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Fashion Trends
Literature Review

Rafay Salman Mazhar BBA/BSC-1 Section L 2/2/2012

slumps other phases of the economy. Fashion Author: Beatrice Judelle Source: Challenge.Bangladesh.No. U. footwear.Nepal where per capita incomes are low while a high proportion if their incomes and savings in spent on buying fashionable accessories . Dwight E. Vol. The prevailing style in behavior as well.P 376-398. Moreover.75. The author refers to these people as ―slaves of fashion‖. An Economy‘s spending on fashionable accessories is influenced not by their pocketBut becomes a status symbol-a matter of prestige sometimes influenced by traditions in the society or these goods are bought in competition from . foot wear and events. The author fails to draw any link of spending by people on fashion belonging to different parts of the world. The economics of fashion basically refers to spending habits of people spending money on buying fashionable clothes. Fashion by definition is a popular style of clothing.clothes. The hub of western fashion is considered to be Paris.The Economics of Fashion Demand This article has been written by Dwight E. the economy‘s circumstances at that moment. Robinson states.booms. 61-64 Beatrice Judele in this article talks about men and women who are deeply influenced by changing fashion trends. accessories in times of recession. Moreover. Fashionable accessories are exempted from all rules of market and economics.3 (Aug 1961) P. Fashion references to anything that is the current trend in look and dress up of a person.S when faced a major recession all Industries only the cosmetic industry showed signs of growth. footwear or accessories.5 No. he fails to draw any link of spending linked to fashion by third world countries such as India. people‘s demand for fashionable accessories continues of rise. They can be categorized as giffen goods o snob goods. Source: The quarterly journal of economics vol. No matter how high the levels of inflation are. Robinson.4 (January 1957) pp. since it is not in accordance with their income bracket.

which She mean these peoples life begins and ends on the world of fashion. Sometimes they even forget what suits them. On their things to do list on the top is ―Following the latest trends‖.1. everyone wants to dress up according to the latest fashion trends originating from Paris. war and masculinities (spring. Tight fitting to clothes and thin fabrics to show their inner bodies has become another fashion symbol. there culture. In the author‘s point of view one should make his/her own fashion statement and adapt to their own culture or traditional clothing rather than following other‘s fashion ―trends‖. ―left out‖ or cornered if they don‘t do what other are doing. These people are also referred to as followers of the world who gain pleasures only through the materialistic approach. According to the author they go ―with the wind‖. The author considers these people who follow these fashion trends as desperate people who are trying to gain attention following such ―cheap‖ fashion trends. Paris being one of the fashion capitals of the world. Those clothing styles. Men don’t wear velvet you know! Fashionable gay masculinity and the shopping experience London 1950-1970 Clare Lomas Oral History vol. change furniture which has not filled its useful life-just to follow the latest fashion trends. This fashion includes men who wear velvet. Parris is however over rated as the fashion capital. The author at the same time establishes another point the reason why such fashions have taken birth and . In the earlier times this type of fashion was followed by ―gay‖ or ―impotent‖ men. People change cars.35 No. These people spend time going through the latest fashion articles from Paris in magazines.82-90 Clare Lomas in this article talks about the evolving fashion in the world of me. Satan and other shiny fabrics just in order to show their wealth or intellect and to show how much they are in touch with the latest trends. Such as replacing old furniture in an old home without keeping in mind the aesthetics. 2000) pp. fabrics since they are immune to all economic circumstances. even though they can drive a car more. For industrialists operating in the fashion industry-it‘s an evergreen business of stitching. fabrics which were once thought to be feminist are worn by men and thought to be a sign of fashion or represent a certain social class. clothing that doesn‘t suit them. Wearing odd colors. complexion or bodies physique. They feel ―out dated‖.

