archive.org/details/albanbergmanhismOOredl .Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries http://www.

1925 .Alban Berg and his wife. c.



. .... ... ...... ..... .... .......... .. . ... 245 2 FACSIMILE OF BERG's VARIATIONS FOR PIANO ON A THEME OF . 6 7 bibuography ... 247 a6l berg's LECTURE ON WOZZECK ..... ...... INDEX AND ERRATA .... 217 PART Appendix 1 IV Appendices ARNOLD SCHOENBERG ON ALBAN BERG [1949] .... HIS . .. OWN 3 (1908) .. •. ... .. ... 155 163 LULU ...... ... ..... . .... . . ..... .. . . ... 35 4 5 WOZZECK DER WEIN .... .. 74 112 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE ........... .. .. . . ....... ... . . 19 PART 3 II The music ofAlhan Berg EARLY WORKS .. .. ........... 13 2 THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY . ... .. 4 5 catalogue of works discography ..... .. ....CONTENTS Preface PART Chapter 1 I Introduction page THE SECOND VIENNESE SCHOOL ... . .. ....... THE VIOUN CONCERTO 20J PART THE LIFE III OF ALBAN BERG. .. ... . [1929] ... . 6 7 8 ........ 287 299 305 313 .... .. ... . . . . ... . . .. ...

Berlin (from Mahler's 6th Symphony). leben). Strauss's Tod und Messrs Kahnt. Messrs Boosey Messrs Bote & Hawkes. Munich (from Richard Strauss's Helden- .: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PUBLISHED BY ARRANGEMENT WITH UNIVERSAL EDITION LONDON AND VIENNA The music examples mentioned below have been reproduced by courtesy of the following publishers Messrs Birnbach. London (from Richard Verkldrung). London (from Richard Strauss's Salome and Rosenkavalier). & Bock. BerHn. Messrs Leuckart. Berlin (from Mahler's 7th Symphony). Messrs Hinrichsen Edition Ltd.(from Schoenberg's Opus 7).

circa 1925) Frontispiece Photograph by W. The programme contains words of praise in Berg's hand who signs humoristically as 'The Butler' By courtesy of Mrs Ruzena Herlinger 161 Lulu and the Painter caught in flagranti. the first singer of 'Der Wein' (June 193O) By courtesy of Mrs Ruzena Herlinger 160 Facsimile of a Concert Prograivime issued for a concert in which Anton Webern conducted the first performance in Vienna of Berg's Concert Aria 'Der Wein' (1932). {From a picture postcard. Eberhardt. taken in the 1860s) 225 Alban Berg's mother. (Lulu. as a young man (Photograph by J. Johanna Berg. Act I. Scene I) Photograph by courtesy of Hans Buschhausen — Dr 192 VnxA Nahowski. Nuremberg. Nuremberg. about i860) By courtesy ofFrau Helene Berg 225 . Luckhardt. By Styrla. Goll dies of an apoplectic stroke. Eberhardt. v.ILLUSTRATIONS Alban Berg and Helene Berg (in Berlin. By courtesy of Fran Debschiitz-Kunowsky Annemarie von Klenau facing page circa Alban Berg and Anton Webern in Austria By courtesy ofFrau Helene Berg 1912 128 Facsimile of a letter by Alban Berg to Ruzena Herlinger. Konrad Berg. Essen. Vienna. after a photograph) courtesy ofFrau Helene Berg 224 Alban Berg and Helene Berg (Photograph Photomaton. circa 1925) By courtesy ofFrau Annemarie von Klenau 224 Alban Berg's father. nee Braun (Photograph by F. Trahutten. about 1870 or later) By courtesy ofFrau Helene Berg 225 Alban Berg's paternal grandfather (Photograph by J.


PREFACE This book was written in 1955. documents and comprehensive personal information..A. Schoenberg's article on Berg. Special thanks are due to all who have made accessible to me Berg's unpublished music. expressly written and inserted for the information of the Enghsh reader. Universal Edition. now deposited in the Library of Congress.S..C. articles. 1949. Vienna. written in — German and pubHshed by Universal Edition. They are: Mrs Helene Berg. and personal information. and Mrs Helene Berg for permission to study autographs and copies wit]i autograph corrections of Berg's music. It is a transcription and a condensation rather than a Hteral translation of my somewhat earHer book Alban Berg Versuch einer Wurdigung. for Piano Variations on an Original Theme. Hill. articles and lectures. personal documents and photographs and permitted their use or their entire pubHcation in this book. U. letters. it retains all major points of biographical and scholarly interest. D.S. for Berg's letters to Schoenberg. and much personal information. Vienna. Washington. including the . and Mrs Helene Berg for Berg's letters to Webern. Vienna. In addition it also contains short biographical essays on Georg Biichner and Frank Wedekind. Mr Richard S. for invaluable help in the selection of Berg's letters to Schoenberg. Dr Werner Riemerschmid. Mrs Gertrud Schoenberg. letters.A. The later book keeps close to the structural plan of the German pubHcation. Music Division Library of Congress.. Los Angeles. Vienna. 1908. original photographs of Berg's parents and of himself. Although the analytical sections have been shortened and the number of music examples reduced. U.

press-cuttings relating to the first performances of Wozzeck and Lulu\ Mrs Ruzena Herlinger. Both read the book in manuscript and in proof. Sollhuben-Rosenheim. of Hans 1956 F. Klenau. Kalmus. Oxford. Act III. 2). E. I am also grateful to Dr Egon Wellcsz. Bavaria. and Dr A. Apostel. all of Vienna. letters and documents. and suggested numerous improvements in style and presentation. Canada. for photographs. and to Dr Joseph Polnauer. the sketches to the full scores of Lied 4 and 5 of the Altenberg Lieder (op. London. now deposited at the Bodleian Library.unpublished sketches to Lulu. I feel much indebted to Mr Frank Walker and to Mr John Calder. Redlich University of Edinburgh Faculty of Music . Oxford. Mr Harms JeHnek and Mr Oktavian Spitzmliller. Mrs Annemarie v. for valuable information. the autograph of the 'Trio' version of the Chamber Concerto (Mvt. the Wozzeck Lecture of 1929 (pubhshed here for the first time in an Enghsh translation). Mr H. 4). I am equally grateful to Mr Neil Aspinall and to Messrs Clough their unremitting help in the compilation and Cuming for the Discography.



None of these great composers. has been so sedulously presented by proselytizing apologists such as Rene Leibowitz and Joseph Rufer as an artistic unity. H. flourishing in the Vienna of the late nineteenth century. and Anton Webern. his two disciples and their direct followers. ever founded a school in the true sense of the word. has continued to exercise influence only through isolated pupils. in view of the fact that the generation of Viennese musicians preceding Schoenberg. But it is the duty of the con- scientious chronicler to describe things as they are. Wolf and Mahler. talents and achievements of these three are in danger artists of being overlooked. The triumvirate of the so-called Second Viennese School'. The term has gained currency among continental writers on music. and Joseph Rufer. or were. that what are in fact strong contrasts between the their complexity. The 'Second Viennese School' refers here exclusively to Schoenberg. Bruckner. culminating in Brahms. and is not unfitting. vnth an indivisible community of aims and tendencies. Apostel. dissolve in the mists where the picture drawn of uncritical The creative activity of Schoenberg' s school covered a period ^In this reckoning. * musical natures. E. The following survey en- deavours to supply correctives. necessary for a deeper historical appreciation. 1 Arnold Schoenberg. the first Viennese School is considered to have come to an end with the death of Schubert. The younger generation of Schoenberg's followers includes Hanns Eisler. 13 .CHAPTER I The Second Viennese School is the prerogative of the enthusiast to over-simpUfy IT historical in all phenomena. AlbanBerg. especially at those points by zealous apostles threatens to admiration. Hans Jelinek.

from performance to the creative re- valuation of the past. The earthly bonds hnking the members of this triumvirate were cut by the premature death of Berg in 1935 and the tragic end of Webern ten years later. the fifty-four years of Bach at epochal turning point of 1750. Schoenberg expressed himself. Like C. It earliest songs Schoenberg's first compositions in twelve-note technique. The glory of that unique creative community and spiritual brotherhood between teacher and disciples was on the wane by 1933. Schoenberg sprang from the Jewish taught. The common German-Austrian inheritance of sities all these composers contrasts with the almost irreconcilable diver- of their characters. P. In that year the changed political chmate of Germany caused Schoenberg. followed by Berg's first essays in composition. He turned periodically from speculative theory to original composition. 195 1. one hundred and fifty years later. a baptised Jew. when of fifty years. Berg's Lyric Suite and Wozzeck. in the shade of the newly- made graves of Brahms and Bruckner. petite-bourgeoisie His genius the revealed its of Vienna. 21. similar originahty as ruminating theorist with and experiment- ing composer. closed an epoch that had called the 'internal emigration' what was begun at the turn of the century. to return to his ancestral faith. the Symphony Op. and Webern's most ambitiously planned work up to that time. while in two disciples criminatory racial legislation —stayed in Austria but took part —not subject to Hitler's dis- of that time. His own death on July 14th. were written. E. Schoenberg outhved both his followers. each two of two distinct periods. and was chiefly selfan ambivalent character in creative development. His long hfe divided clearly into sections. It reached its apogee in the 1920's. and eventually he was driven into his exile in America.ALBAN BERG began around 1900 with Schoenberg's own and chamber music. separated by a longer 14 .

periods discernible within the first section. The truly astounding variety of Schoenberg's achievement cannot erase the general impression that only a fraction age. the Gurrelieder. In spite of all this. Webern his shares Schoenberg's after remaining unrecognized by the multitude. correspond to romanand the the two creative periods. like Verkldrte of his work has so success The Nacht. in two continents. fate. with his attitude of introspective shyness and the anonymous character of his are neglected. explosive personaHty of Schoenberg. dedicated in turn to the consoHdation of the twelve-note system (1923-33) and to the late compositions of the years of American exile (1934-51). finished and remain. most ambitious conceptions. have achieved lasting success and repeated perform- ance. far sunk into the consciousness of his of Schoenberg. is not matched by a similar success of the composer. the over-ripe ticism of the gigantic conceptions of aphoristic miniature work of 1908-15. except for an occasional performance strangely noiseless creative effort. after the fallow interlude. The two great style1 899-1907. uncompleted projects in a final creative effort. Anton Webem forms a curious contrast. the oratorio and the opera Moses und Aron.THE SECOND VIENNESE SCHOOL interlude of apparent fallowness (1915-23). with his resumption of work on older. so unpublished. Only a few works. the revolutionizing theorist and teacher. To the perturbing. deprived of final fulfilment by death. and with an integral part of work unknown and inaccessible. His operas in general of the monodrama Erwartung. the emanation and 'mystique' of his personality are so great that the first half of the century could fittingly be called 'the Schoenberg epoch'. In this last period dodecaphonic and tonal composition join hands. and the sensational tour de force Pierrot Lunaire. were left unfar. even death. A much shorter creative hfe of approximately 15 . Schoenberg's Die Jakobsleiter.

Webern. 21) gave Webern a neither distant late phase of development which was shared by Berg. and the development of The integration of this strange sound-world with the twelve-note more generously planned musical organisms (commencing so surprisingly with Op. beginning with the surmature Passacaglia Op. nor style by Schoenberg in America. or indulged in musical polemics. i. characteristic of Schoenberg's second period. dying in 1935 before the completion of his fifty-first year. some of the composer's admirers. As musical as a journalist with a strong polemic however. of 1908. has only recently found in Rene Leibowitz an enthusiastic and competent analyst. lecturer and writer has been effectively silenced by the continuous pianissimo of his creative work. he 16 easily them . including to his mentor. And Webern the editor. are subjected in thirty-seven years prisingly Webern's Opp. after which for two decades he was imprisoned in the cul-de-sac of extreme diminution of sound and duration. and musical analyst surpassed of philological conscientiousness. system. The miniatures of expression. never witnessed the extreme developments of his teacher or his friend. arranger. such as the Piano Variations. In contrast a distinguished academically- Webern was trained musicologist and an experienced professional conductor. But he rarely contributed to musical theory. Berg. Op. The sphinxlike canonic severity and the mysteriously corresponding pat- terns of sound in the last works remain an enigma to many people. in his premature grave. 3-17 to a process colouristic note-differentiation in of dynamic reduction and which the original musical impulse seems fdtered away almost to physical inaudibiHty.ALBAN BERG was allotted him. 27. He was neither a speculative theorist like Schoenberg nor a musical scholar and professional conductor like bias. The of fairly late works.

inspired by dramatic forms and styles. like the greater part of Webern's. 4. and of parts of the String Quartet. is not conceived in the twelve-note idiom. comparable with those of Schoenberg himself in the 1920's. As pianist Berg stands nearer to Schoenberg than to his own contemporary Webern. but as a was neither a concert teacher of composition he raised a new generation of pupils. Berg achieved with Wozzeck the first great success of an opera. Wozzeck. Berg wrote in lyrical. symphonic. Most of his work has its roots in late Romanticism and. contrasts strikingly with the free tonaUty of certain contemporary works by Schoenberg and Webern. the strict logical consistency of the AltenbergLieder. not unlike his master. after his first attempt Erwartung. The greater part of his work. social consciousness. He nor a conductor. Berg attempted in his mature works to reconcile dodecaphonic technique with a creative artist a feehng for traditional tonality. concertante and musico- But where Schoenberg as musical became entangled in experimental dodecaphony [Von Heute auf Morgen) or experimental symbolism {Die gluckliche Hand). had he Hved. and conceived in all radically modern terms. his mature chamber music and late concertante works have estabhshed themselves in the modern concert repertoire.THE SECOND VIENNESE SCHOOL both. He had in fact anticipated some elements of both phenomena in his own development. Op. dramatist. It 3. articles Berg's analyses of Schoenberg's compositions. Like Schoenberg himself. Op. his his on the music of his teacher and the classics of on own Wozzeck. might have identified himself with Webern's late works or those of Schoenberg's American compositions in which dodecaphony is temporarily abandoned. but he never abandoned his psychological roots in the on the extent to B 17 . are among modern musical Hterature. On and the other hand. profitable to speculate seems un- which Berg. Berg's early songs.

His position as mediator at this historical turning-point gives music special Berg and his powers of persuasion. i8 . which have only become fully evident to a later generation.ALBAN BERG revolutionary stratum of the nineteenth century.

Bar 4 gives the impression of intending to supply the delayed cadence IV-V-I. in the Trio of the third in the late movement of his String Quartet in B flat. In 1790. The innovations of Schoenberg and his disciples have their origin. 589.b! Example i Bars 1-3 contain a cadence to flat: Vy-VI-IIf-I. Mozart wrote the following modu- latory transition: Nzapol.CHAPTER II The Problem of Tonality ONE of the tasks place in the history of this book will be to determine Berg's of the musical revolution which began with the Viennese Classics. K. it is replaced by Fictitious resolution D 19 . the feeling for tonahty and for the logic of the cadence was seriously weakened for the first time in the works of just those classic composers who are usually considered the high priests of the concept of diatonic tonaHty. Paradoxically. in point of fact. But what happens? I (D flat) fails to materialize. works of Haydn and Mozart.

Mozart here presents an early example of elliptic modulation and of a selective sequence of harmonic events. Mozart calls here (as in many similar cases) for the active participation of the Hstener's musical imagination. in bar 6 with the | of major. What has happened to the carefully prepared tonic on flat? It is meant the rest bar The music recommences G D and must be suppHed mentally during the rest bar 5. to be only imagined. to supply the additional harmonies cess. not heard. treated at once as the dominant of C major: V-If-V.ALBAN BERG 5. which implement the modulatory prois Exactly the same participation Suite: called for in the following examples from Berg's Lyric [fiktive * Auflosuugl Movement 2 (fikt'ive Aufir»«Jiingj Movement 3 Examples 2 and Fictitious resolution 3 20 . the modulation of which uses the imagined D flat chord as a kind of harmonic swing-door. both are typical features of the modulatory processes of the 'Second Vienna School' of the early twentieth century. interpreting it a posteriori as the Neapolitan sixth of C major. The ancillary function of that chord of D flat as supertonic of C and as its SD deputy becomes clear in bar 6.

is yet never sounded. Mozart goes a further. In the same String Quartet. Chord *x' is the dominant seventh of the tonic B flat. In 21 basis could also be interpreted as that case E flat becomes D sharp. And this is only possible if the inner ear implements the elliptic modulations by an interpolated Neapohtan cadence in which the tonic of B flat is i and 3? used as 'Neapolitan Sixth' of the real tonic A minor: $ The E flat at "* ^^ X t^TT bo ^ b« Example 5 and its harmonic an enharmonic *swing-door'. This tonic is suppressed. tonic of F major. 589. . tacitly accepted. In the Finale he writes step tlXUXJ HI Example 4 Here the process of silent implementation in the rest bar 2 is more compHcated. as the D flat tonic had l)een in example i.: THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY 111 these cases the inner ear suppHes the imphcit. which used as a sort of harmonic converging-point in this particular work. K. How can Mozart justify the dissonant false relations in the seemingly incoherent sequence E flat —E natural in bars Only if the listener can be persuaded to understand the A minor tonic of bar 3 as the ultimate goal of the modulation which had started in bar i.

whereas Wagner uses it a number of times within a few bars.e. The first chord becomes then a posteriori an augmented | chord on F (the lower Mediant of A minor). The time given for the inner adjustment and mental implementation (already severely curtailed in Parsifal) is reduced to a mere flash in the following examples. 2.ALBAN BERG ill tuni becomes the leading note to A minor. SchenU mir einen gold'nen Kamm. from Schoenberg's early song. Op. conceived in exactly the same as way Mozart's examples of 1790. too. No. : The difference is only quantita- Mozart uses harmonic ehsion once. contains an eUiptic cadence which materiahzes with the aid of a chord of the Neapolitan sixth.B tive 22 . Here the first chord becomes a posteriori (i. 2. Example 6a Example 6b * Kundry's famous passage *0 ewiger Schlaf ' (11/ 1) can be easily understood as a chain of suppressed Neapohtan Zwischenkadenzen (intermittent cadences). in the hght of that Neapohtan sixth) the fifth step of a B *C flat . which From Mozart's imaginary Neapolitan cadence to the subtle technique Parsifal: it is only a step of deliberate elision used in Wagner's Hcil. This.

A predilection for aphoristic brevity. They make it possible to visuahze clearly the characteristic silhouette of Berg's musical personality.THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY minor tonic which is replaced by its own diminished seventh: Example 7 The revolution begun in Mozart's day reached its culmination in the mony and ture. whose technique of allusive harelliptical. These constant elements 1 are: as decisive factor in The interval of the fourth. certain elements of his musical idiom remain constant and immutable. melodic shapes and chordal structures. in melody and harmony. cadence. A deliberate neglect of cychc sonata-form. A dehberate weakening of the tonal effect leading of cadences. modulation became Berg's point of depar- The Basic Elements of Berg's Music In the course of nearly forty years Berg's music progressed from the over-ripe Romanticism of 1900 to the etherealized dodeca- phony of Lulu and the Violin Concerto of 1934/5. except in telescopic abbreviation and condensation. Despite all the changes of style which this imphes. up to the phenomenon of the 23 elliptical A continual endeavour to compensate for the weakened . as the source of continual impHcit tension. Schoenberg's principle of perpetual variation. works of Schoenberg. 2 The interval of the seventh.

A partiality for allusive musical quotation. L-. vHT "" *^:m" 1 Ccllo pizz.? r ALBAN BERG feeling for tonality. . resulting from the above six ele- ments in 8 his music.-m4jA^^-^^^ A . 9 10 A partiality for musical anagrams. Lj [2j U an ^ W— 44f-4"^* ~^*^ Example 9 Miiiiel^VsWsfQngstDuJetzt Hast ein kicin Kind und kein Mann '. by establishing associations with his- toric musical forms and techniques. (serial The use of the interval of the fourth as constructive element can be studied to advantage in the following three examples. The use of preconceived schemes of tonal organization technique). from compositions written at different stages of Berg's career: Examph ^- __ A^rr^i^ 4 * UUMI a B_ ^a -hr-ka^fi^lr^ u J -f^r^ -i—W-A-P.

These bars despite their episodic character. 447-49. Cf. the chapter 'Quartenakkorde' in Schoenberg's Harmonielehre. Perhaps the most convincing use of the interval of the fourth is found in Marie's Lullaby in Wozzeck (Example 10). p. According to this Schoenberg first used chords of the fourth in 1902 in Pelleas und Melisande. pp. introduced in Example 8 (Piano Sonata. where a pre-impressionistic use of the fourth may be found. cf. Op. which could be called the archetype of all later combinations of the interval of the fourth. not confined to the last fifty years. especially in chordal combinations. 1935. how- ever. Op. with its perpetual use of fourths. act Hke acid in a chemical solution.THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY The i) fourths. These cases of the constructive use of the fourth in the music of Schoenberg and Berg could easily be supplemented by examples from Mahler. potentialities They triplet considerably weaken the cadential of the their continuation at the and end of the telescoped recapitulation.. traverses a greater octave span. ^Harmonielehre. melody in the treble. Scriabin and other composers of the to be early twentieth century. also Mahler's seventh symphony (first movement). 25 . VII/i. as discussed in this chapter: ^Cf. Schoenberg^ has re- peatedly drawn attention to the fact that the revolutionary use of the fourth really starts in certain experimental works of Beethoven {Pastoral Symphony) and Wagner [Tristan). 'GeschichtHche Vorform der Zwolftontechnik'. ^ The phenomenon as such is. with the help of inverted fourths. 9. form a turning point in the processes of harmonic thinking. also Zofja Lissa. 446 ff. into the sphere of romantic chromaticism. in Acta Musicologica. is seems self-evident. principal The connection between Example 9 {Lyric Suite) and the motive of Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony. Another such example is found in the so-called 'Sirens' Chord' in Wagner's Tannhauser Bacchanale (Dresden version of 1845). Berg's version it bolder than Schoenberg's.

respectively.ALBAN BERG Example ii The interval of the perfect fourth is here the diminished seventh {x). taken from Liszt's Mephisto Waltz (1863) and from Wagner's Die Meistersinger. serenading with the help of his However. the chordal qualities of the fourth are for the Liszt first time savoured in Walzer 1 full: Mephisto ( 186:^) Deii Tag seh' ich er - schei-nen. They also illustrate dramatic situations (the fiddhng Mepliistopheles.der mir wolil-ge-falla 13 a tut Example and b These examples were suggested by the order of the strings on. in the following ex- amples. in the following 26 . still used as a dissonant suspension. deUberately delaying the resolution in a chord of However. and Beckmesser lute). the viohn and the lute.

For him. In fact. composed in 1856 and published in 1863 : ^ f¥ . Actually. These bars are taken from the Finale of the Piano Quartet in A major. experiments in something like serial technique date back to Beethoven. it contained no element of surprise. in favour of a modulatory system of fourths. manner clearly anticipatory of Example 14.THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY Example fourth is 14. dialectic value of the interval of the already used in a Schoenberg and Berg. taken from a piano quartet by Brahms. with its tendency of the third. ffr Example 14* Serial Technique before Berg and Schoenberg The fact that Berg adopted Schoenberg's twelve-note technique with alacrity in 1925 after having divined its advent and consequences in some early works ^proves that serial tech- — — nique was part of his musical heritage. the conit trapuntal and. as were. *[ Sketch] 27 . i and Lyric Suite. 26. must be regarded as the model to avoid the traditional diatonicism for certain processes in Schoenberg's Op. 9 and Berg's Op. Op. In the late String Quartet Op. as for so many of his contemporaries. 132 a fournote motive determines the whole first movement.

taken from the Coda of the Example 17 28 .Example 15 The Allegro motive 'a. playing in different octaves. as may Tl% be seen in the following sketch of bars 10-15: T13 Example 16 Schoenberg's principle of allocating parts of a serial motive to is different instruments.' derives from it.l bars. fore- shadowed in the following first movement: Vln.

produced a theme in the chief subject of his Faust tendency to arrange its Symphony (1854). is only a variation of the 'Basic Set' i (cf. Similarly. Richard Strauss in Thus spake Zarathustra (1896) invents an 'impure' twelve-note theme for the section 'Von der Wissenschaft'.: THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY The four notes linked by arrows are parts of a row: Example i8 which. early Dodecaphonic experiments are also to be found in certain works of the triumvirate of the 'Second Viennese School'. 29 . philosophical disposition. of course. Its intervals in chordal formation and to avoid note-repetition points towards Schoenberg's later principles of dodecaphony Example 19 The 'Faust' theme easily yields the following dodecaphonic 'Basic Set': ^^ 11 1 "jij ^^ 10 ^ 11 :5o: 12 Example 20 It is interesting to note that Liszt invented this serial theme to express Faust's speculative. Beethoven's 'rows' are usually short (mostly only four notes). Liszt. the great experimenter of the veritable twelve-note Romantic movement. Example 15) in its fourth permutation. however. probably taking his cue from Liszt's work.

if at the interval of a whole-tone step.: 3 : — ALBAN BERG An eight-note row forms the basis of Webern's Passacaglidy Op. In the early song Nacht (1907) the basic thematic cell contains seven notes: Example 21 which correspond to their imphcit harmonies Example 22 These. 5. 24 (a work which is strictly dodecaphonic only in parts) shows eleven notes with three note-repetitions. No. in turn. I (1908). The Variation theme of Schoenberg's Serenade Op. one reduces the chief subject of part and its riposte a) Berg: op. represent a sequence of augmented chords in parallel movement 3. In Berg's early works tendencies towards serial techniques are noticeable quite apart from the outstanding case of Op. 4. which will be dealt with in a later chapter. etc. . A six-note series tet can be recognized in the early String QuarI Op.

and that of the minor third at 'z\ form part of the thematic substance of the piece. The Basic Shapes of the dodecaphonic series on which Berg's latest works. They are treated as the constitutional intervals of a series. are based. seen to be the heir to a vener- 31 . row and its transposiThe whole-tone step 'x' determines whole movement. in historic cations. The fact that they are so firmly rooted phenomena explains their indisputable tonal impHThus Berg. Der Wein and the Violin Concerto. able music tradition. the interval of the major third at 'y'. derive clearly from ancestral archetypes mentioned the earher in this chapter. for all the apparent novelty of his materials is and methods of construction.THE PROBLEM OF TONALITY to its serial foundation: 3C Example 24 This can easily be reduced to a six-note tion into the lower sixth.




Webem. inclined tominiature. His period of songwriting is confined to the preparatory years of adolescence (1900-1909). into a score of truly monstrous dimensions. wards the aphoristic song-cycles.CHAPTER Early III Works influence on Berg's musidevelopment was decisive from the year 1905 on-^ wards. during their long gestation period. Schoenberg's peculiar gift for finding the perfect musical equivalent of the most evanescent poetical moods. The twenty-three compositions which he completed before his fortieth year in- \ RNOLD ScHOENBERG. Berg differed from his mentor and his fellow-pupil in that he was never a song-writer by incHnation. whose cal ^ AA clude no lieder. only to develop. The eighty-two songs and duets he wrote during that time represent an emergency solution of the problems of an apprentice-composer rather than a genuine lyrical outburst. Webern. less than thirteen song-cycles —among them the Gurreon a small scale as a which were originally conceived romantic Liederspiel with piano accompaniment. The 35 were shared by from the start. and his pupil his predilection for the song-cycle. These eighty-two songs (of which fourteen are accessible in print to date) might be called Veiled operas' with as much justification as the early Piano Sonatas of Brahms had been called 'veiled symphonies' in Schumann's famous article. and he. too. out of a total of thirty-one opus numbers. composed thirteen right . was a born lyrical composer.

Op. neither the second Storm song of 1925 nor the Concert Aria Der Wein of 1930 can be discussed in terms of traditional song-composition. 19. Berg only twice returned to lyrical composition. as well as their implicit were recognized and revealed in retrospect.ALBAN BERG parallel confirmed by the course of Berg's subBrahms never returned to sonata. with its symmetrical periodization. bear wimess to the temporary attraction of Schoenberg's experimental piano pieces. moreover. by Berg himself. share a rigorous formal discipHne. into 'dissolved prose*.g. when in 1928 he prepared the orchestral version of the Seven Early Songs. After the Altenberg songs. 2 (composed in 1909 and. The songs written before 1909 attempt to re-organize the between voice and instrument. except for the second setting of Schliesse mir die Augen beidey the last of Berg's songs with piano accompaniment) the romantic Lied. 4. and of Webern's early cychc comoperatic qualities. I/3). Once caught up in the maelstrom of operatic composition. Both were prehminary studies in a novel idiom. lyrical Wozzeck the Lullaby. 36 . Berg abandoned song-writing altogether. and the mature Berg never returned to the the piano is with Brahms sequent development: the mature Lied. serial Op. The preparatory nature of his early songs. Only the four pieces for clarinet and piano. positions. In Op. 5. This song forms a natural link with the Altenberg songs. in the third Mombert song. becomes relationship finally transformed. Berg's early song-style reaches enclaves of Marie's part in its apex in the beautiful [e. 11 and Op. Similarly brief was his excursion into the realm of the musical miniature. themselves precursors of Wozzeck and employing extechnique. the forerunners of greater works: the Lyric Suite and Lulu. However. Both. Op. as it were. writ- perimentally ten in 1912.

to whom Berg was to return in his Opp. including An Leukon. pubhshed in 1928. in an edition with piano accompaniment and in an orchestral version. (c) The Seven Early Songs of 1905-08. the year of the piano Variations and the Piano Sonata. ^Published together with the second setting in 1930. written in 1900. fashionable at the time of its composition. unpublished so far. ^A complete list of the titles is given in Appendix 4. the earhest composition of Berg's that Seventy songs and duets composed between 1900 and 1908. is 2. 37 . 2 noteworthy. were evidently written in 1908. 2 and 4. composed in 1909. {d) The four songs. of traditional four-bar periodization by means of interstitial joins {x) and 5/4 rhythm (Example fully avoids the obviousness 25): ® (D © Example 25 ® (D This first Storm song shows the influence of Schumann. {b) All but one of the early songs in group have remained settings They include a number of of poems by Alfred Mombert and Peter Altenberg. which has been published. Berg's widow is unwilling to pubhsh these songs. It skil- Berg's earliest song deliberately irregular in metre.EARLY WORKS The eighty-two early songs and duets comprise: The first setting of Storm's Schliesse mir die Augen (a) has survived. Op. 130. See p. the year in which Berg became Schoenberg's pupil.! (b) beide. but some of them. Most of the songs in group {b) were composed before 1905. the is absence of the chromatic style of Hugo Wolf.

'x' and 'y\ made 38 to oscillate regularly. disclose the extent to which the young Berg abandoned himself to the idiom of early Schoenberg. reveals the same divided loyalty as group shown. while the six songs were written between the summer of 1906 and the spring of 1908. from the Romantics Storm and Lenau to the modernists Schlaf. The most progressive song of the whole group is undoubtedly Nacht. Im Z/mmer (words by Johannes Schlaf). under the impact of his teacher's overpowering personality. The music shows similar traits. The choice of poets. while Traumgekront (words by Rilke) is already fashioned as an impeccable sonata-form movement. as the emotional impetus of Sommertage. Its chromaticism. The first song to be composed. It opens the whole cycle in the published version of 1928. dates from 1905. 1908). Rilke and remaining [h) had Im Zimmer and Die Nachtigall still betray the influence of Schumann and Brahms. The row of augmented triads.: ALBAN BERG The printed title-page of the Seven Early Songs bears the date 1907. All the melodic par- and the harmonies of this song grow quite naturally i out of the subject given out by the singer in bar b Example 26 'a and 'F in vertical latter in turn represent a form become the chords 'x' and 'y'. but this is misleading. of a descending whole-tone Faust They are identical with the chordal crystallization of the chief thematic subject of Liszt's Symphony. in the order scale. but was actually the last to be composed (Spring. It is remarkable for the degree to which Berg had already integrated Debussy's technique of the whole-tone scale ticles with his all own post-romantic idiom. as well Hartleben. are .

as also the mere fact that you attended the concert. as seen later in Wozzeck. of 1928 provides different sonorities and Sommertage are scored for a large orchestra with double woodwind. Your telegram delighted me. Berg on May 7. while Die Nachtigall is set for divided strings only. is already apparent in the orchestral version of this early song-cycle. harp and percussion. Berg's economical use of a rich orchestral palette. . four horns and much percussion.: EARLY WORKS converted into an accompanying figure which clearly fore- shadows the cadential chords of Wozzeck: Example 27 The structural logic of this song is demonstrated by the fact that the instrumental phrase Example 28 represents nothing but a telescoped diminution of 'a plus 'V of Example 26. Schoenberg attended the replied enthusiastically first performance in Berlin in the 1929: following spring and sent Berg a congratulatory wire. *. Im Zimmer. 1928. Liebesode Seven Early Songs took place in Vienna on November 6. on the other hand. horns. Nacht. dispenses with string tone throughout. The first performance of the orchestral version The for each song. they really possess because of their close association with my years 39 . relying exclusively on woodwind. These songs have for me greater value than .

ring. this past still And the fact that . I these songs so that they impressed you succeeded in orchestratiag as sounding well. Their brand of pre-surrealistic poetry approximates already to by Peter Altenberg.— ALBAN BERG of Study with you. Of the first four songs Op. The song An Leukon (words by Gleim. only the (words by Hebbel) belongs to the romantic type of Lied. taken from the volume Der Gluhende). at a time when Schoenberg and Webern were the peculiar type of 'prose-poem' cultivated 40 . composed early in 1909. as such Wolf and Maliler were writing at or just before the turn of the century. Both types of allusive poetry call for a musical complement utterly different from the symmetries of rhyme and stanza in the romantic Lied of the past. They clearly express an ardent desire for creative fulfdment. On the other hand. Berg abandons the tradition of the romantic Lied more decisively than Schoenberg did in his early song-cycles. This re-echoes through several octaves of tempestuous piano accompaniment. . an eighteenth-century poet) was written in the spring of 1908.' . brings nearer to me. instinctively sensing the brevity of the life-span the Gods were willing to grant him. welling up from the subconscious in Berg's adolescence. It culminates in the cry *Fluchtig ist die Zeit' Vita fugax. together with the last three of the 'Seven Early Songs'. The words have an ominous in retrospect. they contain enclaves of realistic impressions. In the three following songs (words by the remarkable pre-expressionist poet Alfred Mombert. They renounce the traditional means of rhyme and rhetoric. strung together like photographs on a film-strip. Berg's discovery of Mombert and Altenberg. 2. Mombert's poems are mystical visions in free metre.

Schoenberg so much that he quoted phenomenon in a comThe chord as such attracted it in his Harmonielehre it 1911. It has often been remarked that Berg's Op. of was He must have been under the impression that the chord time in Berg's Op. More revealing. Example 346. 2. typographically apparent in the fact that only the first three songs have key signatures. p. This is the chord of fourths which concludes the fourth song. 41 . This is ^Cf. 2 is a work of crisis and stylistic transition. but also plays a determining part in the other songs. work from which 2. whereas the fourth dispenses with them for the first time. had been used for the first Schoenberg himself used it in his Opp. Moreover. 2 as of the chord of the diminished seventh proved by its immediate diatonic resolution in the fact that the 'Alterationsharmonie chord on E flat.: EARLY WORKS Strongly addicted to the German 'Parnassian' Stefan George. 11 and 16. shows him instinctively heading for the dramatic psychology of a new type of opera. The his reason why Schoenberg apparently failed to recognize own harmony of 1900 in Berg's work of 1909 lies perhaps is treated in Schoenberg's Op. Erwartung (Op. No. however. 469.1 without clearly indicating the taken. This for all common basic harmony position four songs is a strange of pre-dodecaphonic days. and notably in the Hebbel song. own early song. composed in 1908-09. than these easily recognizable signs of change is the fact that all four songs are derived from a single chord. Leibowitz has discovered that the chord occurs already in Schoenberg's i).

That Berg himself was aware of these constructive imphcations can be seen from the identical sequences of harmony for which this chord gives the signal in both No. 2. and the integration of altered parallel sevenths into a sequence of chords of the fourth. which paved the way for a new concept of harmony. is used in complete isolation. 4 and No. however.! Example 31 ^The final Example 30. 2 of Op. bars are identical with Schoenberg's quotation. bereft position of this of any modulatory logistics.: ALBAN BERG h) Berg's song the same chord. It is the juxtachord {x) and the following one (y) which may its have opened Schoenberg's eyes to sibihties future constructional pos- llJ^^i ^ ' — etc. t=: ? Example 30 It was the constructive element of the fourth. as reproduced in 42 .

chord 'x' really only a derivative of the chromatic scale. 31. (Cf. No. ^1 r'K 1 t . which this is identical with the piling fourths in the introductory bars of Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony. alteration Op. 43 .i^|. the bass 'z in Example i.ll.: EARLY WORKS 8 —1^L II^ 1c ^^ ^ '"''' • .ri l.i tL Bullr 5a ffl ^Wp e^c. i and 7). w I V- l. only the basis for a chain of chords of the dominant in chromatic Example 33 By alternative augmentation and diminution of these chords Berg avoids the parallels of the tritone (cf Example 3 3 at 'a) and achieves through a re-arrangement of intervals the parallel fourths of Example 31 (at 'y').odulation in No. as Schoenberg argued in 191 1? A close investigation reveals Example 3 1 as a sequence of harmonies based on a chain of consecutive fourths. 2o So l. ^ ^ ^ 6a 1 1 t^ Example 32 The same chord becomes (bars 5 Is this the pivot 'of m. at the words 'sleep' and 'awake'. 9.'S r =^ M 1.) But sequence is.. in turn. There the 'latent' fourths in 'y' correspond to the succession of intervals in 'z The harmonic .

known through a gramophone recording. 2. chordal use of the bass 'z four. This may be observed in . to Schoenberg's remarkable song In diesen 14. No. 44 . spirit of from the forms of variation and sonata-form cultivated especially by Brahms. achieved in the one-movement Piano Sonata Op. 3 The ambivalent Berg's early instrumental music is conceived in the Vienna's classical tradition. for Berg. The translation of the music into Berg's orchestral idiom is very skilfully done. It also underHnes the fact that the composition of songs always retained. noticeable in both works. But its ultimate aim is the conception of a new telescoped sonata-form. dependence of voice and* instrument. 4. No. process of shrinking and condensation of content. occasional reminiscences in these songs of Schoenberg's Gurrelieder and Wagner's Tristan become almost irrelevant. 4 anticipated the numerous glissandi in Berg's first orchestral score: the Altenberg songs Op. It derives ultimately . bars 9-10 (in a telescoped version in the vocal part) and bars 15-16 (in extremely con- densed form in the piano part). The chordal sequence of Example 3 1 is also used as if it were the formula of a preconceived series. except for the gUssando of No.ALBAN BERG events of these bars are reflected in the vertical. 4. The curious thematic interbars. Berg had thus discovered. at the age of twentyone of the principles of the future twelve-note technique. seen in these may owe something Wintertagen. bars 1-4 (in the piano part). I and the two-movement String Quartet Op. 2. was in time to prohibit altogether any large-scale ^The quasi-orchestral effect of the violent glissatido for the piano in No. Op. In the hght of these brave exploits in the 'uncharted sea' of the harmony of the 1 fourth. which unaccountably falls back on Berg's own pianistic emergency solution. the character of a solution pro tempore only. composed in 1907. The later orchestral version of the Seven Early Songs of 1928 may in turn have prompted Rene Leibowitz to provide his orchestral version of Op. 2.

