Primo de Rivera- the person whom Aguinaldo deposited 400,000pesos in two hongkong banks American Consul E. Spencer Pratt – conferred Aguinaldo and other companions, went to Singapore Commodore George Dewey- who was about to sail manila to destroy the Spanish Navy. Pratt persuaded Aguinaldo to cooperate with him. Emilio Aguinaldo- return to the Philippines on board on American Ship and soon after raised the standard of revolt against Spanish. Governor-General Basilio Augustin- made desperate attempts to win over the Filipinos to Spanish side, but it was too late.

THE RELIEF ON PRIMO de RIVERA Conservative Party – This was succeeded by one to which the governor-general did not belong. Liberal party- They sent General Basilio Augustin to the Philippines as Primo de Rivera’s successor. April 9, 1898- General Augustin arrived in manila, and the following day Primo de Rivera turned over the reins of the Philippine government to his successor. Primo de Rivera wanted to remain for sometimes because rumors were afloat. That the serious SpanishAmerican relations might degenerate into a shooting war.

AMERICAN DESIGNS ON THE PHILIPPINES Cuban Revolution- they had drawn the united states to the side of the Cuban rebels, for American economic interest in the island paramount.

Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. – one of the influential American, wished that war between Spain and the United States should break out in order to expand the navy.

In 1897- he became the Assistant Secretary of the navy. He conceived the idea of attacking Manila in the event that war should break out between the United states.

Commodore George Dewey- he take advantage of the retirement of the commander of American Asiatic February 25, 1898- Roosevelt cabled Dewey, now commander of the Squadrom, to make Hongkong his base of operations. THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Dupuy de Lome- Spain’s ambassador to the United states wrote a friend in Havana, Cuba in January 1898, stating that Presisdent William Mckinley was a weakling and a low Politician. February 15, 1898- the American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbor, resulting in the death of 246 men. April 25- Dewey received a cable from Secretary Of the Navy long, saying: “War has commenced between the United States and Spain. Proceed particularly against the Spanish fleet. You must capture vessels or destroy. Use utmost endeavor.” Secretary Long’s cable to Dewey was off-shoot of the Teller Resolution which the American Congress passed on April 21, 1898, declaring a state of war with Spain. Congress passed a formal declaration of war on April 25. THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY Dewey sailed from Mirs Bay, near Hongkong, for the Philippines with seven heavily armed ships. May 1, 1898- his fleet entered Manila Bay almost undetected by the Spanish shore batteries on correigdor and bataan. Spanish Fleet- near Sangley Point, Cavite waitng for the best opportunity to go into the fray. American Fleet- had more tonnage than the Spanish flotilla. At 12:30 P.M- the destruction of Montojo’s fleet was complete. “Days Of Empire”- the United States found herself enmeshed in the coils of the world politics. AGUINALDO IN SINGAPORE April 1898- rumors filtered through manila and the provinces that the Spanish-American war was a matter of days or perharps a few weeks away. Isabelo Artacho- he wanted the 400,000pesos given to Aguinaldo to be divided among them. Gregorio del Pilar and J. Leyba- with Aguinaldo, they secretly left for Saigon where they took another ship to Singapore. Howard Bray- an Englishman of long residence in the Philippines, contacted Aguinaldo and told him that the American Consul E. Spencer Pratt, wanted to have an interview with him.

AGUINALDO AND CONSUL WILDMAN Rounseville Wildman- the American Consul at Hongkong, promptly met him and informed him that Dewey had left instructions for him to make arrangements for the return of Aguinaldo to the Philippines. Wildman said, after the war and after the peace had been restored, Aguinaldo should establish a government similar to that of the United States. Aguinaldo asked Wildman to purchase arms and ammunition for the Filipinos. He gave Wildman 50,000pesos for 2000 rifles and 200,000 rounds of ammunition. Before the departure, he gave 67,000pesos for another shipment of arms. AGUINALDO AND THE HONGKONG JUNTA May 4- the Filipinos who composed of Hongkong Junta to discuss the steps to be taken in the face of the new developments. Present during the celebration were: Temporary President: Felipe Agoncillio Temporary Secretary: Doroteo Lopez Teodoro Sandico, Anastacio Francisco, Mariano Llanera, Miguel Malvar, Andres Garchitorena ,Severo Buenaventura, Maximo Kabigting , Faustino Lichauco, and Antonio Montenegro. Agoncillio Inform them of the arrival of Aguinaldo and suggested the temporary suspension of the meeting to give Aguinaldo and Galicano Apacible time to enter the season hall. AGUINALDO RETURNS May 7- the revenue cutter McCulloch arrived in Hongkong , but the master of the ship notified Aguinaldo that Dewey did not instruct him to take Aguinaldo aboard. The McCulloch left Hongkong al eleven in the morning of May 17 and arrived at Cavite on May 19. Dewey’s launch took him to the Olympia where he was given honors due a general. RENEWAL OF THE STRUGGLE Dalahikan – the cavite shipyard, to prevent the enemy from occupying it. Petrel- American warship arms were secured from the warship and distributed among the large number of Filipinos coming in to offer their loyalty and services to Aguinaldo. By the End of May, Aguinaldo’s forces had captured about 5000 prisoners.