Some clothing brands have leaded to establish such trends by promoting such clothes. The life cycle for fashion industry cannot be determined. Defining the term ―market‖. the life cycle is described as the useful life of a product in the market-in relation to the sales. rather draw a trend line since its too uncertain. The author makes use of televisions as an example as new technological development with the invent of color televisions badly affected the market for black and white televisions. In 1960‘s long skirts for high school girls were thought to be a fashion statement while in the mid 1960‘s these long skirts became shorter and shorter. The first reason he describes is pop stars such as Michael Jackson. Cars and Clothing: Understanding Fashion Trends William H. red which were once thought to be feminist are worn by men. They don‘t take into account what impression these colors would leave about them on others mind. In short a market can be defined as a place where buyers and seller get together for the purpose of buying or selling of commodities. whether it makes them look bisexual or gay its fashion for them. This is being done by excessive . A market research carried by the author says 67% of teen age boys are now much into wearing ―feminist clothing‖. The author considers it‘s high time for us to restore the men‘s fashion in the way it was once supposed to be. Reynolds The Journal of Marketing. pp44-49) William H Reynolds talks about fashion products life cycle in the market. It became difficult for manufacturers to determine what was next?—they became more curious for upcoming fashion trends at the same time they realized how vulnerable there sales were to changes in peoples tastes and habits.destroyed the ―decent art of dressing‖.32 No. In fact all colors such as pink.Vol. In solution firms in the fashion industry have tried other ways to become fashion leaders-by establishing their own fashion statement. Elvis Presley who wear a shiny clothes to their concert leads the fans to follow them and wear the same. how long it will stay-its cash flows and the impact on the market since it is entirely dependent on the tastes and choice of people or population. Firstly. 1968. Now the old saying-―Mein don‘t wear velvet‖ is not taken into account anywhere.has been quite difficult for the author. The author concludes it is impossible to forecast fashion sales.3 (July.

―T-shirts‖ are now not considered to be something for the ―lower class‖. and consumption. However in the decade they are used to establish one‘s statement. A person‘s own point of view-his character can be judged by the type of print on their tshirts. T-Shirts help to create positive images Barbara D. distribution. If on a muscular body tight fitted tee. I argue that Pittsburghers shirts. pp. A448-A454 . 104-105 Barbara D. 84. 2007).. 9 (Sep. No. 5 (Sep. 1995). Many tshirt companies have now minted money out of this ―expressive t-shirt‖ business. seen for themselves and in the context of their production. The consumer in the fashion industry by the author has been considered to be ―immature‖. means it‘s a strong tough man. 115.. Vol. By one‘s statement the author does NOT mean fashion statement-it means to establish one‘s own point of view on some issue or some person that is printed on t shirts. Vol. Many firms have adapted to ―bad practices‖ by trying to leak information regarding what their competitors are making. pp. Waste Couture: Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry Luz Claudio Environmental Health Perspectives. TShirts are also used today in order to support a specific cause or a movement. Parks-Lee The English Journal. This article considers a type of material artifact that circulates ideas about regional speech in the United States: T-shirts bearing words and phrases thought to be unique to Pittsburgh. Some firms however leak there information deliberately in hope their competitors will follow-this would lead the whole market to make the same products-this market will run through its market lead approach rather than to be lead by the consumer. are part of a process leading to the creation and focusing of the idea that there is a Pittsburgh dialect. Pennsylvania. No.advertisements publishing model photo shoots. in this article suggests t-shirts were once thought to be an inferior form of clothing thought to be worn by the homeless or the poor. The fitting of t shirts also suggests the person‘s inner self.

a steam-powered. mended. Luz Claudio a professor of history at the University of Delaware. 1999). pp. and colors of their productions and even urged designers to create styles that would use less fabric and avoid needless decoration. drawings of the machinery. and to make some sort of a spinning machine to replace the spinning wheel by which one thread at a time was laboriously spun. Britain had the power loom. However. clothing manufacturers reduced the varieties. Industrialization grew in the twentieth century. mechanically-operated version of a regular loom for weaving. Vol. traces the ―progressive obsolescence‖ of clothing and other consumer goods to the 1920s. 61-90 During the early eighteenth century. by the mid-1920s consumerism was back in style. The government‘s conservation campaign used slogans such as ―Make economy fashionable lest it become obligatory‖ and resulted in an approximate 10% reduction in the production of trash. Britain also had the spinning frame that could produce stronger threads for yarns at a faster rate. Laws forbade the export of English textile machinery. were employed to design and build . two Scotch immigrants. found in every house. the spirit of conservation did not last long. Before then. 1 (Spring. most clothing was repaired.In her book Waste and Want: A Social History of Trash. Americans were struggling to improve the old hand loom. The production and consumption of many household goods. In 1786. and written specifications of the machines that would allow them to be constructed in other countries. A Ready-Made Business: The Birth of the Clothing Industry in America Michael Zakim The Business History Review. providing the means of increased production of all consumer goods. 73. During World War II. No. and especially during World War I. including clothing. During the war. or tailored to fit other family members. sizes. consumption rose with increased employment as the United States mobilized for the war. or recycled within the home as rags or quilts. Meanwhile the stories of what these machines could do excited envy in other countries. who claimed to be familiar with Richard Arkwright's British-made spinning frame. Great Britain was determined to dominate the textile industry. grew by 10–15% even in the middle of the war and continues to expand to this day. in Massachusetts.