The theme is theme of Brahms's Op. . 5 in the long run it resulted in a style of thematic integration of unparalleled severity. and is pubhshed for the first time in the appendix to this book. Reich. mentioning in that connection choral pieces and a fugue with three subjects. 9 and Op. as it were. The work remained in manuscript. adding as a kind of postscript: 1 am working for my own pleasure on a Piano Sonata'. 1908. entirely different struc- *Cf. on refers parallel hnes. had a single pubHc per- formance in Vienna on November 8. Berg's earliest extant instrumental composition. 7. 45 . W. However. Berg's theme creates at with ponderous parallel sixths once a Brahmsian mood. op. It is rather doubtful whether 1908 (the year in which the Piano Sonata was completed) can be accepted as the year of the actual composition of the Variations. the Variations for piano on an original theme. and clogging octave-arpegdualistic. than on the more brilliant Handel Variations Op. In a letter written in late July. it the Variations as schoolwork in is possible that both works — connection with his studies with Schoenberg. with their emphasis on canonic experiments. expressed in the aphoristic miniatures of Op. p. its 24. ^ Berg of counterpoint. 1 It was to lead to a condition in which the thematic material tended to pile up vertically instead of unfolding horizontally in time.EARLY WORKS composition on these lines. the Sonata as free composition in his leisure hours to his study —progressed. In the short run that development led to temporary congestion. 1907. Berg's Variations are evidently modelled rather on Brahms's Piano Variations Op. exactly as is gios in the left hand. 21 and the the 'cobbler's patch' of Beet- ^The instrumental works of Berg's maturity are based on tural principles. 21. cit. culminating in Wozzeck and Lulu.

This passage proves that the latent tension in 46 [Sketch] . remain Berg's styHstic models for a great part of the work. The sequence of harmony to which the theme's incipit 'a is subjected. in some of them anticipations of features of Berg's future creative personahty are found. M Example 35* P The twelve variations are full of conventionahties. skilful handling of two-part and 'infmite' canon in variations 5. The mature composer's dehght in contrapuntal complexities is foreshadowed in the 3.ALBAN BERG hoven's 'Diabelli' Variations. However. the former in the concertante episode of Variations 11 -12. 4 and Schumann and Brahms. points back to Beet- hoven's similar procedure in the case of the 'DiabeUi' theme: $ ^ ^ Wf^f Exufuplc 34 m n etc. suddenly reveals a secret link with the progresular metre. its sive song Nacht. Variation 12. with its tendency towards irreg- Reger-hke harmonies and the startling double intrusion of the whole-tone scale in bar 8 and again eight bars before the end. the latter in the magyar melancholy of variation 7. However.

7. 3) on April 24. Chamber Symphony Op. expanded development. in ' Vienna. in 1920 and 1927. The common thematic link is. 2) in 19101 and first performed (together with the String Quartet Op. Berg's work was actually planned as a Sonata in three movements. ^Revised versions of Op. finale to follow the traditional first movement Berg complained to Schoenberg that inspiration for these later movements was slow in coming. 47 . i whole A appeared twice during the composer's lifetime. However. i is a onemovement work might lead to comparison with Liszt's and Strauss's type of symphonic poem in one movement.EARLY WORKS Berg's music could not long remain suppressed. or with Schoenberg's early instrumental music. Berg's Piano Sonata Op. release in a Its creative work remarkable for originality of method and the individual character of its idiom was close at hand. It was completed in the latter year on the family estate of 'Berghof in Carinthia. Pelleas und Melisande. This Sonata consists of a in classical first-movement sonata-form. 9). i was written in the summer months of 1907 and 1908. where the traditional four movements of the classical symphony are telescoped into one {Verkldrte Nacht. growing out of certain residual The fact that Berg's Op. with single little apparent success. the latter concluded that Berg had said all there was to say and persuaded him to let When the completed family-likeness first movement stand for the between theme-fragments in its first and thirty-first bars and motives in Schoenberg's Op. with repeated exposition. sonata. String Quartet Op. It was published (together with the songs Op. varied recapitulation and a short coda. with slow elements of the exposition. 9 has ehcited frequent comment. 191 1. movement and in sonata-form. movement.




of course, the interval of the fourth. However, while Schoenberg treats the fourth as thematic raw material, Berg presents already in the very first bars a highly organized combination of
motives, the thematic possibilities of which determine the plan

of the whole sonata


Example 36

The pecuHar quaUty of motive 'a depends only to degree on its division into two intervals of ascending

a lesser





determined by the interval of the aug-

mented seventh, which becomes the incipit of the second theme of the expository group A



Example 37


ubiquitous interval of the seventh can be recognized in the




(bar 30 ff ) as well as in


(bar 39 ff)

and in

the concluding group

C (bar



sion of being a deliberate quotation

where it gives the impresfrom A I

Berg's endeavour to achieve structural integration despite the-

matic complexity is brilliantly successful. The numerous variants

cropping up in the course of the expanded development section
can easily be traced back to their origin in the exposition.
revelations (and as such they are typical products


times these variants appear as fascinating retrospective
introspective nature 1).

of Berg's


such case


the transformation


A T a-h at the beginning

of the development section:

Example 39
Finally, attention should

be drawn to Berg's emphatic

way of

confirming the Sonata's inherent B minor tonahty. A tonal cadence occurs already in bars 3-4 and a repeated plagal cadence rounds off the work (bars 176-177) without a trace of tonal
ambiguity. Berg's predilection for tonal cadences, even towards the end of compositions with considerably diminished tonal
impHcations, became in time an unmistakable feature of his
personal idiom.



String Quartet


part of 1910. Already on


ment was put into rehearsal; work was being rehearsed in

3 was written in the earUer of that year the first move30 by the early summer the whole

private. After the soHtary per-

formance in April 191 1 the Quartet seemed to sHp back into
Cf. the late disclosure of the
full possibilities

of the Seuen Early Songs in the

orchestral version

of 1928.



oblivion, until in 1920

Webern planned

to rehearse

and per-

by renewed interest in his Berg decided to revise and pubHsh it, together with the pieces for clarinet and piano,! and thus Op. 3 and Op. 5 (together with revised editions of Op. i and Op. 2) were issued in the autumn of 1920. The Quartet was again revised in 1924 and this fmal version was subsequently published by Universal

in public. Stimulated

early work,

Edition in miniature score.

The Quartet
asserts itself


the last


composition written by Berg

while studying with Schoenberg. In

his musical individuahty

with explosive vehemence.






of his mature style. What it lacks in lyrical tenderness of the Berg of Wozzeck and the VioHn Con-


makes up

for in dramatic directness

of appeal. The

is written in most two movements only. A closer analysis reveals that the relationship of these movements is that of a development section to its exposition. The thematic interdependence of the two movements clearly suggests their stylistic models. They are to be found, outside the world of Schoenberg's one-movement works, Opp. 7 and 9, and Webern's early cycUcal 'Five Movements' for string quartet, in Mahler's later symphonies, which made a deep and lasting impression on Berg in his years of early manhood. Mahler's Fifth Symphony (in five movements) begins with two movements (a Funeral March followed by a tempestuous Allegro) based on the same thematic material and complementary to each other. Similarly, Mahler's Eighth Symphony consists of only two movements, whose thematic and spiritual interrelationship becomes clear in the following juxtaposition of the fiery Accende lumen' motive of Part I and its

unusual feature

of this work is the

fact that it



Letter to

Webern of April

had confessed

14, 1920. In a previous letter, to an inexplicable partiality for the Quartet.

on March

16, 1920,






mystical transformation into the symbol in sound of the


of Anchorites of Part





ac zende



men fens! -bus

Example 40

of Berg's Quartet owes something to these thematicaUy interdependent works of Mahler, the thematic material itself, and its motivic proliferations, seem equally indebted to certain processes in works by Strauss and Schoenberg. This becomes particularly evident if the main subject of Berg's first movement is confronted with its ancestors Schoenberg's own Quartet Op. 7, and Strauss's Death and Transfiguration:
If the basic structure






Example 41
Similarly, a blood-relationship

apparent between the chief




of Berg's second movement and certain

historic the-

matic types in works by Wagner, Strauss and Schoenberg.

A a,

in Example 41, is clearly apparent behind B a in. Example 42 below. Motive b spawns new elements and begets a motive c, which functions as an appendix-like growth ^ c in Example 41
Berg: op -3(11)
(iTxtnapoMd to

low«r octa«)

Wagner: "Tn3t«n"0859)



port. p. 856

R. Strauss: "Heldrnleben" (1898) Z.95

Schonbrrq: Str.-Qut. op.? (l9oS) 2. 10

Example 42

Apart from these models, certain characteristics of Schoenberg's
second String Quartet, Op.
his disciple.

may have

affected the

work of

However, Schoenberg's emphasis on tonality in minor in the first movement, D minor in the second, E flat minor in the third and a return to F sharp minor in the coda of the fourth movement) is contradicted by the younger composer's equally emphatic insistence on tonal ambiguity. Although Berg's Quartet seems rooted in the polarized conflict between the tonal centres of F and D, their


(F sharp

natural affinities are neglected or deliberately ignored. Although,

for instance, the coda of Berg's




bar 160)




develops in the direction of a clear F major, with
ant implications (bars 165-168), the
all its



ends with an

unresolved dissonance


Example 43



sure, this


ellipsis clearly

arouses the desire and

expectation of an F major resolution.

of this resolu1 It was later to play an integral part in the deliberate tonal ambiguity of sectional closes in the Lyric Suite, Wozzeck and Lulu. The most startling appHcation of this new device occurs in the last bar of the first movement of this Quartet. The bar contains the basic chord of D minor, a Neapolitan sixth, and an octave-leap into,
one of Berg's most typical
stylistic features.




were, indeterminate pitch on the


this last



lapse of the tonal structure

of the music on of modern

note antici-

pates the effects of sheer noise

'bruitisme'. This last

bar has



among the critical turning-points in the musical

development of this century



Example 44
^ It



one of the most hackneyed

effects in

modern harmony, and


a considerable role in

modern jazz



in the viola (bars 5-9). in which similar elliptic final cadences occur. 4. Played 'arco' on its repetition. in a transposition a sixth downwards. The blurring is created Schoenberg quoted in by the deliberately 'missed' octaves of their tonics Tohic of D minor th impure octave Example 45 Another phenomenon important for Berg's future development remains to be discussed the anticipatory occurrence of — serial the chief subject of the becomes evident when (cf.6 468 ff. about a year before Berg's Quartet. both composed in Berg's bold experiment 1909. provide examples. 5. It first movement lone 9co\z Example ip. It could be traced back to this 'imaginary' Basic Shape: technique in this early Quartet. This quotation contains inter movement alia a chord which had been played already in the previous bar as a pizzicato conclusion of a certain phrase. 54 . Example 41 [i]) is analysed in accordance with the later serial concepts. it can be understood as a synchronized sound of blurred root triads of A flat and B flat.: ALBAN BERG may have been suggested by certain contemporary works by Webern. Webern's Opp. This main subject appears in the second violin in bars 1-4 and continues. 3 and 5. his Harmonielehre^ bar 5 of the first of Webern's Op.

the second source. ist violin. of course. no isolated musical phenomenon. Each one of the compositions dedi- cated to Schoenberg marks the beginning of a new creative The pieces for clarinet are deliberately modelled on the musical miniatures produced by Schoenberg and Webern in 1908 and 19 12 as a kind of implied protest against the mammoth-scores of the new century's first decade. bar 7. kept intact through all thematic transformations. The work of Schoenberg and Webern on a miniature scale was. Scriabin and Schoenberg himself completed their outsize 'symphonies of the thousand'. It seems worth while recording that this reaction began to manifest itself exactly at the time when Mahler. at one of the concerts of Schoenberg's 'Society for Private Performances' in Vienna. such as Busoni's ^Other works dedicated to Schoenberg were the Three Orchestral Pieces. On or the basis of Example 46 it is possible to understand melodic ideas such as those in the first movement.l pupil. of a group of works which Berg dedicated had ceased to be his pupil. Contemporary works of an aphoristic nature. 55 . and published in the following year. as serial derivatives from this The four summer of pieces for clarinet 191 3. but they also hint at the the first They were to Schoenberg after he continued active interest taken by Schoenberg in the develop- ment of his former period for Berg. bar 25. They were first and piano were written in the performed on October 17. movement. 6. 1919. These repeated dedications are expressive of Berg's strong personal attachment to his friend and mentor. Op. the Chamber Concerto and Luhi.EARLY WORKS The most important which is feature is the whole-tone character of 'a'.

III/4). must be clearly audible so as to underline the condition of permanent conflict of harmony. bar' 7. with its ghostly harmonic pedal. Comparison of the second piece with Schoenberg' s piano piece. more interesting than the parallels between the Vienna school and other progressive European composers are the intrinsic differences which exist in the work of the Vienna school itself. However. in retrospect. in Berg's piece a thematic conflict ensues already in bar 2. 56 . 2. expressive of the enveloping mists of the pond scene. The quo only restored through the tail-end of the phrase of the that phrase is clarinet. Like the middle numbers of the Altenberg songs of 1912. through the comin the bination of the reiterated piano chords and the clarinet. as pointers towards the future style of Wozzeck. melody That conflict leads ultimately to of the 'constant' third D-F sharp. which status at the an alteration in pitch end of bar 5 has is become D flat —F natural. seems foreshadowed in the rigid immutability of the chromatic suspension chord on the basis of C (Op. 5. from the first to the last bar. The 'Invention on a six-note chord' ( Wozzeck. the 'espressivo' motive of bars 2-3 being treated as a passing phase without thematic consequence. Bartok's Op. reveals that whereas the latter rehes entirely on the motoric motive of the continuously repeated third. set against the now diminished 'constant' But third on the piano which. Op. In Schoenberg's piece the 'constant' third really is constant.ALBAN BERG Elegies for piano Bagatelles and his Piano Sonatinas of 1910/12. They become especially noticeable if one confronts one of Berg's clarinet pieces with its obvious stylistic model. No. between the musical miniatures of Schoenberg and Webern and those of Berg. 19. No. 4. 6 and easy Piano Pieces of 1908 (one of which is quoted in Schoenberg's Harmonielehre) show a similar outlook. the clarinet pieces impress the student of today. according to the composer's expression marks. bar 17 ff).

4) and the percussive crescendo [Wozzeck III/2). The syncopated rhythm im of this first rhythm of the movement of Mahler's Ninth Symphony. and especially recapitulation. 5 clearly reveal the latent musical dramatist. while that effect remains an episodic impressionistic third Mombert song (Op. *flutter-tonguing' effects. of the archetypal sonata sonata-movement with eUiptic reprise and dramatic coda. where the main motives congeal. waiting impatiently in the wings for the decisive cue. The ghostly effect of upper partials produced on the piano may have been suggested by the aeoHan harp effect in Schoenberg's Piano Piece. 4 represents a telescoped 57 . The overpowering is explosion end of this piece comparable with the glissando in the after Marie's death 2. This can be observed especially in the clarinet part. However. about the part played by mere note-repetition in these pieces. Lulu and the at the Chamber Concerto. Something might be said. tremolandi and irregular note-repetitions. in addition. The miniatures of Berg's Op. The content of this final piece goes far beyond the static impressionism of Schoenberg's and Webern's contemporary compositions. out of a welter of trills. It heralds. No. but it also fourth clarinet piece recalls the points forward to the sinister rhythmic symbols in Wozzeck. yet even these musical miniatures restructure veal to the analyst the pattern. i.EARLY WORKS whose effect resolution merges with the unreal whisper of a weird of harmonics on the piano. Op. 11. in Berg's composition it clearly expresses with dramatic finality an ultimate catastrophe. in fact. No. gesture in Schoenberg's piece. bony No. Although Berg is anxious to avoid the structural devices of sonata-form. as it were.

It is here that the antithesis between an enormous orchestra and its application to the exclusive expression of minute and evanescent sound effects creates the basis of a new 58 .ALBAN BERG future Stresses and tensions in a which will manifest themelves fully new musical drama. Webem. Both problems are posed and solved with remarkable originality in Berg's Op. 16 that the struggle for a new conception of orchestral sonorities becomes manifest. thematic evolution and the paraphernalia of traditional rhetoric have been filtered away. em- ploying the orchestra: the Altenberg songs. and the Three Orchestral Pieces. Op. Op. No. capable at once of miniaturistic differentiation and of sound-climaxes of shattering intensity. all 10. i (1908) already made use of the rudiments for of a new serial technique. Op. and the estabhshment of a new relationship between the singing voice and its instrumental accompaniment. Op. roughly between 1909 and 191 3). Op. At the same time Berg was subjected to the impact of Schoenberg's Five Orchestral Pieces. i. structure. 6 (1910). sonority. 4. In pointillistic flash-light snap- Webern's Op. two early operas Erwartung and Die glUckliche and the Hand (composed 16. When he started work on the Altenberg songs in 19 12 Berg could benefit by the revolutionary experiments in orchestral sonorities berg and and vocal expression already undertaken by Schoenlatter' s surprisingly mature Passacaglia orchestra. Berg's first opera was preceded by two previous works 4. 6. followed by the Five Pieces for Orchestra. Two problems of paramount importance for the future composer of Wozzeck were the establishment of an orchestra. The reduced the musical picture to a shot. leaving a residue symphonic of barely full twelve bars. 10 (191 3). his Six Pieces for Orchestra. Op. It is in Schoenberg's Op.

With the unerring instinct of genius he chose for his own experiments the one medium neglected at that time by both Schoenberg and Webern the song with orchestral accompaniment. after the termination of his studies with Schoenberg. and put them on a separate shelf of his Ubrary. the first work of Berg's creative freedom. a paradoxical discrepancy between the assembling of a huge orchestra and its employment in pieces of aphoristic brevity. 59 . includes Helene Nahowski. 5. devoid of rhyme and rhythmic scansion. His book Neues Altes. There Berg had already taken steps leading away from traditional post-Romantic lyricism. Berg valued his books highly.EARLY WORKS Style. Opus 4 was composed in 191 2. And after the free rhythms of Mombert's asymmetrical prose. Schoenberg's increasing desire to find exact musical equivalents for the most involved psychological experiences led to the discovery of new devices such as the 'flutter-tonguing' effect on the trombones in Op. who befriended his fiancee Helene Nahowski. ^His real name was Pachard next to Strindberg's. It led also.l the eccentric Viennese poet and 'Socrates of the Coffeehouse'. There is. The choice : was almost inevitable after the quasi-orchestral ebullience of the last Mombert song. No. and deHghted in inventing sHghtly scandalous texts to picture postcards. the unique vocal style oiEnvartung and the introduction of 'Sprechstimme' into the chorus-parts o£ Die gluckliche Hand. in an embarrassing mixture of obscenity and tenderness. Altenberg died in Vienna. it seemed a perfectly logical further step for Berg to discover Peter Altenberg. to the use of a deliberately asymmetrical music as accompaniment to a psycho-analytical text. in 1919. undeniably. in Erwartung. of 1911. The sum total of Schoenberg's achievements in this direction constitutes Berg's point of departure in his approach to the problem 'Singer versus orchestra'. i6. half-forgotten. But there is good reason to beheve that Schoenberg was repeatedly consulted about this work while it was pieces dedicated to Englander.

and an outsize orchestra. flict The three oboes. 5). three trumpets. The orchestra consists of: three flutes. After its completion in the autumn of 1912 Schoenberg accepted it for inclusion in the programme of an orchestral concert under his direction. bass tuba. It is possible that sheet 14 of this autograph includes a short vocal phrase (from the second song. 191 3. Jascha Horenstein resurrected the score for a BBC pub- broadcast programme and after that the cycle was at last Ushed. The the fourth and fifth songs found its way to Lhicoln deposited on permanent loan at the Bodleian Library. The disaster of that first performance sealed the fate of Berg's Op. It remained unper- formed.! and almost totally forgotten. bar 5) in Schoenberg's hand. If this could be clearly identified as Schoenberg's hand it would provide definite proof of his active interest and even collaboration in Berg's work. four trombones. three clarinets. three bassoons. Besides Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony. unpublished. in 1953. 4 by Rene Leibowitz ^A first orchestral draft of College. often reduced to a mere whisper. Webern's orchestral pieces Op. 9. the programme was to have included also songs by Mahler and Zemlinsky with orchestral accompaniment. This was published as an appendix to a was recently reprinted to illustrate an article on Op. conceptual basis of these songs is the contradictory conbetween the vocal part. bass clarinet. 1948). in piano arrangement. long after the latter had ceased to be his pupil. No. A free fight between members of opposing musical factions led to a somewhat anticHmactic epilogue in the poUce court. ^Except for the fifth song Hier ist Friede. exceUing in different colouristic combinations and groupings. 1946. four horns. 4. It periodical Menschen (Dresden. Vienna. But owing to a carefully-planned riot by one section of the audience the concert had to be abandoned during the performance of Berg's songs. in the Grosse Musikvereinssaal. story of that autograph has been told by Egon Wellesz in his article: 'An Alban now Berg manuscript at Oxford' (Tempo. Oxford. glockenspiel. which seem to have been drowned in the ensuing general uproar. 60 . given on March 3 1. 1921). 2 Finally.ALBAN BERG Still in the preparatory stage. Op. and is {Mt4sical Quarterly. 6 and Berg's Altenberg songs.

in which the very painful silence: act of singing pierces finally the hard crust of iete. He uses cunning devices for cushioning the sound impact by fieqvient glissandi. piano However. Both footnotes are bracketed with the remark: 'To start and finish with a mere breath'. flutter-tonguing. and strings. drums. These devices find their vocal implementation in the unique gradations of tone. The behaviour of the first audience 61 . harmonics and mutes. harp. trills. gong. I. tympani. celesta. XX Note sung with half-open mouth (pp). even for instruments of a vigorous nature such as trombones and tympani. %)' xk) Sec • «« Example 48 Berg's explanatory foomotes to this quotation should be added: X Note sung with Ughtly closed lips (ppp). cymbals. bar 38) is nearly ecHpsed by the fantastic tympani glis- sando in the final bars of the last song.EARLY WORKS xylophone. Instead. this tremendous array of players is hardly ever used in a symphonic *tutti'. Characteristic examples are: The *mute' glissando of harmonics on the violin's E string. whose graphic symbol almost looks Hke a wind-swept leaf: the weird device of bowing at the string-holes on the 'bridge' (No. the composer makes every effort to reduce the sonority of each instrument. Berg's new devices aim to express the faintest stirrings of the soul in tonal symbols of wraith-like evanescence.

as presented in bars 19-21. strict chamber music bar 2. This series is based on a self-repetitive of five notes. a eleven bars of this song revolve round the descending fourths of motive later to Voice and violoncello end the song in starts canon at the octave. a curious anticipation of future serial severity. from which Example 48 above its taken.ALBAN BERG successfully prevented all. is The same found in Schoenberg's Op. results in an almost The purple style of sound. This 62 . like The third song and ends with a veritable twelve-note chord. the interval of the tritone at the brackets. Example 49 During bars 1-7 like a musical this static chord is 'spotHghted* by different and rapidly changing combinations of instruments. The be exploited in Wozzeck and Lulu. No. is remarkable for iridescent orchestral prelude. determines also the two static chords (bars 8 and effect 22) which are subjected to similar changed 'spotlighting'. The chief melody. It is repeated in Berg's fourth song. 3. all the pivotal harmonies of Op. It contains. reminiscent of the Javan Gamelan colours of this first song give way to a of eUiptic abbreviations in the second. in which certain basic features of serial technique appear. this hesitant world of sound from is materiaHzing at The also first song. 16. and its sonorous mosaic of dovetailing motive-particles oriental tissue orchestras. 4. with an effect impression of an unruffled but iridescent pond.

composed long before the official estabhshment of twelve-note technique. The impeccable twelve-note row. The use of archaic forms like the Passacaglia But precedes their re-introduction in Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire by a few months. entering in close succession before cue 2 {a) {h) (<:) the five-note Passacagha bass the twelve-note a (c). is an amazing anticipation of future musical developments. 5. fourths. however. evidently developed [c i). It is it is a Passacaglia. which enters in the woodwind at bar 5. The song is strictly organized by the three thematic elements. No.: : EARLY WORKS can be studied by comparing the melody itself with its resultant harmony and the two static chords Example 50 [bar 22] [bars] Example 51 Example 5: The last and longest song. 3 from 63 . bass. antedates Schoenberg's first serial compositions by more than ten years. theme of ascending the motive of No. row in the treble (R). based also a piece on a five- note motive in the of strict dodecaphonic music.

Berg's second Orchestral Pieces. with the element {h) meandering through the whole fabric of the song almost like a Chaconne theme. to replace 64 . Hier ist Friede remains Berg's most important technical achievement before Wozzeck. probably owes its pecuhar form to the tendency of Schoenberg and Webern.ALBAN BERG Key J R C Cl "b " *2 note sen'e* = = » Passocagiia theme Continuotioo of C Countersubject of C Example 53 The three basic elements are artfully intertwined. The emphasis on rigid adherence to preconceived principles of form. work Op. more and more out-distancing the Passacaglia bass {a). for orchestra before Wozzeck^ the Three 6. hnk this song with the world of Wozzeck and even with the systematic dodecaphony of Der Wein and Lulu. before 19 14. the firm rehance on trapuntal devices and the fact that these devices are strict con- employed in the service of a subtle and fleeting emotional experience of wistful longing.

with its decidedly Mahlerian flavour.l A further — — sign of the impact of Schoenberg's Five Orchestral Pieces can be found in Berg's adoption of the new structural guides 'H' and 'N' ('Hauptstimme' and 'Nebenstimme'). No. of Schoenberg in a protracted struggle for Berg's allegiance. in the Altenberg songs. Schoen- berg himself planned to told utilize for an opera libretto. In his reply. Round. work of his from Schoenberg's The influence of Mahler. of both works. This fragment.EARLY WORKS the traditional cyclic symphonic forms by short self-contained movements with a certain programmatic bias. was inspired by Balzac's last slow movements of the mystical novel 5er^p/z/^^. March are similar to those in Schoenberg's Op. It represents. now competes with in 191 3. German E 65 . at the very same time. however. 5. lo. In addition. Webern Berg that Schoenberg was planning an operatic trilogy based on Balzac's novel. saving only a fragment which was last orchestral interlude of Wozzeck ('Inventhe on a key'). his creative approach to Mahler's conception of the man and artist. 16. 6 farther removed than any other symphony.Just fancy: this winter I I movement and ^The For details consult the had planned intended to compose a big symphonic to let it end with a boy's voice scores original sub-headings were eliminated in the published edition of this book. bears witness to the impression made on Berg by symphonies of the older composer. on July 29. which. the considerable numerical increase in Berg's orchestra. 1912. i6. crisis This struggle led to a incorporated in the tion when Berg discarded a later planned symphony. i6 and Webern's Op. that as orbit. 6 Prelude. despite these affinities. The sub-headings of Berg's Op. The discarded symphony. even beyond that used may have is been prompted by the im- posing sonorities of Schoenberg's Op. Berg's Op. . Berg mentions his own projected work: \ . However. first employed in Schoenberg's Op. rather.

. born in Vienna in 1885 and an early pupil of Schoenberg's. After own new conception of Wozzeck he could not return to the symphony. 6 (1910). together with the loveliest memories of unspoiled enjoyment. . composed in England between 1945 and 1956. Berg's dream of a programmaticallybased Mahlerian symphony never materialized because he found course. like Berg himself. there also iatrudes the memory *. as so often my case . 191 3. because Berg could easily have become heir to Mahler's symphonic tradition a tradition which now Uves on only in scattered movements by Zemlinsky and Karl Horwitz. A letter dated June written shortly after he had visited Schoenberg in Berlin. ^In marked contrast to Schoenberg and Webern. Adorno (W. 6. reflects the mental conflict and distress brought about by stern discussions with his mentor and heralds a future creative experience of heart-searching intensity You will surely understand that. p. Cf T. This is regrettable. / The symphony with a vocal solo derives. Op. only began to write symphonies at the age of sixty.: ALBAN BERG singing (from the gallery) words it remained a mere project idea of ending a — from —"Seraphita" happens in ! Of course . are the only convincing attempt so far to continue the symphonic tradition of Bruckner and Mahler in the second half of the century.l No work written during the first half of this century with Mahler than Berg's Op. ^Wellesz. and. in recent time. Reich. W. traced back to a personal relations strained. 66 . An exception is Webern's Marcia funebre. None of them is really symphonic in character.2 crisis reveals a deeper affinity The psychological roots of the Three Orchestral Pieces can be in Berg's life. of from Mahler. the solution of his problems in his opera. cit. op. Der Wein). Violin Concerto) or lyrico-dramatic (Lyric Suite. whose music is surprisingly free from Mahler's influence. His later instrumental works are either concertante music (Chamber Concerto. during which his even with his beloved teacher Schoenberg became 14. in the remarkable symphonies of Egon — Wellesz. His five symphonies. 46)..

As soon as I am in the country I will begin the Suite. To be sure. adding with moving sincerity: have to ask myself. Perhaps one day I shall be able to compose something I serene. retired to Trahiitten.' . as much as for everything else I have received from you. in this as in other letters of the period. have to thank you for your reproof. 1914). . . with its depressing home-truths. . of war interrupted work on the 1914... about his ability to complete the score in time. the plan for a 'Suite' resulted in the first draft of the Three Orchestral Pieces. but the outbreak On . .' for days on end. you by the same post a registered parcel: the orchestral pieces. 67 . . his parents-in-law's country estate full in Styria.EARLY WORKS of the last afternoon. A by the middle of 1914. of the '. again and again. Berg suffered greatly from lack of news from Schoenberg. 13. convinced as I am that it was all said for my ov^m good. The works composed under your day. he wrote to Schoenberg: '. . I hope to show you by deeds what I am unable to express in words. However. in a letter to Webern. . I express in them. Berg score. The tension of the 'last afternoon' in Berhn is recalled still. In that letter he expressed concern about the fate 'orchestral pieces'. had Berg intended to dedicate them to Schoenberg on the occasion of the latter's fortieth birthday (Sept. I am . . two months. is any better than my last compositions. .. dedicated to you on the occasion of your birthFor years it has been my secret but persistent wish to dedicate something to you. Writing to him on July 20 he referred to this 'prolonged silence' as part of the great punishment he had endured then for year later. I don't need to tell you that the deep pain it has caused me is proof of that fact that I have heeded your reproof. and . September sending 8. . but on July 18 expressed anxiety. if what I what compels me to brood over certain bars ..

Should the latter be the case.' prevented any concentration on work there.! cannot tell today if I have succeeded or if the attempt has failed. "Reigen". about lOO bars long. I that purpose. 68 . the Sonata. ^This arrangement lost. in time. This is why I have not been able to complete the second of the three pieces.e. My hopes of writing something more independent and yet as good as these first compositions (something I could confidently dedicate to you without incurring your displeasure) have been repeatedly disappointed. summer of 191 5 and the 2 and first 3.. Reigen was not completed until the ^Opp. having been received directly supervision.ALBAN BERG do not count for from you. In this endeavour the unforgettable experience of the rehearsals 2 and the close study of your orchestral was an enormous help and has intensified miy self-criticism more and more. late in J912. . Your kind suggestion of last spring (during the journey from Amsterdam to Berlin) gave me the courage to attempt a composition which I could dedicate to you without blushing. I am still working at the piano arrangement of the Chamber Symphony. songs and Quartet.^ For this reason I am remaining here for a time and I believe I can curb my impatience and restlessness in comiection with the war better here than in Vienna. shorter than the March) and to add the score to the two pieces I am sending you now. in your fatherly benevolence. The urge "to be in it". . you will have to accept the good intention in place of the deed itself I really have tried to give of my best and to follow your advice. i. then. what is wrong in it. longer than the Prelude. to leave it until later. . and why I have had Amsterdam pieces when I shall probably succeed in altering about which I am not yet certain. I hope to finish the missing second piece soon (it is a piece of dance-character. the feeling of helplessness at being unable to serve my country. . I. i6. ^For the performance of Schoenbcrg's Five Orchestral is Pieces. Please do not take amiss my boldness in dedicating to you something incomplete.. Another reason is that the unavoidable commotion of the last weeks caused slower progress with my work than I had hoped for before the outbreak of war. Op.

copy was sent to Schoenberg in early August of that year. 1 Op. 6 was only shown after the publication of the vocal score of Wozzech (1922-23). Berg's autograph score was then published in facsimile by Universal Edition, in 1923. The first two pieces were performed in Berlin on June 5, 1923, under Webern. The complete work was first performed in 1930 at Oldenburg, under Johannes Schiiler. Berg revised the score for Schiiler, and for Scherchen,2 who performed the whole work at Winterthur in the following year.

Interest in

An unmistakable family likeness exists between the motives and thematic processes of Berg's Op. 6 and those of some of Mahler's symphonies. The m.odels for the second and third pieces are to be found in Mahler's symphonic march-movements and

rustic 'Landler'-like

Waltz-Scherzos. Berg's

must be added that he presents them as self-contained entities and not, as Mahler invariably did, as sub-sections of one great symphonic concept. 3 But the relationship between Berg's Op. 6 and Mahler's musical world goes deeper than this. It becomes manifest in Berg's re-employment of Mahler's hammer in the third piece, the fatalistic tonal symbol for the hammer-blows of fate, which fell the hero of the sixth symphony in its tragic finale. Preoccupation with sonorities and rhythmic devices typical of Mahler led to the anticipation of the 'Leitrhythmus' used in
are very



of course, and

Webern of July 13 and August 5, 191 5. This revised version was published in 1954 (Universal Edition, Vienna). It reveals some changes in expression marks and certain improvements in the difficult part for the first trombone. The substance of the music is unchanged. ^ In 1929 Berg ruled that separate performances of these pieces were permissible. But the fact that the last bars of No. i anticipate bars 3-6 of No. 2, and the fact that No. 3 is evidently planned as a kind of development section to No. i, seems to contradict the idea that the pieces are easily separable.
^Letters to



Wozzeck, Lulu and the Chamber Concerto, as may be seen in the following juxtaposition of passages from the two composers. Mahler's

rhythm of death from the Symphony, bar i, corresponds the Ninth rhythmus' in the Prelude of Op. 6:


movement of

to Berg's *Haupt-


Example 54


(Trombone Tamtam j

Example 55

Again, Mahler's thrice-repeated fate motive in his sixth sym-

phony (corresponding with

the three

hammer-blows of




tonal inexorabihty and the lugubrious thud


drum-taps, anticipates Berg's 'catastrophic rhythm' at the

very climax of his third piece

rfr^T^^=i — ^'Vf^
ff. (Timpani)


h'^/JV-;^i:5J ^l,..J^),^>^


Example 56

Example 57




of the exclusively percussive beginning and end of the 'Prelude' foreshadow the experiments of *La musique concrete' and the percussive extravaganzas of Milhaud and Varese, as much as they point back to Mahler's enclaves of organized noise in the march-sections of the first movement of his third symphony. The role played by Mahler's music as model can also be seen in certain melodic progressions of Op. 6. The lyrical contrasting

The uncanny

of the first piece (bars 15-20) seems indebted to lyrical passages of the first movements of Mahler's sixth and ninth symphonies. And the following bar from Berg's Reigen, which anticipates the Landler music of Wozzeck (11/4), was clearly suggested by the scherzo-grotesqueries of Mahler's seventh

symphony (Example




.^=^^=1\p== —






—i= ^^^^3


Example 58

Example 59

On the other hand,

Op. 6

also contains

many felicitous touches

of indisputable originality. These include the six-note chord of fourths in No. i (bar 9), wliich constitutes a link with No. 2



bar 43).


introduction to the Reigen




on two

tonal root-harmonies (F minor,





Example 60

the harmonic impurities of


recall similar processes

of of

harmonic-blurring in the Altenberg songs.





and 2


based on the principle of perpetual variation.

Their architectonic contours are therefore simple, especially in

comparison with the ambitiously-planned March, The


of Introduction, Exposition, Recapitulation and Coda, and can compare even in dimensions with a symphony movement by Mahler. The key to the understanding of the involved
3 is

harmonies of No.
the bare tritone:

to be

found in



last bar,

based on





tritone can be understeps. It stands for the


as the



of three whole-tone


of the whole-tone
at the



combined with the

chromatic scale
(Coda, bar 149

psychological climax of the 'March*
use of the chromatic scale here antici-


pates Berg's future serial technique,

which seems

to be



in the


especially in the octave transpositions

and the
steps at

resulting interval-camouflage

of chromatic semitonal

bar 149


Example 61



fanfare at the end of No. 2, based

mediants, plays an integral part in




on a progression of The same little motive

had occurred
song (bar

at the


'schoner' in the second Altenberg

5). It

prepares for the harmonic climate of Wozzech,
will re-appear in the visionary second scene


in turn



first act.

Similarly, the

murder scene of Wozzeck seems

be foreshadowed in the chromatic dissolution of No.



The Hnk between

Berg's Op. 6 and his opera becomes

manifest even to the casual observer in the case of the trombone

motive of No.

(bar 80 ff),


re-appears, shghtly varied

rhythmically, in Wozzeck


bar 275

panies Wozzeck's sinister words:

ff), where it accomSomething wanders with us











The Opera of

Protest and







on Berg,l Schoenberg

I wrote
*I was greatly surprised when this soft-hearted, timid young man had the courage to engage in a venture which seemed to invite misfortune: to set "Wozzeck", a drama of such extraordinary tragic power that it seemed forbidding to music. And, furthermore, it contained scenes of every-day hfe at variance with the concept of opera, which still depended on stylized costumes and

conventionahzed characters


Schoenberg's insight thus recognized the feature by w^hich

Wozzeck may be distinguished from its forerunners and models Wagnerian music-drama and contemporary operas such as Debussy's Pelleas^ Strauss's Salome and Elektra, Schoenberg's own Erwartung and Die gluckliche Hand, and Franz Schreker's early opera Derferne Klang. What was new in Berg's opera was determined by his choice of subject. A superficial survey of operas roughly contemporary with Wozzeck might easily persuade one to attach too much importance to one feature they have in common: the librettos of Debussy's opera and the two

^See Appendix i, where the essay is printed throughout in Schoenberg's pecuhar variety of EngHsh. The passage here quoted has been sHghtly revised.



was the result of a general tendency of the time to avoid the symmetrical periods of Viennese classical music. whereas the plays of Maeterlinck. in essentials. are still not far removed. It is surely more than on coincidience that Maeterlinck's PelUas. Salome's obscene love- death'. Biichner's fragment presents a social problem in dramatic form. The emotional agent o£Pelleas is identical with that of Tristan and draws the charac- ters as inevitably to their 'Liebestod'. musical 'prose' style. to turn away from the use of regularly corresponding phrases (largely determined by the fact that the old libretto was usually in rhymed verse) towards a free. although Biichner's Wozzeck with left unfinished at the time of the poet's death in 1837 and published posthumously as late as 1879 can hardly be classified as a contemporary play. from the sphere of romantic music- fragment — — drama. despite their prose dialogue and realistic tendencies. all Wilde's Salome and Hofmannsthal's Elektra had cessful runs enjoyed suc- the stage before practically renouncing their purely literary existence in symbiosis with music of overpowering vitahty. although deliberately conceived as 'Antiits and differing from Wagner's opera also in much lower emotional temperature. and Elektra' s sterile hysteria. Wilde and Hofmannsthal. Despite certain 75 realistic . asymmetrical. remarkable in itself. The principal difference between Wozzeck and these plays lies in its subject matter.WOZZECK works by Strauss named above are based. yet presents another variation of the tragic triangle Tristan-Isolde-Mark. The composer of the new century preferred the realistic dialogue of straight plays to the metrical versification of the older libretto. At link Berg's first glance it might seem reasonable enough to these works. result from the same primordial force of frustrated eroticism. This phenomenon. too. Debussy's Tristan' Pelleas. like that of Wozzeck^ on existing stage plays.

arias and duets. 76 . Schreker's influence was probably wholly subconscious. with none of the traditional operatic choruses. Fritz. Even the immediate forerunners of Wozzeck Schoenberg's Erwartung (1909) and Die gluckliche Hand (191 3). ensembles. Gretel's emotional debauch usurps too much of the hmelight. 1 The primitive conflict of the sexes lies behind both early operas of Schoenberg. fails to the social implications of his subject.— ALBAN BERG of Golaud dragging Melisande by her hair. or up the hatchet. although they certainly powerfully influenced Berg. Although based on modern plays in prose. only to re-encounter the dishonoured girl at the very moment of his despair in his creative faculties. Schreker's opera comes much scenes. especially as used in Die gliickliche Hand. chasing a phantom sound. Derferne Klang is based on a libretto. first performed in 1912) differ considerably from it. Unfortunately. which can still be assessed as emanations of the Tristan legend. The importance of Erwartting in this connection will become manifest in the course of this book. represents an early attempt to depict social environ- ment as the determinant of personal tragedy. 2 Schreker's Fritz and Gretel are seen from the vie^vpoint of the 'Milieu' theory of the 1890's. An artist of more profound ^ Berg's preface to Wozzeck points out the determining influence of Schoenberg's 'Sprechstimme' technique. they still derive from Wagner's romantic mystery-play of redemption. abandons his sweetheart and drives her to prostitution. Jam/a was begun as far back as 1896. Janacek is reported to have recognized Wozzeck as the expression of a kindred spirit when he attended the first performances of the opera in Prague in 1926. written by the composer himself. like that Elektra digging — nearer to a truly realistic conception of music-drama. who. and Schreker's Derferne Klang (completed in 1909. The story of the modern composer. in his naively achieve a well-balanced presentation of realistic libretto. and Schreker. of which the contemporary plot and characters anticipate the Zeitoper of the 1920's. the action of these operas takes place in an atmosphere of legendary remoteness. 2 Some of Janacek's operas also call for mention here.

in as culmination of his play. the opera of social protest It is clear from Schoenberg's essay on Berg. even. rather than batmen. a final scene which Wozzeck was to have addressed a criminal court. what seemed commonplace crime-report ('Soldier murders girl in jealous fit') became the basis of a social drama of remarkable penetration. delivering a shattering sentence of death on the court of law and on the State itself. and in which the accused was to have become the accuser. According to more recent research. at any that he thought the stark realism and unrelieved gloom of Biichner's play made it unsuitable for musical rate on anything approaching traditional operatic lines.WOZZECK feeling and a musician endowed with the gift of structural inte- gration was needed for the creation of a : new archetypal species and compassion. 77 . Only in of opera the spiritual and creative symbiosis of Biichner and Berg could this new kind of opera come into being. treatment. ^ Cf. 1 However. who succeeds in presenting his murderer as the hapless victim of a system of political tyranny. Biichner superficially a seems to have planned. The Score. Karl Rankl reports. already quoted. then Schoenberg's initial scepticism would have been justified. declaring that the concern of music should be angels. May 1952. If Biichner's fragment (used by Berg in the textually unreliable version published by Emil Franzos in 1879) had represented nothing more than the dramatization of a police report. But W^ozzeck is much more: it is the gospel of a convinced revolutionary and socialist. that Schoenberg at first disapproved of Berg's choice of subject.

