y the 0uropean institutions in #hich #e are inte"rated, "uarantee us freedom of expression and co ecti!e c aim of our ri"hts. To murmur amon" us, does no "ood. (n y the co ecti!e stru"" e can brin" resu ts. 2e #ere fina y "i!en the opportunity not on y to restore our di"nity and our history, but to demand remo!a of the effects of racist po icies a"ainst us, that made us to end up third c ass citi'ens. The rea history p aces us in the democratic and pro"ressi!e peop e, #hose sur!i!a and prosperity is due on y to their o#n #ork and not the exp oitation of other peop e. Bor this reason the co&existence #ith a our fe o# countrymen and nei"hbors, re"ard ess of ori"in, an"ua"e and re i"ion had been a #ays friend y and peacefu . 2e took up arms on y a"ainst the ru ers, the occupiers and the traitors. *ence, our

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iberatin" re!o ution #as re"u ated by the humanistic princip es of the 0n i"htenment and aimed to independent ,epub ic of Macedonia, #hich #ou d "uarantee freedom and e9ua ity to a citi'ens re"ard ess of ethnic ori"in, an"ua"e, re i"ious be iefs. @ou, citi'ens of this country, particu ar y those #ho i!e in Macedonia, do a#aken and "et a#areness. @ou see, next to you, the racist discrimination, human ri"hts !io ations and terrorism practiced a"ainst your oca co&citi'ens and you keep si ent, /ust as si ent #ere German citi'ens #atchin" the crimes of the fascist re"ime of their country a"ainst their forei"ners co&citi'ens. @ou "ot fami iar #ith this situation and it seems norma to you. Bascism is not on y the one that #as manifested, in the extent and extreme forms, in Germany and %ta y in the 1970+s. %t is a so ho# Greece has faced non Greek&speakin" peop es after the con9uest of the .e# Territories, o!er a century a"o. Macedonia, before 1912, #as not Greek, as you #ere tau"ht to cry but a so, out of i"norance, to be ie!e. %t #as *e eni'ed by ethnic c eansin", co oni'ation and the !io ent he eni'ation of non Greek&speakin" peop e. A century a"o the chau!inist re"ime of Greece did not sou"ht, as it o#ed, to he p for the iberation of the )hristian brother peop es from the (ttoman yoke. Macedonians had he ped iberate Greece. 2hen the rebe ion fai ed, in 1C22, kno#n a so as the ,e!o ution of 4ermion, a Macedonian armed body, headed by non Greek&speakin" Tassos Aarataso from Eobra 8o"orodica %mathia =Good <ana"ia? and Ge e Gaco! =An"e i Gatso? from 1arakino!o =1arakinoi? <e a, #ent to re!o ted Greece and fou"ht unti its iberation. Greece, not on y did not reciprocated the he p, but undermined the iberation stru"" e of the Macedonians. Moreo!er, it beha!ed in a #orse #ay than the (ttoman con9uerors beha!ed, to the descendants of those rebe s. %t does not respect, ike a most a of you #ho are its nationa s, not e!en their ri"ht to se f&define as you name a those re!o utionaries: Macedonians. The % inden uprisin", #hich #as done precisa y by the descendants of those Macedonians, you ca it 8u "arian, #ithout carin" if you are offendin" and hurtin" us. This beha!ior is not mere y an act of in"ratitude, but a historica infamy, a crime that tarnishes the history of this state and p aces it iamon" non&democratic states. The fascist princip e of purity and superiority is the fundamenta princip e of the nationa ideo o"y of this state. @ou ha!e adopted it, thou"h, because it f atters you. The brain#ashin" #e recei!e about the ori"in from a famous ancient peop e, created this narcissistic nation #hich ooks arro"ant y do#n at other nei"hborin" nations. The same rea ity says that this nation #as created by those #ho set up this state as an institution of ser!ice to their interests. They created the 8i" %dea, as a too of their predatory ambitions. To the mixture of 0uropean ethnicities in #hich its nationa s be on"ed, it added, in the be"inin" of ast century, a so nationa s of Asian ethnicities. %t imposed, to this mu tiethnic mix, the idea of descent