government and assisted with grants of money.spinning machines for the mass production of yarn. however the machines he bought were lemons. 2008). 532 (Oct. despite its low unskilled wage levels and strong supplies of cotton. Rhode Island another company tried to build spinning machines with thirty-two spindles. onlookers are puzzled by the inability of Africa. In contrast. operated by horse power. In particular. African governments have been criticized for a variety of policies that have inhibited growth in general. as well as the overall failure. Brown needed working spinning machinery. Used-Clothing Donations and Apparel Production in Africa Garth Frazer The Economic Journal Vol. In 1790. African governments have charged that imports of used clothing. the faulty machines were sold to Moses Brown of Pawtucket. and some would argue that these policies are responsible for the specific failure in textiles and apparel. and now China have moved from exports of textiles and apparel to increasingly sophisticated electronic and industrial goods as their economies have grown. No. This paper will not provide an evaluation of the first cause—restrictive or misaligned African . 1764-1784 Garth Frazer in the article states If East Asia has been the international success story over the last 30 years in terms of economic growth. Taiwan. to provide his weavers with more yarn.S. to produce and export textiles and apparel. Africa has stagnated. 118. William Almy. and the fruits of that growth have been broadly shared. In Providence. In 1790. there was not a single successful power-spinner in the United States. have harmed the textile and apparel sectors in Africa. On the other hand. Brown and his partner. and the textiles produced irregular and unsatisfactory.. They worked badly and all attempts to run them by water-power failed. On the one hand. The inventors were encouraged by the U. trade and human development. Hong Kong. were crude. The resulting machines. pp. Korea. in the form of cast-off donations from industrialized countries. Singapore. Africa has been a story of failure. employed enough hand-loom weavers to produce eight thousand yards of cloth a year by hand.

whether the used-clothing imports have restricted textile and apparel production in African countries. No. help change a designer‘s vision into reality. charities typically sell the used clothing to exporters who send it at a very low cost to developing countries. Having a strong historical and socio-cultural understanding of the fabrics. 31. Riter states fashion merchandising is the combination of the processes that a new fashion item must go through to be available in mass quantities to the consumer after it is left the hands of the designer. No. 1996). Additionally.. 400-412 . it is important to examine the role that fashion merchandising plays in manufacturing. To understand fashion merchandising completely. Vertical Integration and Rapid Response in Fashion Apparel James Richardson Organization Science. pp. particularly in Africa (Hansen. Not only is a fashion merchandiser required to have a creative mind and strong visual merchandising skills. Fashion merchandising promotes a designer‘s items through the use of fashion shows where creativity and visual effects must run wild to capture the attention of potential buyers. promoting and selling fashion items. 2000). they are two very different things. buying. Vol. The Merchandising Decision under Uncertainty Charles B.Aug. a fashion merchandiser will take a designer‘s piece and find the best way to manufacture the item while taking things like price and target market into consideration. Buying becomes part of fashion merchandising when a merchandiser buys fashion items to be presented in a store.policies. production skills must be sharp as well. Fashion merchandising often gets confused with fashion marketing and although they work together. A fashion merchandiser must be aware of the target market for thefashion item and also very well-versed in fashion trend analysis and forecasting. 1 (Jan. 7. A fashion merchandiser working with a designer will once again offer expertise to the designer on textiles and fabrics. a fashion merchandiser will have significant input on the types of fabrics used to make a piece of clothing. 1967). department stores or discount retailers. Riter The Journal of Marketing. pp. 44-47 Charles B. In regards to manufacturing. In the event that a fashion merchandiser is working for the designer. . There has been a dramatic increase in the donation of used clothing to charities in developed countries over the last 20 years. Unable to sell even the majority of this clothing domestically. 4 (Jul. This allows for more accurate ordering. fashion merchandisers seek out the target market for a designer‘s clothing. promoting the designer‘s product to stores that may want to buy large quantities is a number one priority. By applying their knowledge about fabric and clothing construction. such as children‘s clothing stores.. Vol. It will examine the second cause—namely.