ALBAN BERG Georg Biichner was born on October 17. Biichner's poetical works. where he completed his studies with a brilliant paper. He became ill early in 1836 and died in his twenty-fourth year. with Richard Wagner. A poHtical pamphlet. letters and pamphlets. 1837. a brilliant scholar. the comedy Leonce and Lena and the fragmentary Woyzeck (this was the original and correct spelling). movements among students and Biichner eventually went to near-by Strasdu barbeau'. Two more plays. and the stress and strain of his creative activities undermined his delicate health. at Goddelau. This essay bourg. were discovered after his death among his papers. a philosopher strife of unreheved reactionary oppression in Central Europe. on February 19. where in due course Biichner received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. In October 1835 he arrived Zurich and was appointed Lecturer in Anatomy. He belongs. The play. A precocious child. the frustration of exile in Alsace and Switzerland. *Sur le systeme nerveaux as a thesis was accepted by Zurich at University. 1 813. was published in 1835 and hailed by Carl Gutzkow as a work of genius. 'Der Hessische Landbote'. increasingly hostile to the liberal university teachers. to the generation destined to prepare and to unleash the 'liberal revolution' of 1848 in Germany and Austria. The political persecution to which he and some of his friends were subjected in Hesse. he became involved in pohtical with the authorities of Hesse while studying at Giessen University. characteristically inspired by a great revolutionary subject. a scientist of dis- of great promise. stamped Biichner as a forerunner of Marx and Bakunin. Buchner's youth coincided with a period tinction. near Darmstadt (Hesse). the son of a doctor. which circulated clandestinely in 1834-35. continued to exercise a profound influence on his generation an influence easily traceable in the dramatic works — 78 . Dantons Death. continuous over-work during his student-days.

He was a Polish Jew. a part of Poland which then formed part of the Habsburg Empire. epoch that went before the March The *Holy AlHance' during this epoch de- prived the generation of Schubert and Grillparzer of freedom of thought and poHtical independence. It first editor of the collected decipher the almost illegible of Friedrich Hebbel was left to Emil Franzos. . as in those 863). and thus forced them to withdraw from unpleasant reality into literary clubs and romantic make-believe. . in belated succession to the storming of the Bastille in 1789. lightninglike illuminations of the darkness in Wozzeck' s mind shows influence the measure of the and political ideas composer of 1914. wretched folk. at Czarkow. in 1879. poor. .! edition of Biichner's works. .' 'All our days are spent in endless toiUng sleep . sweating even in . 1904. 1848. and wrote novels concerned with Polish or Ruthenian Jews living precariously on the fringes of Germany and Austria-Hungary. . He died in Berlin on January 31. WOZZECK of Gutzkow. . (i 8 1 3-1 his discoverer. his later admirer. ejaculatory sentences and fragmentary exclamations 'Folk Hke us are always unfortunate in this world and in any other world.' The importance given in Berg's opera to these sudden. in Galicia. Wozzeck is the spokesman of the 'tiers etat'. which..' 'If we should arise to heaven we'd be employed there in helping to make the : . In Biichner's drama the sufferings of the humble and the almost dumb find painful articulation in elliptic. for the benefit of a Wozzeck is the tragedy of the enslaved victims of Metter- nich's 'Vormdrz\ the dreary revolution of 1848. thunder . whose subsequent war-time experiences must have made him particularly sensitive to the ordeals social ^Franzos was bom on October 25. to manuscript of Wozzeck and to pubHsh this great dramatic prelude to the revolution of 1848-49 later generation. by Biichner's of 1836 on the young Austrian exercised 79 . . was at length in 1848 to succeed in abolishing at any rate the worst features of that feudal tyranny.

in an army led by German-speaking town. The first was the construction of the libretto by con- densing and unifying Buchner's loose sequence of short scenes. 80 . the batman changed into the avenging angel of enslaved humanity. called up which consisted in good measure of enslaved soldiers of Wozzeck's Slavonic type. ^In his Complete Edition of Buchner's works. held special significance for the for the Austro-Hungarian army. 2 became in the end the symbol of the Austrian Slav. as Arnold Zweig called him. 1 The tragedy of the poor Prussian infantryman of Pohsh extraction. May IS)54). is matched by the entirely new music which he established in the principles that guided the between words and setting to We must now try to discover music a such composer in drama that even Schoenberg stage at first believed unfit for treatment. 'The Bohemian-German Job of the Fourth Estate'. 1923. Munich. officers. B^rg chose to treat this subject at the fateful moment when. each knit. To set it to music between 1 9 14 and 1 92 1 was an act of supreme artistic awareness and political conscientiousness. Buchner's fragment was probably written between the Spring of 1836 and October of the same year. 'Autobiographische Elemente in Alban Berg's "Wozzeck" {Osterreichische Mttsikzeitschrift. to use again the terms of Schoen- berg. The revolutionary novelty of the subject of Berg's opera relationship it./Cf. . gagged and silenced. Kurt Blaukopf. harassed to death in the stuffy atmosphere of a Prussian garrison- young Berg. These were transformed into a closely in three acts. The table of concordances *. coherent structure of five scenes.ALBAN BERG of Wozzeck at the hands of his ruthless superiors.

Buchner's scenes 10. the child. Scene 19 ('Junk-shop: the Jew and Wozzeck') had been included in Franzos's edition. the number of characters was reduced. he is reported to have regretted this in later years. but was eUminated by Berg. The figure of Margaret (Act 3. Andres) I/2 . which included only twenty-three scenes. Table of Concordances between bijchner's play and berg's libretto (Zweig's edition) 1 A room (Captain. Buchner's scene 18 and part of scene 20 became Act 3. Scene 5. Berg set to music fifteen out of a total of twentyseven preserved scenes of the fragmentary drama. Wozzeck' (No. Scene 3) stands for Biichner's Kathe as well as for the innkeeper's wife. the Captain and the Doctor have also absorbed the parts of Buchner's 'First and Second Citizens'. More than once Berg telescoped several scenes of the play for reasons of dramatic economy and concentration. Scene 4. . of Berg's libretto.WOZZECK between play and libretto (printed overleaf) shows how this was done. He admitted later that he had used for his opera only the older and unreliable edition pubUshed by Franzos. Scene i another part of scene 20 and scene 26 became Act 3. 23 in Zweig's complete edition of 1923). Among those missing was the very effective one. In Act 3. Andres takes over the words of the 'other young men' and those of the un-named 'soldier'. Similarly. In Act 2. 16 and 17 were fused together to form Act 2. On the other hand. *The idiot. Countryside Wozzeck) I/i 2 (Wozzeck. Scene 4. of the libretto. Scene 5.

Inner yard in the barracks . Drum-Major) 1/5 The Doctor's operating theatre (Doctor. Andres) — 11/4 ^4 J5 16 17 Country inn (Dance. 17 and Berg's 11/5) 11 12 Street (Captain. \ I Barracks (Andres.ALBAN BERG 3 4 5 The town (Marie. Wozzeck. III/i and 82 . Drum-Major) — (but cf. Wozzeck) 18 j '^ J 10. Wozzeck) Street (Grandmother's story) ^o (But ni/5) cf. 16. (Drum-Major. 6 7 8 Inside a Wozzeck. Marie) 13 Guardroom (Wozzeck. 17. Marie) A street (Marie. Wozzeck) The Doctor's study 1/3 1/4 Open square (People. Marie) booth (Crier. Doctor. Wozzeck) ' combined with elements of Biichner's Nos. Biichner's No. students) 9 10 A A small room (Marie. child) II/i tavern (Wozzeck. Marie's room III/i (Bible-reading scene) 19 Junk shop (The Jew. Wozzeck) Marie's n/a n/3 room (Wozzeck. wandering artisans) Open country — .

(Children) III/5 27 Dissecting theatre (Surgeon. as in the fourth scene of the first act. although foreshadowed in certain passages of the operas 83 . the original text. Doctor. Here and composer improved Buchner's text. on which a fast polka there the * is played. Judges) — On the other Berg added many stage-directions. Outside the gate of Marie's house. to the lurid tavern-scene (Act 3. (The idiot. If he had set many coarse expressions in Wozzeck in later years he might have been music lines less puritanical. since he did not hesitate to set to of a much more risque character in Lulu. the child. where his replacement of Wozzeck. Scene 3) is another happy innovation. others) Path between second trees near the first pond (Wozzeck. Evening. Andres) — III/2 22 Path between trees near the pond (Wozzeck.WOZZECK 21 Barracks (Wozzeck. Wozzeck) — III/3 24 25 The Tavern (Wozzeck. let me feel your pulse' by' Wozzeck. show me your tongue' leads to a 'curtain' of grotesque. or considerably softened. Marie) 23 Outside the gate of Marie's house. The addition of the out-of-tune upright piano. citizens) and III/4 26 Early morning. hand he ex- punged. Kathe. daemonic effectiveness. In Wozzeck Berg employed a style of singing and of declamation totally different from the traditional styles of German opera.

within the popular sphere. It was not easy to make these different planes clear within this so-called atonal harmonic — I succeeded by giving to everything diat. an easily perceptible primitive character. I believe fell musically. which in recitative are abandoned). but that by it opera has been enriched by a valuable new musical resource (ranging from the whispered word off-pitch to the 'bel parlare' of its widely ranging 'speech' melodies). Berg expounded on Wozzeck of 1929 1 his views pn this With regard it to the treatment of the singing voice in this opera. almost no recitatives in my opera. However. There are. Cf. and thus of establishing in my opera a resomething that lationship between art-music and popular-music is a mere matter of course in tonal music. there is no real reason why much of what is conceived of cantahile singing should not be mastered with the aid of 'beautiful singing'. which I was the first and for a long time the only person to use on a large scale in opera. practicable even within the atonal harmonic system. The apphcation of this technique to opera has shown that this kind of melodramatic treatment of in terms of the art the voice (while fully utilizing all its purely musical possibihties. But I beheve I have hberaUy compensated for this omission with the so-called 'rhythmic declamation' introduced by Schoenberg nearly twenty years ago in the declamatory choruses of 'Die gliickHche Hand' and in the 'melodramas' of his 'Pierrot'. rhythmically and dynamically controlled speech. at once a welcome complement and an attractive contrast to the fully sung word. to be sure. represents not only one of the best means of conveying the sense of the words (which must at times be the task of language. The other result of my present investigations is the way in which I dealt with the necessity of introducing passages in the style of popular song. this kind of melodicaUy. even in opera). system. Appendix 3. the use of harmonies in thirds and. The means available for this are: a preference for symmetrically shaped periods. page 26 iff.: ALBAN BERG of Strauss subject in his lecture and Schoenberg. 84 . 1 For a first full publication. has often been observed that it is not exactly a Bel Canto opera. I have not even forgone the possibilities of ornamental singing.

in contrast to the diminished and augmented intervals used in the atonal music of the 'Vienna School'. In the preface to the vocal score of Wozzeck Berg reprints parts of Schoenberg's explanatory note mation'. scale melodies based. may well have been put on paper as early as 1901. in order to explore and exploit the possibilities of the realistic expression of his text. dialogue between Marie and being identical with the 'melodrame' of opera (e. Beethoven's Fidelio. of words spoken to syn- chronized music (Act Margaret).g. No. The subtle differences between 85 . Act 2. 12).WOZZECK especially. Wir ar- mg Ltut^ Example 62 and the style of popular song I. Berg employs in turn different techniques of musical They range from emotional 'Sprechgesang* in the manner of Wagner (Wozzeck's expressive main motive: 'Wir arme Leut' ') declamation. largely on the whole-toneand the perfect fourth. although this piece surely the earliest it example of Schoenberg's brand of 'speaking voice'. this classical last Scene 3. Avoiding both Bel Canto and dramatic recitative. He also refers to a similar commentary interesting provided in the full-score o£ Die gluckliche Hand. (the songs to the 'normal speaking intonation' of Marie and Andres). in fourths . So-called 'Polytonahty' is also another such means of creating harmonically primitive music. Midway between these two extremes of vocal expression are the transitional types of 'Sprechstimme' and 'rhythmic decla- Opp. 18 and 21 and expressly mentioned in Berg's lecture. to note that It is Berg abstains from any is reference to the earlier *melodrame' in the Gurrelieder ('Des Sommerwindes wilde Jagd'). used in Schoenberg's to his Pierrot Lunaire.

Marie's reading from the Bible unci ffnie -fe hin zu ih rcn Fus Example 64 re-approaches again the plane of cantabile singing. The latter method of strict indication of pitch and interval was adopted by Berg in many parts of Wozzeck (1/2. The problem of actual pitch and of clear differentiation of intervals is evidently a more serious one in the two later works. Whereas Wozzeck's spoken phrase (spok.) contrast to Example 63 is represented by the popular 'Lied' style of Wozzeck.ALBAN BERG the 'melodrame' in the Gurrelieder and the *Sprechstimme* in Die gliickliche Hand 2ind Pierrot Lunaire 2ive revealed in a letter of Schoenberg's published in Berg's guide to the Gurrelieder. (Observe in the foregoing examples Berg's endeavour to distinguish graphically between the two vocal techniques. 11/ 3 -4. However. 111/ 1 and 111/4).sn) I>u^ dtr PJatx /St ver-fhicht! Example 63 represents only an ordinary speaking 'melodrame' with extra emotional emphasis. The result is a melody that might have been invented by the Mahler of the 86 . Marie hums in the manner of The extreme a folksong in symmetrical eight-bar periods. especially apparent in the songs of Marie and Andres. subtle gradations can be found even within the narrow Umits of 'rhythmic declamation'. In the 'Quasi Trio' section of the Military March (Act i. 1 8 and 21 ( i ). Scene 3). The contrast becomes graphically evident in the transition from the 'white notation' of the Gurrelieder 'melodrame' ( ^ ) to the 'black notation' of Opp.

87 . by Janacek in his Czech operas. In striving for truly realistic expression and in tours of the traditional Bel blurs the outline Canto vocal line. 1 This becomes his dislike particularly noticeable in the rare cantahile sections. from the *Wunderhorn' songs: Ach ^ Bri/ - der^ och Briider^ ihr geht Ja - rn'ir vor- u - ber Example 65 In his treatment of the voice parts Berg undoubtedly paid special attention to the question of 'Intonation'.: WOZZECK *Wunderhorn' songs. This passage seems indeed to have been consciously associated by Berg with Mahler's Revelge. as. of liis melodies in folk-style by the intrusion of the clear conBerg deliberately of the atmospheric orchestral background-music Andres 'c^^ Example 66 The 'atonal' deviation in Andres's 'x' is as song (it is hummed. rather than sung) at ^ legitimate an artistic device for the creation The speech. use of intervals based on the inflections of the voice in ordinary idiomatic for example.

however. Scene 4). This calculated impurity of pitch saves these popular melodies from pitch.: ALBAN BERG of a tion realistic sound-atmosphere as are the 'tonally' correspond- ing echoes ^t'a. Wagner and Wagner. approaching near to the Wilhelmine Schroder-Devrient's transference of the 'cris du fureur' of the French revolutionary opera to Beethoven's Fidelio. the tune is Here the naive diatonicism of countered by the erroneous A flat in the refrain by the burden-like choral parts. from obviousness and all vestiges of sentimentality. that certain extravastyle. 67 It should not be overlooked. clogging and hampering the nimbly ascending scale-passage in C major: *HaUi. describes 88 . Act 2 in his autobiography. gances of Berg's vocal apoplectic Captain: such as the grotesque squeak of the Jff Pok ' ' for/ Example 68 have their roots in certain border-line cases of dramatic expresrealistic sion in shout. Strauss. Even more con- vincing is the shaping of the folk-song for chorus *Ein Jager aus der Pfalz' (Act 2. Hallo' and einst durch ei-nem ffriinen lA/a/d! Haf-ti ! Hah hi Example. The latter incorporate the involuntary devia- customary in unaccompanied singing.

certain vocal climaxes in offering Wozzeck is scored for an outstandingly large orchestra. HARP. 89 BASSOONS DOUBLE BASSOON . 4 TROMBONES CONTRABASS TUBA 2 TAMTAMS. XYLOPHONE. BASS DRUM. TRIANGLE. . marked possibilities of differentiation of tone-colour 4 HORNS 4 TRUMPETS 4 FLUTES TYMPANI CYMBALS. 4 OBOES 4 CLARINETS BASS CLARINET 3 BROOM.: m'erstsein Wetb! — Example 69 The realistic interpretation of this passage in Fidelio probably paved the way for things Salome: like these bars from Parsifal and Upd lach-te Example 70 Mon to - tf dieses We'/b Example 71 which in turn may have influenced Berg's opera. CELESTA. SIDE DRUMS. STRINGS.

Mahler's last vocal compositions and Strauss's Ariadne (1912). is accompanied by a mere 'obbHgato' of five solo woodwind instruments. occurs in the following orchestral Interlude. resulting from the fact that each act demanded three changes of scene. Berg thus reflects the change of style in writing for the orchestra which took place with Schoenberg's and Schreker's Kammer-Sinfonien of 190608. The whole first scene. in spite of the numerous changes of scene. while the scenes themselves are accompanied by smaller. The first orchestral tutti. Gigue. Pavane. harp. muted strings and an occasional touch of percussion. that impression would not outlast the very first page of the first scene of the opera. selected groups of instruments. The orchestral style of Wozzeck differs from that of Wagner and Strauss chiefly by the fact that its 'fortissimo' effects are almost exclusively confined to the interludes between the scenes. Gavotte and Double). the basic function of which was to ensure the musical cohesion of the acts as wholes. Berg discussed this problem in his lecture on Wozzeck: A further compelling necessity for musical variety arose with the comparatively large number of orchestral interludes. where Wozzeck. shaving the Captain. Cadenza.ALBAN BERG A cursory glance at the massive array of wood-wind and brass might suggest a work rather in hne with the mammoth scores of Pdchard Strauss and early Schoenberg. This relationship between scene and interlude is found throughout the whole score. is played throughout to the above accompaniment of chambermusic-like dimensions. To 90 . of only 9 bars. which compelled the composer to provide no less than fourteen orchestral interludes. the structure of which closely corresponds with that of the old harpsichord suite (comprising Praeludium. The solution of the orchestral problems of Wozzeck was fmally determined by the nature of the libretto. However.

Clarinet in E flat. v^hich often tend to smother the delicate. Double Bassoon. from the orchestral interludes. Oboe. Cor Anglais. (b) A band con- sisting of: 'Fiddles' (i. Bassoon. extraneous orchestral sonorities. athematical lyricism of the preceding scene with their heavy climaxes of. Clarinet in A. and partly giving them the forms of coda to the preceding scene. tuned a tone ^ Probably Debussy's PelUas et Melisande meant. say. This organic quality in the Wozzeck interludes distinguishes them. two Horns and five solo strings.e. of players in the village inn. 91 . 9) consisting of: Flute (Piccolo). Bass Clarinet. Op. much to their advantage. these orchestral interludes are related to the scenes they connect in a v^ay that recalls the relationship be- tween the development section of a movement of a symphony and its exposition and recapitulation. on the violins stage.: WOZZECK have written here symphonic transitions or intermezzi throughout (such as I was to observe later in another contemporary opera with many changes of scene i) would have been at variance with my own conception of musical drama. So I was compelled to aim at contrast and variety by making these interludes partly transitional bridge-passages. or even both at once. with is 'scordatura'. instruments [a] A chamber orchestra of fifteen instruments (deliberately modelled on Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony No. or prelude to the following scene. Generally speaking. as it were. in Debussy's Pelleas. i. Berg's art of orchestral differentiation is seen at its subtlest in Here the orchestral tutti is split up into three self-contained and independently organized groups of Scenes 3 and 4 of Act 2.

In the fourth like the three scene group {a) is replaced by group which — ballroom orchestras in Mozart's Don Giovanni cadential figure (in Berg's opera — enters with a is even a thematic allusion to (Berg) on the Bombardon). Act 3 (the waltz in E. The music 92 . Guitars and (c) Bombardon in F. In the third scene the spoken dialogue between Marie and accompanied by group (a). This results in a veryoriginal relationship Wozzeck between concertino (b) and tutti. however. A residuary orchestral is 'tutti'. with its music con- based on Waltz and Landler rhythms. group (c). comes into action as soon as the figure of the Drum Major begins to dominate their exchanges. Scene 2). Clarinet in C. cue loi). while group orchestra (c) is fined to occasional interjections. Accordion. There Mozart at bar 439: $^ Example 72 For a long time group (b) dominates the scene. This relationship between an on the stage and the orchestra in the pit recalls that in Der Rosenkavalier. Trio of the MiHtary March of Act i.ALBAN BERG higher than normally. and brings in all the motives associated with that character (Rondo theme. like the solo violin in the Scherzo of Mahler's Fourth Symphony).

and o£theLdndler. the barmaid. Here the instrumental accompaniment is again of a duaHstic nature. while the tutti orchestra contributes the sinister stammer accompanying Wozzeck' s distracted exclamations. Here the orchestra is again transformed into an ensemble of soloists. Act i. reminiscent of this Rosenkavalier waltz. 93 . beginning with a Fugue on a six-note theme Example 73 accompanying Marie's reading from the Bible.e. In sharp contrast is the treatment of the orchestral interlude ('Invention on one note') following the second scene of this act. perhaps deliberately. The piano vamps accompaniments to the ballad-like song of Margaret.: : WOZZECK of Berg's stage-orchestra is. which culminates in the famous thirteen bars on the note B (i. This is organized as a sequence of 'Inventions'..Waltz from Weber's Der Freischiitz. the persistent pedal point of the preceding murder-scene) ending with a tremendous 'fff\ after the 'fatal rhythm' (the structural backbone of the following scene) has been given out by the hass drum in isolated savagery {jimp) ff > > > > Example 74 Example 74 is the basis of the brutal 'Quick Polka' strummed out on the out-of-tune upright piano at the beginning of the third scene. Very different is the role allotted to the orchestra in Act 3 of Wozzeck.

How could I hope to achieve. indeed. is familiar to taries. at least in the harmonic sphere. each of five scenes. without the well-tried resources of tonality and its possibilities of formal organization.ALBAN BERG In the final interlude ('Invention and fifth scenes of this act. linking the fourth power of the orchestra comes dramatic content of the whole Its work in the manner of a symphonic epilogue. ever since its publication. and the almost anachronistic recurrence here to the opulent manner of Mahler or early Schoenberg throws the subtleties of the chamber-music-like texture of the Wozzeck relief. as already mentioned. structure It emphasizes remarkably the ternary of the work. not only in the short scenes. 94 . epitomizing the on a key'). the full at last into play. This is the longest piece of sustained orchestral music in the opera. which has ehcited so many commenmain sections of Berg himself recognized a posteriori 'the good old ternary form A-B-A\ The following table of corresponding relationships between stage-scenes and musical forms. and. roots go back to a discarded symphonic project of 19 12. In the three the work. originally drafted by the composer. score in general into bold Another passage of Berg's lecture of 1929 discusses the problem of musical form presented by Wozzeck : When I decided to compose a full-length opera I was confronted with a new problem. in the general structure of the entire opera? The solution of this problem is to be found in the unique formal organization of Wozzeck. but in the formal design of whole acts. the same compelling musical unity? Unity. every student of the opera.

Wozzeck seeks forget- Invention on a rhythm. Marie and the Drum Major. Orchestral interlude (Epilogue) Scene 5 Children playing. : : (Wozzeck derided) Marie andWozzeck (Wozzeck accuses Marie of be- Scene 3 : Largo for chamber orchestra. : Scene 4: Invention on a chord of notes. Scene 2 Marie and Wozzeck at the pond. Scene 5 : Introduction and ziale. Scene 5 : Scena. Scene 3 : (Marie's death) Scene 3 : Tavern. : Scene 2: Invention on one note. Scene 2 Wozzeck and Andres. Scene 3 Military March LuUaby : : — Scene 4: Wozzeck and the Doctor. : : Scene i: Suite (in 11 sections). Scene 5: Andante afFettuoso (quasi Rondo). Scene i : Invention on a theme. Scene i : Sonata movement. ing unfaithful to him) Scene 4: Garden of a country inn (Marie dances with the Drum Major) Scene 5 Guardroom in the barracks (Soldiers. Andres. Scene 3 Marie and Wozzeck. Scene i Marie and the child (her remorse). six fulness in drink. 95 . Musical form: ments. Scene 2 Scene 3 : Wozzeck Scene 2 Invention and Fugue. environment. Wozzeck (Wozzeck' s first suspicions) Captain. Scene 4: Passacaglia (Theme and 21 variations). Doctor. The Drum : Scene 4: Scherzo with 3 Trios and recapitulation (2 orchestras).— WOZZECK Formal Organization of WOZZECK MUSIC Act Exposition: : I Wozzeck in relation to his Musical form: 5 character pieces. Musical form: 6 Inventions. Scene 4: Wozzeck's death in the pond. Scene i Wozzeck and the Captain. among Marie's child. them Invention on a key (D minor) Scene 5: Invention on a continuous quaver-movement. Symphony in 5 move- Scene i: Marie and the child. Scene 2 Rhapsody on 3 chords. Act 2 Dramatic development: Wozzeck becomes more and more convinced of Marie's unfaithfulness. Rondo mar- Major manhandles Wozzeck) Act Catastrophe : 3 and epilogue: Wozzeck murders Marie and atones by suicide.

action (3) and music. Leitmotive play an integral part already in Monteverdi's Favola d'Orfeo (1607) as in Mehul's Ariodant (1799) and Weber's FreischUtz (1821). Weber and Wagner. 1928). He also used scales (including the diatonic scale) and serial rows at certain pivotal points of the drama. the structural organization of Wozzeck is by no means fully illustrated by the above tables. situation. The forms of absolute music are likewise no strangers to opera. imagined. in Wagner's manner. older musical forms (Suite. An assessment of the musical structure of Wozzeck must distinguish three basic techniques (i) The use of diatonic and non-diatonic scales and serial rows as unifying elements. Fugue. All three basic techniques have been used in opera again and again. etc. the use of the forms of 'absolute music' in opera was much less of a novelty than he and his first critics. from Monteverdi and Gluck to Mehul. the chorale prekidc in Mozart's Magic Flute. the fugues in 96 . 9. in an article published in 1928. thirty years ago. the canon in Beethoven's Fidelio.: ALBAN BERG Some commentators have a revolutionary imiovation. 2 When Berg conceived the five scenes movements of 1 of his second act as the a symphony he only turned a fundamental. (2) The use of characteristic motives [Leitmotiv e).) as Berg himself disposed of that idea. Jahrgang 49. establishaffinities ing close between character.usic. he continued to use Leitmotive. if 'Das Opernproblem' {Neue Mi-isikzeitung. 1 Actually. Stuttgsirt. Wagner's Meistersinger (Act 2) and in Verdi's Fahtaff. No. But does the emphasis on formal organization really represent in Wozzeck new in opera? Surely not. However. Although Berg discarded the possibilities of formal organization through tonality. The use of the forms of absolute something m. hailed the use in opera of the Rondo. Passacagha. ^ Cf.

These motives act upon one another. are formed. also derive from traditional haract. separating. of 1879. 5. definite keys are Traditional major and minor scales are frequently used ta folk- express certain moods. of Schoenberg's Erwartung: for there are many passages of tonally organized music in which employed. the frequently misinterpreted chord of C major accompanying Wozzeck's 'Da ist wieder Geld. Var.! or the section in F minor (III/i. . claim of Wagner at last into artistic reality. mony. like motives in a symphony-movement. to which Berg attri- butes integral importance. Marie. 2 bars before cue lonely child. . p. traced the conception of his Viennese to classical Wagner had new Musikdrama back to the symphony: 'Nevertheless.written interpolation in 'How this passage: the typescript of Berg's lecture of 1929 refers to could the detached objectivity (Sachlichkeit) of money be better expressed?' G 97 . the new form of work of art. These chords.WOZZECK hypothetical. although their use could be justified by certain features of the score. complementing. say. linking up. tune'Soldaten sindschoneBurschen' (I/2.' Lohnung (II/i). cf. 87. This unity is dramatic music must have the unity of a symphony-movement. according to the com- ^ A hand. Both is terms are misleading and inappropriate. yet it is not strictly atonal in the sense. In his essay 'Uber die Anwendung der Musik auf das Drama' ('On the application of music to the drama').' Berg's Wozzeck is neither atonal nor dodecaphonic. which recur at the end of each and function there 'like a tonic'. For instance: Marie's hummed Example 65) in A flat. 3 5) when Marie tells the fairy-tale about the The final cadential chords of the opera. die . become a musical given by a tissue of basic motives permeating the whole composition. The opera described by Berg himself as 'a work in atonal style'.

These melodic moveof (a) and ments are sequence as steps of whole tones. If the variant of the sequence {a)-{b) in Act 3. Yet they appear each time in different form. from C flat to D flat.: ALBAN BERG poser himself. to diatonic To these obvious re- harmony should be added (&) melodic movements. is presented as a cadential formula well as to the diatonic scale Example 76 98 . capable of tonic resolution into lationships E major or F sharp major. of the same notes.e. and from A to the B natural. Closer investigation be traced to a certain serial scale-organization. Separately assessed. This means that the chord to the whole-tone scale (melodically) {a)-{b) is related possibilities (as far as modulation and the of enharmonic change are concerned). at the entry of the fab ur den fifths (c). ( idcoi re$o- Whole tone stcf! enharmonic e>chanqe 'lutioo) . y i Example 75 Both chords. chords at the shows that their origin mayThe sequence of ends of Acts i and 3 can be presented in the fol- lowing reduced form: (ideal reso-lurion) . oscillate above the faburden-fifths (c). in the liighest and lowest parts. {a) and {h). {a) both and {b) are chords of the seventh. bar 390. they are rooted in diatonic harmony. i.

undoubtedly. Op. in the sense of later dodecaphonic practice.: : : WOZZECK and is then strung out serially. the result is the 'Grundgestalt' (Basic Shape) of a G major scale with interstitial whole-tone "'''^'^1 steps ^^nH""'"'^"*"" Its "i " i -^ and the Example jj inversion presents a perfect whole-tone sequence. This is seen most forcibly in the Passacaglia subject 99 . which was still in statu pupillari at the time when Wozzeck was completed. Kinship exists. 4) a surprisingly close approximation to the processes of twelve-note music. between the chord sequence {a)'{b) chordal pendulum of the introduction to the song Nacht {Seven Early Songs. as well as in their immutable hard core: the inner sequence of two whole-tone steps Example 79 This relationship between Wozzeck and the harmonic process of the early song proves anew the organic character of Berg's whole creative development. They disclose (hke the fifth of the Altenberg Lieder. Those sections of Wozzeck based on scale-like serial formations of atonal character are further removed from the logistics of the diatonic scale. 1907) Example 78 That kinship is seen in the variable sequence of chords of the ninth.

'the Doctor's idee fixe with purely musical means'. Significantly enough. This a typical process of Dodecaphony. . . telescopes the intervals into simultaneously-sounding har- monies. as the composer says. The vertical presentation of the series ' . the basis of the twentyone variations which express. anticipating Variation 7. called 'Chaconne' by Berg himself.' . which might have is first been a preliminary study for it. Op. as is the passacagha- subject of the fifth Altenberg song. passacagha. and is not there. It is not used thematic groundis but appears as a vertical chord-condensation. a condensation of this twelve-note series (cf.: ALBAN BERG (1/4). Example 80) accompanies (at the very end of Variation 6) Wozzeck's words Wenn was is und doch . when it's there. thus: . The theme itself is dodecaphonic (as Berg himself discovered later). . This passacagha-theme presented on the clarinet as an 'expressionless' symbol 1*54 5 fc789 Example 80 In Variations 6 and 7 this subject is not treated in the traditional as a manner of the bass. which admits the possibiHty of transposition of every member of the Basic Shape into different octaves. nicht is.') boldly ('Ah. 4.

: WOZZECK Variation 7 repeats the process and completes subjected to a selective process based it by including is the retrograde version of the series. Violins. and of the creative independence of Berg's — exploring mind.another as tonic and at dominant. play the following passage. — V. resolution 1 \yn i -^ tL>~ ^ ' _ ^fx H=^=^s#=**=^= resolution (Trombones) Examples 82 and 83 lOI . which anticipates the selective sequence serial technique o£ Lulu. among the expressive Berg effectively blurs the contours of the harmony by simultaneously sounding two chords of seventh. based on a chord of A flat minor. thus: (a) (^) 2 4 6 8 I 3 5 7 The omitted notes 'a and '/' (9 and 10 of the series) are presented by the stationary faburden-fifths [c). Polytonality also has a part to play devices of the opera. The passage here analysed contains the principles of Schoenberg's later twelve-note technique in a nutshell of the historical inevitability this nique at proof at once of the development of this techtime. which re-echo Wozzeck's visionary imaginings (I/3).«:''/'-rf:j-^iJbJn =^itJs^ bj r^ ttsT Ra== SPTr3^1. which in turn are related to one. This overclouding of the harmony takes place Marie's words 'Du siehst so verstort' ('You look so distraught'). The of notes may be presented in tabulated 12 8 6 4 II 7 5 3 form. given out by the trombones r cl . In Variation 7 the series on the principles of per- mutation. col legno.

said: 'These associated fifths are closely with the figure of Marie expresses. as it . No. and compared with other contemporary operas of looser 102 . . both based on a comparatively small group of characteristic themes.ALBAN BERG The note sequences {a) and [h) can be presented in vertical chord formation. The web of motives is much denser in Wozzeck than in Strauss's Salome and Elektra. . flat' Their simultaneous sounding. music remains strictly organized down to its last details. her aimless waiting. 83). almost in the used several use manner of a Leitmotiv J Actually Berg's of such motives of dramatic characterization is strikingly akin to Wagner's use of Leitmotive. thus intensified (cf. results in a nine-note chord: Example 84 Although Wozzeck dispenses with tonahty for long its stretches. cue Example 85 Berg. times. which Tliis passage is only terminated with her death. their harmonic imis mobility were. (a by the alien 'A Hnk with the chord of the trombones). in his lecture of 1929. largely owing to the judicious Referring to the employment of serial techniquesbare fifths in the orchestra which accom(first pany Marie's 'absent-mindedness' occurring in Act i.

cue 30) the motive of 'the child's fear' developed: Example 88 Example 89 This is condensed into a hasty sequence of which the across-the- bar rhythm and tendency to descend by whole-tone steps suggest a feeling of breathlessness 103 . Their is the whole-tone scale (gehetzt) They express the oppression exerted on them by common structural link Example 86 and its inversion Example 87 From Marie's threatening gesture 'Go to sleep. almost a return Wagnerian orthodoxy.: : : WOZZECK texture Berg's to work represents. the hunted and miserable vichis social inferiority. associated tim of These motives recur child. boy' is (II/i. even in his absence. Among the numerous motives of Wozzeck may be singled out the group of 'motives of fear' with Wozzeck himself. also in the music associated with Marie and her permanent psychological Wozzeck. in this respect.

expressed in the sinister lethargy of the canon on muted ear-rings. dragging tempo when on the appears and surprises Marie putting of Example 90 has now become the tragedy of the everyday treadmill of the poor.: : : ALBAN BERG Example 90 The same motive Wozzeck suddenly compromising returns in slow. the third subject of the 'Invention and Example 93 becomes at bar 313 Fugue on three subjects'. The breathless fear trombones Example 91 In this canon there occurs again the sequence of descending whole-tone steps Example 92 A new variant of this Wozzeck hurry so is motive is heard in Act 2. pulled up by the doctor with the words: when 'Why fast and pass us by?' At this point the muted trombones express compellingly the tragic discrepancy between Wozzeck's inner heaviness and his apparent haste Example 93 Bereft of its heavy harmonies. 104 . Scene 2.




in the trio

between the Captain, the Doctor and Wozzeck, the

cUmax of which comes with Wozzeck's cry of despair on the famihar whole-tone steps)








Example 94




of the descending whole-tone scale in the musical of Wozzeck is played by the interval of the

fourth in the popular' parts of the score. All motives in 'popular' style can be traced back to the basic cell of an ascending fourth




scho- ne




Example 95

This motive develops in the second stanza of Andres's song

Example 96

where the

particle x'

can be recognized


the basic motive of

Marie's lullaby




fongat du jetzt-


Example 97


In the final orchestral interlude in
key') particle 'x' represents once

minor ('Invention on a more the central core of the


musical idea:
Xf inverted J


Example 98

Berg was anxious to explain the use of the older musical forms in his opera. In his lecture he said:


aim was musical variety and the avoidance of Wagner's method of 'through-composing' every single one of these many


had to give to every scene a

different structural


the other hand, the dramatic unity of these scenes debest be achieved

manded a similar unity in the music. This could by the employment of closed musical forms.
Berg goes on
to emphasize that the choice

of these forms was

determined by the character of each scene and that he employed
not only archaic forms, such

Passacagha and Fugue, but


one rhythm, or one chord. The use of Passacagha and Fugue, for

the 'Inventions' based

on one


musico-dramatic purposes, deserves closer scrutiny. There


nothing casual about the choice of these forms for use in


Berg based his dehberations on Hugo Pdemann's etymologically dubious but interesting association of the term 'Folia' (ostinato) with the Berliozian term 'idee fixe'. In the passacagha theme (I/4, Cf. Example 80,) the doctor's mania, as well as Wozzeck' s maniacal philosophizings, find their appropriate musical equivalent. The obstinate repetition of one single musical idea under changing melodic and harmonic progressions is


surely the only possible

way of representing

in notes the


presence of the 'idee


Biichner's characters



'fixed idea'

visions, the Doctor's theory

of nutrition, the 'moral' philosophy of the Captain, Marie's
unbridled sensuality).