from the Greeks, usin" the "o!ernment and the ecc esiastica mechanisms. This cunstructed Greek nation cou d be named "reek on y in the sense the term had since c assica times: $Greeks are the participants of Greek education.$ Thus, apart from the ethnic an"ua"es of the nations #hich compose it, the internationa "reek an"ua"e cou d ha!e been its officia one, /ust ike the states #hich ha!e 0n" ish as officia an"ua"e, but their peop es are not of 0n" ish descent. The education it imposed, ho#e!er, it #as anythin" but Greek. %nstead of the free Greek spirit, critica thinkin", rationa ity, the Greek #ay of ife, it imposed the e!antine mystica do"matism and 8y'antine medie!a obscurantism, #ith an ancient&"reek mask. 0xtreme expression of this absurdity is the definition as a Besti!a of Literature =students & teachers? on the Three *ierarchs, #ith ori"ins from )appadocia and 1yria, memory day . To those, in other #ords, #ho not on y contributed nothin" to iterature, but #ith passion chased the Greek cu ture. %f #e rea y had Greek education, Greek Literature Eay #ou d be dedicated to the ancient Greek #riters and phi osophers. The )hurch of Greece has pri!i e"es and po itica ro e, to such an extent that no other )hristian )hurch does. That+s #hy it reacts to rationa i'ation and 0uropeani'ation, ie *e eni'ation, of education and po itica system. %t reacts to #hat is ob!ious in a democratic countries: the separation of )hurch from the state. Eurin" the peop e+s stru"" es for democracy and /ustice, it #as a #ays on the side of the authoritarian ru e of monarchs, dictators and the o i"archic parties. %t is the main reason for the ack of true democracy in the p ace #here democracy #as born. 2e, the Macedonians #ho fi"ht for democratic ri"hts and /ustice, #e recei!ed the fiercest attacks and s anders a"ainst our stru"" e by bodies of the )hurch. They are a i!in" examp e, for the ro e they p ay and ho# they act. Another confirmation of the use of re i"ion for chau!inistic purposes. %t is the comp ete transformation of the spiritua !ocation of the priesthood to a po itica too . And this transformation they ca (rthodoxy. The most typica representati!e of this +orthodoxy+ is the bishop of Thessa oniki Anthimos. Throu"h the state te e!ision and broadcastin"s of the diocese+s 7 0 te e!ision station, in c ose cooperation #ith the fascist or"ani'ations, he stars to insu t and s ander of our stru"" e and the stru"" e of our ancestors. *e names 8u "arian the re!o ution of our ancestors and continua y ca s us 8u "arians, #hen he kno#s that this is an insu t to us. The )hurch persecuted our an"ua"e as a dia ect of 8u "arian, thou"h it kno#s this has nothin" to do #ith the tatar&mon"o ian 8u "arian an"ua"e and that its iterary de!e opment #as started by )yri and Methodius from Thessa oniki and (hrid iterary schoo , founded by their students, 1aints .aum and A iment. %n these 100 years they brou"ht )yri ic scripture to extinction and no# are tryin" to destroy our mother ton"ue by dero"atory propa"anda a"ainst it. 1ystematica y they are spreadin" the ie that it has