Imus, Paranaque,Bakood, and Las Pinas were captured from the enemy within a week. In Pampanga, San Fernando and Macabebe were captured by the rebels, forcing the Spanish general, Monet, to run His life. Laguna, Batangas, Bulakan, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Tayabas( Quezon), and Camirenes were up in arms and declared their loyalty to Aguinaldo. SPANISH ATTEMPTS TO WIN OVER FILIPINOS Governor-general Basilio Augustin- found himself betrayed by the Filipino soldiers who volunteered to the Spanish army. Viva la Autonomia- stated that the “salvation of the unity of the islands, unity of it’s liberties, and the unity of it’s local and central government.” Pedro A. Paterno- the negotiator of the truce of Biak- na-bato,was behind this circular, for the confessed at the time that he still loved spain and was hostile to the United States. May 28- General Augustin called the first and only Consultative Assembly and appointed prominent mestizos to sit in. His purpose in calling the cosulative Assembly was to win over to his side the wealthy and influential segment to the Filipinos. THE SIEGE OF MANILA Walled City Or Intramuros – was then known as the City Of Manila Arrabels or Suburbs- district outside the City The Filipino Forces under Aguinaldo besieged the city in an attempt to starve out the enemy within the walls. The Suburbs- Tondo, Santa Cruz, San Juan del Monte, and as far north as Kalookan, teemed with Filipino Soldiers. Spaniards, as well as Filipinos and Aliens- suffered from hunger and thirst. June 6- Aguinaldo offered Governor-General Augustin honorable surrender. THE SPANISH-AMERICAN SECRET AGREEMENT June 30, 1898- the first reinforcement Dewey had been waiting for arrived under the command of General Thomas Anderson July 17- the second reinforcements, headed by General Francis V. Greene, arrived. July 31- the third reinforcement headed by general Mac-Arthur arrived. Andre- the Belgian consul consequently negotiating with augustin

General Fermin Jaundenes- believed that the Spanish position was hopeless in the face of a superior enemy and in the face of the Filipino rebels. The agreement between Jaudenes, one hand, and Dewey and Merrit,on the other, was so secret that no one else either camp knew of it’s existence. BEGINNINGS OF THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN RIFT General Wesley Merrit- decided that the offensive against Manila should be conducted along the bay side. General Francis V. Greene- General Meritt instructed him to ask for Aguinaldo’s cooperation in the drive against their common enemy. General Artemio Ricarte- expressed his doubts as to American intentions and warned Aguinaldo “ to be careful because it seems that the Americans want to fool us.” General Pio del Pilar- also unburdened him of the same feeling to Aguinaldo and suggested that batteries be mounted in certain places to prevent the Americans from passing through them. THE MOCK BATTLE OF MANILA- August 10- the assault on Manila was to have begun August 7- Dewey and Merrit issued a joint ultimatum too jaudenes telling him to evacuate the noncombatants to safe places as the American land and naval forces would start operations “against the defenses of Manila.” The Filipino troops, armed to the teeth , position themselves on the right flank of General MacArthur, ready to rush into the fray. At 9:30 in the morning- the Olympia began the bombardment of the Spanish positions in the fort, allowed a little later by the warships. 11:00AM- Greene began his advance almost an hour later while MacArthur commenced his advance. 11:20 A.M- the Spaniards hoisted the white flag og surrender at the southwest bastion of the walls 12:00 noon- that General Greene noticed it, Manila had fallen. TERMS OF CAPITULATION Captain Bates- chief of staff of greene took a carriage and enetered thec city at the Puerto real It was about five in the afternoon when the terms agreement, the Spanish authorities agreed to surrender the Spanish troops and the Filipino volunteers found inside the walled City August 14, the document containing the terms of surrender was formally signed by the representative of both parties.

THE PROTOCOL PEACE August 10- Secretary of the state Day submitted to the representative of spain, Jules Cambon, the French ambassador of washinton. A draft of Protocol with provided for the appointment of not more than five commissioners on each side to discuss the peace treaty. October 1- the peace commissioners were to meet in Paris. August 12- Washington time, President Mckinley issued a proclamation directing that “all military operations against the enemy suspended.” This proclamation was cabled to General Merrit on the same day, but because dewey cut the cable between Manila and the outside after the battle of Manila bay.