They almost

inevitably suggest the use

of musical ostinato forms. 1
In this context Schoenberg's use of the passacaglia for 'Nacht'
II, No. 8) should not be overlooked. Berg freely admitted the influence of Pierrot on the music of Wozzeck.^ This influence becomes evident if Berg's passacaglia theme (Example 80) is compared with Schoenberg's theme, the latter being the final result of an initial canonic stretto of its first link 'a

in his Pierrot Lunaire (Part


Example 99

However, whereas Schoenberg's the four-note motive

Pierrot passacagHa,

rooted in

Example 100

remains a musical miniature of only twenty-six bars. Berg's


passacaglia with



variations, based




opera Wozzeck, composed shortly after Berg's own, also makes

systematic use of ostinato and passacaglia. 2 In a letter to Webern of August 19, 191 8,

published by

WilU Reich

in 1953.


a veritable twelve-note

an impressive structure, in

which Schoenberg's own methods of composition of the 1920's are clearly anticipated. It is hkely that Webern's passacaglia, Op. I (1908), also contributed something to Berg's work. Its eight-note theme contains intervals with striking possibiHties of
subsequent vertical, chordal treatment. In the final variation of Berg's passacagha (Variation 21, vocal score, two bars before

cue 640) the full melodic series (Example 80) is presented in full twelve-note harmony also a solution probably suggested by Webern's example.


use of fugal technique for purposes of dramatic characis


seen in the Invention and Fugue


three subjects'



Invention', accompanying the dialogue

between the Doctor


and the Captain

(A), (Act 2, bar 172),


subjects in the

manner of a two-part Invention

by Bach, with


the imphcations of double counterpoint:


Qug merited



diminished }

Example loi


bar 286 onwards the music becomes strictly fugal, with





presented in a double exposition and subject

(Example 93) entering at bar 313, to Wozzeck's sombre .' threat: 'But why do you ask that question, good doctor?
. .



her onwards




are kept to the level

of counterrushes

subjects to C, until bar 345,

when the



away. With the doctor's


remark 'How he runs

shadow runs behind

heard a

and ghostly reminiscence of


the 'idee

the passacagha theme,

from the scene between
play to music in

Wozzeck and
19 14.

the doctor in the previous act.
set Biichner's


decided to


However, work on the Three Orchestral Pieces, Op. 6, occupied him until the end of that year. Meanwhile the first World War had broken out, and in August 191 5 Berg was called up for the army. By the summer of 191 7 he had completed the draft of the libretto and had started on the music. He began with the Invention and Fugue (Act 2, Scene 2), but by August 191 8 only two scenes had been set to music. The greater part of the opera was written between the autumn of 191 8 and the autumn of 1920, a period of perpetual pohtical crisis in Austria, resulting in much economic hardship, especially for the intellectual stratum of society. Financial embarrassment and the mounting problems of a hand-to-mouth existence compelled Berg to look for a job, and for a time he planned to become general editor of the musical periodical Der Anbruch; nothing came of this, in the end. By April 192 1 the orchestration of Wozzeck was complete, after about eight months' work. In the winter of 1922-23 Berg invited subscriptions

towards the publication of the vocal score of his opera and,

with the financial support of Mahler's widow, Wozzeck was first pubhshed in this way in 1923. In the following year it was
acquired by Universal Edition, Vienna. Following the advice of


Scherchen, Berg chose three extracts from his score

for separate performance and these 'Fragments of Wozzeck"^

were first heard, under Scherchen, at Frankfurt in June 1924, with Beatrice Sutter-Kottlar singing the part of Marie. This
from Berg to Webern of August 19, 191 8. the orchestral interlude between scenes 2 and 3 of Act i, with the third scene, including Marie's Lullaby up to Wozzeck's entry; (2) Scene i of Act 3, with Marie's reading from the Bible; and (3), from Scenes 2, 4 and 5 of Act 3, a condensation of the two scenes at the pond, the last orchestral interlude and the final scene of the opera.
^According to a


They comprise:



performance of any of the music of Wozzeck met with

remarkable success and the opera was soon accepted for production at the Berhn State Opera. The first stage performance followed after a prolonged interval, during which frantic rehearsals were accompanied by the dissonant noises of polemical pro's and con's in the German press. The premiere on December 14, 1925, in the presence of the composer, was preceded by 137 rehearsals and ended in a complete triumph for Erich Kleiber, the courageous conductor, who had risked his position in championing the cause of this controversial work. Berg was also lucky in his principal singers, Leo Schlitzendorf and Marie Johannsson. Despite a slanderous press campaign against composer and opera, Wozzeck succeeded brilliantly. It totally eclipsed Gurlitt's opera on the same subject, and was twice revived in Berlin under Kleiber, in 1927 and 1928. Meanwhile it had been performed with great success outside the German in Leningrad and Prague, among other places. cultural orbit It was heard in New York in 193 1 and in London, in a concert performance, in 1934. All told, there were 166 performances up to the end of 1936, and the opera was translated into EngHsh, French, Russian and Czech. In 1934 the Library of Congress purchased the autograph score from the composer. A production at Oldenburg in 1929 had initiated a new series of spectacularly successful performances in Germany, which stopped abruptly when Hitler came to power on January 30, 1933. After the downfall of Nazism the ban on Wozzeck was gradually lifted. It is a remarkable fact that despite heavy protests from Hitler's government the opera had been performed for the


time in


in 1942, under Tullio Serafm, at the height

of the *total war'. Since the war, notable performances have been given at Naples, Berne, New York, Buenos Aires, Hamburg, Kjel and many other places in Western Germany. It was


Erich Kleiber. Recently. complete recordings for the tion gramophone have further increased the wide appreciaand mounting popularity of this great opera. Ill . under its conductor. and at Covent Garden in January 1952. the first first stage performance in London.WOZZECK given at the Salzburg Festival of 195 1.

To these should be added an extra- ordinary inchnation for allusive quotations and musical anagrams. Elements of that style v^hich had appeared in Wozzeck now become permanent. most forcibly expressed in the motto theme of the Concerto. foremost among them a predilection for strict serial canon and an ever increasing emphasis on technique. THE CHAMBER CONCERTO Berg's personal idiom asserts the IN chamber Concerto. with the idiosyncratic features of his mature musical style. Webern and equivalents Berg. all itself vigorously.: CHAPTER V Development of Serial Technique I. which makes play with the full names of Schoenberg. in so far as they are expressible in musical Longsom Motto: AMcr guteo Ding* * -/ S C H B E ] G [Anton Webemj[AI- Schbnberg .

coupled with an improvisational turn of the piano. with their copious and polyglot quotations from and allusion to other literary works in poetry and prose. now How seriously of them. and the second String Sextet. There was inher- ent in him escapism which at times craved for suslife found a kind of end of a musical structure to its pension of the present and for the magic reversal of time. Berg's deep-seated fear of the evanescence of safety-valve in the return of the very source by. The revival of this coupled with his and in some of Brahms' chamber works. Similar retrogressive movements take Concerto (bars 358-363). find their later parallel in Lulu. 2 of these devices had roots in the depth of his subconscious. in Schumann's Carnival 2indAhegg Variations. S. a spiritual link with the past. with its 'Agathe' symbol. Lewis-Carroll world is seen from the mystical mood which precedes each one These devices play an integral part in on. all Berg's works from Berg took these repeated excursions into the musical equivalent of a topsy-turvy. given out by the piano and the double bassoon. 1 practice by Berg in his mature compositions. 36. musical black magic. by the use of mirror-reflection. has parallels in modern literature. with the help of allusions and quotations. H 113 . inversion and retrograde motion. bar 687 ff. allusive quotations mania for its from works of Berg's use other composers. He evidently tried to establish. EHot's poems. announces the beginning of the musical reversal which accompanies the filmstrip of her trial and release. the String Quartet in minor. The twelve mysterious chimes of low C sharp. using the tonal symbols. Op. mitigating the sense of isolation from which he a spiritual increasingly suffered. where Lulu's motive of descending fourths. as it were. A same ^Ezra Pound's Cantos and T. in Bach's Musical Offering and Art ofFugue.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE Such liiiks between the letters of names and their corresponding tonal symbols had played their part in Flemish polyphony. ^The 'F-A-E' Sonata of 1853/54. which ring in the hour of musical ghosts in the middle movement of the Chamber Act II.

and of different combinations of instruments in 'concertino' style. pays tribute to the concertante principle in its polyphonic cadenza. February 1925. is ^A similar phenomenon in the Finale of Schoenberg's Quintet for wind instruments. was mentioned by Felix Greissle in Anbruch. is Another important feature (Berg's the use of 'constructive rhythm' III. 4 and 6. with graphic symbol 'RH' ('Hauptrhythmus'). "The Lyric Suite is in Der Wein is a concert eschews sonata forms and patterns. and helps Berg finally to abandon the outsize orchestras and complicated sonorities of his Opp. The Chamber Concerto is the v^^hich serial technique. concertante style. The concertante element also allows a certain latitude in expansion. represents the very antithesis of traditional symphonic processes.! The concertante element in the Concerto had been fore- instrument in episodes of Wozzeck. Berg expressly refers to these parallel findings in his it 'Open Letter'. new devices and sound comtexture. (as it was afterwards to play an integral part 'Monoritmica'). 9. in so far as . The character of the Chamber Concerto certainly derives partly from the conception of the chamber orchestra manifested in Schoenberg's Op. in spite of its tone-poetical leanings. It own term). differs binations. composed at the same time. But Wozzeck had already revealed new possibilities.ALBAN BERG place in the Scherzo of the Lyric Suite (bar 93 fF. The use of a single way. in the Rondo Finale of the Chamber Concerto.) and in Der We in (middle section. Act In Lulu appears. Henceforth the concertante element determines the nature of Berg's instrumental works. albeit first of Berg's compositions in of a pre-dodecaphonic type. without necessarily involving a dense shadowed in many this symphonic music and by this Berg's mature instrumental from the symphonic miniature style of Schoenberg and Webern. bars 1 41-172). Op. 114 . 26. aria the Violin Concerto. 2 and keeps them clear of the danger-zone of symphonic autobiography where Mahler and Zemlinsky ventured. as its first introduced in Wozzeck.

l Twelve-note technique v^as to be first after the used in the second Storm song. July 12. . well again. 6. . I tried to accommodate the idea of the Piano Concerto to it by combining the two. which however does not flow easily. 2 now it seems as if something will come of it.. was completed in short score on February 9. since the completion of the full score of Wozzeck..e. After all. to which I hope to adhere. dated from Trahiitten. The work. 1924). begun in the summer of 1923.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE systematically used. in late summer 1925. Triple. . However. with accompaniment of ten wind instruments (woodwind and brass) 3. as you know. Finally I hit on the solution mentioned at the beginning of this letter. and which at once banishes all the seemingly unsoluble problems . but. as in the case of his Op. I have now been here more than a week. very shortly completion of the Concerto. of the same year. ^i. that didn't work. . The old idea of a Piano Concerto (incidentally suggested by yourself). 6. Berg planned to present his mentor with the full score on his fiftieth birthday (September 13. and the orchestral pieces Op. Out of many plans the following has crystallized: a Concerto for Piano and Violin. and then the idea of a Double. 1923 . and even Quadruple Concerto (forgive my incurable elephantiasis !) has kept me in thrall. The plan of the Chamber Concerto is discussed for the first time in detail in a letter to : Schoenberg. ^They became thirteen in the completed score. and at long last again at work. 1925 (Berg's own fortieth birthday) and in full score on July 23 5 Like the clarinet pieces Op. . the Chamber Concerto bears a dedication to Schoenberg. he was unable to keep to his timetable. When the idea of using wind instruments occurred to me. ^Apart from the exceptional cases of the fifth Altenberg song and the PassacagHa in Wozzeck. . The manifold psychological comphcations which bedevilled Berg's attempts at new creative work after the completion of Wozzeck are vividly reflected in his letters to Schoenberg and Webern. I've composed almost nothing in the past twenty months.

a combination of . — — . as and piano reduction we ^It have seen. . such difficulties are. . as it were. with : . But when shall I get that far? I.. apart from the fact that Tm much attracted by it.' i Scherzo variations. on July 23. : : ALBAN BERG of an accompanying chamber (i) orchestra. By September i only the first movement v^as completed. After that. industriously. The third. .. . Adagio and an opening sonata movement . Berg revealed "whole Chamber Concerto Six days later to Webem the structure of the work. composition came to a complete standstill and was only resumed on August 11. . I am also at ties: a Concerto for Piano and Violin. and I am planning to write a big symphonic movement in three sections. 116 . . but struggUng with difficulaccompaniment of ten wind instruments a big symphonic movement in three parts. . instead of Septem- ber . These problems are: What is the relationship of the piano in the (2) chamber orchestra of the as an and can it be violin) to the concertante piano? What is the relationship of the concer- tante violin to the solo strings (first and second chamber orchestra? (3) How can the harmonium be used instrument of the orchestra in this special case used at alll I admit that these problems can be solved. as you so convincingly said to me Why choose beforehand a difficult combination of instruments? In the combination I have now : — arrived at. 1924. 1925. but as I've told you of my heavy hand. The work was completed. . Full score a was eventually turned into rondo. And if work progresses only slowly just now (I've only got about fifty bars on paper. In a his letter to Webern of that date Berg commented ruefully on slow progress and added The second movement is an Adagio. extending to perhaps five hundred bars) that is not the result of the combination of instruments.. However. . a sonata movement. the two preceding ones. . blotted out. If only it were July i today. with ten wind instruments.

cit. The published first two movements. under Hermann Scherchen. 1925. 86 ^It ff. Reprinted p. The Motto Theme (Example 102) unites the names of Schoenberg. 2 Berg's 'Open Letter to Arnold Schoenberg' includes a de- of the structure of the Chamber Concerto. Both the chart and the textual commentary emtailed analysis phasize the ternary principle which forms the basis of the whole something of a composition. dated February 9. illustrated by a Tabular Synopsis in graphic form (reproduced on pp. violin and wind (violin instruments). The bulk of the wind-parts has been deftly cued 117 . There are three movements.1 The Chamber Concerto was first performed on March 20. strings and wind. 124-125). The Trio version includes a (bars 435-452). In February 1935 Berg (whose predilection for making arrangements of his own works became more pronounced as the years went by) com- score included special full closes for the pleted a version of the slow middle violin.: DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE were published in facsimile in the year of their completion. Webern and Berg. in 1925. and wind instruments) Rondo ritmico con Introduzione (piano. clarinet movement in as a Trio for and piano. in Berlin. was published cut of seventeen bars into the piano-part. The number '3' is common de- nominator in all the structural features of the work. 1927. Berg also published an analysis of the Concerto in the form of an open letter addressed to Schoenberg. in 1955 by Universal Edition. Thema scherzoso con variazioni ments) II. and the instruments divide easily into three categories keyboard. op. (piano and wind instru- Adagio III. making possible their separate performance. ^Published in Pult und Taktstock (Vienna). : The movements I. It was performed Vienna shortly after his death. by Reich.

finally. The third movement is one huge recapitulation of the first two movements. is a complete wind band. and turned into a medium for refined polyphony. the whole forming an organic unit of three interrelated sections. character of Berg's composition contrasts fundatutti mentally with the is still character of Schoenberg's Op. a pocket edition of the late romantic orchestra. which was tinktiown to Berg when he composed his Chamber Concerto.l Berg himself acknowledged the relationship between his Chamber Concerto and Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony. certain features of Schoenberg's notation. however. such as the untransposed writing for transposing wind instruments and the distinction of 'Hauptund Nebenstimme' (main and ancillary theme) by use of the symbols 'H' and 'N'. in the three basic rhythms of III. 118 . 26. He dis- 'Open Letter' ^They may have been influenced by similar features in Schoenberg's Serenade Op. reduced in numbers but not in basic types. which era. Schoenberg's orchestra is. The concertante.ALBAN BERG are tripartite entities in themselves. the ternary form of II and its retrograde mirror-reflection. stressing the fact that both works were scored for the same number (fifteen) of players. however. not unlike the orchestra in Wagner's Siegfried Idyll. however. The moreover is supplemented by trumpet and trombone. but not by the wind quintet Op. yet intimate. 9. 2 conceived in the tradition of the post. by and large. Berg's orchestra. The tripartite basis can also be traced in the thirty bars of the thematic exposition of I. and. ^Berg adopted. Op.Wagnerian In his ciple Berg observed that the tripartite prineven determined the harmony of the concerto. 9. Schoenberg's orchestrally subdivided : by the two soloists violin and piano. to which two strings are replaced wind section solo stringed instruments are juxtaposed. 24 (1924). A close scrutiny of the Chamber Concerto. reveals the novelty and originality of its orchestral design and reduces the parallel with Schoenberg to the wind section only.

very reticent about the serial aspect of the work. Anton. ject to the laws harmony 'sub- of twelve-note technique'. This is the very first time Schoenberg's new method of composition is mentioned by Berg who. they represent Schoenberg's avowed dodecaphonic compositions. 24 and 26 and their revolutionizing style. The thematic subjects built from these letter-associations are master's not yet dodecaphonic. to be sure.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE tinguished tonal. The chord on the sixth beat has three notes common to all three thematic subjects: earhest ^Together with the piano works Opp. by which a kind of tonal centre tain is established. The three themes have cerharmonic potentialities in common. Alban). Their serial character can be studied if they are written out in the manner of a dodecaphonic graph: S rone row b fonerviv Al B An B Er G Example 103 The three Christian names (and their corresponding thematic subjects) begin with 'A' (Arnold. however. but they are certainly related to the type of future 'Basic Sets'. atonal and. in certain section. as may be seen from bar 3 of the 'Motto theme'. 1 Berg is. in the same document. 23 and 25. frequently refers to his Opp. 119 . beyond an initial remark drawing attention to the role played by the three names of the Motto theme and those of their letters for which equivalents in musical terminology exist.

and I. Such episodes show how Berg's most exploratory music is deeply rooted in Viennese classic traditions. the augmented fourth (tritone) {b) and the seventh (cf. II and III. They occur frequently in elliptic cadences. Example 103). it is the fourth and the seventh in their harmonic imphcations which become responsible for certain tonal enclaves in the work. Finally. The determining intervals are the ascending fourth {a). Here is the sequence of fourths which occurs as a regular interstitial cadence in the Chamber Concerto technique. ' 120 . Nevertheless. as if aiming at an imaginary tonic. We have had opportunities in earlier chapters of this book to observe the integral role allotted to the fourth and the seventh in Berg's music. all the notes of II (Webern) and III (Berg) are contained in I (Schoenberg).: ALBAN BERG [6] ^w Apart from this. These intervals act as dissolving elements of tonality. and as if intent to establish a kind of aural Archimedes's point' in a confusion of conflicting tonalities. referred to in Berg's analysis. I 8 7 I III [2(4)] II [3] [2(4)] 6 5 III Example 104 and III have the first and the two last notes in common. which rests normally on structures of thirds. On the basis of these facts an distilled in imaginary 'Basic Shape' of eight notes could be sense of strict serial the The intimate bonds of friendship Unking the three leading composers of the 'Second Viennese School' are hereby subtly and secretly expressed. The harmonic trend in the Chamber Concerto is chiefly determined by the intervallic features of I. II and III the last or the last-but-one note in common.

Characteristic ness of Berg's later music is the demoniacal sultriof these parallel sevenths at the beginning of the Adagio of 121 . whose bass two variational sub-sections of the theme represents.: DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE Example 105 This combination of vertical and horizontal sequences of fourths is not only to be found in Schoenberg's Chamber Symphony. as it were. a Basic Shape of strictly serial character a i|burth Example 106 The bass-line of Example 106 can be understood bias as a sequence higher part. here indicated by arrows. can be identified in a hteral anticipa- tion in the Finale of Brahms' fourth as cadential symphony. octaves. 9. re- sevenths in the middle parts. whose main subject (horn. Op. bars 5-7) It is closely related to the bass of Example 105. There it is used enclave between Passacagha. of ascending fourths. In if the intervals are transposed into both examples the chromatic of the top combined with the chain of ascending fourths sults in parallel in the bass.

He all but fails to draw attention to the concertante character of large parts of it. which distinctly foreshadow the harmonic aura of Lulu: Wind Example 107 Movement tripartite I Tema scherzoso con variazioni — consists of a theme. than a theme in the strictly classical sense of the word) and five variations. The derivation of (i) tripartite Basic Shape I-II-III (c£ 122 . thirty bars long (more a thematic group in the sense of Bruckner's and Mahler's symphonies. by and large. given out con bravura by the piano. Variation I represents. played by the entire wind band. consists sub-divisions of this again of three sections in different tempi (i) (2) (3) Leicht bewegt Schwungvoll Meno allegro (Tempo (Tempo (Tempo from the I) II) III). In his *Open Letter' Berg emphasizes the Scherzo character of the six movement.— : ALBAN BERG the Concerto. The 'Tema' itself. a concertante interpretation of the thematic exposition. In particular.

and yet manages to remain diaphanous. . Here are the of the thematic outline of (i) (Tempo I). (cf. first technique in strictly speaking. It bristles with canonic imitation. of which bars 1-4 can also be understood as a twelvenote theme based on the Basic Shape of the naturally dodecaphonic chromatic scale 1: bars I (Schpcnbengj 2 (12) 3 2 3) <) (1 2 3 4) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ll(Websrn) iii(Berg) Example 108 Variation 2 brings the melodic outHne (but not the actual notes) of the 'Tema' in inversion.). in which first piano and wind instruments are combined for the Variation 3 and 4 use the 'melodic' notes of the theme in inversion and in the retrograde motion of the inversion. *Cf. It is from time. Bibl. Its character differs noticeably i. How ingeniously the cancrizans motion of the thematic inversion is made to grow out of the very tail-end of Variation 3^ can be seen in the graph on pages 124 and 125. Variation 4 represents the development section and the main axis of the whole movement. the pianistic solo of Variation a slow Waltz. like the preceding variation. Leibowitz's numerical organization 123 . prominent part played by pre-dodecaphonic work.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE Example serial 103) clearly reveals the this. . Leibowitz: 'Introduction has been utilized for Example io8.' . R.

containe<3 an 'Open Letter' to Arnold Schoenberg.CHAMBER CONCERTO Theme Var.ll retrograde motion- 1 in its basic shape Tern a con Vaj-iazioni (Exposition) {1st reca-- (Develop- pitulaiH. and published for the first time in the music periodical in .l in Var.on) Number of bars: 30 30 60 Tripartite II AJ B Adacio 12 36 Introduction III (Cadenza for violin and ID pia-no) Exposition (- r - Rondo ritmico con Introduzione bars' 54 (da 96 repeat: This tabulated survey is taken from Alban Berg's analysis of the Chamber Concerto.

1925.TABULATED SURVEY V number Var. Vienna. in Ill Var. Universal Edition. IV Var. An English translation has been prepared by .480 ^ 30 12 36 12 30 240 960 Development 2nd recapitulation resp. coda capo) 79 76 305 L ^75 480 175 PULT UND TAKTSTOCK. of bars: retrograde nnotion of the in basic inversion shape version ment section) (2nd recapitulation) 3 30 60 240 Its retrograde nnotion Al A2 (mirror reflection of the preceding B) >. the author of this volume.

in the manner theme itself evolves a technique of detaching thematic splinters and subdividing such motives into 'peak-notes' and 'ancillary notes' a process of thematic atom-spHtting developed to a high degree of virtuosity in Lulu and the Violin Concerto. The thematic subject of Movement II Adagio is given out by the solo violin. 1 who points out a deviation from strict twelve-note series dodecaphony at NB.: : — ALBAN BERG Variation 5 goes back to the thematic exposition. It is sixteen bars long and shows pre-dodecaphonic features similar to those in the 'Tema con variazioni' of a sonata recapitulation. 126 . From can be deduced a posteriori: Example no which scale is nothing else than a thematically pre-organized series of the dodecaphonic Basic Shape derived from the chromatic ^Cf. The treatment of the — — 12. Op. 78 fF. p. 1 z 3 ''< 5 b T 8 9 10 «1 ie Example 109 The above example this subject a follows the analysis of Leibowitz. cit.

the player being as if deliberately to asked to use a glissando intonation. p. from which the piano is rigidly excluded (except for the twelve mysterious chimes at bars 358-63).. just as the violin had been exsonorities.^ OPO 5 . cluded from the vagueness of first movement.H.-' sa^»" 3 7 a #^ 8 ^_ k. The sweltering cadential sequences of chords of the ninth (cf. The treatment of the solo violin contributes markedly to the opalescent coloration of the movement. already anticipates the erotic morbidity o£ Lulu Example 107). between the intervals of the tempered scale. •' ' h» rrr-i^-h-. blur his own melodic contours. It is full of magical with distant echoes from its Tristan and Pelleas. : tjO —--u. These he indicates by the sign z : Example 112 It is in this second movement that Berg's is 'constructive rhythm' first (indicated (cf. 9 10 (5) 6 n -4 12 1 Example 11 This second movement forms a telling contrast to the first. t^ota.') introduced for the time 68 of the full score) .. Berg even attempts to fix in notation the Zwischentone. akin to Haba's quarter tones. It is an extended Cantabile-Adagio lasting fifteen minutes.: 1 DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE -^ ^^f. by the sign *R.

The juxtaposition of single phrases in literal quotation almost in the manner of a duet. but by the recurring utiHzation of the 'constructive 128 . 11 and breaks out dramatically in the cancrizans part of the movement with the formula As already mentioned. special character The of this movement is to be found in its emphasis on rhythm and in Basic Shapes. Although Berg calls the movement a 'Rondo'. 124-125).: — : ALBAN BERG It grows out of an accompanying figure in the brass mi the Adagio. It its its reUance on the three rhythmic thematic material also differs markedly from the two earUer Its is movements pendent on in varied metre. the rondo-character is not determined by a recurring that theme. The hnking together of whole sections of Movements I and II. as de- of the preceding movements as the music of Gdtterddmmerung is dependent on the themes of the preceding parts of the Ring. Introduzione — treatment: (i) (2) (3) A free juxtaposition of sub-divisions of these movements which correspond thematically to one another. He distinguished three important types of thematic pp. the twelve mysterious chimes in the piano lead to the fascinating reversal of the whole exposition of Berg himself characterized Movement III Rondo ritmico con as a combination of Movements I and II (Cf.

Alban Berg and Anton Webern .


C 24. The very last chord (bars 780/85. The 'Rondo' itself is built up as an ensemble of the wind band in combination with the two soloists. The chord itself in its dreamy vagueness seems for a resolution in the ^This technique had its haven of an imaginary Op. major tonic. which anticipates cerViolin Concerto and its viohn and piano are brought polyphonic Cadenza. It is full of fehcitous touches in its diaphanous texture and novel concertante style. which is imphcit in well all three Basic Shapes of the Chamber Concerto. cf. with its wistful romantic undertones. 1 The movement could with equal justification be classified as a Sonata movement. preceded by a long introduction in the manner of the Cadenza. in support of themes of differing character. is like a premonition of the last bar of the Viohn Concerto. the concertanti tain styhstic features of the time much later together for the this late stage first —an effect deliberately saved up for of the work. all as as the pivotal 'A' with which three Basic Shapes to long begin. The Chamber Concerto the tritone: characteristically ends on a chord of Example 114 The chord is presented in expanding sonorities by use of the piano pedals and a RQcting pizzicato arpeggio on the solo violin: Example 115 This bar. hi this Cadenza. origin in Schoenberg's Serenade. J 129 .DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE rhythm'. Example 114) contains the tritone.

1900 and 1925 The two settings of Theodor Storm's poem 'Schhesse mir die Augen beide' were published as a musical supplement to an article article.ALBAN BERG The is feeling of suspense created by the denial of this resolution characteristics one of the unmistakable of Berg's personal this idiom — an idiom convincingly employed in every bar of Chamber Concerto. One of them was composed at the beginning. are dedicated. They are intended to exemplify that musical transformation and are here published for the first time. years of Universal Edition's existence have coiQcided with music's enormous development from tonal position to the 'method of com- composing with twelve notes related only with one another'. 1930. the pubhsher. settings of the same poem by Theodor Storm. to have followed that development from its very beginnings. To him the two songs printed overleaf. Alban Berg Some confusion has been caused by the fact that the dates of composition of both songs are given wrongly in Reich's book 130 . referred only briefly to first the songs. discovered by F. 2. H. in Die Musik for February. 'SCHLIESSE MIR DIE AUGEN BEIDe' Two Songs. Klein). It is the imperishable achievement of Emil Hertzka. containing also all twelve intervals. and from the C major triad to the socalled 'Mother-chord' (the twelve-note chord. but in this commentary by Berg The twenty-five himself. the other at the end of the first quarter of the century (1900-1925). Reich's pubHcation they were prefaced by a mainly biographical in content. by Willi Reich.

1925. vincingly the fundamental dialectic tension inherent in Berg's musical idiom. and the score of Tristan completed in 1859.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE of 1937. as the letter quoted mann's lyrical four-bar periods by extended 5/4 bars. The Lyric Suite was completed in the summer of 1926. in that art I am unfortunately not as far advanced as you. is based on the same Basic Set as the Lyric 131 . anticipates the rhythmic flexibility above estabhshes. the words of which have no connection whatsoever with the jubilee. I. on the same poem. The stylistic antithesis of the two songs demonstrates consetting The second the Lyric Suite. The latter I composed up here my first attempt at strict twelve-note composition. However. I sent two songs. The relationship between the second song and the Lyric Suite is of fundamental importance for the understanding of Berg's mature style. of 1857. The song. or rather. sent a (love) song. Suite. — was thus written shortly before Berg which the song anticipates started to compose thematically. a very old song. dated October 12. Berg refers to his contribution to the silver jubilee of Universal Edition in a letter to Webern. and the Lyric Suite resembles that between Wagner's two Wesendonk songs Im Treibhaus and Trdume. the composer's first attempt to employ the twelve-note system. and written at Trahiitten: too. which ranges from the late romanticism of Schumann and Wagner foreshadow. in which an entirely new mode of musical expression was first explored. Both songs are interesting for what they successfully blurs the outline and so found in Berg's first opus numbers of 1908. The relationship between the second Storm song. The first to the constructivism of Schoenberg's of Schu- twelve-note system. and a brand-new one.

analysis it stands revealed (as Berg pointed out in his of the Lyric all Suite) as Klein's *twelve-note row.: : ALBAN BERG Here Shape 1 is the Basic Set common to both works. p. transposed by imoll fifth. Vienna. 1952. in its Basic Shape A. ^Schoenberg's own (Grundgestalt). Jelinek. is consistently unfolded in one direction. H. con- taining twelve intervals' ItougmO Example ii English terms are 'Basic Set' (Grund-Reihe) and 'Basic Shape' preferable term 'series' is occasionally used in this book in deference to Berg's own terminology. in its Basic Example ii6 Its intervaUic analogies. as well as its become evident in the notation suggested harmonic imphcations. ^Cf. 14 ff. It Is the r«trogTx»de is It Hie rclrogpodc motion of A' motion of* Example 117 If the Basic Set. Anleitung zur Zwdlftonkomposition. The less 132 . by Hanns Jehnek:^ a '^ »o< z j3 transposed b^ small fifth.

DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE Klein had discussed Variations. Obviously both are based on the same thematic organism. pubUshed in 1924. Shaped represents the dodecaphonic Lyric Suite: base for the first first bars of the vocal part of the song and for bars 2-4 of the movement of the Schlics-st mlr die Au - gen bride mlf den Ai ben {Handen zu) Example 119 This juxtaposition of the initial bars ofboth compositions makes apparent their melodic and atmospheric kinship. It is highly interesting to observe the different processes of composition. The vocal part of the song consists of several permutations of the intervals of Basic Shaped: 133 . this discovery of his in the preface to his Basic Op. by which widely divergent results are obtained. 14. subjected only to certain changes of phrasing and rhythmic scansion.

Example 120 Of the five sections into which the whole song may be divided. third and fourth form the links of a chain of variations. first and fifth sections are identical. as early as bars 7-8 of the first movement.le sehlafen le-get^ Wie der Ictz • te SchTo^^ Sich re get V(= 1) fUI lest Du mein gan zcs herz. These five permutations of the intervals of^ involve no transposition. by anticipatory use of the last four notes of the set and by free the transpositions into other octaves. achieves an impressive variant of^: 134 . 10 11 Schliesse mir die Au gen beiae • Mit den he ben Handen'zu 1 — rr well' um ^Vel. nor do they show any deviation from the basic order of the twelve notes within the Basic Set. The Lyr/c Suitey on the other hand.ALBAN BERG 9. The song thus shows a comparatively primitive application of twelve-note technique. while the second.

and from this in the second and following bars. the movement of the Lyric Suite develops out of the disorder bar. the notes of intervals in its first of which. grows the Basic Set in its thematic shape 135 . bars is 9-1 1.: : DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE Example 121 Similarly a variant of ^ may be traced in the piano part. Thereby it may of the last bar. which be presented in a horizontal chain of intervals anticipates the 'Mother-chord' ^ ^^ it- ^ Example 123 While the song in its last bar brings the intervals of the basic first set to rest in the 'Mother-chord'. strung out horizontally. present the complete chromatic scale. the second half of which {x) constructed in the sense of Example 117.

and the eUiptical series (commencing with the fourth note) in the piano part. m f which consists ^ of integral elements of ^. in which the as it last ^Mother-chord' in the note added. fmahty of the bar of the song. bars 4-10.: : ALBAN BERG 6 12 t S (J) Example 124 The function of the first bar of the Lyric Suite. were. This subtly-suggested. the low F. a tonal relationship with the note F with which the vocal part of the song began. song gives out the motive whose subdominant F is already decidedly touched-on on the fourth beat of the first bar. as does the startUng last development of the rest of the movement. Finally. for the dodecaphonic to serve as source becomes evident here. the fact should not be overlooked that even quasi-impressionistic harmonies such as 136 . may also be mentioned. The ingenious canonic dove-tailing of the Basic Set between vocal part and piano part in the second song. estabhshes. bars 8-9. And on the fourth and fifth beats of that bar the vocal part of this earlier ^. immanent 'F' tonahty in the second Storm song may be considered the to bear a ghostly relationsliip to C major tonahty of the first song.

to which the last poHsh will be applied and all traces of the workshop eliminated'. 1925 (the approximate date of the first sketch). Actually. in its infancy convincingly The inner relationship of the two songs. at his nique of composition then seen in the second song. almost immediately after the completion of the certo. bar ii. THE LYRIC SUITE The Lyric Suite for string quartet was composed in 1925-26. represent strictly functional chord clusters. 3. of 1900 and 1925. of a techis tions of it. The same letter mentions casually: 'I was very ill and am evidently far from recovered.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE ^ in the second song. and October 8. 1926. symbolizes the gradual integration of late Romantic methods of composition with a style of musical expression based on entirely novel principles. which is very embarrassing at the present moment'. or from certain secattempt. when Berg wrote: 'My Quartet is finished. derived from the Basic Shape A. first still Berg's masterly employment. But that post-creative process dragged on into the later autumn. Chamber Con- The stages of its genesis are vividly reflected in a spate of letters to Webern between September 18. now I'm getting on with the fair copy. 137 .

Such view finds corroboration in the sub-titles of the . which Berg had undertaken at his pubhsher's request. When the same players performed the work at the Baden-Baden Festival on July 16.A. but quite determinedly. took place on January 8. Earlier analyists have its lyrico-dramatic a mood and 138 even called it a 'veiled opera'.ALBAN BERG the composition of this profoundly inspired work took place during a period of grave physical suffering. in Berlin. 1927. by the Kolisch Quartet. in 1927 The return to lyricism in the Suite is perhaps best understood as a reaction following the tremendous cerebral effort entailed in the creation of typical lyrical Wozzeck and the Chamber Concerto. The Lyric Suite is dedicated to Alexander v. from 1930 on. in Vienna. 1929. and the Lyric Suite not exclusively. which preceded the Suite draft of the Lyric by only few weeks. Several prominent quartet teams incorporated the Lyric Suite in their repertory and assured its spectacular success The miniature score issued by Universal Edition was followed in 1928 by an arrangement of the three middle movements for string orchestra. whose Lyric Symphony had influenced the choice of title and the formal organization of Berg's work. 1927. It is a Bergian paradox that this temporary return to the haunts of his adolescence should also be the point of departure for new a adventures. using twelve-note technique. which laid the composer low for several weeks. The successful first performance. it had to be repeated. The very stressed indicates the a-symphonic character of this work. It became a favourite in Erich Kleiber's programmes in the U. everywhere. is the first composition of Berg itself adopts title it. This arrangement was first performed under Jascha Horenstein on January 31. Zemlinsky. culminating in attacks of asthma. in dodecaphonic first fields. The second Storm song.S.

V. should not blind us to its classicromantic derivation. ALLEGRO GIOVIALE II. the anticipated in Beethoven's ^Herein undoubtedly prompted by the dodecaphonic bias of the whole work.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE six movements of the Suite. Even Berg's penchant for cancrizans motion (cf. in order to auto- biographical experience in a multitude of phases. which evidently outHne a psycho- logical experience of great intensity: I. 132. . ADAGIO APPASSIONATO PRESTO DELIRANDO TENEBROSO LARGO DESOLATO. 132 and 133. The number of movements can find justification in Mahler's quartets. IV. The hoven's parallel betv/een Berg's Lyric Suite is and Beet- late quartets surely more than fortuitous. symphonies and Beethoven's late string Both these types of cyclic composition tend to spread reflect a psychological. 131. VI. 1 and gave his work more than four movements. Finally. to A predilec- tion for serial technique. and its The fact that Berg deliberately avoided sonata-form implications of corresponding tonalities. 130 and 132 (second and fourth movements of both quartets). ANDANTE AMOROSO ALLEGRO MISTERIOSO TRIO ESTATICO III.) can be detected in Beethoven's Op. III and V of the Suite are based) Opp. 130. largely out fan-wise. which are all based on a common four-note series. Similarly his mania for self-quotation is foreshadowed in Beethoven's Opp. is common both composers. Even such a as his tripartite pecuHarly Bergian phenomenon type (on which is Scherzo-Trio Movements II. bar 93 ff. Movement III. for fugal processes and contrapuntal rondo-patterns. in up to seven movements.