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no #ritin", thou"h they kno# that not on y it has the )yri ic a phabet #hich #as created in Macedonia, but it a so "a!e #ritin" to other 0uropean an"ua"es. The #idespread acceptance of this ra# ies, sho#s ho# they ha!e de!e oped critica thinkin" in their spiritua sub/ects and ho# the iars dis"uise as messen"ers of truth. Anthimos can make some Macedonians to be re uctant to manifest themese !es free y and to hide their an"er, but he a so makes many of them to think ho# to send him back home to <e oponnese, since they do not see another #ay to "et rid of him and his a ike. %n this crisis, the bishops sho#ed #hat kind of )hristians and patriots they are, but a so ho# po itica y po#erfu they are. They demanded and obtained tax exemption of most of the )hurch property, the exception of cuts of bishops+ hefty #a"es =paid by the state? #hich they "et e!en in their !ery o d a"e, the non reduction of the number of priests, a thou"h modern communications and transportation a o# to co!er needs of 2&5 or more parishes by one sin" e priest. %n the same #ay they abo ished <refectures that no# are mana"ed by the ,e"iona Go!ernor, so they cou d be remo!ed a so the Metropo is and be run by on y one Metropo itan per ,e"ion, #hich #i ha!e an Archimandrite, as deputy in e!ery former <refectua Eiocese. This #hou d a e!iate the Greek taxpayers in this "reat crisis. The c er"y, if they ha!e t#o coats, instead of "i!in" one !o untari y as tau"ht by the founder of the )hurch, do not #ant to "i!e neither one of the many expensi!e robes they ha!e. %nstead, as professiona hypocrites, they interfere po itica y, posin" themse !es as supporters of those #ho, because of this crisis, risk bein" eft #ith no coat at a . %n this hypocritica #ay they remind the "o!ernment of their abi ity to inf uence po itica y their i"norant f ock. And each ru in" party kno#s about this possibi ity of their po#er and a!oid to harm ecc esiastica pri!i e"es, thus perpetuatin" this parasitic condition. The re ati!e y "ood opinion that the ma/ority of Modern Greeks ha!e for this t#o authoritarian, back#ard and parasitic institutions, as #e for 8y'antium, is due to the reason that history is tau"ht by them. Abusin" their po#er, they teach it as they ike throu"h pub ic education, state&fed historians, re i"ious and parastata institutions they ha!e set up. Thus, the a!era"e citi'en can not ha!e correct opinion, as it re9uires proper kno# ed"e, #hich is denied to him. The resu t of this fraudu ent ima"e are the surprised modern Greeks and their bitterness, #hen the internationa community in recent decades cha en"ed their !ie#s on Macedonia and they istened to comp ains and protests by $anti&Greek 1kop/ans$ abroad and do not understand #hy they are $anti&Greek$, and disco!ered that a the nei"hbors are hosti e to our state, as they characteri'ed our country a troub e maker and $b ack sheep$ of the 8a kans. Last, except of 0urope+s $b ack sheep$, it #as described a so as a Third 2or d country, unre iab e and incorri"ib e.

%t a so cha en"es and rebe s a"ainst its 0uropean a ies #ho a e"ed y treat it se!ere y by thro#in" a fe# s aps, to re!i!e it, rather than to rebe a"ainst those #ho made it to ended up that #ay. This state, since its creation, #as the pampered one in the 2estern 8a kans. 1ince the +90s, ho#e!er, not on y it is no more, but risks to become the scape"oat. The #hee be"an to turn upside do#n. The ne# conditions ur"ent y re9uire the need to create ne# a iances and ne# re ationships #ith nei"hbors. Birst of a , it must create ne# re ationships #ith those citi'ens be on"in" to other nations, #ho speak other an"ua"es and ha!e different re i"ions, #hom it ac9uired after $doub in" its si'e$ #ithin the expansi!e undertakin"s that started in 1912. 2ith these .ati!es to #hom it beha!ed as the #orse con9ueror of a the pre!ious ones. 2e Macedonians #i not ce ebrate the comp etion of 100 years of ack of freedom as iberation. 2e #ant to ce ebrate 2012 as the first year of rea iberation. A prere9uisite for this are: A pub ic and practica apo o"y of the state for the crue #ay it beha!ed to us. The pub ic condemnation of the crimes a"ainst our peop e. Takin" of measures for free cu ti!ation of oca Macedonian cu ture. The teachin" of the estab ished in Macedonia )yri ic script and of the macedonian an"ua"e in a pub ic schoo s. The de!e opment and imp ementation of specia pro"rams for the financia support of oca s in order to remo!e the effects of racist po icy #hich ended them up to be financia y #eaker than e!en the ne# y insta ed sett ers in Macedonia. A pub ic apo o"y of the )hurch for its participation in crimes a"ainst our peop e and its dirty propa"anda a"ainst our identity and history. The immediate prohibition, by threat of crimina prosecution, of the ceremonies in honor of crimina s #ho undermined the iberation stru"" e of the Macedonians. The app ication of anti&racism a# and prosecution ex officio for those #ho act and express in racist #ay a"ainst any expression of Macedonian cu ture, especia y a"ainst the ike&minded of <A( batta ion corps #ho started to become pro!ocati!e. The respect and promotion of Macedonian iberation stru"" es and the definition of <rophet 0 ias & % inden D ce ebration day as the officia nationa ho iday of the Macedonians. The immediate start of substanti!e dia o"ue bet#een the 1tate and the Macedonian acti!ists. A prere9uisite, ho#e!er, is that a #e Macedonians beha!e as free citi'ens and a the modern Greeks as democratic citi'ens.

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