vertical integration was used to assure a steady supply of vital inputs.That is. Afirm‘s control of its inputs or supplies is known as: backward integration. weak supply networks. particularly during early stages of market development. it was cheaper for a firm to perform the role of suppliers and distributors than tos p e n d t i m e a n d m o n e y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h s u c h p a r t i e s . Transaction cost includes ‗the cost of measuring output in all of its dimensions and the consequence of not measuring it perfectly‘. These c a n b e d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f reduced costs. During the middle of the 20th century. 2) There is nothing known as women‘s casual wear and men‘s casual wear all clothes are to be uni sex. Vertical integration is of two types: backward integration and forward integration. During the 19th century. In some cases. the theory of transaction cost economics wasapplied to backward integration or forward integration. A firm‘s control of its distribution is known as: forward integration. competition intensified in most industries. These factors are important during the early stages of an industry. 3) Merchandisers lay an important role for development of new fashions and achieve best quality with existing fashions. . firms used vertical integration to achieve economies of scale. increased market power. i n t h e l a t e 2 0 t h century. It is also referred to as an approach for increasing or d e c r e a s i n g t h e l e v e l o f c o n t r o l w h i c h a f i r m h a s o v e r i t s i n p u t s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f outputs. Corporate restructuring resulted in vertical disintegration by reducing the levels of vertical integration in large corporations. Multiple factors contribute to the establishment and continued existe nce of largeintegrated firms despite inherent inefficiencies. as a means to total cost reduction. S u b s e q u e n t l y .The strategic reasons for opting for a vertical integration strategy have changed over theyears.The degree to which a firm owns its upstream suppliers and its downstream buyers is referred to as vertical integration. 1) Fashion trends have been un predictable after the 1960‘s when skirts became shorter and shiny clothes became in fashion. and government policy. Conclusion: From the research papers above it can we conclude four basic points. Integrated firms have a cost advantage over smaller firms by avoiding transaction costs in imperfect markets.

fabric. For this a huge amount of capital is needed.dyes are purchases meeting all quality and safety standards. Rather firms should follow what going in the market-learn its tactics and then become a trend setter in the market. Merchandisers lay an important role to make sure the quality of garments does justice to the price and helps the brand to gain a standing in the market. The only way to become a trend setter is either to establish a ―prestigoiys brand image‖ or by excessive advertisement through print media. A lot of capital needs to be invested at first on order to become a trend setter in the market. that wish to gain a leading position need to become fashion followers before having an influence on the market as a whole. If a firm markets its own product it can get direct feedback by customers.4) As the market is un predictable it is best to practice ―vertical integration‖ from both ends. Merchandising can be described as the job of developing new fashions and technical help to improve quality of existing fashion wear. quality and prices. there opinion on designs. . Vertical integration always has a positive response on the profitability of the business since all commissions and over head charges of middle men are absorbed. Firms in fashion industry. Garments are produced within the specific time-are in style (according to the latest trends) and overcome all production hurdles in shortest time and control any overhead costs. Merchainsers at the same time need to make sure the right yarn. If a firm wishes to follow the trends it should go through international fashion magazines.

Fashion Author: Beatrice Judelle Source: Challenge. Robinson. war and masculinities (spring.4 (January 1957) pp. Reynolds The Journal of Marketing. 1968..35 No.References The Economics of Fashion Demand This article has been written by Dwight E. Parks-Lee The English Journal.1. 61-64 Men don’t wear velvet you know! Fashionable gay masculinity and the shopping experience London 1950-1970 Clare Lomas Oral History vol. pp.82-90 Cars and Clothing: Understanding Fashion Trends William H.3 (July. Vol.75. 1995).5 No.32 No. 2000) pp. No. pp44-49) T-Shirts help to create positive images Barbara D.Vol. 5 (Sep. Vol. 84.3 (Aug 1961) P.No.P 376-398. 104-105 Waste Couture: Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry . Source: The quarterly journal of economics vol.

2008). 1 (Jan. pp... 1967). A448-A454 A Ready-Made Business: The Birth of the Clothing Industry in America Michael Zakim The Business History Review. No. 1996). 115. No. 44-47 Vertical Integration and Rapid Response in Fashion Apparel James Richardson Organization Science. 73.Luz Claudio Environmental Health Perspectives.Aug. pp. Vol. No. 1764-1784 The Merchandising Decision under Uncertainty Charles B. 9 (Sep. 2007). 532 (Oct. Vol. . pp.. 1 (Spring. Riter The Journal of Marketing. 118. 4 (Jul. No.. 7. Vol. 1999). pp. 61-90 Used-Clothing Donations and Apparel Production in Africa Garth Frazer The Economic Journal Vol. 31. pp. Vol. 400-412 . No.