Berg's Lyric Suite emphatically not a Suite in the older sense. the 'schwer gefasste Entschluss'. may have taken their cue from the ambivalent and demoniac Scherzo type evolved in Mahler's last three symphonies. fading out in the melancholy whisper of a quaver-motion on the viola. It is rather a cycle of orchestrally accompanied songs. based on violent antithesis of mood and character. its Mahler's 'Lied' is as Httle a classical is symphony (as sub-title expressly claims) as the Lyric Suite a 'Suite' in the their pre-classical sense lyrical or of the term. 135. Berg's six movements correspond 140 in many ways to the six .ALBAN BERG semi-Operatic passages of the Lyric Suite can claim a parallel in the Recitativo-episode of Beethoven's to the Finale). its dehberate slowing down and the utter despair of its last movement. recall Mahler's Lied von der Erde in general and its heart-searing 'Farewell' section in particular. Mahler's Lied von der Erde and Berg's Lyric Suite share a deception inherent in their title-pages. thematic and programmatic hints. of Op. Both works camouflage titular dramatic nature by a conflict claim to a formal pattern. 132 (Introduction and in the similar bridge passage. exactly as in Schubert's song-cycles. Mahler's 'a 'Lied' emphatically not symphony for Tenor and Alto voices and orchestra'. the Mahlerian affinities of the work are rooted deeper. is Likewise. The emphatic 'Largo' character of Berg's music. simply because such a formal hybrid does not feature and because the work does not show a single biological of the accepted symphony-type. in the artistic subconscious. Berg's middle movements. the action of which takes place exist its between sub-sections. in open is with their actual musical content. However. Op. No less numerous are the parallels between the Lyric Suite and typical features of Mahler's last symphonies. the tonepoetical content allusions of which is conveyed in quotations. but a cycle of instrumental movements.

just as the two slow movements (IV and VI) correspond closely to the structural position and general mood of Mahler's Solitary in Autumn and Farewell. V) correspond to the three gay middle sections of the 'Lied'. the same melancholia and nostalgia for escape from the world. Op. The three Scherzos of the Lyric Suite (Movements II. Wagner's quiUities ecstatic Tristan style oriental tran- of Mahler's 'Farewell' in Berg's The two quotations which occur Movement IV (bars 32/33 and 46/50) refer to the third section of ZemHnsky's symphony.mein £i - gen Example 125 ^Zemlinsky's his sub-sections work only differs from those of Mahler and Berg in that he bridges with orchestral interludes which give the whole the deceptive aspect of a single movement.: DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE movements of Mahler's Lied von derErde. The Lyric Symphony is based on a cycle of oriental poems which are sung alternately by male and female singers to a richly coloured orchestral accompaniment exactly Hke Mah- — ler's *Lied'. shows a family-likeness to Mahler's 'Lied' (first performed in 1911) which is anything but casual. The fourth movement 1 of Zemlinsky's the same mood symphony is especially remarkable as a synthesis of and the strange section. 141 . III. 1 8. That Das Lied von der Erde is the real archetype of Berg's Lyric Suite can also be deduced indirectly from the fact of its close and freely admitted association with Zemlinsky's Lyric Symphony. composed in 1923 and pubUshed in 1926. the same self-tormenting longing for death and annihilation. They were phrase. sung there evidently modelled baritone on the following by the Du bist mein £i gen. Zemlinsky's beautiful but neglected work exudes of wistful farewell. The latter work.

Their harmonic atmosphere is closely related to that of Berg's early songs. bars 26I2J. Zemlinsky's lovely melodies contrive to combine Wagner's chromaticism with the whole-tone flavour of Debussy and the pentatonic orientalism of Mahler's 'Lied'. 142 . The concealed vocality of Berg's Lyric Suite is seen in the exclusively vocal character of its avowed models of style [Tristan. Mahler's *Lied' and ZemUnsky's symphony) and by the vocal character of its quotations.-Sept. JP ^ hJ ( CffZ/oJ Example 126 Rabindranath Tagore's poem. In its turn this song expresses the same kind of longing for a love-union in death that permeates the libretto of Tristan and the poems underlying Zemlinsky's symphony.. which occur in Movement IV. the quoted in Berg's Lyric for love-fulfilment attainable goal refrain of which is twice Suite. the initial bars of Wagner's Tristan prelude. Bouquet I has traced the quotation back to a segment of the viola passage iCf. exhales a Tristanesque nostalgia and death.: ALBAN BERG Berg -i bi— ^M ^i [. This is borne out by the second pivotal quotation in the Lyric Suite. Aug. of which the second Storm song was a belated echo. It attempts to express the unof love's deepest desire and the incompatibility of love's fondest dreams with the hard reality of Wagner's *oder Tag'. F. Mehs. 1948.

W. . with programmatic undertones. on the Tristan motive: 'However. to Mathilde Wesendonk. genesis? You know the Buddhistic theory of A breath blurs the clarity of the heavens: Example 128 It grows. with its strong emphasis on tonahty and its fmal transfiguration in an Isoldelike hymn of ecstasy. Schoenberg's its Quartet. But the music of Schoenberg's early work. Adorno has applied also to Berg's Lyric Suite. 10.'l These words could stand as poetic motto of Berg's Lyric Suite. but give me your happiness'. i860. may well have influenced Berg. until fmally the whole world confronts me again in all its impenetrable bulk. which T. Nirvana changes for me quickly into Tristan. in the designing of his Suite. the tone-poetical and of that famous motive are closely philosophical connotations related to the oriental poetry of Mahler's and Zemlinsky's compositions.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE Example 127 which is nothing but a retrograde version of the Basic Shape of (cf. subconsciously. They paraphrase the ecstasy and despair of the last twenty bars (which follow directly after the quotation from Tristan. Op. This seems underlined by Wagner's own comment the Lyric Suite infra). set to music in the third movement of Schoenberg's String Quartet with soprano solo. is miles removed from Berg's inconsolable ^Letter of March 3. condenses and solidifies. However. in the last movement) more convincingly than do the words from Stefan George's poem Litanei: 'Take love from me.

U — Umkehrung — Inversion. as forlorn as the triplets of the harp in Mahler's Lied von der Erde: Mahler Bera b) fndo) Example 129 The close relationship between the second Storm song and the Lyric Suite has been described in an earlier chapter. its the so-called All- The that specific its quahty of Basic Shape is A (cf. Both are ' based on the same pecuHar twelve-note Intervallreihe'. 116) is second half (notes 7-12) identical with a transposition of the retrograde motion of its first half (notes This inherent tendency of the series to mirror-reflection in the notation suggested becomes evident by Hanns Jelinek n = I (K) ( f'ransposed 1IU= I(K)UK (transposed) — Reihe — K — Krebs — retrograde motion (cancrizans). Example 1-6).) : ALBAN BERG despair. UK — Umkehrung des Krebses — Inversion of retrograde motion. R series. series. so eloquently expressed in the viola's soliloquy. Explanation of Symbols Example 130 144 .

Movement III (the 'Trio estatico') Movement Vl (the 'presto delirando'). the perfect twelve-note row of the chromatic from which all which in turn represents the source is dodecaphonic 'matter' as it drawn. These variants of the Basic Shape are chiefly responsible for certain features of theparts matic variation. of the work are strictly I twelve-tone music: (in their entirety) Movements and VI Movement III (only the exposition and recapitulation) Movement V (the 'tenebroso' middle section). of bar later. when the notes of the series are combined in chordal form: Example 131 movements of the Lyric Suite are rigorouslySome of them are based on thematic reminiscences. DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE The harmonic possibiUties of this series suggest themselves at once. From that point of view ^However. as will were. or dependent on the common Basic Shape without adhering closely to strict dodecaphony. on which the dodecaphonic of the work are based. . Series (^4) (c£ Example 116). . In a freer style are Movements III and IV (throughout). which is the basis of the 'chaotic' bar re-arranged as a Example 124 scale. is subject to certain modifications. i. The following sections all Not the dodecaphonic. (X) (X). scale.: . as previous analysts have pointed out. series a). these two movements are very closely related to the processes of twelvebe shown K 145 . Series {A) is a re-arrangement of the primordial i (cf. results in (Y). It is also the thematic source. note technique.

as they are based on a variant of {A may be seen from the following graph: Ai Q trunsposcd Example 132 The same apphes to the insect-like thematic growth of the m. by allotting the function of 'alpha' to 'beta' (cf. The strictly serial chords of the 'tenebroso' are derivatives of the following variant of (^ i) 146 . However. transposed down a semitone 12 11 i»9 8765 10 3 Z ^ Example 133 {A) yields another variant in Movements V ('tenebroso' section) and VI. Example 121). notes 5. Although Movements II and III are less rigorously subin bars 7-8 = jected to vallic it serial discipline. already Berg makes use of the possibiHties of exchange.: : ALBAN BERG (A) appears as a special selective variant of (Y). In i). they too are fertiHzed by the interfact. {U) ). It is turned into a manageable thematic subject for transposition of its Movement (cf. within the framework of the series. determinants of (^4). 7 and 12 I by octaveExample 119. Bar 13 already uses a chordal organization of (^) and bars 18/19 utilize in the first violin part the inversion of (^) c (Example 130. whose ant-like microcosm rests thematically on the retrograde motion of {A i). b).ysterious Movement III.

entering the stage at a given cue.. III V could be considered as Scherzos. a number of self-quotations and kind of psystriking reminiscences should be mentioned. Apart from these close serial relationships Example 130). most . vanishing again out of sight. or submitting occasionally even to the minor roles of walkerson. but always with a quasi-cadential function. The 'Andante amoroso' 147 has been . which also reappears in Movement IV (bars 30-31) (3) the scale-like passage of chromatic chords of the sixth. moving either up or down. with ex(II) tended Trio-episodes. these are: (i) the (non-dodecaphonic) 'Trio estatico'.6 DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE 97S3 SCO 11 t2 Example 134 The chief subject of Movement VI ('Largo desolato'). Perhaps the of which recurs again in Movement IV (bars 12-13) (2) the chief melody of the (non-dodecaphonic) 'Andante amoroso'. If Movement I is preludial (it a sonata movement without and a development section). This concealed dramatic tendency of the motives affects also the construction is of the Suite. which act chological link between them. . between the six as a movements of the Lyric Suite. Move- ments II. given out by the cello in bars 1-2. The inner cohesion of the work does not depend only on the fact that its thematic material is derived from a common dodecaphonic source. is nothing but a transposition of the retrograde motion of the inversion of ^ (cf. This pre-conceived and co-ordinated thematic material begets individual motives and thematic characters. which are called upon to function as actors in a play.

In Movement V. which also belongs temperamentally and thematically to the Mahlerian Scherzo-type. the dodecaphonic aspect of which has already been discussed. and culminates in the double quotation from Zemlinsky's Lyric Syt7tphony. composed in a style free from the rigours of dodecaphony.: ALBAN BERG called a ni). a technical feature teristic is found which becomes increasingly characmusic: the spHtting of the serial subject of Berg's later {A) into two or more independent motives \ ^4 6 Example 135 The same kind of split. resulting in a dialogue-like Alternativo 148 . In the preludial Movement I ('Allegretto gioviale'). Rondo with two this contrasting episodes its (Tempos II and I but movement. the Suite's hidden drama comes to its catastrophic crisis. is stronglyreminiscent of the Mahlerian scherzo-type referred to earlier. The psychological climax of the whole work is surely Move- ment IV ('Adagio appassionato'). the non-serial Movement II) on a suspension-chord with a distinct cadential flavour which might be classified as a dominant preparation for the tonic of F major. It is loosely constructed. A wistful epilogue is finally intoned by the rhapsodizing free strains of the con- cluding 'Largo desolato'. is strongly reliant on the effect of thematic reminiscence. It ends (Hke its forerunner. with Landler-vhythin in episode and the nightmarish chiaroscuro of its second episode.

comparable to the Neapolitan imphcations which blur the inlierent diatonicism of the penulti- mate chord Op. the melody of this nondodecaphonic movement is really a proper twelve-note growth. all the In contrast to their delib- erately 'chaotic' presentation in the initial bar. i. II ('Andante amoroso') I mood of Movement two to elegiac wistful- although it suffers II) interruptions in the rustic Ldndler(viola) of Tempo III. they this last bar. The last bar of Movement I contains. based not on (A). 3: in D minor at the very end of the String Quartet. bar. Thereby it seems closely Hnked with the very close of episode (Tempo and the threatening knocking 149 . As has been mentioned. but on its ancestral form (Y). For the A sharp of that chord can be under- stood as a kind of 'border-sound'. exude an which is more enhanced than disturbed by the chromatic blur on the final an effect chord of B major. Example 136 The Scherzo Rondo of Movement changes the sanguine ness.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE between two complementary parts.e. leads in Movement the genesis of a four-note motive III to which re-appears like its first in Move- ment VI as a reminiscence of Tristan. the chromatic scale. twelve notes of the chromatic almost cadential flavour in scale.

seems to sug- The first repeated in exact retrograde motion from bar 93 on. ('Adagio appassionato') is conspicuous for its passionate character and forms the climactic centre of the whole is Serial technique here replaced by strong reliance on canonic imitation (cf bars 1-4) and by a subtle system of reminiscences and quotations. 1 Here is the final chord and its fictitious cadential interpretation serial properties (ficiihous resolution) ^^Ti Example 137 imitations of The mysterious whisper of the artfully intertwined canonic Movement III (* Allegro misterioso') recalls the Op. gest 'air too. 10. This movement also ends in a cadence aiming at an imaginary tonic (F major) which never materializes in actual sound. but thematic incipit ^Like the Tristan. The 'Trio estatico' from Moveits ment III interrupts the exposition already at bar 12. Between exposition and its cancrizans recapitulation occurs the explosion of the 'Trio estatico'. A minor tonic (by implication but not in actual sound) in the prelude to 150 . of which the ferocious intervallic leaps form a shattering contrast to the ghostly flank- ing sections. from another planet'. Movement IV work. Berg's movement. part is instrumental introduction to the vocal fmale of Schoenberg's String Quartet.: : ALBAN BERG Movement tion of the I. which is really nothing but a different presenta- of the chromatic scale.

The constant denial of this craving gives the music here a positively morbid tint: 151 . movement too ends its Coda of post.Wagnerian chords of the seventh and ninth) on a chromatically augmented chord of the dominant which seems to cry out for a resolution in the tonic of F major.DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE is identical with an integral link of the movement's chief the- matic character: Example 138 A quotation from the languorous chief melody of the 'Andante amoroso' (Movement II) at bar 30 is followed by the first quotation of Zemlinsky's cry of passionate desire. which in turn leads to the second quotation from Zemlinsky's This Symphony (full (bars 46-50). at bar 32 ff The Tristanesque parallel chords of the tritone (bar 36) prepare for the romantic nostalgia of the solo viola ('Molto tranquiUo'. bar 45). 'Du bist mein Eigen'.

They recall in some ways the unearthly mood of the offset Allegro misterioso' of Movement III. A example of Berg's skilful integration of elements into his new dodecaphonic orbit is the Coda of tonal this movement which steers into the clear waters of a I-V-II truly extraordinary (IV)-V-I tonal cadence (cf. The chief thematic subject dodecaphonic and an obvious offspring of (A) is Example 140 This movement (cf. The Coda begins at bar 441 ('A tempo') in clear F minor. are among * Berg's boldest experiments in rarified sonorities. movements 15.: Example 139 The is spidery flexibility of Movement V ('Presto delirando') by the sphinx-hke chordal symbols of its *Tenebroso' episodes. Leibowitz has rightly drawn attention to the metrical irregularity of the structure in movement's chief subject. cello part from bar 446 on). a the return of the threatening knocking at bar reminiscence of the viola motive of Movement bar 56). with a 152 . also includes reminiscences from previous II. Theflautando harmonics of these episodes. drawn like an inverted pedalpoint through the obscurities of this amorphous musical landscape. of which the periodical 3 -[-4-f 5 beats is mainly responsible for the polyrhy thmical variety of the Coda (from bar 44 on).

The climax collapses on the romantic f chord at bar 34. Movement II) presenting it as a projection of as all the notes of [A) in and simultaneously a tonal cadence C of if major. Nothing is more moving in this wistful retrospect than the silence final gesture of farewell. A farewell to and certainly a farewell to youth. ler's late 17. with the gradual sinking into last of the four instruments. recall in mood. the The *Largo rhapsodic desolato* style and hopeless nostalgia (Movement VI) Op. whose sonorous symbols are called up here from Lethe. in dream-like incan- The tation. the 'suicidal' 'Lento-Finale' of Bartok's second String Quartet. it rehes chiefly last which it forms an on reminiscences and self-quotations. Shortly before the convulsive climax the initial bar of the prelude to Tristan appears. as it were. and also the tired *dying out' is of Mah- Adagios. starts. not in thematic subject-matter. At only the monotonous murmur of the viola's *all persistently reiterated 'D flat-F' remains. Lyric Suite love. but by no to means exclusively epilogue. is. The work says 'farewell' to Berg's early lyricism. so. for 153 . a work of farewell. then. only to shde into the Coda. of a tempestuous sea of conflicting motivic and dodecaphonic allusions (bars 26-28). in which a round-dance of thematic ghosts gradually fades away into shadow. passion spent'. Movement IV. The movement Like dodecaphonic. floating on the surface. The cello accompanies this canonically intertwined 'stretto* with the knocking motive (cf. perhaps.: DEVELOPMENT OF SERIAL TECHNIQUE return to the chief subject in the upper strings (c£ Example 140).

or no ill the work of his remaining years. . there will be Httle more room. The deep-seated afFmity between the Lyric Suite and Mahler's last symphonies is nowhere more poignantly apparent than in its epilogue. my lyre.ALBAN BERG which. 154 . the pages of which seem inscribed with the despairing words found on the manuscript of Mahler's unfmished tenth symphony: 'Farewell. .' .

Berg accepted her commission in the spring of 1929. under Hermann Scherchen and with Ruzena HerHnger as soloist. in the free German translation by Stefan George. It was first performed at Konigsberg at the annual festival of the AUgemeine Deutsche Musikverein on June 4. Der Wein is a setting of poems by Baudelaire. 1930. The work was finished in full score by August 23 less than three months later. Evidently Frau Herhnger's suggestion was put forward at a favourable moment. after he had decided to compose Lulu and while he was already working on its libretto. Berg was still enveloped in the lyrical mood which had prompted the orchestral version suggested THE was Wein composition of the Concert Aria with orchestra Der — of the Seven Early Songs (first performed in November 1928) and his interest in the special problems of the song with orchestra had been further stimulated by the problems presented by his future opera. a Viennese soprano well-known for her advanced views and musical sympathies. His correspondence with Schoenberg and Webern shows that the first sketches of Der Wein were set down at Trahiitten in the latter part of May.CHAPTER Der Wein: lyrical VI prologue to Lulu by Frau Ruzena HerHnger. involving a reorganization of the relations between voice and orchestra. 1929. The success of this first performance and its heartening effect on Berg are reflected in a 155 .

in a more modest way. That this kinship with Lulu is more than a conjectural assumption a posteriori is shown by the choice of the text of the Aria. his 1932. These poems are an expression of social revolt. and notably at the music festivals at Venice (1934) and Brussels (1936). the heroine of which would be played by a coloratura soprano of Frau Herlinger' s type. but not the truth. whole The work. judging by must have particularly pleased the humorous marginal notes in a copy . who had handsomely paid for an option on the performance of Der Wein for the first two years of its existence. sang the work repeatedly under Scherchen's direction. of the programme. This performance composer. their dates by of composition. reproduced in facsimile facing page i6o. For these five poems constituting 156 . reproduced in facsimile facing page 161 Frau Herlinger. represents the truth. akin to Wedekind's.Two years later the at a work was given its first performance in Vienna symphony concert conducted by Webem. too. The Nazis tried to prevent its inclusion in the Venice last festival. They are linked. the second Storm song had been the forerunner of the Lyric Suite. conceived was rather moment of prepara- tion for Lulu. as. with the smouldering 'Vormarz' period of Buchner's Wozzeck. on June 21. cal step for a The choice of Baudelaire's cycle of poems. Thus Der Wein was the stylistic forerunner of Lulu. by its basic organization and by its colour and scoring. their intrigues being brought to nothing at the moment by the intervention of Casella and Malipiero. Le Vin. that he had composed Der Wein with at the crucial special regard to her vocal qualities. in his letter of appreciation to Frau Herlinger. Berg's modest remark.ALBAN BERG letter to the singer. style to a preliminary experiment in the vocal be adopted in the opera. was a logicomposer intent on submerging himself in the depths of Wedekind's satanic satire.

later indictment of The dionysiac powers of the grape are reflected in the soul of the 'Disinherited'. Although 'Le vin du assassin' was specially attacked by the public prosecutor in 1857. had already been published separately in French periodicals in 1848 and 1850. neither it nor any of the other poems of the cycle were among those subsequently expunged from the edition of Les Fleurs du cutor. in the pleasures of the solitary and the of young Berg omitted the poems about the rag-and-bone man and the murderer. the Parnassian emerging of his epoch. only to be pro- scribed and suppressed immediately by the French public prose- had actually been written far back in the early 1840's. Baudelaire's elegant obscenities are often transposed to a lower key of severe solemnity. ville from the orbit of Banand Laprade. which gave him a tripartite musical structure. and some of the lines deliberately inaccurately rendered. It is a pity that Berg. the enthusiast for Wagner's Tannhauser Bacchanale. in which the poetical chmate is radically changed. and anticipating Wedekind's the bourgeoisie of the 'fm de siecle'. wrote these poems in a spirit of revolt. for his own poem *Le chanson de vin' (Les Stalactites). in the intoxication of the rag-and-bone lovers. man and the triumph of the common ecstasies murderer. choosing only to set *L'ame du vin'.DER WEIN Le Vin. 'Le vin du solitaire' and 'Le vin des amants'. Malo£i%6i. published in the Fleurs du Mai of 1857. By changing the original positions of Baudelaire's fourth 157 . whose knowledge of French seems to have been only elementary. Moreover. became acquainted with Baudelaire's poems in Stefan George's translations. the 'frondeur' by habit and inclination. Two of them. aimed at the complacent philistinism Baudelaire. a line of the latter poem had been used as a motto by Theodore de Banville in 1844. 'Le vin du assassin' and X'ame du vin'.

158 . of notes 6-12 are suitably rearranged: iCf. W. So great is the discrepancy between work is *one big Ossia. but speaks instead of 'Les . However. cit. *Le vin du solitaire' and 'Le vin des amants*. a logical and reahstic reprise of the first poem X'ame du vin*. io6. is strictly dodecaphonic. with its allusion to the temptations of 'wine. to quote a caustic remark by T. Reich. . women and dice*. adjusted to the scansion French original George's free adaptation rather than from the original. Berg was able to make the former. which admits of a tonal interpretation. It shares. Op.ALBAN BERG and fifth poem. Baudelaire nowhere refers to a violin. W. where the entry of the solo violin was surely prompted by George's totally inaccurate verses. and unfortunately not by Baudelaire's original. distinctive feature shares with the Concerto a also of its Basic Set. section {a) represents the complete 'harmonic' scale section of D minor. 2 Der Wein to follow it. p.. too.l The pubhshed vocal score is bilingual throughout and has two Baudelaire's original and George's translations that Berg's of the and the German translation.' sons d'une musique enervante et caHne. ^This becomes specially evident in bars 189 fF. it is unquestionable that Berg received the decisive stimulus from separate staves for the vocal part. with the twelvenote series of the Concerto the scale-like rising tendency of its row: Example 142 If note 7 is enharmonicaUy changed to C sharp.. Between these two poems the hghtweight doggerel of 'Le vin des amants' makes an admirable Scherzo. . whereas scale if the positions (h) becomes the G flat {=z F sharp). like two works that were It Lulu and the Violin Concerto. Adomo.

Again. acted as an even stronger catalytic agent for Berg's creative imagination than the fictitious F major tonahty in the Lyric Suite. as in the Viohn Concerto. 1 The mediant relationship D F sharp. motion. in chordal and tendency to integrate tonal elements into — melodic simultaneity: Example 144 The Basic Shape of the row appears already in the orchestral prelude (bars 8-10) and again in the (bars 16 ff). J. Here. the re- The structure capitulation and its reminiscences and self-quotations. as well as the sectional repetition in retrograde iCf.e. in conformity with the poetic triptych of the text. 97 ff- 159 . A-B-Ai). Berg makes this introductory bar the sum total of all the serial notes.). The chordal and melodic consequences of the intervaUic arrangements of Examples 142 and 143 determine already the very first bar of the Aria. noticeable in Examples 142 and 143. p. are integral Rufer (cf. initial bars of the voice part of the Aria is strictly ternary (i.DER WEIN 12 (3) (8) Example 143 The tonal implications in a chordal re-arrangement of the notes of this series are evident. Berg's his dodecaphonic world leads to the construction of a tonally impregnated series. as in the Chamber Concerto and the Lyric Suite. Bibl.

tion. bars 140-112. Basic Set are chiefly responsible for the often impressionistic A surprising novelty first is the use of Jazz instruments and It is all Ja^ rhythms. 1. crab-fashion. it is the middle movement as in the lato' (section II) which is turned back. W. bars 123-141. obsolescent types of Tango. The latter assertion is supported by the important part allotted to Jazz music in Lulu and by the use of the saxophone even in the Violin Concerto. Scherzo reprise. R. 4 Jazz is used in Der Wein. 12 (bars 1-7).3 Berg only became acquainted with Jazz in or about 1925 and took to it reluctantly. 1 thereby preparing for the inevitable return of section Again. as a is all the sound symbol of moral decay and depravity. 160 . extensive passages of section I recur in the fmal section in Uteral quotation. uses only the older.). Again. is Most important for the the main part of section I complete Sonata-exposi- which has been called a with an orchestral prelude based on a Basso Ostinato on the serial notes i.. like Stravinsky in The Soldier's Tale. Berg. pp. Reich. Apart from the contemporaneous use of jazz instruments in Schoenberg's "* Von Heute auf Morgen (1930) and in Webern's Quartet Op. as later on in Lulu. deeper understanding of the v^ork (bars 1-87). bars 88-96. Bibl. ^Cf. cit. Berg's widow asserts that he deHghted in Hstening to Jazz bands on his wireless set. Berg's penchant for Jazz neither tion to more remarkable in that Schoenberg nor Webern paid more than casual attenit. Trio. 2 The implications of the hues of its harmonies. However. bars 142-172. bars 97-122. 102 ff. Rondo of the Chamber Concerto and the 'Largo deso- of the Lyric Suite. Leibowitz (cf. 2Cf. 161-62. retrograde motion. 22 (1930). p. as in the Lyric Suite.ALBAN BERG Structural devices. for the time in Berg's work. 3. According to Adorno. 2. Scherzo reprise. remarkable into Berg's enough that Jazz elements could be integrated at mature idiom. op. Ragtime and EngHsh ^Section II consists of: Scherzo. It remains here and later a medium for the characterization of special social conditions.

..Alfe*aB*rg.l {7*^ ||'>5 ^ .WieftXnt. the first singer of 'Der Wein' (June 1930) (By courtesy of Mrs Ruzena Herlinger) . „ Facsimile of a Letter by Alban Berg to Ruzena Herlinger.

. jAHR ARBEITER-^SINFQNIE^KQNZERTE 1931/32 CHenstag. 21..ti^ MAHLER ...27. Der Wem ufid gro6es von Baudelaire) In fer Sopransob OAestcr (EjsftlAaiQiMWSf Wien)q^ Vjr j..... 19. .30 Uhr Im Gn)§€n Musikvereins-Saal ZU EH REN DES 2EHNTEN IHTERNATIONALEN MUSIKFESTES ORCHESTER'^KONZERT SCHONBERG BERG ... Zweite Slnfonie duUcU^X^^^^ £/ Ausftihfende: Rulena Herlinger{Sopran|/£nid Szantho.. Staaisoper Wieri graphia/Der Singverein der Kunststelle/ (Alt)/Frei€ Typo- Das Wiener Sinfonieorchester Difigent: ANTON WEBERN PREIS DIESES PROGRAMMES 4 GROSCHEN Facsimile of a Concert Anton Programme issued for a Concert in which conducted the first performance in Vienna of Berg's Concert Aria 'Der Wein' (1932) The Programme contains words of praise in Berg's hand who signs humoristically as 'The Butler' Webem (By courtesy of Mrs Ruzena Herlinger) .. . Joni 1932. .... . a) FriedeaufErden (Gedidit von CE Meyer) ' b) Bcglcitmusik zu emer Ltditsptelszene (Gedlicht .

returns in recapitulatory fashion in section III (transposed down a third) at the words 'Un baiser Hbertin de la maigre AdeHne'. muted trumpet and banjo-like pizzicato strings. The thematic relationship of the Jazz enclaves in Der Wein with the Jazz music in Lulu is based as much on skilful use of cross bar rhythms as on the constitutional element of the interval of the fourth.l n Example 145 Compare this with the following extract from the EngHsh Waltz from Lulu Example 146 Example 145 confmed to the piano which. The latter is here used (as earUer in Wozzeck) as a symbol of the musically primitive: "Der wein" nH-rf] —J— -=^=\ U «^ 1- (Pfte. which had only recently inspired Ernst Krenek's Jazz opera Johnny spielt auf (1927). together with alto saxophone. This Jazz music.: J DER WEIN Waltz. ignoring the more modem Charleston and Blues. L 161 . which illustrates in section I *le refrain is des dimanches'. forms a kind of imaginary Jazz band. foreshadowing the very aura of sound emanating from the Jazz band employed in Lulu (Act i).

backed by flutter-tonguing is flutes especially this dream-like vision and high-pitched violins). with its unique com- bination of high-pitched sounds (high coloratura soprano. It of the Scherzo (section II) v^hich anticipates in an almost somnambulistic future musical atmosphere of L«/w and cination.ALBAN BERG In sharp contrast to the angular rhythms of the Jazz sections is the ecstatic scintillation of the Scherzo. its manner the heroine's erotic fas- 162 .

The performance of Wedekind's Pandora s Box at the Trianontheater on May 29.CHAPTER LULU The Opera of Social I. which he ^e. 1 The revolutionary social criticism impHed in both plays profoundly affected Berg and his conception of the opera of social protest and compassion. They were intended to be protests against a fictitious social and artistic world. VII Protest and Compassion — II THE LIBRETTO Austria. sufferings of the socially down-trodden in his home-country. 1905.g. theatrical Two performances provided the igniting spark and led eventually to the creation of these operas. The enslavement and humihation of poor Wozzeck. the prostifigures. indicative of the tute. Arthur Schnitzler's frivolous dramatic dialogues Anatol and Reigen. the inarticulate infantryman. BERG was son of Darkest achievements have a and his creative their roots in his basic opposition to the decaying empire in subjects which his youth was of his two great operas are centred in The two symboHc spent. and the that set Berg's imagination burning exhumation of Buchner's Woyzeck 2it the Wiener Kammerspiele in May 1914 were events on the fringe of Vienna's artistic Hfe. 163 . is slowly atomized. are matched by the death-dance of social machinery in which Lulu. and against the fermenting erotic cynicism of its Tin de siecle' literature.

This play. in Hitler's Austria of March 1938. a fate that was also destroying 164 . In the Hterary work of Frank Wedekind it is the struggle of the sexes is the dominating theme. Wedekind's favourite subStrindberg. Both operas are Hnked with the poHtical catastrophe of Austria by virtue of a truly remarkable coincidence of dates. During the months of fratricidal struggle between Sociahsts and Heimwehr. inspiring but men. in a Vienna increasingly faithless to his ideals. as in the writings of August and pungent social satire seems reflected in the Hfe story and creative bias of his younger German contemporary. They had been preceded by Friihlings Erwachen (1891). Lulu was conceived and composed in the twihght years of post-war Austria's independence. admittedly modelled on Buchner's Woyzeck. The opera was planned. was for fourteen years banished from the German stage. Nine months later. leaving to posterity the unfinished full score of his opera. erotic satanism ject. the last bars of the short score of Lulu were written. the very name of Alban Berg was proscribed. written and published during the years of the first World War and its revolutionary aftermath. Zurich. 1937). culminating in the rising of February 1934.ALBAN BERG was to create in the very hour of Imperial Austria's doom. a dream-like succession of short scenes. Berg died less than two years later. Austria had progressed so rapidly that the Meanwhile the poHtical decomposition of two completed acts (at of Lw/w could only be performed in free Switzerland June 2/. is most convincingly presented in two plays of which Lulu is the central character: Earth Spirit (1893) and Pandora s Box (190 1). Berg decided to set Buchner's Woyzeck to music on the eve of the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo. a tragedy of premature sex-fulfilment among schoolchildren. the whose mixture of demoniacal hubris of the female element. which led to the birth of 'Httle' Republican Austria.

He tried his hand desultorily at various occupations: journalism. repeatedly acted in Earth Spirit and Pandora s Box. His father. and work the modern German realistic stage. this physical handicap. yet became a re: markable actor. as it were. One of these was afterwards employed by Berg in the third act o£ Lulu. 1864.LULU to befall the two 'Lulu' plays as well. set to ^In later years Wedekind in turn the parts of Dr Schon. he was attracted by the circus and especially by men of for athletic build. or perhaps because of. late in hfe. opposite his gifted wife. accompanying on the lute Lautenlieder melodies of his own. an actress of great beauty and charm. a German actress much younger than himself. Despite. One of his brothers committed suicide and he himself seems to have suffered from the malady of the Romantics and their spiritual heirs a Faustian ambivalence. The family seems to have been notorious for eccentric behaviour and internal feuds. He was lame from birth. playing and the Lion-tamer who recites the 'prologue'. a doctor. 165 . Some The man who aroused reactions in law. In later years he acted chiefly in his own plays. 'Die elf Scharfrichter'. As poet and cabaret-singer Wedekind became a hit and soon he also won his spurs as an actor in straight plays. in an incessant spiral of antitheses. Wolzogen and others he joined the first German literary cabaret. as They were condemned in inartistic three courts of law immoral and and copies were destroyed by order of the pohce. Tilly Newes. circus work in Switzerland. while on a tour round the world. police critics believe that their quarrels are reflected in Gerhart Hauptmann's early play Das Friedensfest. and on its miniature stage at Munich made his dehiU as chansonnier. Wedekind was a tragic figure from the very outset of his career. i his cynical httle ballads. this storm of protest and conflicting and public was born in Hanover on July 24. With Bierbaum. had married in San Francisco. Jack. His Hfe and work move.

to Goethe's Faust. Lulu's evil genius. Der Marquis von Keith. the plays embodying In the majority of Wedekind's plays the characters are the the quintessence of his post-Nietzschian philosophy of human renewal through the purgatory of untrammelled sexuality. represents something akin to Mephistopheles's principle of negation ('Der Geist. illness and crime. closely modelled on Goethe's 'Prologue on the stage' down to the doggerel rhymes a la Hans Sachs. Hidalla. in Totentanz (a play that has more than just the less title in common with Strindberg) that the heart- procurer Casti-Piani. der verneint'). chiefly concentrate prostitution. However. 1897. Some element of the poetic programme underlying the tremendous adventure of Goethe's Faust is embodied in the famous fniai lines of the 'Prologue on the stage' underlined the parallel with Goethe's Und v/andelt mit bedachtiger Schiielle Vom Himmel durch die Welt zur Hollc 166 . She from its dizzy heights into the abyss of prostitution. Lulu runs through the chmbs the social ladder.: ! ALBAN BERG from drawn bohemian world of the circus. only to topple over Lesbian infatuation with Lulu. Franziska. stets play Wedekind by opening 'Pandora's Box' v/ith a 'Prologue in the bookshop'. 1904. with her sterile hero. Like Goethe's whole gamut of passion. died. 1901. the theatre and demimonde {Der Kammersdnger. as it the two parts of his 'Lulu' drama were. in Munich on March 191 8. Musik. 1906). returns to the stage and. in the end. 191 1). on the perverse aberrations of love. Her companion is the Countess Geschwitz who. on and on procurers and nymphomaniacs {TotentanZy It is 1906. prematurely aged and already eclipsed as a writer by the van- guard of German expressionism. Wedekind never its surpassed the succes de scandale o£ Earth Spirit and sequel. as a Wedekind conceived feminine parallel. and 8. commits suicide.

however. telescoping. offers proof in the first act of a superhuman degree of self-sacrifice. intercedes for the sinner Lulu in the face of death. . nimm sie mit.: lulu' This is re-echoed in the impertinent stanzas of the Httle poem 'Earth Spirit'. The refinement Berg's libretto tion. du gleichest einem Kinde. Dass man sie mit Fiissen tritt. Dem man alles zeigen muss. Nevertheless. Wedekind himself encouraged an interpretation on these lines by his own assessment of his chief characters 1: Lulu plays in all three acts a purely passive role the Countess Geschwitz. 167 . . Ach. The parallel with Goethe's Faust culminates in the dramatic function of the Countess Geschwitz who. is in the drawing of the Countess's character in in line with Wedekind's own self-interpreta- Hn his preface to Patidoras Box. 1906. Aus der Siinde wachst Genuss. the roles of the cheated Mephistopheles and Una poenitenrium (alias Gretchen). Tanzend auf der Galgenleiter Hat sich keiner noch gemopst. Gliicklich. found among Wedekind's lyric poems but not mckided in the 'Lulu' plays Greife wacker nach der Siinde. Hat die Welt doch nur Gesetze. as it were. Meide nicht die ird'schen Schatze: Wo sie Hegen. the curse of perversity alone would not have induced me to treat this problem in dramatic form. . wer geschickt und heiter Uber frische Graber hopst. . I did so because I found that this fatal destiny had never yet been made the subject of a tragedy.

heirs August 1929 June 1930 Agreement with Wedekind's signed. occurred only in 1905. First 4. ethical ground-bass of Wedekind's 'Lulu' plays evidently passed unnoticed when the public prosecutor hurled his indictment against their author. but temporarily inter- rupted by work on Der Wein. performance of Der Wein. It is this note of hedonism which distinguishes Ltdu from the contemporary plays of the pessimistic glorification anti-feminist Strindberg. Karl Kraus gave an introductory lecture and appeared as the sinister negro chieftain Kungu Poti. The philosophical and. He decided to set the two 'Lulu' plays to music only after prolonged hesitation. the history o£ Lulu before and after the First composer's death: May 29. As we know. the incarnation of amorality and unlimited sensuality. and after setting aside various other projects. symbolized in the figure of the naive she-demon. as morahst. Box received its first himself and his wife in the parts. in tabulated form. Composi- begun. of Jack the Ripper and Lulu. The following pages give. when Pandoras performance in Vienna. the twenty-year-old Alban Berg attended this performance. 1905 performance of Pandora's Box in Vienna. Spring 1928 Berg decides to set Wedekind's 'Lulu' plays to music. 168 . Spring 1929 Completion of the tion libretto.ALBAN BERG Wedekind's 'Lulu' reaches its poetical apex in the ecstatic of the 'Eternal Feminine' ('Das Ewig-WeibHche' of Goethe's final Chorus Mysticus). indeed. with Wedekind preacher and playwright. A rehabilitation of Wedekind. including an operatic version of Hauptmann's Und Pippa tanzt. respectively.

bars 317 ff. dedicated Webern on his fiftieth birthday. den Schlaf aus den Augen {Lulu. ^Cf. Compilation of the so-called 'Lulusymphony' (published early in 1935).) reibt. Literatur undLiige (Vienna. day on September 13. Lulu completed in short score.1 LULU December 1933 April 1934 'Das Lied der Lulu' (Act to 2). and the opera dedicated to him. Winter 1934-35 Spring 1935 Work o{Lulu. 169 . for his sixtieth birth- Summer 1934 30. Berg. in the presence of the composer. Orchestration o£ Lulu interrupted the composition of the Violin certo (completed II. 1934 First November performance in Berlin of the continued on the orchestration 'Lulu-symphony' under Erich Kleiber. II/i. mortally for the first ill. 1935 Orchestration o£Lulu resumed. and last time fragments from his opera. August 28. Late April 1934 Dedicatory letter and passage in vocal score 'Eine Seele. This same passage had played an important part in Kraus' s introductory lecture to Pandora s Box in 1905. 1929).' . First performance of the 'Lulu-symhears phony' in Vienna. 1934 Autograph of the 'Prologue' to Lulu sent to Schoenberg. 1935)- by Con- on or about August End of August 1935 December 11. . die sich im Jenseits . Karl Kraus. sent to Karl Kraus on his sixtieth birthday.

one of Lulu's last customers. This process of concentration entailed the excision of numerous scenes and several episodic characters. Vienna. The scenes cut s include the Faustian 'Prologue in the bookshop' to Pandora Box and the expository scenes i and 2 of the first act o{ Earth Spirits The characters omitted include the reporter. was pubhshed by Universal Edition in 1936. pianoreduction by Erwin Stein. the African explorer. Other figures of special importance for the demonstration of Lulu's social first rise. in Barcelona. were turned into shadowy characters. 1936 performance of the Violin Conat the Stadttheater. interesting to note that there exists an authorized edition of Wedekind's plays title condensed into one. in 1935. Dr Schon. June 2. losing much of Aiwa and their indi- viduaHty. The Symphonic Fragments from Lulu ('Lulu-symphony*) were published in full score by Universal Edition.ALBAN BERG December 24. the maid and Dr Hilti. He reduced the seven acts and two prologues of the two semi-independent plays to three acts (seven scenes). Berg had to 'streamlining*. and Prince Ecserny. 1937 Premiere o£ Lulu Zurich. the grotesque Swiss University lecturer. The vocal score and the libretto include a brief synopsis of the third act. 170 . and one prologue. together with their surnames. under the 'Lulu'. certo. her husband. Dramatic attention was focussed on the ^It is painter. 1935 Death of Berg First in Vienna. A vocal score of the first two acts of the opera. Schigolch. Before Wedekind's plays could be subject their texts to a literary set to music. Medizinalrat Dr Goll. April 19. The Ubretto of the first two acts was pubhshed in 1937. and dramaturgical much more drastic than that to which Wozzeck had been subjected.

between Acts 2 and 3 Lulu's less significant ^According to a remark by Rodrigo in Pandora only in her twentieth year. Act I They are accompanied by music. The main episodes of the film are Lulu's arrest. Responsible for the deaths of three husbands. Aiwa. victim. escape. The fnial curtain of Berg's Act i underlines Lulu's triumph over Dr Dr Schon. This exultantly expressed 2. The two scenes of this act are linked by means of a musical interlude which. before her next trial. His Act 2 is played without change of scenery in Schon's house. Lulu reappears. Lulu is still 171 . legal proceedings. through the devotion of the Countess Geschwitz. ending in her being senisola- tenced to imprisonment. tion-hospital for cholera cases illness (cholera) escape from the These episodes represent in flash-like abbreviations the gist of the ponderous dialogue of the first hslf of Pandora' s Box. Unchanged by prison and cholera.LULU among the male characters of the two plays. who . Act : remand for trial. 137. and amalgamates Act 4 of 'Earth Spirit' with I o£ Pandora s Box. hospital. Act i. s Box. p. The structure of Berg's libretto emphasizes the decisive phases of Lulu's develop- ment much better than the caesuras of Wedekind's many acts. haunts. Similarly. synchronized with the track of a silent film. 1 she has is now Act the reached the apex of her victorious feminity. by her union with Aiwa 3 at the end of libretto The big caesura between Acts 2 and of Berg's indicates the end of an episode in Lulu's life more forcibly than Pandora. hiatus between Acts i and 2 of Wedekind's Between Berg's Acts i and 2 the marriage of Lulu and Dr Schon takes place. smuggles Lulu into an . prison. phoenix-like and as seductive as ever. By this fusion it abolishes the overlong caesura between Wedekind's two plays. narrates Lulu's turbulent adventures between the killing of Dr Schon and her escape from prison. the retrograde motion of which underlines Lulu's triumphant return to her former .

^ ALBAN BERG Aiwa is more or less legalized. Berg also boldly transferred the action from the 'fm de siecle' atmosphere of the 1890's to the deep 1920's. Berg's caesura between Acts 2 and 3 also underscores the ageing of love affair with his son in their joint escape Lulu.l Ho\yever. to write III/2). with the character Aiwa. This as modernizaself- tion of Wedekind can only be understood an act of identification. are shed. who reappears in the about thirty. 'your composer' 5). author of a play in which Lulu appears too. ^A more detailed account of German edition of this book. having led the for about ten years. when the blackmailer Casti-Piani threatens to expose them to the poHce. Spirit. Lulu. when the initial bar of is Berg's revision of Wedekind's dialogue given in the 172 . p. the poet o£ Earth Spirit as a dancer. The structural economy of the libretto is matched by its verbal condensation. is for ever excluded from bourgeois respectability. resulting from Germany and. from now on. Berg's second scene of Act 3 presents Lulu ageing. transformed in the hbretto into a poet-composer of a 'gruesome opera' {Lulu phized as He is scornfully apostroIII/i. their subsequent new life in a shady Vmsmn demi-monde environment. sick and debauched. the composer's encroachment on the poet's preserve does not end here. down in Berg's subconscious. 84). is who intends. Finally. Dr Schon's gifted son. an interesting play on Lulu herself (Earth II/2. Chorale Variation No. form a conclusive parallel. in her ultimate disguise as a Lon- don prostitute. by which all the polemical longeurs of Wedekind. the sermonizing satanist. scene of Act 3 as a woman of of a Parisian 'Grande Cocotte' Lulu and Alwa's flight from the German first life poUce at the end of Act 2 and their escape from Paris at the end of the first scene of Act 3. Berg finally unmasks his relation to Aiwa completely in musical self-quotation. by Casti-Piani (Lw/w.

parlando-singing. A passage such as the following (III/i. II/2. 1/2. cue 1021 b. In 1m\u these residual dialogue sections are more fre- quent than in Wozzeck.te-re son fr O -per sehrei-bcn Example 147 As in the case of Wozzeck^ Berg was here confronted time and again with sections of text difficult or impossible to set to music a predicament familiar to aU composers who. 2 However. 3 The number of different vocal devices used in Lw/w is prodigious. cue 407. In the later work they occasionally tend to bring the music to a complete standstill. ^Cf. she could become the subject of an interesting opera* (Lulu. like Strauss and Puccini. Lulu. with its clear distinction speaking on pitch. cue 55. 1/3.: LULU freilich eine interessante Recit Wozzeck accompanies Alwa's words: 'tjber Oper schreiben' 1 : die liesse sich AIwq: ijber di« liesse s'ldiftHich e'ine in. (Ij) recitative. cue 1095)^Cf. : of four vocal techniques (c) (a) cue 477). Berg was unendingly resourceful in turning casual phrases of Wedekind's dialogue into musicogenic material. III/i. the words to the vocal ensembles of III/ 1. e) Athlet: (J) bel canto (Re^) C) Lulu : (paHando) d) Lulu : (contabile) Sie le'iht mir zwmzytausend Afork Du ntochst ei nen _ Menschen Example 148 recalls the multitude of recitative and arioso-types prevalent in ^'To be sure. . have decided to turn straight plays into — operas.

Lulu's death. sents ofLulu repre- an even greater is literary achievement than the libretto of letter Wozzeck. in contrast to Wedekind. p. This can best be studied in the scene of Lulu's clash with the Countess Geschwitz (III/i). The savage struggle with Jack the Ripper is here mercifully curtailed and attention focussed on the Countess Geschwitz way out. in the opera. Gottnein' Aber wenndukommstaogc - he id) Example 149 The numerous minor changes the less less in antisemitic presentation of the banker in III/i Wedekind's plays include and the provocative 'male dress' of the Lesbian Countess. is only indicated by her frightful shriek at cue 1268. The effects demanded range from a whispered shriek to the passionate whisthng sound of hysteria. Lulu's rage and frustration are reflected in the almost unproducible pitch of the following bars Weiss. he lets the actual murder take place behind the scenes. supported by a passage from a on Wozzeck in this of Berg's to ^Cf. The sections in Lulu indicated in the notation { produced by Sprechstimme\ve and take their cue from Schoen' berg's early 'melodrames'.: ALBAN BERG early opera. . the chapter book. While Berg III/2 is evidently intent on repro- ducing in the gruesome atmosphere of Grand-Guignol which permeates the fmal scene of Pandora s Box. The re- arrangement of the fmal scene of Lulu's assassination should be specially mentioned. 74 ft". The opinion expressed above. mortally stabbed by Jack on his alone under Lulu's portrait and with Lulu's name that the libretto on her lips.l Berg's imagination was undoubt- edly stimulated by the fact that he conceived the part of Lulu for a coloratura soprano. dies who.

2 scenes. who commits Act III: The dressing-room in a theatre. 2 And what further torture when I try to adapt that selec- and smaller musical structures and to avoid destroying Wedekind's idiomatic characteristics in the process! Hence I could only send you the 'text' of the parts already composed however. Act ni: In an ^First attic in London. . Apart from the composition. is of Lulu.1 where he describes the of transforming Wedekind's text into the substance of an opera . scenario can be briefly presented thus: fAct The two plays Studio of the painter. p. the dancer. in as before). S. That applies to the tion to the larger . by Lulu. it is the libretto that holds me up so much. 1953. published by R. of course. Act r 3 scenes the painter. I prefer to wait until the whole text is settled. where he VShe is arrested by the poHce. ^The 'ten years in prison' were altered to 'one year in prison' in the final form of the libretto. . She returns . ^Compare this with Willi Reich's astonishing assertion (Melos. Act I to Schon's flat (scene becomes Alwa's mistress. Of my new opera I can only report that I am still in the first Act. 1930. As I have to cut out four-fifths of Wedekind's original. Lulu has to flee.: LULU Schoenberg. the twelve-note style of which does not yet permit me to work quickly. 12) that Berg set Wedekind's text 'without altering a word'. Despite this clinging to detail. dated August difficulties 7.> Act After 10 years in prison^ Lulu is released by (Schon's son) and Geschwitz. Hill {Musical Quarterly. dies of an apoplectic stroke. been quite clear to me for a long while. .^ killed Act IV: Schon's flat. 134 fF. II Scene i Aiwa . suicide. . ''. the libretto as a whole has.). . Act III. separated from scene 2 by a long interlude. . in which Dr GoU. Lulu's husband. the selection of the remaining one-fifth is enough of a torture. J^n. to whomDr Schon proposes marriage. I : The The opera Act / II: The flat of Lulu and her second husband. Its formation progresses alongside the composition. She H < Act II: Gambling-den in Paris. 1952. musical proportions as well as to the dramatic structure. No.

The music line.The brackets (right in ALBAN BERG and left) indicate how scenes are dehberately combined my text which were separated in Wedekind's plays. 176 . This is emphasized in the vocal scores of Wozzeck and Lulu by sub-titles which draw attention to the use of the forms of 'absolute' music. etc. In it begins. The episodic character and puppet-like atmosphere of Wozzeck made it difficult to establish a system of characteristic leitmotive. Chorale-Variation. the descent of the following scenes. The interlude which bridges the gap between the last act of 'Earth Spirit' and the first act of 'Pandora' is also the focal point of the whole tragedy. in the sense of the word. after the ascent of the preceding acts or scenes. to be sure . Canon. See page igiff. in in both works is subject to a rigid formal discip- strong contrast to the loose texture of post-Wagnerian opera in general. Sonata.) — . the inversion. The hero of Wozzeck and the heroine oi Lulu are both murderers. . 2. But in both operas the murderer common is clearly presented as a victim of environment and social conditions. which. (By the way: the four men who visit Lulu in her attic have to be represented in the opera by those singers who have represented the men who become Lulu's victims in the first half of the opera in inverted order of ^ appearance. after all. But in the case o£ Lulu the almost continuous presence of no less than seven chief characters seemed to call for a much more ^These dramatic correlations correspond in turn with musical reminiscences extending over III/2. are two plays. THE MUSIC Berg's two operas are set apart from almost all other contem- porary works by their pitiless realism. In Berg's works the music retains an inde- pendent life of its own. as often as not of an archaic nature: Passacaglia.

the music of Lulu is constructed on the principle of symphonic recapitulations and correspondences. The motives in Lulu are all derived from a single twelve-note series. enters (III/2) ^for stamping her feet the Negro. A 'leit-rhythm' venia verho) plays an integral role in Lulu. only in isolated episodes (I/4: Passacagha.LULU systematic employment of these devices. such as had been increasingly characteristic of his music since the Chamber Concerto. where basic relationships are often estabby the use of certain determinant keys. Whereas Wozzeck achieved rigid formal control. the chamber orchestra with Schigolch. in the score. Berg employs here a mature technique which permits the estabhshment of a system of subtle thematic correspondences. except for such extraneous matter as Wedekind's ballad tune in Act 3. They frequently present themselves only in the form of a sonorous aura. (I/i) M 177 . 1 The motives and sound combinations associated with certain characters in Lulu are more closely related than are the motives Wagner's operas. the atmosphere of the theatre (I/3) is indicated by the sound ofJazz music and that of the the [sit London slums by the strains of a barrel-organ grinding out melody of Wedekind's Lautenlied (ni/2). Lulu applies dodecaphonic technique consistently. Kungu — Even the smallest rhythmic or the knock on the door when are subject to its organizing control. Lulu's Poti. as in Wozzeck. and pentatonic harmonic progressions with the Countess Geschwitz. indicative of a certain dramatic mood. In that sense Act 3 o£Lulu in lished : ^Indicated 'events' — by 'RH' ('Hauptrhythmus') instance. III/i Fugue). Similarly. the characteristic motives ofLulu are very different from Wagner- ian leitmotive. involving whole scenes in that process of repetition and self-quotation. the solo vioHn with Casti-Piani. But even more than in that work and its successors. To be sure. in the sense of strict serial composition. Thus the banging of chord-clusters on the piano is associated with the athlete. if not exclusively.

These musical correspondences may refer to whole movements (the Canzonetta of I/i. 11/ 1. such as the fourth. This comphcated system of motivic allusion. and ninth. They underlie the passionate episodes as much as the interludes ofjaunty Jazz music. Sequences of chords of the seventh and ninth (almost in the luscious manner of Scriabin) express the magic of sensuality. bar 1000). as well suited to the accompani- m. of self-quotation and self-revelation sible by purely musical means is made posis by the fact that the entire thematic substance derived from one basic serial row. give the whole fifth tion. sequences opera its hall-mark. dialectical antithesis). which returns in hteral quotation at Lulu's sentence *If only your : great infant eyes did not exist'.ent of the bizarre film as to the dialectical antinomies of the text (as in Lulu's song. His little opera Von Heute auf Max Blonda. In particular. on a text by 178 . The characteristics of the twelvenote row determine the choice of intervals. Berg's predilection for formal correspondences is also responsible for the frequent use of retrograde inversions. in II/2. was composed in 1928/29 and first performed at Frankfurt-on-Main on February i. developed from certain permutations of the Basic Shape of the series. which returns as the Arietta of II/2) or to musico-poetical purple patches (c£ Alwa's passage: 'A soul rubbing sleep from its eyes in Heaven'. used for the purpose of dramatic characterizaof fourths. Berg's increasing inchnation towards self-quotation and subtle allusion becomes more noticeable than ever before. 1930. as a symphonic recapitulation of Acts III/2 in literal i and with long sections of I/i returning in quotation. earlier some years Morgen. bar 317 ff. in 11/ 1. where every line contains also its The possibilities of the technique used by Berg in the com- position of his twelve-note opera had been explored and tested by Schoenberg.ALBAN BERG can be understood 2.

which yields the musical symbols related to the opera's heroine If the notes of R are re-organized vertically the result is a short chordal sequence ^Cf. tionary. Reich. ^Cf. -The insipidity of the libretto oveitaken the opera. such as Canon. the little Canon composed by Berg on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the Frankfurt Opera House. Every bar of this little domestic comedy^ is determined by these fundamental principles of musical organization. 3 the following explanation can do little more than epitomize their findings. Duet. and there is no doubt that it influenced Berg very much. The structural pattern o(Lulu having been ex- pounded in great detail by earher commentators. p. It is based on the twelve-note series used by Schoenberg and alludes to the title of the opera in its text. Leibowitz. Supplementary volume. Here is the Basic Set R.. together with a letter in which he apologized for the incorrect use of the twelve-note series of Schoenberg's opera in his own opusculum. Quartet. Recitative and Arioso. and the systematic appli- cation of dodecaphonic technique. Schoenberg's music trolled con- by the formal demands of each respective 'set piece' and by the imposed thematic derivation from the basic series. especially the saxophone.: : LULU It was published early in 1930 in a facsimile reproduction of the autograph score. 1940. is probably responsible for the obHvion which has W. Cf also R. Berg sent the autograph of the Canon to Schoenberg. It w^as pubHshed in the appendix to Willi Reich's book of 1937. which were taken over fully (if not perhaps wholly consciously) by Berg for use in Lulu. cit. Op. the parodistic employment of Jazz is instruments. Op. 1 Features of Lm/m anticipated in Schoenberg's opera include the use of archaic forms. XXII/4. 1936 and Grove's Diccit. 179 . jointly commemorating the first performance of Schoenberg's opera there. also Musical Quarterly. 16.

with every seventh note singled out for a special accent. S 10 3 8 Example 154 180 . as it were. reminiscent of that of the portrait in Wilde's Dorian Gray. A scale motive is produced if the three Voices' of the ^portrait harmonies' are strung out horizontally 5 5 8 10 J ^ 7 11 Z t 9 )2 Example 152 In a rhythmic variant the above example is transformed into a dance-like motive. of Lulu's character. expressive of Lulu.: : ALBAN BERG Example 151 These chords ('Bildharmonien') present the essence. love and hate with equal grace and fascination: Example 153 If R is continuously repeated. the demoniac ballerina. death. pirouetting over social prejudices. the graph of the sequence of accented notes yields a new theme a T i«. They are associated with the painted portrait of her that plays a symbolical role in the opera.

: 'lulu' This derivative of JR. such as: Example 157 become the musical symbol of the unnatural tendencies of the Lesbian Countess Geschwitz. the piano pieces com- Op. Another mode of permutation applied to R yields the series: 3 3 2 Example 158 181 . third: with its characteristic feature. and thus with Greek tendencies to homosexual love (Lesbos). 23) can be associated with the pentatonic system of Ancient Greece. Motives derived from Example 156. serial already been employed in Schoenberg's position. the interval Andante of the minor If an accepted rhythmical series of five notes each is superim- posed on R the result is 6 12 7 2 9 4 11 6 Example 156 The principle of pentatonic organization used here (which had earliest. is eventually turned into the Aiwa motive.

J efc Example 161 iThe formula is closely related to the in Wozzeck (III/3). the structure of all which recurs at the turning-points of (rhythmic 5 J. I/2. as rhythmical the fataUstic motive Lulu's erotic career: backbone. ^ J.: : ALBAN BERG out of which the energetic Sonata-theme of developed Ailagro cnergico Dr Schon is Example 159 Even (RH) can be understood as a variant of (which as 'Monoritmica' plays a big part in the R. of Mahler's ninth symphony (first movement). the *Leit-rhythm' RH III/2) may be reduced to the formula : 1 ^Aim This rhythmic scheme Basic Set. -. RH RH in the in the RH 182 . Their common source is.^j. J. J. as is is distilled out of certain variants of the shown here 9 1Q II 12 ' '~> ^^ > >- Example 160 RH determines also. as also to the Chamber Concerto (last movement). ^J. This scene of the painter's death. and again in the final scene. 'j.:j. J. of course. .

linking oboes and clarinets).: LULU By a similar process of thematic 'atom-splitting' the chromatic mosaic of motive-particles golch's creeping figures are constructed Berg obtains from which Schi- Example 162 Certain characteristic intervals are derived from the Basic Set and its variants. behind the for smaller theatres they are cued into the respective parts of the main orchestra. cursor. the incorporation of Jazz instruments into the normal orchestra. easily recognizable as the Earth Spirit fourths. For instance. Berg's last opera shares with its immediate prewith Schoenberg's Von Heute aujMorgen. 1 With the exception of particularly vulgar types. these instruments are However. as : ^Some of scenes (I/3). meant to play only in the Jazz band.: tZtSipVytif^^ Example 163 These fourths are guises. They include alto saxophone in E flat (an important melodic instrument in Lm/m. all the favourite Jazz instruments of 1930 are represented. and the heaped-up intervals of the fourth which from the following process of permutation and eliminaon the basis of jR. all symbohzing the primordial urge of the Faustian Lulu in her The peculiarities of the Lulu orchestra had been foreshadowed in Der Wein. such as Flexaton and Swannee Whistle. 183 . the intervals of the seventh and ninth in the upper and lower parts of the portrait-harmonies (Example result tion 151).

Jazz trumpets and trombones (with mutes) > sousaphone (alternating v/ith tuba and bass-saxhorn).-!. pianoforte and a large percussion group. amalgamating the Jazz types with the more conventional instruments. which had become universally popular more modern species by 1930.. double-basses treated percussively. The effects on the pianoforte announce the alto voluptuous passion root (II/2. Another feature of the score is the deliberate overclouding of triads. clusters i bar before cue 15). By excluding any allusion to the of 'Blues'. vioHns with 'Jazz funnels'. achieved through a kind of orchestral pedal-effect of blurring character and through subtle infiltration of 'foreign' notes into the orbit of clearly defmed tonalities. percussively treated pianoforte and vibra- phone (none of which are employed in Wozzeck) are given significant dramatic functions in this score. they seem deliberately to renounce cheap topicality of Alto saxophone. mixing with the trem. banjo. effect. ALBAN BERG tenor saxophone. Chord- athlete and acrobatic Rodrigo. where the tonic D flat is threatened in its harmonic existence by the intrusion of a D natural and the effect of the echo of the piano pedal. The vibraphone regularly establishes the musical atmosphere heralding the appearance of Lulu (Cf Prologue.. This is seen in the penultimate bar of Act i.olo of the vibraphone and a 'flautando' cantilena in clarinet and saxophone: ( P//»no conpt. ( Clarinets Example 164 184 . Hymn. saxophone becomes the medium of 2 bars before cue no). In rhythmic style and orchestration the Jazz episodes o£Lulu correspond to the obsolescent types of 'Ragtime' and 'Enghsh Waltz'.

Once he has certain proof that Lulu has deceived him. Schon tries to rid himself of Lulu by becoming engaged to a respectable young lady. gate-crashes into a turbulent love-scene. plate opposite page 192. The painter (Schwarz) falls madly in love with Lulu while painting her portrait in fancy dress. as Pierrette. T«r • first • of Berg's opera correspond dramatic effect The three scenes of the first act with the action of the three acts of Wedekind's Earth Spirit. The sensual atmosphere ofLulu determined this radical change in the treatment of the voice. They re-appear in the scene where Dr Goll dies of an apoplectic stroke.LULU The part of Lulu is written for a high coloratura soprano. 185 . is The composer's this infallible feeling for seen in elimination of the opening scenes of the play and plunge into the demoniacal vortex of Lulu's erotic adventures. the most male character in the opera. ^Cf. and that she has been the mistress of her so-called of her fatherly protector forceful 'Father' Schigolch. The their ensembles in Lulu (Duet-canon. the long stretches of bare dialogue tax the ability of the average opera-singer to assume the role of a straight actor. ensemble. But ^Realistic effects in the style of Wozzeck are occasionally admitted. Dr Schon. Choral surpass similar passages in Wozzeck by increased polyphonic subtlety. Dr Goll. III/i) I/i Trio-canon. Lulu thus becoming a wealthy young widow who almost auto- matically marries the bewildered painter. Lulu's husband. as do the parts of Dr Schon and Aiwa. in strong contrast to the vocal style of Wozzeck in general. as well as (I/2). It calls for extensive passages of bel canto singing. he cuts his throat bequeathing his matrimonial burden to Dr Schon. Rage and excitement bring about an apoplectic stroke and he dies on the spot. 1 On the other hand. 2 Schwarz proves un- equal to his allotted role of accommodating husband. 11/ 1. They accompany also Schigolch's asthmatic panting and the athlete's noisy bravado.

tricked into submission. 186 . the last part of the score — to be composed. spoken and sung in it all by the Lion-tamer. the offers a fascinating cross- music to this Prologue section of the music of the whole opera. She plans to become Schon's lawfully wedded wife herself. of every device from straight speaking voice to shouting and bel canto singing. page 183 ^ - a (transposed) Example 165 where its association with the Basic Series R is explained.) are made to corresThe part of the Lion-tamer makes use (Lulu the snake. Dr Schon pond to certain intervals. Berg's who is to appear later as Rodrigo. At the Lulu is intent end of the first act Schon. Nearly all the leading motives of the opera appear in the Prologue incidentally. He actually marries Lulu soon after the curtain falls. etc. In the motives and characters of the play are introduced. writes a farewell letter to his fiancee under Lulu's dictation. This Prologue presents Wedekind's erotic philosophy in a nutshell. The part of the Lion-tamer is taken by the singer athlete.: ALBAN BERG on having her cake and eating it. where he fmally becomes so compromised that he weakly submits to Lulu's demand that he should break off his engagement. The opera begins with the 'Earth Spirit' fourths in progressively rising pitch 1 a (fronsposed) ?' ^Cf. It is here that their *animaHstic' characteristics the tiger. The chief characters are described (and in Lulu's case visually presented) as exhibits in a menagerie. By simulating a fainting fit during a theatrical show at which she appears as a dancer. she lures Schon into her dressing room. This turn first act is preceded by a Prologue.

Lulu is carried in by a stage-hand. in fancy dress. She is cynically apostrophized by the Lion-tamer as 'sweet innocence' while the orchestra intones her hymn-like motive Example 168 187 . with characteristic upward leap of a tenth: Example 167 Finally the Lion-tamer asks for the Boa constrictor to be brought on the stage. as she will appear subsequently in the first scene of the first act.: : LULU The Lion-tamer is immediately identified by the sequence of chord clusters on the piano which are to accompany Rodrigo throughout the opera Example i66 The Prologue's allusion to the its 'tiger's leap' is based on Dr Schon's motive. as Pierrette. in seductive tights.

2. with the painter's The coda of the which the 'Sonata' is resumed at the fall of the curtain interlude. The deliberately primitive musical character of the 'Ragtime' interval is of the major fourth.) in the manner of the development section of a symphonic movement. connected suicide. in turn. are symphonic of invaded by the sound of the based on the is 'Ragtime' played by the Jazz band off-stage. bar 957) and continued in a last bars. [Grave. 188 . Chamber music Schigolch. The scene is hnked with the following one by an orchestral interlude (bar 257 ff. Dr Schon's entry. may be patterns are employed. Its thematic relationship to the preceding scene is reminiscent of similar relationships between scene and interlude in Wozzeck. such as 'Canon' divided musically into three distinct sub-sections 1. Sonata: (a Nonet for woodwind): Lulu and is 3. which mainly based on the Leit-rhythm RH. in the elegant flat of the painter.l Already in this pre- Hminary scene of the opera sharply defined formal musical and 'Canzonetta'. Duettino: Lulu and the painter. page 161 and Example i6o.: ALBAN BERG The music of 'melodrame' of the first scene of the first act includes the is Dr GoU's death from apoplexy. In this interpolated the so- called 'Monoritmica' section. The second scene. and its chief motive clearly a derivative from the jazzy' section of Der Wein: Example 169 ^Cf.

She also makes the preliminary moves of a future grand love-affair with Aiwa. the school-boy and the butler. floating indeterminately music intones the sinister over the vague chord of the added sixth. in the course of the act. who of unnatural passion for Lulu. ending the act. 189 . flirts unashamedly with her admirers under Schon's very eyes. Scene of Act 2 identical with the of Wedekind's Earth Spirit. torn by jealous despair. Lulu. whispers to his son times at her husband. the recurrent 'portrait harmonies' and a set of highly original 'Chorale Variations' (CH). with a huge question mark. musically expressed in terms of a development section within Schon's 'Sonata'. and she with the clairvoyance of the moribund. The second act represents the peripeteia of Lulu's existence. From now on Lulu's dizzy ascent changes to a catastrophic decline. played by the Jazz band. Schon who. the athlete. crisis is The approaching entertains feelings heralded by the introduction of the play's tragic figure par excellence. But she is already with Schon's son Aiwa and after Schon's forcible last act this new love-affair can i only prosper is removal. music of this scene is reached during the great The cHmax of the show-down between Dr Schon and Lulu. When Schon signs his farewell letter (and with it his own death warrant) the rhythm. which accompany the dialogue between Prince Ecserny and Aiwa.: LULU The third scene includes the 'Enghsh Waltz'. The hopelesslinks her ness of her position with the triumvirate of Lulu's unsuccessful admirers. the Countess Geschwitz. fires it five The pistol comes into Lulu's hands The dying Schon. for Lulu's admirers and lies in ambush who. as it were. discovers the Countess in her ridiculous hide-out behind the fire-screen. now at the very pinnacle of her success. eventually draws a pistol. RH to the top in love She has become Schon's lawfully-wedded wife and has climbed rung of the ladder of social success.

171. —to her escape and return to Alwa's house. The arrest silent fdm. cholera onwards—^imprisonment. the isolation- scene of her former triumphs and misdeeds. presents the retrograde motion of Lulu's hfe from her hospital. apparently approved by Aiwa. health and youth again. This film-strip is accompanied by corresponding music in retrograde motion. risking cholera.' . changes places with Lulu in the isolation-hospital. seals her fate. culminating in Alwa's hymn. Lulu's arrest. In a passionate love-scene. ^ Scene 2 of Act 2 corresponds to Act i of Wedekind's about to of the Countess Geschwitz. in the presence of the outraged Aiwa and despite the vociferous protests of her four admirers. p. and faces Aiwa alone. who. The music of the second act can be assessed as a big symphonic recapitulation of the music of the first act.: ALBAN BERG *Don't let her make a get-away. As soon as she has rid herself of him and the Countess. This signifies the gruesome finale of Lulu's mock-respectability. leading to the second scene. She bamboozles him into the belief that she has her good by play-acting the ravaged cholera victim. and the slow and subtle process of physical disintegration. Soon they are to flee across the German frontier. Only the newly-introduced figure of the Lesbian Countess claims a musical motive of her own. only to Pandora s succeed. fifths of a deliberately 'foreign' character 190 . At the end of this first scene Lulu by the police. Lulu becomes his mistress on the very settee on which his father had breathed his last. she throws off the mask of sickness and radiates beauty. constructed of parallel pentatonic iCf. Rodrigo wants to marry Lulu. The plot chiefly owing Box. . to contrive Lulu's escape is to the self-sacrifice renounce looks his claim when confronted with her after her lost release. with little new thematic material. with the police hot on their trail. you is are her next victim arrested . Here begins the dechne.

: LULU Example 170 The musical 'numbers' of character. for Lulu's song. 3) is a movement. beginning thus with cll c: ^he series transposed . progressing dynamically on the hnes of this figure Its serial technique of retrograde motion links it with the Adagio of the Chamber Concerto and with the ghostly third 191 . Schon's 'Arioso' this act underHne its reprise-like ively from sections of I/i and Lulu's 'Ostinato' quote extensand I/2. 9 G) LuIu*» song (Actll) 7. which is here transposed a tone higher.89 7 8 AO 9 to ti 12 « \Z Lulu Example 171 The music to the silent film (orchestral interlude large-scale ostinato No. It is and final show-down is marked by the first 'set piece' in the opera to utilize the Basic Shape note series of the twelveR. The climax of their second 'Lulu's song'. t b) The series 234567 Us in 8 originol pitch.

even more than first scene. 10. Largo. with the distinction. the recapitulatory. as it were. The music that to the this act. uneasily in the *no man's land' between unfulfdled past and indeterminate future. however. The chief thematic addition in Act 3 is Wedekind's 'Lautenhed' No. cue 103. It chiefly alludes to the music of earher quoting them sleepily in of 'slow-motion' manner (Schigolch's entry.e. chosen by Berg to symbohze Lulu's decHne. first time in Casti-Piani's 'Procurer's song' (III/i. II/2. and its ghosthness is wonderfully expressed by the veiled character of the music. to the second scene emphasizes. motion is here clearly dictated by the *flash- back' nature of the fdm-strip. and thematic allusions to. scenes. Acts i and 2. This the i. after Chorale Variation . It crops up for exposition. ending with the same indeterminate chord of the added sixth a kind and the same end of Act i.: ALBAN BERG movement of the that the cancrizans Lyric Suite. reminiscent nature of The whole scene hovers.oVIn (througi-Ksnt on G siring) etc. It lacks all sense of present time. 3) So'. Alwa's ecstatic hymn (bar 1097 if. bar 788). fatal knocking of RH as had been heard at the The thematic content and structure of Act 3 correspond to those of the two preceding acts in the way that the recapitulation of a classical symphony movement corresponds to the becomes especially evident in the numerous reminiscences of. .) concludes Act 2.

Lulu and the Painter Dr Goll Dies of a Stroke [Lulu. Act l/i) .

the also fallen into the clutches of the sinister bogus Marquis who dominates her to the extent of making her his mistress. now an over-ripe 'Grande Cocotte' last of about thirty. sound of the poverty-stricken. who kills Aiwa with the callous indifference of a drunk. is bask- ing for the still time in wealthy surroundings. sombrely beats out the 'fate' rhythm of RH: J 022 Drum in the nightmarish scene of the Negro. finally. Rodrigo and Schigolch reveal Lulu as 194 . Ill i shows Lulu. The barrel-organ preceding certain instruments. infecting her with his venereal disease and successfully tricking her out of the rest of her money and social standing. results largely from the prominence given to Vibraphone and saxophone represent the 'society' stratum of the Parisian 'Demi-monde'. She officially living with Aiwa. whore-infested London slums. at the beginning of the second scene becomes the symbol in The Jazz drum. who by now has sunk to the level of a pimp.ALBAN BERG music and the Lute song are subjected to variation and frightening distortion. Three tortuously involved dialogue-episodes with Casti-Piani. in the 'Grand GuignoF musical atmosphere of this act. The two final stages of Lulu's decline are associated with the two international centres of Paris and London. violin and pianoforte reflect the eel-like flexibility of the loathsome CastiPiani and the bulging muscles of Rodrigo. totally different from that of the two acts. But she has Casti-Piani. Kungu Poti. This atmosphere.

At the end of the scene Lulu is first bankrupt and threatened with exposure and arrest at the instigation sell of the villainous Casti-Piani. cocottes and pimps. last but not least. loses'.LULU the hunted prey of her former lovers. But she is unable to shake off all the spectres of her past: Aiwa. achieved with the simple means of a chain of chords of the ninth. peopled with stockjobbers. scene III/i The music of this structural resourcefulness. She to flees for London. reflecting the shallow excitement of the gambling tables and the stock exchange. Lulu's struggle of her with the black- mailing ghosts of her past is seen against a background of tur- bulent society-scenes. the last servant to fall in love with her. Deeply moving is the musical expression of Lulu's imminent fall into the abyss. who wants to her her against her will to an Egyptian brothel. life Schigolch and. who try in turn to black- mail her into parting with her last possessions. offset These intimate passages are by the noise and bustle of two i2-part ensembles. The third ensemble. The Countess had consented become Rodrigo's mistress for a night. in order to distract temporarily his blackmailing attentions from the frantic Lulu. repeating on a lower level the flight from Germany to Paris at the end of Act 2. tuft-hunting demi-mondaines. She escapes in male disguise on the wings of her descending scale-motive: fluttering 195 . fall She loses the rest of her money as the result of a disastrous in the value shares in the 'Jungfrau railway'. form and shows extraordinary variety of Its climax is undoubtedly the cycle of Chorale Variations accompanying the struggle between Lulu and Casti-Piani. She escapes in the clothes of her youthful groom. linked to one another by virtue of their function as dominants. the faithful Countess Geschto witz follow her to London. signifies based on the words 'The whole world Lulu's impending doom.

At the very end ^i. The big orchestral interlude which links III/i and III/2 takes the form of a set of variations. It takes the form of a kind of extended Rondo. The bundles of shares and bank-notes. They appear and disappear in a kind of round. for piccolo. based on the *Lute song' (Example 172).ALBAN BERG Example 175 The groom. in a different key and given out by a different group of instruments. bass-clarinet and double bassoon. when the curtain is about to rise on III/2 Example 172 is heard once more. banking in vain on Lulu's faded charms. Its shabbiness follows teUingly on the bogus elegance of the Parisian 'Salon' of the first scene. 196 . clattering gambling chips and sparkhng champagne are replaced by a monotonous prospect of petrol lamp and brandy bottle.)l evoking the monotonous hopelessness of a rainy day in the London police are only able to arrest her — — slums. interrupted by the disillusioned gossip of Schigolch and Aiwa two stranded pimps. flute.e. The filthy attic of a London street-walker supphes the sombre background for Lulu's end. Lulu's first and last day as a London prostitute passes in the endless rotation of her chents. It is her last victory over the *pillars of society*. this time in a realistic imitation of a wheezy barrel-organ (bar 715 ff. grinning sheepishly in Lulu's frock. the professional tools of a debutante of vice. The theme appears afresh in every variation. in which — clearly harks ^The orchestration. the gaudy jewellery. The music is admirably contrived to illustrate this macabre scene. clarinet. back to the barrel-organ device in Stravinsky's Petrushka.

who brings her most cherished treasure. An object lesson in *AristoteHan irony' the use of hauntingly beautiful reminiscences of the music which previously accompanied Lulu's love scenes with Aiwa during the scenes between her and her murderer. interrupted by episodes bringing various thematic reminiscences from Acts I and 2. The whole scene was evidently planned as a vocal quartet. with culminating in her dreadful shriek (bar 1268). smashes Alwa's he attempts to is when interfere. the 'Finale' of the Lulu Symphony. the negro and to the three black—form a macabre parallel Lulu fails to obtain even financial satisfaction skull from them. Lulu's famous portrait of I/i. the negro. Kungu Poti. Lulu finds the contrast between the picture and surprising reappearance her own present condition unbearable. Lulu's three clients Jack the Ripper mailers of III/ 1. He enters the stage at bar 1162. as the surviving short score shows. The music of Lulu's death. into the dismal attic. The psychological climax of the scene occurs with the of the Countess Geschwitz. Lulu's luscious suspension-chords now accompany hollow phrases of professional prostitution. is identical with which Berg had completed in full score in 1934. tragic of the Cavatina of Act 2 (bar 61) and. —the Professor. who dies by the hands of Jack the Ripper in a last attempt to save Lulu. fulfilling Lulu's childhood dream that she would become the victim of a sexual maniac.: LULU Example 172 acts as the eternally recurring theme. The Countess Geschwitz. The whole scene is dominated by the tango rhythm Tin Till mockery. epitomizes her love in a melodic phrase borrowed from Marie in Wozzeck and sung to the earlier opera's Leitmotive of compassion: 197 .

with Example 176 in the horns and with Marie's tritone triplets on the harp. Berg decided to put together some symphonic extracts from his opera which could be performed in the concert-hall. the fatal rhythm has the very last word and the opera ends with it and the indeterminate vagueness of an unresolved Tristanesque % chord. The full score of this Lulu Symphony (a title not of Berg's choice. but accepted by him later on) was dedicated to Schoenberg. However. The Wozzeck fragments are. As in the case of Wozzech. the parallel does not quite tally with the facts. as well the opera as a whole. These extracts were completed in the summer of 1934 and pubHshed early in 1935. completely identical with the music of the opera. in the way that the tragedy of Marie is presented in condensed form in the symphonic fragments from Wozzeck. and which might arouse interest in the whole work. which he likens to a late symphony by Mahler. WiUi Reich has praised the organic nature of this Lulu Symphony.ALBAN BERG Ich bindir nah Example 176 The opera ends with the Countess's pentatonic fifths. He beUeves that the love of Lulu and Aiwa is here elevated to a sphere of poetic isolation. save for a few bars at the beginning and end of scenes. Collation of the Rondo of the Symphony (Andante and Hymn). However. But the music oiLulu was thoroughly revised and modified for incorporation in the Lulu Symphony. itself a compound of fragments of the music from 198 .

5. Section i is a condensation 2. unchanged except on the vibraphone.). which re-appears in inversion as the conclusion of the song. accompany(II/i. VARIATIONS ADAGIO fifth sections The third and include vocal parts. Example 173). The symphony 1. 3. with the corresponding sections of the opera. 4. Section 3 is Lulu's song bar 491 for the highly characteristic entry ff. of two scenes between Lulu and Aiwa in Act is Section 2 with an introduction of its own. the interlude between 11/ 1 and II/2. The music of the Lulu Symphony has a value of its own. It is introduced by the dodecaphonic Chorale tune of III/ 1 (cf. It in- cludes the harmonic inversion of the 'Earth Spirit' fourths (Vibmphonc) CVibroptwnc) Example 177 is identical with the orchestral interlude between and III/2. but parable with the colossal canvas of a it is hardly comsymphony by Mahler. The movement is rounded Section 4 III/i 199 . consists of five sections RONDO (Andante and Hymn) OSTINATO (Allegro) lulu's song 2. unchanged.: : LULU i and 2 of the second act. it can be scenes assessed as a separate creative achievement. shows how much the music has been simplified and freed from the interruptions of dialogue and action. ing the film.

published in 1937. : . were subjected to a continuous blast of 'cultural' propaganda from the Reich. as found in Berg's sketch in short place The Premiere of Lw/m. Zurich. great success at the tic first performance. with the last is scene of the opera. 200 . who wrote 'It is a sign of the times that this work could be brought to performance only in Zurich. at the Zurich performance. former editor of the Schweizerische Musikzeitung. after on June 2. was be heard a year later. Unlike Busoni's Doktor Faust and Puccini's Turandot. at the to several postponements. where des- Hindemith's Mathis der Maler. to be hailed or condemned as such. took Stadttheater. Yet it is in no way politically dangerous it is a purely artistically exceptional work. the pro- ducer appeared on the stage and gave a synopsis of the third act. with a re-statement of the CH last series. reflected in the enthusias- reports of connoisseurs like Ernest Krenek. Their feelings were expressed by K. H.' Despite its pite their pohtical independence. Darius others. Only third act those parts of the Lulu Symphony related to this were played by the orchestra and the final murder ^The vocal score. Section 5 represents a symphonic telescoping of the conclusion. It remained proscribed Germany and Austria for the duration of Hitler's reign. The Swiss. words of the dying Countess actually sung. completely identical with the actual end of the opera. score. David. promised in a prefatory note the publication in complete of the opera form at a later date.! After the end of the second act. another opera proscribed in Germany. which were completed by disciples and subsequently published in complete form. the opera's fate Milhaud and in was sealed. 1937. Lulu was made known as a 'Fragment'.ALBAN BERG off by a Coda of nine Its bars.

' parts are written out Is except for an ensemble in Act Act 3 performable? The question was raised and answered in the affirmative by Willi Reich himself. The vocal 3. 1953. The revival o{Lulu after until March 7. The musical sketches and fragments of Act 3 consist of: (shared (A) (B) A complete draft in short score.*LULU' scene was then sung and acted against a backdrop depicting Lulu's attic. score. had written: 2 'The opera nearly complete in short score. in Berg's hand. (C) The complete libretto. 201 . December 1952. Yet although Schoenberg. 1 On that occasion an attempt was made to perform more of Wedekind's action of III/2. In my own by a good msirrf cognoscenti) the task of orchestrating the rest of Act 3 on the basis of the surviving sketch in short score is not beyond the capacity of a musician thoroughly familiar with Berg's style and methods of composition. fully. Berg's biographer. H. in Berg's hand. first when Willi Reich. they could not make up their minds how to complete the score. accompanied by those sections of the music which Berg had scored for use in the 'symphony'. 1953. makes clear that this solution was found unsatisfactory and detrimental to Berg's artistic intentions. ^Melos. back in 1936. Many of Berg's admirers have never ceased to ask why is the opera should be presented always as a fragment. H. Stuckenschmidt's critical report in Die Neue Zeitung for March 9. ^Fragmentary performances and a complete radio performance (which was recorded) had already taken place in 1949 and earUer in 1953. 43 pages. when the second world a performance war had to wait of great merit was given at Essen. breaking off at bar The fragmentary full 268 of scene i. Webern and Erwin Stein were apopinion proached in turn by Berg's widow.

bars 1209-1300. for instance.e. 202 . which could easily be used as styhstic and structural models. but they have Stein's remained unpubhshed. 1 A much more difficult task awaits the future editor in the vocal quartet beginning with the re-appearance of the Countess Geschwitz (III/2. Only Stein's (D) has been pubhshed.e. (bar 542 ff. which exists in full score in the composer's hand (cf. a task which will have to be undertaken before Berg's finest and most mature work can become part of the international repertory of operatic masterpieces. ^The third ensemble of III/i. Similarly. so far. But even in that is section the continuity of the sketch in short score unbroken. the sketch of Lulu's scenes with her three clients is for the most part based on literal quotations from the music of Acts i and 2. after bar 861). is a complete replica of the second ensemble. arrangement includes Berg's of his intended orchestration. down to the Adagio of the Lulu Symphony) because it includes a own indications number of recapitulations and transpositions of episodes from 1/2 and III/ 1. (B).ALBAN BERG (D) Those parts of the Lulu Symphony parts of the music of Act 3 (i. It would be possible to score the later part of Act 3 (i.). Sixty pages of piano arrangement of (A) were engraved. sections which incorporate 4 and 5 of the Erwin symphony). are to be The passages for which no corresponding models acts are in a found in the music of the previous completion of Act is minority com- pared with those which are clearly based on reminiscences. The 3 therefore a distinct possibihty.).

CHAPTER The Violin Concerto : VIII postludium in excelsis Berg's last work. in April 1935. The Concert Aria had passed beyond the limits of the commission and become the prelude to Berg's last Similarly the Violin Concerto went far beyond the of the contracting parties. by 'the memory of an Angel' hence on the title-page of the full score. undertaken for Louis Krasner. the igniting spark I that set Berg's creative imagination aflame. the beautiful eighteen-year-old daughter of Alma Mahler. The Concerto. Her fate hung in the balance for some time. original stipulations of Manon Gropius. the Violin Concerto. was commissioned the American violinist Louis Krasner specially for by himself. It was the news of the death. The short score was all a moving dirge. original opera. Berg's letters to Webern reflect the measure of his affection for the girl and his concern for her mother. became a 'Requiem for Manon'. 203 . The suggestion may have elicited in the com- poser a sympathetic response because of the earlier stimulating experience of writing concertante music for the voice in Der Wein. that provided. from poliomyelitis. Berg stopped work on the orchestration of the third act of Lulu when he started to compose the Concerto in April 1935 in the solitude of his 'Waldhaus'. inspired — the double dedication ^Manon had been struck down by the disease in the spring of 1934 while staying at Venice. It became the composer's most poignant self-revelation in the face of impending death.

204 . which was pubHshed and ^ A letter to Webern of July 1 5 makes clear that the sketch was completed on the day on which Webern's transcription of Bach's 'Ricercare' from the Musical Offering was broadcast. ^Op.5 was written in bed. previous footnote ^. Rufer in Melos. expressed in a letter to Schoenberg. 4 His hope. I 1 In a letter to Webern of August 7. the full was completed on August 11. *Berg had complained already in early June of being 'deadly tired. 1955. are given by W. cit. When he returned to Vienna in the middle of November his condition was already grave. AccordWiUi Reich. Incorrect dates. The Concerto was fmished in record time and in a fmal and feverish marshalling of all his creative energies.' The same letter mentions the insect which caused the carbuncle on his back and goes on to say that the carbuncle had been tormenting him for the past is fortnight. Feb. The carbuncle and the ensuing blood-poisoning found Berg drained of strength and without recuperative powers. in connection with the history of the Concerto. 2 who paid Berg a visit at that time. The last letter to Schoenberg.ALBAN BERG but finished on July 12. ^Published in facsimile by J. It therefore possible to assume that the actual all com- pletion of the Concerto and the fatal sting but coincided. A letter to Schoenberg says: of August 28 3 sting 'The Concerto was already completely fmished a fortnight ago. Reich. of completing the orchestration o{ Lulu in the following two or three months remained unfulfilled. dated November 28. nervous and asthmatic'. Ten on December heard a note of his 24. Despite his ever increasing suffering he attended the first performance in Vienna of the Lulu Symphony on December 14. Berg passed away. between August 11 and 14. ^Cf. That day was July 12. 17. Berg ing to score says : 'At present am writing like a madman at my full score. in order to complete it by the middle of August'. p. without having last work. II and even corrected the copy of Rita Kurzmann's piano arrangement of the Violin Concerto on December days later.

20. secured which has never the over and. festival in Barcelona.S. 205 . moment Hermann Scherchen took knowledge of Berg's style. as repeatedly stated in writings about the Violin Concerto. and a diametrically opposed to one another. As in the earlier works. They appear separately.£dw% out of the thematic cells of certain quotastructural from existing melodies^ wMdithus_ become determinantS-of the whole composition. but resigned during the rehearsals owing ingly strained relations between Almost for tliis hterally at the last his intimate him and the orchestral players. The struggle of conflicting emotions on the very threshold of death fmds resolution in the words of the Holy Spirit: 'Blessed are those who die in the Lord'. The first performance. 60. du Donnerwort. The words are by Franz Joseph Burmeister. Webern was to have conto increas- ducted. Bach harmonized Abie's lovely melody with the heart-searing poignancy he had earlier given to another borrowed melody. It is this ^The chorale *Es ist genug' is not by Bach. with since deserted opus ultimum the resounding success it. Poem and tune date from 1662. 1936. with Krasner as soloist. at the I. Bach's Cantata. The tions Violin Concerto — ^like Chamber Concerto and the Lyric Suite— ^. mean- TheJs/o^ctraneous melodic elements are a church chorale traditional folktune. 'O Ewigkeit composed before 1727. .'. dates from 1732. but by Johann Rudolph Able (1626-1673). does not make use of Abie's melody at all. This explanation seems necessary in view of the fact that references to Bach's Cantata create the misleading impression that only one cantata of this title exists.THE VIOLIN CONCERTO performed posthumously in the following year.C. No. a system of subtle thematic associations and correspondences enables the student to interpret the music's tone-poetical ing. from which the torum of the chorale is taken. . 'O Haupt voU Blut und Wunden'.M. took place on April 19. but in the end their apparent incompatibihties are fused in the mystical coincidentia opposi- Coda of the Concerto. No. transformed into the Passion chorale . Bach's earher cantata.! bears the sub-heading 'Dialogue between Fear and Hope'. In view of the inherent duahsm of Berg's work it is interesting to note that Bach's church cantata O Ewigkeit.

Ci. etc. The thematic elements of the Concerto are: (A) The Basic Shape of its dodecaphonic series (B) The Carinthian folk-tune. the funereal imphcations of which underline the Requiem-like character of Berg's last work. Whole tone steps R(i) (S) K (3)U WUK .. (C) The Bach-Ahle chorale melody. Bi.53* Denvotivc ofE^^} 'Corinthian Folkfun€ 5 * thro^ 9 »o n 7 » transpofifion '"^ 12 ^^^'^J^'^^ . ALBAN BERG blissful acceptance of the inevitable that is is given expression in the final chorale: It enough. They are presented below in tabulated form and thematic subjects derived from them are labelled accordingly Ai.' thematically and psychologically The Violin Concerto depends on this chorale.

I. is identical with (A) (cf.1 1 Nrj il H r T. 207 . Adorno discovered the six-note row: which. The chain of thirds implies chordal progressions of major and minor triads.W^" - ' «! . The tonics of the four above-mentioned root-chords are identical with the ^He used them occasionally in his latest works (for instance. It is dodecaphonic period.. in the Ode to Napoleon Op.— THE VIOLIN CONCERTO A) : X ^ t^ ( fol3e relation ) ^ . D-major. 41) and he had used them as far back as 1912 in his pre-dodecaphonic Op. There T. Their harmonic possibilities (G-minor. because of their diatonic implications. (Trilone) Is ist ge - rjuQ mem Je -sus Icomml ^'"^ rcioCtons) i/1 i n'^ Is 1 J 1! 1 1 ! |=flW'r4^:^ 1. 1 Der Wein a scale-like arrangeof rising thirds with an ^appendix' (x) of whole-tone steps. W. Example 178). 1 J . if transposed to 'a'. 16.k ! V ^r 1 r 1 ?.. ment of rising a sequence but also dissonant chordal combinations such as Example 179 can be easily extracted from (A) (c£ Example 178). Hke the series based. A-minor. No. to those 'tonally coloured' sequences of notes on which Der Wein which his Schoenberg deliberately avoided. in the early days of (A) shares with the series of notes. m r k . 1 1 1"—1 " — > J ><vr H r^fpt^ y ^ ^^f— 1 n M Example 178 The Basic Shape is (A) belongs. E-major).

inserted in order to adjust the music better to the general tonal character.. This relationship is possibly quite fortuitous and probas accidental as the amazing identity of the appendix 'x' with the incipit of the chorale (C)^). This arrangement of the series permits the free use of the open strings and also the choice 'positions' (serial notes 2. The identity is again. appears like an ahen structural body in its importance becomes evident when its relations with (C) are understood. brought about through transposition. Adagio. 6 are in the 'first \x' Its of vioHnistic position'). and gliding by the frequent use chromaticisms which are quite at home when transplanted into Berg's own musical landscape sharp. 208 . 1935. ^(A) is frequently transposed to D.ALBAN BERG notes of the open strings of the viohn. as transposed variants of U U the series. The whole-tone segment diatonic surroundings. 3 and 4 in Example 178 add to the Basic Shape (A) the retrograde form K (= 'Krebs'). the inversion (= 'Umkehrung') and the inversion of K. in the course of the work. part II. bar 136. When transposed to ably D major it can easily be understood as a serial offspring of (A). etc. dissonances caused of the tritone. quoted earlier. Bach's version of Ahle's melody is in A major. Nos 2. ^Cf. while Berg's quotation of it is a semi-tone above (B flat). the first instance of the use of a key signature by Berg since the far-off days of his Op. There he expressly called Schoenberg's attention to the 'quite accidental character' of this identity. 2. That the latter connection was in fact accidental is proved by Berg's letter. It transpires that notes 1-9 of K and the same notes of are identical. with the added traditional key-signatures. I The Carinthian flat folk-tune (B) appears for the first time in G major (bar 213). 4. of August 28. 2 Quite apart from the melody's affinity to Berg's series. Bach's harmonization of the chorale contains false relations. v/hich oscillates chiefly C between G minor and B flat major. as in the previous case of K and U. an identity of variants.

by Bruckner and cHmaxes of their symphonies. cue 125): UUTJ" o 209 . then II represents the catastrophe of death and the transfiguration in heaven. the chorale and part in Acts II and III of Lulu. 'x' Chorale-incipit's identity with *x* (A) corresponds the identity of its tail-end 'x with the in the serial variant (U) (cf. To the tone appendix figure 3). sub-divisions of I together. as has itself surprising chorale-variation play their been shown. As in Wozzeck and in the nature One might bracket the two Lulu. The introduction of a chorale in Berg's Concerto was not since. Chorale-like themes were frequently used at Mahler quoted It is Berg described the structure of the Violin Concerto letter of August 28. as being of a musical portrait of Manon Gropius. 1935. thus: in in the two parts : each part containing two movements I [a) [h) Andante (Preludium) Allegretto (Scherzo) n {a) {h) Allegro (Cadenza) Adagio (Chorale variations). If that interpretation is accepted. a dotted Leitrhythmus RH symboUzes the catastrophic chmax of the Concerto (II. and the psychological function of the chorale in Berg's Concerto seems also foreshadowed by the role allotted to Klopstock's hymn 'Aufersteh'n' in the finale of Mahler's second symphony.: THE VIOLIN CONCERTO (C£ Example 178 C). wholeExample 178.

5 Ml (Series A transposed) Example 181 210 . intervals of (A) make possible a dodecaphonic exposition in almost orthodox G-minor. juxtaposed to transformation at the end of the Concerto in the following example ^^It '^ a) ft R 'y =rirl >jji1 I.: ' ALBAN BERG Part I consists of a tripartite Andante. There the presented in the guise of a scale-like ascending subject.J^J^-'n^ - r^=¥ ^ 10 L«« 25 =Il *j£*7 «9 ^*m n 12 '^'w I?"""'^""' 42 h*-f L^Sr^^^- JtiEJgly • i^^p^g^ 478 9«0 S34. whose curious skips over octaves at the very tail-end ('x') more than two its may It is be called a fingerprint of ultimate the 'Second Viennese School'. preceded by an intro- duction and followed by a Scherzo (Allegretto) with two Trios and a reprise of Trio I —a scheme reminiscent of certain middle The diatonic movements by Mahler. cunningly based on a chordal presentation of the series: Example i8o Its melodic form follows with the entry of the solo violin series is at bar 15. The tender reverie of the introduction shows Berg's skill in utilizing the characteristic intervals of his series for specifically violinistic arpeggio-affects.

melodies prepare the way for the appearance of the folk-tune. which breaks into the magic circle of dodecaphonically determined theme-combinations with the diatonic bluntoess of its G flat major tonahty ('Come una pastorale'. which was 211 a hfe-long . bar 213 ff). That all three Ldndler-motives are transposed derivations of (A) can easily seen be from the following quotation and its serial associations Senes 1 « 3 4 5 « 7 « 9 10 M I? Example 182 The 'Viennese' motive: (Mahler) Example 183 may derive from the mournful favourite of Berg's.: THE VIOLIN CONCERTO The Scherzo-Allegretto (I b) consists of three contrasting theTheir rhythms and matic Landler-motives. 'wienerisch' and 'rustico'. labelled by the composer respectively 'scherzando'. sigh of falling thirds in the first movement of Mahler's ninth symphony.

Hke a cadenza'. Part ends on a diminuendo chord of velvety dissonance. first symphony. beginning at bar 43) already intones in passing the Chorale-incipit Es occur. restoring the original L(jnJ/er-character of the movement after I the tempestuous aberrations of the Trio-sections. 'Quasi until. Its explosive opening reminds one of the beginning of the 'Rondo ritmico' of the Chamber Concerto. but also of the stormy Finale of Mahler's is Cadenza divided into three parts. which. The third the first section from part I section is shaped as a kind of recapitulation of (Tempo I. during the recapitulation of Trio I'. 10 from the rest. as given in Example 179. I (beginning at Tempo bar 173) the Carinthian folk-tune (B) noticeable in the horn at bar 213) joins in. 212 . reiterated by the fuU orchestra with rapidly dwindling strength Example 184 ^It is the first serial chord combination. 12. 1 Part II {a) is directed to be played 'with improvisatory freedom. bar 96). determined by RH (cf. The catastrophic of the music detaches the crystalhzing serial notes 11. Sundry reminiscences inexorable collapse RH. propelled by the ist genug. The The first section is chiefly The tripartite Solo Cadenza (section 2. reaches its climax at bar 125. page 209).: ALBAN BERG Trios I and II are chiefly concerned with the same thematic material (acting like development sections in a sonata move(first ment). them into an agonized call for help (*Zu Hilfe').

given out by the woodwind in magical imitation of an organ stop) I (2) (3) (4) Variation Variation (bar 158 (bar 178 ff. 213 . S. (Cdpinihian Foiktune) Example 185 The Concerto dissolves in an aura of visionary transfiguration. patible themes is the composer's final achievement: ere.) II Reminiscences from Part 198) I (Carinthian folk-tune at bar (5) Coda (bar 214 ff. is felicities of Berg's polyphony.). The numerous should be ever. The violin gives out once more the chief serial melody (Cf. evidently inspired by certain organ the solo violin. (i) by J. containing Abie's melody with Bach's harmonies. and a simultaneous dropping RH preludes discipline.) ff.: THE VIOLIN CONCERTO The ary transition from the Inferno of this is 'Allegro' to the vision- final 'Chorale variations' made with consummate mastery by a gradual increase of melody-notes of the Chorale tune in away of and of the chordal combinations of (A). especially I dis- played in canonic imitations in Variations and II. which. Bach. how- Mention must be made of the dramatic highhght of the movement. The second section of II (Adagio) presents the unique case of a set of Chorale variations. yet strictly subjected to dodecaphonic The section can be divided into five sub-sections Chorale (bar 134 ff. The symbiosis of these apparently incomoutside the scope of this chapter. which grows out of the incipit of the Chorale melody.. could and made the subject of detailed analysis. heralded by the return of the folk-tune.

which in its truly autumnal beauty rounds off. based on the conciliatory vagueness of the f major. all too created soon. 17 fF. ^Mentioned by Willi Reich these plans.. A multitude of plans for the future 1 faded into limbo with his death.) to whom Berg apparently spoke of 214 .ALBAN BERG Example i8i chord in b). is An atmosphere of unearthly serenity by the accompanying orchestra of this extraordinary work. Berg's creative career. which has here an effect of touching its first B flat inconclusiveness like that of cousin in the fmal bars of Mahler's Lied von derErde. {op. cit. p.



Hill's article on Schoenberg.CHAPTER The would be Life IX of Alban Berg attempt an exhaustive biography than twenty years after his death. pass. on the basis of the documentary evidence. of the Music Division of the Library of Congress. His fmal task will be to solve certain psychological problems. the posing of which might be considered presumptuous today. HiU. and try to imravel the fascinating contradictions of the composer's personality. Some extracts from these letters are pubhshed in this book for the first time. in the 217 . covering a span of 23 years. WashLigton. and a number of other autographed documents. unrealistic to IT Alban Berg today. Alma Mahler. 40 postcards. several decades must future biographer will have to go far The beyond the brief sketch will contained in the following pages. unrestricted use of which will be open to him. (cf. less of Before that can be done. 4 telegrams. who also generously placed at my disposal the results of his own Berg research. in accordance with instructions in Schoenberg's will. cannot be placed unreservedly at the disposal of ^Berg's letters to Schoenberg are today in the possession of the Music Division of the Library of Congress. Richard S. Joseph Polnauer.Werfel and others. in those addressed to wife. The collection comprises 145 letters. and the replies they Schoenberg and Webern. Apparent enigmas will find their solution in Berg's correspondence —in his letters to his fiance and and to intimate friends such as Hermann Watznauer. He have to trace the enigmatic undercurrents of Berg's Hfe. evoked. I was able to study this correspondence through the kind assistance of Richard S. Erwin Stein. 1912-1935. 1 As long as these documents.

the features of the platonic ephebe of early figure. It is still too early for the complete pubHcation of Berg's correspond- ence with Schoenberg and Webern. Alban Berg shares the secret of perpetual youth. in the 'Schweizerische Musikzeitung'. Chopin.ALBAN BERG scholars. 43 ff. Library of Congress'. It was Berg's destiny. Comparison of photographs of Konrad and Alban Berg in their 'teens reveals a degree of resemblance rarely found. autumnal Austria of the late nineteenth century. near Vienna. the aristocratic rehis tall. of Modling. necessarily be fragment- ary and provisional. covering the years 1910-1935. to live in perpetual danger. Berg's letters to Webern.). fundamentally unchanged. Dr Riemerschmid' s typescript copy of these letters was discussed and quoted in extracts by Willi Reich in 1953. and Oscar Wilde (whom his he curiously resembled in the dionysiac femininity of features). one of Webern's personal friends. The facade of his good looks and Austrian charm concealed a constitutional frailty which often proved unequal to the demands of the hour and the prevaiUng tension of its inhabiting spirit. p. With Raphael. In this Austria Alban Berg's whole existence was rooted. 218 . who to our retrospective glance appears as the quintessence of that entire epoch of Austrian culture. as it was Hofmannsthal' s. A photograph of Berg at the age of fifty shows a face lined by physical suffering and spiritual upheavals. even between father and son. were saved from destruction in 1945 by Dr Werner Riemerschmid. Numerous additional passages from these letters are published here for the first time. This physical beauty. finement of which was further emphasised by gaunt was inherited from his father. any biography of Berg must Shelley. so characteristic of the. for November 1952. and their union resulted in Alban's 'late-coming' type. but revealing still. The romantic good looks of Berg's Franconian father found a match in the Viennese charm of his mother. portraits. Berg 'Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions. The hesitant bloom and youthful charm of this patrician artist suggest the silhouette of the poet Hofmannsthal. culturally over-ripe.

This end- struggle with physical weakness gives the measure of the fibre. . a tendency to develop abscesses. 219 . These letters establish a clinical picture regular intervals '.: THE was less LIFE OF ALBAN BERG a supply life-long invalid. did he never appeared— —on a concert platform either Berg never conducted an as Schoenberg and Webern as soloist or accompanist. if I tried to stimulate I myself artificially (a thing I could do very well with tea). Always he had to conserve his strength. when he attempted to commit suicide after having failed his matriculation. Physical frailty was solely responsible for the restricted range of his musical orchestra. of Berg. for this ridiculous and idiotic complaint causes a very painful inflammation of the eye and the . . Both are described with uncanny self-observation in two at letters to Webern. which reappears right up to the fatal autumn of 1935 Apart from the fact that I am quite generally a bad traveller. I just have to take my rotten health always into account. This constant disabiHty proved too much for him in the critical year of 1903. I am. The word "suffering" is no exaggeration. too. it affected his relations with his his fellow and also determined the limitations of creative men. forcing a recalcitrant body to him with enough stamina for artistic creation. far from well at present. His debihty became manifest in two forms. Berg's precarious health partly explains the peculiarities of his artistic career . At the same time. . four on one eyehd. I'd risk completely spoiling the next few days. dating from the years 1911-1912. and experienced at the same time the pangs of first love. activities. composer's achievement. work. would run the risk of ruining the whole day following a night in which I had slept badly. I am suffering from styes. of the man's indomitable spirit's and of the victory over the flesh.' whole left part of my face. . and an inclination to tidal waves of asthma.

. It is Hke a poisoning of the whole system. Now I've got jaundice again. 7. 191 3. to which I have become almost accustomed.' . as is shown by letters from that period. I have ruined my health so much since my call-up in 191 5. dated August health: 9. as some of the symptoms fit into the picture. . It's not only the asthma. he wrote to Webern: and . especially under Schoenberg's virile its influence. . and demands a . and worst of all a constant splitting headache.. . His general condition deteriorated markedly in the oppressive atmosphere of the Austrian revolution and the aftermath of war. 1921. to come about. On June 19. On the illness other hand.. 1919. that makes a total of four years. re-echoing talks in whiich criticised Berg's Schoenberg seems to have attitude to liis 220 . few months of recuperation. At least I suppose so. And in a letter again is to Webern.' . he bursts out with the desperate complaint: 'This never-to-be-quite-wellterribly depressing. dated August .' has an ominous ring. . I have tried to overcome this enigmatic illness by staying up. . I have hardly the strength to lift my arm. . Characteristic in reahstic fortitude is a letter to Webern. catastrophically. but liigh temperature and shivering have compelled me to remain in bed. I've got racking pains in my glands and muscles.— ALBAN BERG *I am very ill. sounds the twenty-seven-year-old Berg had a premonition of his end. through blood- MiUtary service in the years 191 5-1 8 proved detrimental to Berg's health. whence I am — writing to you now. I'd hke to get well again to the extent of regaining physical spiritual efficiency. which was poisoning. Berg tried again and again to master his by sheer will-power. In the second quotation the sentence : 'It is like a It poisoning as if of the whole system .

admit that. . . to put it better. struggling . fanatical loyalty. and .' tired to death. in which he says that he all feeling unwell the time. physical condition in the last years of his life is reflected in a passage from . 1935. fervent attachment to the chosen ideal and a child-like creative optimism. which brought on the carbuncle which in turn precipitated the fmal bloodpoisoning. with nervous heart trouble. which is certainly of a basically nervous nature. of which the other main attributes were enthusiasm. Very soon after occurred the fatal sting. . . I would not. no reason to desire to be ill. after the completion of the Lyric Suite. the result of an attack of a swarm of wasps.. Asthmatic. At the time of the completion of Wozzeck Berg's asthma was made much worse by hay-fever and he was often compelled 'to sit the whole night on the edge of the bed. .. This insect bite. .' In the middle 1920's a certain improvement for breath. a letter written while he was working on the is '.. . had had sinister precursors in twenty or thirty stings. . reported in a letter dated August 27. . took place. 1932. The instability of his . Violin Concerto. auto-suggestion plays a large part. to his 221 . Who can say whether or not the condition of his blood attracted such a furious attack by these insects? Berg's chnical history over twenty-five years of adult life reveals the silent heroism of his character. . unable to work. At least. . he was Very ill. THE LIFE OF ALBAN BERG . as this asthma has also appeared on occasions when I had no premonition. he has always voiced that opinion when I have spoken of my asthma. at moments when I longed for nothing so much as to be well. I beheve he thinks it not unlikely that in such illnesses the imagination. I am most curious to know what Schoenberg has written. however in 1927. or. These found their fullest expression in his relationships to his teacher. and could not. shortly before August 9. Schoenberg. His fortitude in his perpetual struggle with ill-health shows one aspect of his nature.'.

EstabHshment in Vienna 1919-1935. free and independent. and proves that he was at heart a political rebels first it The was for 222 . They caused a short period of hectic re-adjustment. as a teacher of composition and creative Schoenberg's principal lieutenant. This trinity of creative love formed the of gravity of his earthly Berg's Hfe length: 1. 1911-1919. mihtary ser- vice. indicates Berg's ideological antagonism to the idea of the modern state. marriage. but fmally led to his estabHshing himself in Vienna as a composer. 3. presumably written after 1920. He developed the typical city-dweller's longing for the cool purity of alpine heights. curriculum vitae.ALBAN BERG friend Webern. and to his wife. An undated letter to Webern. despite the fact that these heights were sometimes more harmful in their effect on his strained nerves and asthmatic condition than the muchmaligned metropolis. to main centre which the following pages are chiefly dedicated. 191 8-1920. 4. his parental home. 1885- 2. First independent compositions. 1904-1910. Berg's loving attachment to these three human beings determined his Hfe and its simple contours. The grave political and social changes to which his native country was subjected from November 191 8 onwards deeply affected his mode of Hfe. Studies with Schoenberg. planning Wozzeck. may be divided into four sections of unequal Childhood and adolescence in 1904. as most of his generation. The underlying rhythm of Berg's life seems to have been determined by the alternating attractions of town and country. maturity. world war was a critical turning point for Berg.

My whole grudge is aimed at the manner in which the State (or whatever assumes that name) asserts itself ^o^^zy. the family estate. comfort has been achieved by the sweat of humanity's brow. — difficult. traditional and absurd'. and that I therefore have to reject it a priori as being 'unmodern'. 'Berghof '. between his flat in the Trauttmannsdorfgasse.. Vienna. however. If I am denied the good fortune of living in a little house built by myself and enjoying my own fireside. that in Vienna only the upper classes enjoy the fruits of comfort. Only at present the idea of the modem city is so repugnant to me that I'd rail at any metropolis. Likewise you should not imagine that when I complain about Vienna it is because it's the fashion today to grouse about Vienna. then this should be easily heated. . . Whenever Berg was in the country and was called away again for business reasons he became depressed. and if I am condemned to live in a flat. After all. On the other hand. . I am nowhere happier than where comfort does not exist in the country. The trouble is. I therefore repeat : I am far from asserting that the institution of the State appears to me as something 'obsolete. When I am always aware of the fact that I'd be much I thus complain unhappier in any other city and that I'd long for Vienna. out a charac- formula for the typical Viennese malaise of his genera- tion. . If there is to be comfort. but to live as a country-dweller in the city I fmd very ! . wherever I might happen to be. then I should not have to feel it to be an inconvenience. . I'd expect of it the very last perfection! If a metropolis. on the Ossiachersee in Carinthia 223 . whereas with the stove I have now I am unable to get my study warm. THE teristic LIFE OF ALBAN BERG The letter sets despite his bourgeois upbringing. then a real metropohs If it is to be my bad luck to rely on other means of transport than my own legs (which I much prefer and with which I'd live quite contentedly if I could live in the country instead of the city) then these means of transport should be the best imaginable... This tug-of-war between city and country caused the rhythmic oscillation of his hfe.

daughter of the Court jeweller Franz Xaver Melchior Braun. estate at Aueii near Velden on the his wife's Worthersee) and the parents. and even as far east as Leningrad. 1930. in connection with performances of Wozzeck. Trahiitten. This regular exchange of famihar scenery was increasingly interrupted in later years by professional journeys. estabhshed himself in Vienna as an export merchant and bookseller. and married into the Viennese haute bourgeoisie. His his hfe. was born at Nuremberg on August 31.ALBAN BERG (later replaced by 'Waldhaus'. was for the south-eastern fringe of the whose famous peak. the Koralpe. his father. he was firmly rooted in Austrian inspiration soil. 1846. Brahms and Mahler. or the attendance of music as far festivals. deeply This all characteristic. near Deutsch-Landsberg. was used first and foremost as a means to connect him with the districts of the Semmering. lakes of whom drew from the and mountains of Styria and Carinthia. the Alps. His wife Johanna. He emigrated to Austria as early as 1867. all tourist centres in Italy. Switzerland. acquired in August. Carinthian lakes. and the south-eastern corner of Styria. in south- western Styria. was born in Vienna on February 224 . the French Riviera. These journeys led him as far south as Venice. The more conventional predilection. descendant of a family of Bavarian civil servants and soldiers of high rank. Konrad. attachment hnks Berg with Schubert. who was trips his companion and is guide on many mountaineering before 1914. he chmbed despite his asthmatic condition in the early 193 o's. and Tyrol had no attractions for Berg. expressed repeatedly in his letters to Webern. at of the Nahowski family. Berg's attachment to the Eastern Alps of his homeland. Even his beloved motorcar. west as Cambridge. Alban Berg was the offspring of a union in which BavarianFranconian and Austrian racial pecuHarities combined in an attractive new blend.

i*--^ -i^*trT Villa Nahowski. Trahiitten Alban Berg and Helene Berg .

Alban Berg's Father Alban Berg's Mother Alban Berg's Paternal Grandfather .

. . 'Before faculty I started to compose I wanted to become a poet. shows . . born in Vienna on February b. artist. i886/d. a talented painter children of this marriage: Charley. . b. as a child I used to paint and draw. Tell me more about it. in which these earhest compositions were produced. 1 85 1. And I remember whole epics. . in intertwining galleries under the earth for hours on end? I was once in the mine at Bleiburg. And. There were four Johanna shared. where one can walk about . As a youngster. of course. 1881. . and Smaragda. under the influence of Ibsen's plays Nice. Is it something big. from a solution of the problem) so as although surprising successes have been attained already. to compose I . and and musician. prompted by a certain manual skill which I mistook for talent. . about the year 191 1. from the year 1900 or Memories of that chaotic gestation period. . my longing for an ideal aeroplane (the aeroplanes of today are certainly far is. d. as passage such as clearly in a letter to Webern. 19 14: What you say about the mine interests me enormously. . d. 1882.' The a of poetic vision did not desert the maturing this. probably explains the existence of numerous songs dating thereabouts. b. 1 92 1. further back still. not a desire for mere technical achievement but a longing for the 'Above*. long before Berg had decided to become a professional musician. are to be found in a letter to Webern dated July 18. 9. 1885. and Charley sang well. 1952. The fact that Smaragda played the piano. that impressed me so much that I wrote a whole play about it. — — ! — P 225 . Hermann. don't you think? Before I started ! wanted to become a poet.: ! THE 28. her husband's was. LIFE OF ALBAN BERG artistic leanings. inspired by the literature we studied at school. Alban. 1954. Only imagine: to be able to float above the highest mountain peak Where no terrestrial sounds can reach one not even cowbells ^wonderful wonderful mere toys and to be able to fly. in fact.

for the works of Swedenborg. 1900. and the ceremonial of the ritual. In early years Charley and Catholic. His father. ^It is worth mentioning in this connection that Max Reger. was 226 . which increased with advancing years. especially in view of the fact that he has repeatedly been claimed for Protestantism by certain writers. are hterary achievements of a high order. This his owned a shop near St Stephen's Cathedral for the carried of saints' pictures business was on by widow after Konrad's early death on March 20. by 'Adieu. his predilection for Balzac's mystic novel Seraphita. It seems necessary to point out this Cathohc component in Berg's spiritual heritage. may have done In his ability to make friends for hfe Berg resembled Schubert his elder brother and Hugo Wolf. dear Helene. a Roman the most famous composer of Lutheran church music of his day. Dostoievsky. "all A Dieu. His re-discovery of Georg Biichner's Wozzeck. 1 His inclination to mysticism. His own original writings on music reveal a real mastery of German prose. ^By Mosco Carner among others. in later life his favourite authors included Balzac. even if the too so. He will not little abandon us. Berg grew up in his later years. Helene Nahowski: explained it. sale a Roman CathoHc household. in and Catholic church furnishings. are Roman and the incorporation of a Lutheran chorale into the texture of his last composition is certainly no proof to the contrary. 2 Berg's rehgious faith fmds expression in a card to \m fiancee.ALBAN BERG From that early period of poetic aspirations Berg derived a sensitive feeling for literary values.' human" beings. Karl Kraus and Peter Altenberg. the too godlike-ones. and his creation of the Lulu hbretto by conflation of two plays by Frank Wedekind. Strindberg.

1900. No other friend ever meant as much to him as the precociously mature. he became Alban's model of a fanatical and uncompromising artist devoted to his exalted ideals. especially in the formative decade of 1910-1920. These so attracted Schoenberg that he into vited Berg in the autumn of 1904 become his private pupil (without payment until 1906) and attend his courses of position. It was Charley who drew Alban's attention to a newspaper advertisement of Schoenberg as a teacher of composition. is of incalculable importance. in the folio v/ing year. and he wrote about seventy songs and duets. Through Schoenberg he met Anton Webern. In the year of his father's death. Berg's friendship with Watznauer deepened. Throughout his life. in the autumn of that year he attempted to commit suicide. a fellow-pupil. the fifteen year old boy had his first attack of asthma. so it is not surprising that in the summer of 1903. destroyed his hopes of successfully developing his talents in fmancial security. and school work neglected. However. Ibsen was studied. in the summer of 1904.THE his sister LIFE OP ALBAN BERG Smaragda were nearest to him. many of whose poems he set to music. Other events of these early years remain to be told. only a little older than Berg himself. The influence of Webern on Berg. he passed 227 . and Paul Hohenberg. In the years 1901-1903. It was he who aroused Schoenberg's interest by secretly showing him some of Alban's early manuscripts. singularly reserved and severe Webern. Berg never felt a deeper regard for anybody. but the death of his father. who soon became his most intimate and cherished friend. As already mentioned. Berg failed his matriculation examination. com- Other friends of Berg's early years were Hermann Watznauer (ten years older than Alban). having been frustrated in some youthful passion. Berg's musical inclinations had first become noticeable about 1899.

Besides 'school work'. His compositions. berg. during made deep impression on him. 9. first published in this book page 280). and enthusing over Ibsen's plays and Mahler's symphonies. to many At other poets and composers of the past have had to carry Civil —the yoke of the same time. Mahler's second and sixth symphonies. he took an unpaid post as a probationer-accountant at the Lower Austrian Statthalterei. thereby shouldering a burden that Service in Imperial Austria. i The years of study with Schoenberg laid the foundations for . 1904. somehow managed Berg's largely own creative activities. and he even joined Schoenberg's choral society. In the following October. 1907. 228 . he was still com- posing songs. such as the double fugue ^Cf. at first determined in character and scope by advice. for a most important event took place he began his studies in composition with Arnold Schoenberg in October. Schoenberg's (Cf. Berg also attended the first performance of Wedekind's play. once at a private concert he appeared as his sister's accompanist. Berg's musical activities during these years of development were surprisingly varied. In 1906. his teacher's friendly gradually became more this ambitious period. Commemorative article on Berg.ALBAN BERG his examination. Berg inherited enough money to enable him to leave the Civil Service and devote himself exclusively to music. Die Buck and Mahler's farewell performance oiFidelio at the Vienna Opera House in October. and the cross-section of Schoen- work up to the Kammersymphonie. included berg's Strauss's Salome. and at the age of nineteen. Op. and a individual. New music which. he surmount this handicap. presented at the three famous Schoenberg concerts in 1907. He also made the acquaintance of Oscar Kokoschka and Peter Altender Pandora in 1905.

songs on 2. 191 1. During Berg's final years of study. On May 3. and Schoenberg's String Quartet Op. i. Webem's PassacagHa for orchestra. Alexander von ZemHnsky's comic opera. i. Op. Op. variations for piano (pubHshed in the appendix to this volume). were and it is significant that the last song of this group anticipates the mature style of Berg's String Quartet. 191 1. Works heard at these concerts included three of the Seven Early Songs. Two weeks later. The first public performance of Berg's compositions took two November 7. Mahler died in Vienna. Berg and Helene Nahowski were The poems by Hebbel and Mombert. place at pupils' concerts organized by Schoenberg. and String Quartet. his friendship with Webern developed and became very close. Berg met Helene Nahowski and fell in love with her immediately. and the variations. On April 24. years that were transfigured and enhanced by his deepening love for Helene Nahowski. Op. i. Kleider machen Leute. 1908. px 229 . composed in 1909. written in 1910. were performed in public for the first time in Vienna. its first performance). Berg's Piano Sonata. on May 18. six. Op. 10 (which was received with 'cat-calls' at About this time. on 1907. were written. the paintings of Kokoschka. and November 4. Op. he became formally engaged to Helene Nahowski. During the years 1908-1910. the double fugue. when his studies with Schoenberg came to an end. the and the Piano Sonata. Op. About this time. enduring impressions were made on him by the music of Paul Dukas.THE for String quartet LIFE OF ALBAN BERG and piano. 3. the early plays of Wedekind.and eight-part choruses and the Seven Early Songs. was first performed together with Berg's variations for piano at the concert of November 4. 3. 1908. married. his first really original compositions.

though he retained for the sympathy man right to his tragic end. 220/21. Berg's association with Schoenberg as disciple and amanuensis found a kind of official ^Quoced extensively in the German edition of this book. Berg was able to study the full score of Mahler's stiU unpubHshed ninth symphony. Subsequent letters show up that he did not always approve of Schreker's later development. for which Berg prepared the vocal score for Universal Edition in 191 1.ALBAN BERG Although circumstances had not permitted any very sonal friendship with Mahler. on pp. in a letter Berg wrote to Helene. at approximately the same time that Schoenberg composed reahstic his first Kammersymphonie. London. make him a This is and its precursor of Berg in opera. the history of the opera of social consciousness. letter are 230 . Schoenberg himself admired Derferne Klang. and it is not without significance that Schreker had employed a chamber orchestra in his ballet. Op. This enthusiasm found practical expression in arrangements. and in 1910. Bruckner and Mahler. first 9. Mahler's friend of both 1 widow became a faithful and ever helpful his wife. perhaps the most fitting place to discuss Berg's Hfelong enthusiasm for Schoenberg and his music. 1955. Berg and Earher in this book. he gives a precise account of its style and psychological premises. at the same time Mahler remained an enduring influence and inspiration. Derferne Klang. mention has been made of a certain first degree of influence exercised by Schreker's interesting but artistically unequal opera. The modern 'miUeu' of Schreker's treatment in musical terms. and although it is close per- doubtful whether the older composer ever heard any of Berg's music. Parts of this pubhshed in my book. and was never more intense than in the years shortly before and after the first world war. *The Birthday of the Infanta'. analyses and critical essays. Later on.

when partisanship was often rewarded by pubhc ostracism. Op. . polemical. he pubhshed numerous articles. pubHshed at Munich in 19 12. and the Kammersymphonie. 1 910. and he delivered a cycle of lectures in Vienna in the winter of 1932-3 3 which were entirely devoted to for Schoenberg — — Schoenberg's music. 10. Berg's letters reveal a worshipping adept's joy. as his correspondence with Webem proves. This connection lasted salaried basis. Op. having to forgo the walks with Schoenberg . uncertainty. founded in Vienna older composer in several years. and. He also contributed to the collective volume Arnold Schoenberg. In addition. and for an arrangement for voice and piano of the two vocal movements of Schoenberg's second String 'Litanei' and 'Entriickung' Quartet. .THE LIFE OF ALBAN BERG recognition in his appointment as 'Vortragsmeister' of the Society for Private Performances. occupation with Schoenberg's orchestral scores developed into a ^master course' post festum. gave the initial impetus to the compilation of the special number o£Anhruch for Schoenberg's fiftieth birthday and the Festschrift for his sixtieth birthday. Webern: far How despondent you must be again. He was responsible for the vocal score of the Gurrelieder. It as composer. 231 away from all those divine experiences. During those years of loyal enthusiasm. Schoenberg. Berg fought tirelessly for his recognition and understanding. despair and enthusiasm. by the for this November. enthusiastic and analytical by turns. 191 8. As early master in a Berg had expressed letter written to . he wrote thematic analyses and guides to the Gurrelieder. 9. but bear witness to his self-effacing love for his feelings for his his self-denying as modesty. gave him technical assur- ance and unrivalled insight into his master's ideas and the prob- lems of their realization in performance. Pelleasund Melisande. on a and for Berg.

ALBAN BERG and miss the purport. But to tell you about all this is only to increase your week I . . gestures and cadences of his a talk. his inordinate modesty and unbounded enthusiasm. But when he was confronted with the necessity of inventing new closing-sections and fmal clausulae for the separate pubHcation of certain lyrical 'purple patches' of the Gurrelieder. . How ^These book. at any rate for him. . Twice wait for him at the Karlsplatz. see his new paintings and look at songs by Mahler. This letter refers to the preparation of the vocal score of the Gurrelieder. . The same letter refers to an arrangement of the Kammersymit phonie Op. 9 for piano duet. . A letter to Schoenberg dated December 3. when to each lesson I bring the continuation of the Gurrelieder. which is made inaudible by the 'roar' of his words. A letter written to Schoenberg. . These problems were successfully overcome. soul-stirring the first impact of Schoenberg's 15. Pierrot Lunaire and George-Lieder. . Berg felt such a task to be psychologically and technically impossible. reveals his fundamental sincerity and courageous self-criticism. letters to Op. he declared himself incapable of committing the 'surgical' atrocities necessary to round off satisfactorily the various 'song'-extracts considered suitable for separate pubHcation. . . . 1912.1 shows Berg wrestling fiercely with the problems posed by the transcription of the vocal movement of the String Quartet. dated July 5. 191 3. before teaching at the Conservatoire begins. in fact was probably never completed. Then twice a week outside the city in Ober St Veit at his house. . was on Berg's impressionthe Schoenberg are quoted in extenso in German edition of this 232 . this was not published. suffering and sense of privation. and for the fifteen to thirty minutes walk in the midst of the noise of the city. Although the vocal score as well as the thematic guide to the Gurrelieder had already been published.

which seems to me like a miracle of nature. . . present. I shall be utterly mistaken. 233 . and that helps me.. But when I look into the score the stood it before at music still appears to me quite enigmatic and mysterious. This letter which was was written on the very eve of the first world war. I it'. the George songs. at present I haven't got that far: I only know that on the two occasions when I heard Pierrot I was conscious of the deepest impression ever made on me by a work of art.. home and then and you explained life at much of it to me that in the end the thing came half to And so I live more in memories of the past than . the help of a piano arrangement. ^Erwartung. at long last a great joy has It was —for me at least —high time they were published. to endure in this horrible age. . Perhaps in time I at last riper for Pierrot.THE able LIFE OF ALBAN BERG letter. from at each 'lesson'. I have been longing for them for years. 1914: . Such help has enabled me to become comparatively familiar with the 'Monodrama'. mind can be judged by the following written on July 20. By 'riper' I mean that I feel now am very far from understanding the work as I'd like to.. too. and I cannot imagine that with my small technical ability (and my great shortcomings) I shall ever be able to approach this work of art. . and that the enigmatic power of these pieces has left indelible traces on my mind. for I shall reahze a year the 'Fiihrer'i when I again closely study the work (since cannot abstain from all. more than for anything. .. Now I can steep myself in their immeasurable splendour and the prospect of doing so beautifies my hohdays. in the and more with you than with myself. perhaps. analysis).2 . to bring a long and painful interruption of Berg's ^Berg's guide to the Gurrelieder. That latter I experience to play is among my most it treasured memories: when so studied the piano arrangement slowly at was permitted the piano. that I hadn't under- However. which would enable me to present the music to myself connectedly. for been allotted me. well knowing that when the moment comes for me to say: 'Now at shall become that I last I fully understand later. Here I miss.

.: 3 ALBAN BERG fervent propaganda on behalf of Schoenberg and his music. and during this visit there had ensued a grave exchange of opinions between master and pupil. did not last very long the same letter 1 also describes his work on the piano arrangement of the Kammer: symphonie . Op. Op. 65). The resulting tension overshadowed the first half of 1914. the Clarinet pieces Op. 1914). which led to a temporary spiritual crisis. He intended to dedicate the orchestral pieces to his beloved teacher on the fortieth anniversary of his birthday (September 13. when Berg was working on the three orchestral pieces. I know only too well that today the study of maps is preferred of musical scores. already been quoted in a previous chapter (see page 67). The first performance of some of the Altenberg songs in 191 had led to scandalous scenes in the concert hall. This is echoed in a moving letter. he had resolved of an opera. Meanwhile he had completed the Altenberg songs. dated November 16. and that it costs enormous effort to occupy oneself with music (or with something at all unrelated to the war). Op. about Berg's own Orchestral Pieces. which had pushed into the background earher plans for a 'Seraphita' symphony (see p. Sometimes I find it downright wicked to think of anything else but war. 19 14. In June of the same year Berg had gone to Berlin to see Schoenberg. but was unable to complete them in time until the and work dragged on after seeing several end of the year. at the it performances of Biichner's Wozzeck Wiener Kammerspiele. to A little earher. 191 3.. . ^The second part of this letter. make the subject Berg's war-fever flaring-up in a letter to Schoenberg. to the study . which I sent you. If despite all this I was able to persuade myself first to complete my own score. written directly after his return from Berlin. and then to continue work on the Kammersymphonie-SLrrangenient. . 4. and the three Orchestral pieces. has 234 . 6. 5. dated June 14. 6.

that happened and continues to happen as a result of my concentrated will-power and decision (inspired by your admonishments of last spring) to tackle the job. However. will not be retained at Let us hope that Italy does not enter the war. more than at long last. let that it us hope may at last start raining. under all circumstances and not to allow anything at all to deflect me from my purpose. stir But now things have much improved and begins to in me the urge to work again. letter to . been trained for active transferred to the service. that I could not there the night. his first leave —spent in the pastoral soHtude of which he experienced as a kind of salvation — is expressed in a letter to Schoenberg. in another week my freedom is over and the slavery in Vienna recommences and may last for years. us hope that at A few months later.. The musical setting. as in previous summer hohdays. of Biichner's play Wozzeck occupies me again.. dated August 13. not turn out badly. attacks of I asthma of such virulence that last beheved. so that the harvest all this.. Something like war-weariness was revealed in a Webern. . he was declared and his War Ministry in Vienna. . . 235 . Just how much health suffered under the impact of miUtary service. his first reference to the composition suffering iVe been here now for ten days. he makes of Wozzeck : . but.. planned more than three years ago.THE LIFE OF ALBAN BERG with the firm intention not to desist until it is finished. hterally. . . 191 5: . After having unfit. . he was himself called-up. In this same letter. let may last. In the first week I was still from the after-effects of years of slavery. the coherent writing-down of a major section is beyond me. peace may come. dated May 19. that Schoenberg tomorrow's medical examination . how deeply he enjoyed Trahiitten. . 1917. once undertaken.

Economic considerations were mainly responsible for the gradual loosening of his connections with the Society for Private Performances. his Clarinet pieces. own at a Op. which he did by running the family estate 'Berghof on However. which involved him in exhausting work but could not guarantee him the living wage he needed more and more because of his indifferent health. who had become embroiled in a perpetual feud with Busoni and Paul Bekker. besides numerous articles for Anhruch. Berg's fmancial situation had reached a critical phase. 5. 'I must concentrate more than ever on earning a living'. 'Berghof had to be sold in the spring of that year and Berg had nothing more to expect from his family in the way of financial support. had never even thought about earning their own livelihood. by the Ossiachersee in Carinthia. having always had private means at their disposal. 191 8. to mihtary service he was compelled. on November ii. Letters to Webern tell of his hopes and doubts about the prospect of becoming Editor of Musikhldtter des Anhruch. Apart from giving lessons in composition. who. he was principally occupied with work in connection with congenial farm in the spring Schoenberg's 'Society for Private Performances'. 'Die neue Aesthetik der musikaHschen 236 . He planned a propagandist explanatory pamphlet on Webern and his music. is a recurrent phrase in his letters of this time. aimed at the ever-pugnacious Pfitzner. which abruptly terminated Berg's inflation. that happened to many Austrians of his generation. In 1920 there was published in this periodical one of his most dashing polemics. Pfitzner had published the pamphlets. 1919. receiving their first performance meeting of this organization on October 17. he soon gave up un- work in order to settle permanently in Vienna of 19 19. work for his ' hving.ALBAN BERG Willi Reich tells us that after the final collapse of Austria.

and as he became increasingly absorbed in the planning and composition of new works. Adomo and F. H. Marko Rothmiiller. who became Berg's first biographer. Berg's hfe. W. author of a treatise on twelve-note composition. Bruno Seidlhofer and Otto Jokl. and many others. Schmied. The plan to become Editor of Anbruch came to nothing. Fritz Mahler. The number of his pupils who gained distinction testify to his powers as a teacher. Biographical data concerning Wozzeck. the theoreticians T. Lulu and later instrumental works have been presented and discussed in earher chapters. Joseph Polnauer. and Berg never again attempted to find another such position. J. Schoenberg's son-in-law FeHx Greissle. The completion of the full score of Wozzeck and. Apostel and Harms JeHnek. After the publication of Wozzeck. Office routine would have been quite alien to his temperament and dangerous to his health. belongs to the main stream of post-war European cultural history. The 237 . WiUi Reich. Kassowitz. Berg as a teacher achieved magnificent results and worthily continued Schoenberg's educational tradition in forming a group of composers faithful to precepts of the second Viennese School'. the preparation of the vocal score of the opera occupied all his time in the next few years. later on. the conductors and musical educationists Hans Trauneck. Some details of Berg's hfe still remain to be told. merged in his creative work. and many of these pupils are ahve and still active. Klein. E. But despite his aversion to such mundane tasks. they include Joseph Rufer. teaching became more and more irksome. and Berg replied with *Die musikalische Impotenz der neuen Aesthetik Hans Pfitzners'. the fmest exponent of Wozzeck. the composers H.THE LIFE OF ALBAN BERG Impotenz' and *Futuristengefahr*. S. The last fifteen years represent the cHmax of his activity.

e. . . of Austria. whereby the copyright in all with the financial support his future compositions was assigned to Universal Edition. German musical world.ALBAN BERG vocal score of Wozzeck had originally been published by Berg. probably as a result of the ever increasing success of as a member of the Prussian 1930 exactly three years before Hitler's appointment as Reichs-ChanceUor automatically erased Berg's name and banished his works from the to — Wozzeck in Germany. But nevertheless it pleased me very much. In the spring of 1923. No actual appoiutment is involved. and Berg's financial position was thereby stabiUzed. Vienna. . In a letter Webem. to whom the work was dedicated. . dated February 10. An invitation to become Professor of Composition at the 238 . which. who had read it in a paper. she had followed the changing fortunes of Wozzeck with the keenest interest. Berg humorously commented on his nomination. the few official honours accorded to Berg by his its furst reluctant contemporaries. A few months before this great turning-point in Berg's Ufe. as is well known. I heard about it from Paul Stefan. from Among performances during 1925 and 1926. the opera was taken over by Universal Edition. In May 1927 a general agreement was signed. . of Mahler's widow. relations with this pubhshing house were very cordial. was his nomination Academy of Arts. and from that time. i. 1930. on January 30. but not without an undertone of bitterness and an obHque glance towards the apathetic attitude of his Austrian homeland: Thanks for your congratulations to the Academician'. especially on accomit of Vienna. his mother had died at the age of seventy-five. I read it first in a newspaper. How came about I don't myself know. it years with honours and appointments. or rather. has virtually overloaded us for * .

journeys during the remaining five years of his causes The actual of these journeys. Yes. the driving of which gave him the greatest enjoyment.. 29. and ative later. threatened as this was at its foundations by the universal ban on his works throughout Germany since 1933. Berg composed Lulu and last pleasures VioHn Concerto. Berg passed a and bought an Enghsh car. times. 239 .. on June . enclose Schoenberg's letter. . Only now are thiags begianing to improve. 1933. destined to enjoy. have for a long time utter depression over these impaired my ability to work. as of the Vienna section of the International Society for Contemporary Music. His purchase of a country house. for the most part fdled him with disappointment and depression. at Auen near Velden on the the Worthersee. 1933. As member of the jury of the represent- *Allgemeine Deutsche Musikverein'. and concern about his own and his wife's existence. we are of the opinion that by the purchase of Waldhaus'. * Waldhaus'. was one of the he was At *Waldhaus'. jury-meetings and examinations of scores. AU and probably my now ' the right thing. . . . he wrote to Webern about I it. by the intertwined with a deep concern about the deteriorating poUtical situation. Schoenberg's fate under the 'Third Reich' deeply Berg. he was obliged to undertake numerous life. .THE LIFE OF ALBAN BERG Berlin Conservatoire (at that time under the direction of his driving test Schreker) was dechned in the spring of the same year. In the summer of 1930. is reflected in a letter Berg wrote to Webem. we have done . which avidly devoured. of which a sentence also may be quoted. despite increasing mental anguish caused growing terror of Hitlerism. For the rest. a Ford. this. A curious twilight mood of happy domesticity. moved On July I 6.

'composing variations on the theme of the Horst Wessel song'. . and I hope I was able to dispel his doubts. Few of the enforced refugees of 1933 could appreciate that there also existed a kind of 'mental emigration' for those Berg. who chose to remain behind such a withdrawal was the pre-ordained fate of a man like A passage from a letter he wrote to Webern on January something of Berg's mental struggle in condisastrous poHtical course. homeless and uncertain room.. and his intense suffering over Germany's . fear . Webern again. ALBAN BERG it is terrible. no. and not. right of me to reply jokingly that lam in fact. adding a few sentences of such given only to those who have 240 wistful beauty as are been 'expelled from the . Schoenberg emigrated to the U. Profound sadness permeates the next letter. seriously I've never feared I it .. hurt Berg more deeply than anything else. to be sure. especially as his own continued residence in an Austria increasingly infected with the Nazi virus was not easily understandable to the homeless emigrant. . I was tremendously long and detailed letter. 1933. This senseless separa- imposed by poHtical terror. written on February 15. and on what. ..A. . He wrote to me on September 21. in which he thanks Webern for a copy of the German version of Esther Meynell's Little Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach. but in jest was. . reveals nection with his relationship to Schoenberg.' understood this mysterious sentence quite correctly then [you confirm this so it now to me). sixty. expelled from the country where he could speak his in a hotel mother tongue. 28. I I may perhaps say it. .. from Boston: 'You have owed me an answer for so long that I began to . he never saw either Berg or tion. . . . What a fate ! Now at where.S. beheve. 1934. In October. Meanwhile I had written Schoenberg's to him very fully. the age of nearly to Hve. moved by your news of .

Berg celebrated his fiftieth birthday. which he eventually attended. At that time.' A ray of hope was kindled by Erich Kleiber's courageous first performance of the LuluSymphonie in Berlin on November 30.THE Garden of Eden' a melancholy story. The last illness developing from an insect sting which brought on a carbuncle. although gravely Berg's last ill. . : LIFE OF letter ALBAN BERG dated May 8. on the Viohn Concerto and on the orchestration of the third act o£LuIu exertions which clearly depleted his waning physical But only a few music had no pros- — strength at an alarming rate. exhausted and ailing. before long a decisive turning-point. had already begun by the end of August. . This linked with the problem of the first and the necessity of reaching is of course closely performance of 'Lulu'. 1934. They will in any case have to show their colours. Berg felt unable to attend the Prague Festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music in September. Add to all this financial worries. In the second half of May I shall have rephes to my letters to Furtwangler and Tietjen. he returned to Vienna from 'Waldhaus'. days and hours have been movingly described by 241 . 1935. weeks later he clearly understood that his pects whatever in Hitler's Germany: 'A performance cannot be thought of for the time being. and this last year of his life was devoted to hectic work. On February 9. continues the . he still half-beheved in the possibility of the performance o£Lulu at a German opera house. On November 12. and took part in the preparation for the first performance in Vienna of the Lulu Symphony. In spite of a temporary improvement. This silent exclusion of all our music from German concert programmes will either have to be rescinded or they will have to prove to me that our music is *un-German'.

the lives of both composers being cut short exactly seven weeks before their respective fifty-first at precisely the the death of Mahler. from the effects of pernicious blood-poisoning. After a blood donor being a simple transfusion. who was then much in his company. The and circumstances of his death strangely resemble those of from blood-poisoning. But the of his 24. transfusion only delayed his end. same age.ALBAN BERG Willi Reich. 242 . just after and on Sfeptember one o'clock in the morning. who had also died birthdays. Berg died in the arms wife. Berg would in consequence be turned into a composer of light-hearted Viennese operettas. the jestingly expressed the fear that he young Viennese.



Why did I tell this story? Because I was greatly surprised when this soft-hearted. I was told that Alban was so upset by this assumption that he started weeping and could not stop weeping before his mother had allowed him to continue with — — me. 1955.F. He was always faithful to me and has remained so during all of his short Hfe. here published for the first time.R. version. Consequently I accepted him as pupil. two years before Schoenberg's death. Engl. 1952. he could enter the conservatory. though at this time he was unable to pay my fee. and it was mentioned in the Schoenberg-Bibliography ofJosef Rufer's book 'Die Komposition mit zwolf Tonen'. a drama of such extraordinary that seemed forbidding to music. 245 . Later his mother inherited a great fortune and told Alban. Berlin. The article was originally written in Schoenberg's peculiar English which is here faithfully reproduced. timid young man had the courage to engage in a venture which seemed to invite misfor- compose Wozzeck. WHEN Alban Berg came positions he to me in 1904. he was a very tall youngster and extremely timid. by kind permission of Mrs Gertrud was written in 1949. H. And even more: it contained scenes of every-day Hfe which were contrary to the concept of the opera which still Hved on styHzed costumes tune: to tragic (sic). as they have now money.ARNOLD SCHOENBERG ON ALBAN BERG (1949) This article is It Schoenberg. But when I saw the com- showed me songs in a style between Hugo Wolf and Brahms I recognized at once that he had real talent. London.

ALBAN BERG and conventionalized characters. just as he was faithful to me when he was almost forced to discontinue studying with me. Wozzeck was one of the greatest successes of opera. was a strong character who was faithful to his ideas. Making the behef in ideas one's own destiny is the quahty which makes the great man. He succeeded with the opera as he succeeded in his insistence to study with me. And why? Because Berg. ARNOLD SCHOENBERG 246 . this timid man. He succeeded.

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A copy of the lecture was utilized by W. Reich {Cf. op. Note i). oratorios and large-scale operas were missing in the sphere of atonal composition. In fact. The present complete publication of the Lecture is based on a revised copy of the typescript. cit. Later on. p. 64. this revised lecture. Until then works of bold dimensions such as four-movement symphonies. The reason for this deficiency? That style renounced TonaHty and thereby gave up one of the as songs. This contains numerous corrections and insertions from Berg's own hand which sometimes amount to a complete change of opinion. whose intention was entirety. however. it was used by Berg in connection with other performances of his opera in Germany.. pieces for the piano — — s 261 . It has been translated keep as close as possible to Berg's The lecture was originally intended to precede a performance in Oldenburg {March 1939).— BERG'S LECTURE Thh text. Composition primarily confined to — — classified in that style was the creation of musical miniatures —such and for orchestra or (in the case of more extensively planned works like Schoenberg's 'Pierrot' melodrames or his two one-act operas) concentrating on a formal species which received its shape exclusively from its text and dramatic action. copy may be said to represent an improved version of the whole Notable among these changes is Berg's emphatic aloofness from the doctrines of French musical Impressionism. ON 'WOZZECK' its (1929) lecture is published here for the first time in to by the writer of this book. WHEN of I decided some fifteen years ago to compose existed. *Wozzeck' a peculiar situation in music the We the Viemia school (under its leader Arnold as Schoenberg) had just outgrown the infancy of that move- ment which was quite erroneously movement of Atonality.

R. as it were. This is the ^Actually Biichner's fragment consists of twenty-seven scenes.— ALBAN BERG most effective means of building either small or large musical structures. the closing The point where in a tonally conceived composition the return and confirmation of the main key becomes distinctly evident even for the layman. should also be the place where in an atonal work the circle of harmony comes to a full close. chmax and 5 scenes catastrophe were clearly separated in three sections each —achieving. not only in the smaller forms of dramatic more anon) but also the more difficult uni- fication in the bigger formal units of a whole act and in the structure of the whole opera. Such a confirmation has been achieved primarily through the fact that every Act of my opera closes into the same quasi- cadential chord.F. Biichner's of all in the case of a work like 'Woyzeck'. at least from the angle of harmony How to achieve the same degree of cohesion and of structural unification without the use of the hitherto accepted its medium of Tonahty and of sections (of which creative potentiahties ? cohesion. least Libretto and dramatisation alone could not guarantee that unifying principle. (H. Li the course of my we of will notice the all First I'd like means used draw your is to achieve the attention to a to phenomenon of Harmony. consisting of many (twenty-three) loosely connected fragmentary scenes. moreover. harmonies of each Act.) 262 . —did to that not necessarily guarantee musical unity and cohesion as well. to say. i Even of a structural plan in three acts in which exposition. only to rest on it as on a Tonic. On deciding at that juncture to I compose a full-length opera was confronted by : a new problem. structural unity and dramatic cohesion by force investigation latter.

last wiU now will then ask the orchestra to play the scene of each act. sc. And this is the chord at the end of Act III: v.berg's lecture final on 'wozzeck' I: [1929] chord at the close of Act (Vocal score. leaving as its final residue the low *B' behind. sc. 231. . p. p. . bar 809 until end. p. I and I: Act v. 81. sc. sc. By way Act II of anticipation is I'd like to add here that the *B' in the bass (which accompanies the prophetic last 'He bleeding .') becomes decisively important not only dramatically but also structurally for one of the most important among the later scenes of the opera. 81. 180. bar 809 This is the chord at the close of Act until end. p. acts. v. For the urge for musical unification and musical integration — II as Schoenberg calls it — is equalled by the urge for musical diversion and variety of shape. that these final chords appear each time in a different shape although each time built up from the same These changes in their sonority derive not only from the changed dramatic situation. until the close of the Act. One after the other . bar 715 II: v. To as demonstrate more clearly this how this musical integration I I well as musical variety becomes evident. following these The action of the last scene of Act I is concerned with 263 . bar 389 until end. p. but from something else as well. p. 312.) 180. You will have noticed (and you will notice clearly it even more when you hear it in the orchestra) notes. While Act — I repeat: bar — end with the simultaneity of these chords Act II: v. sc. last bar. words of . last at the end of Act II this chord disintegrates more and more. be able to add a word about the structurally important har- monies of the introductory bars of the harmonies. .

p. — bar 273 including the preceding upbeat. p. 82. bars 1-6 (without Then the curtain rises for Act II. 231. almost looks as if it was to go on. Act II. and Act I. down: v. p. p. With it the opera comes to an end. from bar 656 to the end. The very short orchestral introduction to the following Act II takes this fmal chord as its point of departure. sc. sc.! ! ALBAN BERG Marie's seduction by the Drum-Major. Act II. Again a device to estabhsh musical cohesion These (as well as other) parallels between the two closing scenes result — even if quite unconsciously —in a piece of musicould be cal parallehsm. music it steers again into the cadential haven of the fmal chord. bars 1-3. ending in the former's defeat. to this scene a rondo-like Andante afFettuoso: v. And it really does go on As a matter of fact. to the end. p. the initial bars of the opera could easily Hnk up with these fmal bars and thereby close the circle: v. which ends seduction. a veritable *Rondo marziale': v. 73. Act III. with the wholly unsuspecting child of Marie and Wozzeck among them a child that has just become a poor orphan: v. 173. although the . is Finally. the last scene of Act and of the whole opera a perpetuum mobile-like movement in running quaver-triplets. 229. 9. p. III bar 761 until end. By the way The struggle between the two men in this : scene is musically identical with the struggle between Marie in her and the Drum-Major at the end of Act I. However. sc. 264 . is The music Act I. Act III. However. last bar. playing it while the curtain last is quaver). sc. reflecting the play of poor children. sc. the The fmal scene of Act II presents the clash between the jealous Wozzeck and the Drum-Major. the latter scene presents a strictly organized Rondo. shaped by the experiences of military routine. whereas a suggestion in the former passionate Andante only of the Rondo form detected.

when Hstening to the different beginnings and endings of the three Acts. a soft. with the diminishing fmal chord the chord. bars. noticed my great surprise. after a brief pause. become clear to me in its relation to musical theory. regarding on 'wozzeck' [1929] unintentionally. after ten and more years. that they differ considerably apart from one another. Correspondingly (and with the intention of establishing dramatic cohesion). that the general mihtary atmosphere of the opera could hardly have been hinted at more poignantly and succinctly than by means of that both integrated and diversified: little drum-roll. the scene remains open for a moment. The curtain in Scene i is raised immediately after the first it is bar of the orchestra. Finally a which enters pianissimo word may Here it precedes and trails off.berg's lecture you here these That happened quite I tell has only now. The music only begins The fmal curtain however is lowered its before the music has fmished. the curtain at the opening of Act III is raised in silence. to When I heard it for the first time. When the music of Act II has finished. be added about the general structure of as in — Act 265 . but fall does not coincide I. only then short orchestral prelude has finished the fmal curtain falls. to the second but gradually increasing. quite from the chordal variant mentioned above. closing bars at the end of Act The curtain at the opening of Act II is only raised after the which was played during this lecture a short while ago. For instance. This roll on the side-drum affair I bridges the two was a purely instrumental of musical sonorities. Reverting once again to the tendency of you will my opera to be have observed. In order to initial first underhne the crescendo leading from the chord. lowered simultaneously with the I. Much of what two to unfold bars: they contain—before the drama begins —two short introductory string-chords.

the much larger and middle symmetrically. While Act is II (as we shall see) presents from of the first to the last bar a musically coherent form. its five scenes being inseparably 266 . my intention of achieving close formal inwhich I built up each single act could from the venerable tripartite formal proved by the fact that Act I and III in first). like the element tripartite 'Lied-form'. followed by a Fantasia and Fugue based on three subjects: a slow movement (Largo). It consists five loosely linked music scenes I sections which correspond with the loosely connected the libretto. The manner is be understood as resulting pattern a-b-a. The two flanking acts whose sequence of scenes is determined by a unifying idea (i. a Scherzo.ALBAN BERG the Opera and about tegration. each characterizing 'five with the action his friend —in accordance —one chief character of the play in relations his i. the five character-pieces of Act I. the Captain. it subjected to variational treatment. a 'rhythm' or an 'equalized motion' of notes. the five unifying principles of Act III) furnish the framework for the middle Act. the Doctor and the Drum-Major. and comrade Andres his mistress Marie. 'a' is in the scheme of the This Act II musically much more closely integrated. by virtue of their shorter duration. The five scenes of Act III correspond with five musical forms the cohesion of which is achieved through some or other unifying principle: be it the unifying function of a musical theme. : with the hero of the opera. the Hnked like movements of a symphony. the structure of the two flanking acts much more loose.e. a 'chord'.e. be a *note'. act were. his superior officer. This show as it certain parallels (even if the latter act does not contain musical recapitulations of the Both flanking weightier acts embrace. One could call the five scenes of Act of musical character pieces'. They present a vivacious first Sonata-movement. .

or even Passacaglias and Fugues.e. to fmd independent musical naturally patterns for them.'. special No antiquarian leanings prompted me therefore when I employed in this opera Variations. On the other hand. That structural cohesion was likewise necessary in the detail of the opera's musical fabric. nothing else was left to me than to give a different shape to each of the opera's fifteen scenes. —a cohesion which.berg's lecture and finally the —already — mentioned 'Rondo on 'wozzeck' [1929] Marziale con Introduzione'. As I tried to achieve variety of musical means by avoiding the Wagnerian recipe of 'throughcomposing' each scene in similar manner. much later. My discussion of the aspects of Harmony and Form in as has this opera will have informed you sufficiently about the formal cohesion of its music in general stated earUer. This again brought the necessity to secure for its varied shapes formal hnks. . The appHcation of emerged as these patterns to the dramatic canvas from patterns for the purposes this as the selection of of dramatic characterization. Even less correct would it be to connect Indeed. been had to be achieved without the medium of Tonality and without the latter's structural possibiHties. In this way the middle act could be likened to 'b' in the tripartite form-scheme. the formal integration of these scenes demanded an equal cohesion of their music. In that connection the following simple trend of reasoning may have led to the frequently discussed employment of certain 'old forms' which has done more to disseminate widespread knowledge of this opera than its performances up to date. which to . this old forms with the atavistic incidentally started movement 'Back I employment of . differing from the two flanking acts (with their general parallehsm of structure) by virtue of the fact that it represents emphatically the character element of a middle section. have not confined 267 . i.

The of this reason for the music of scene a Suite being based on the happens) form of may be found in the fact that the dialogue scene (in which nothing 268 really consists . elucidating these points. (We will later on listen to several musical examples. Another circumstance. for instance. but in order some feature which is less obvious than i conceptual shape. conducive to and multiphcity of shapes. achieved links aim in the end also by estabhsliing inconspicuous between the discrepant sections of the particular musical form or by favouring an often quite abrupt juxtaposition of contrasting elements. to principles based on a fundamental variety rhythm or chord. sometimes as as transitions.) I will now discuss each scene. Coda of this the preceding music or as introduction to the following scene. not so much with the intention all of enumerating quite a time periodicals their musical all forms (a task discharged for now by daily papers and by those musical to explain occasionally its which have taken note of this opera). for absolute music. based on novel principles out before). Also in this case I felt constrained to achieve variety of contrasts by composing these musical accompanisometimes I ments to a change of scene. which I had retained as a composer for the theatre despite my admiration 'tone'. To compose for that purpose throughout symphonic transitions or Interludes (as I saw it done later on in the case of another contemporary opera involving frequent changes of scenery) would have run counter to my idea of musical drama and its legitimate claims. or fmally by combining both functions. resulting from the threefold change of scene within each of the three acts.ALBAN BERG myself to these more or resort also to less archaic form-types but (as I had to pointed new forms. accompanying a change of scene. was the comparatively high number of orchestral interludes.

30. Listen. sc. bars 65-120 (first in other parts timeless dramatic subject. historic colour. Scene is i is based on an admittedly ancient form-type. That this process resulted in a Suite of more or less styHzed archaic dance-forms (such as Prelude. Act I. although it happened quite unconScene its sciously. these three chords are 269 . thereof. Cadenza. Of course. connecting it with the following Gavotte: v. This means that presents the notes literally it reflects from back to front and with that the end to its musically the dramatic pecuHarity of the scene. for instance. The following postlude is only a development-section. Scene 2 based on something totally diflerent. as it were. was a near guess to find for each topic a small formal type and to combine several of these types into a Suite. Act I. a form-generais ting element will be easily appreciated if Tonality itself form-begetting device and in consequence hkened to the functions of Tonic.berg's lecture on 'wozzeck' [1929] It likewise only of loosely connected topics of discussion. the dialogue of which also returns in original starting-point. however this time in retrograde it motion. Gigue. a considera- tion of this Gigue and to the cadenza-hke Double Bassoon Solo. bars 203-204. to the beat). Dominant and Subdominant respectively. i receives through little this Suite tionally — — albeit uninten- proper and. which weighed but with me The formal end of the Suite is achieved among other things by the fact that the introductory Prelude returns refrainhke at the tail-end — of the Scene. Pavane. sc. 15-19. p. utilizing the chief thematic ideas of each section of the If Suite. That a principle of that nature understood as a may become if. The : unifying principle of that scene is of an harmonic nature these chords represent the harmonic vertebra of the scene: v. Gavotte with doublerefrain) was no mere chance. p.

ALBAN BERG the manner is I. 30. rhythm and dynamics within the framework of scanned declamation. introduced by him nearly twenty years ago declamatory choruses of Die Gluckliche Hand and in the melo- drames of his Pierrot Lunaire. In fact.R. throughout variational and multiple. and the second in the next scene Lullaby. bars 225 (or 227)-234. bars 201-207. sc. with its fixation of melody.F. no reason why much expressed of what is purely vocally conceived should not be *Bel cantare'. pensated fully for this deficiency for the first beheve to have com- by having abundantly utiUzed in the time in an opera Schoenberg's so-called ^rhythmic declamation'. has frequently been pointed out that there is it not a Bel Canto opera. in which these chords or harmonic sequences are I. In this connection observations. presented V. Of course I did not miss any opportunity to write singable and song-like music. 32. while acknowledging all formal potentialities of absolute music which play no part in Recitative. I by means of have never renounced be sure.) 270 . as suggested a play. represents one of the 1 Not used here in the customary sense of the Enghsh term 'melodrama'. used as an interpolation within the section is more rhapsodic organization of the three-chordits Andres' Coloratura-song with is three stanzas. I the mihtary march and Marie's should Hke to disclose the results of two The is first concerning the treatment of the singing voice It in this opera. in the possibihties of coloratura singing. or Act Act p. However. These made evident that this 'melodramatic' treatment ^ of the voice. For instance: p. The one. there are by the more operatic two songs to be found first caesurae of in this and the following scene. To I my opera hardly any Recitative can be found. (H.

with the necessity to establish an appreciable relationship between art-music and folkthis music in opera —a matter of course in a tonally conceived to express their differentiation work. attractive sonorous contrast to straight bel canto The other result of my investigation refers to the man- ner in which I have coped with the necessity of including music of a Tolky' and singable character. We popular element in them in the Military March (with its the devices of a intentionally 'wrong basses') and in Marie's Lullaby (with its harmonies in fourths) play.R. It was by no means easy of levels in so-called atonal harmony. har- monies in thirds and especially in fourths and a type of melody in which whole-tone scale and perfect fourths play an integral part.e.) 271 . in contrast with the diminished and augmented intervals which usually dominate the atonal music of the 'Vienna School'.F. i.m. (H. —a function occasionthe it ally allotted to speech More by embracing whole gamut of expression from the veritable *bel parlare' off-pitch whisper to the of its widely arched Sprechmelodien. manner which applies equally to the That particular manner favours a symit utilizes metrical arrangement of periods and sections. — pieces which' the orchestra will now During the performance I beg you to take note of the link between the two scenes to which I referred earUer.unication even in opera. has undoubtedly enriched operatic music with an expressive device of high value and pure musical ancestry which forms a welcome and singing. 1 Also the so-called poly tonality may be counted among find a more primitive brand of harmony.berg's lecture most effective on 'wozzeck : [1929] means of com. I demonstrated to you the structural principle of the three 1 Second Vienna School. I believe I have succeeded by composing all sections requiring the atmosphere of Volkstiimlichkeit in a primitive style of Atonality.

I have let you hear the music up to it this point only. becomes transformed into music accompanying the change of scene. 38. 38-48. This musical idea as it is used several times. I am inter- mention another device of dramatic composition the purpose of which is none other than to guarantee musical unity of design. leading to the close of the second. bars 425-426 together with other recurrent motives and musical patterns belong to the figure of Marie (one could say. sc. the basic harmony of a melody of wide span: Act p. p. p. three thirds Act I.ALBAN BERG chords in scene 2: v. bars 303-310 (or which in turn. or better. p. the fact that I Thereby I only want to point out this have availed myself of opportunity to estabhsh cohesion and formal correspondences (and thereby to achieve again unity of design) by utilizing these Leitmotifs. p. sc. bar 286 (left hand more on which these chords are based are: in the Act p. Repetitions of this sort occur also in the case of other motifs. sc. in the manner of a Leitmotif. sc. become I. The I. an attitude that fmds its final rupting now in order to — — solution only in death). rhap- sodically constructed scene. in the frequently mentioned chordal sequence of Scene 2: inanimate nature horrifying 272 I . 39. into which the march of the approaching band infiltrates the latter interrupted by Marie's song which follows now: v. more motive-Hke growth emerges sc. Act I. 38. these musical reminiscences. Act I. bars 286-293 At another point the 312). Such is the case. From (first these a bar 286 (the first two beats). These fifths: v. V. Act I. three chords v. were. beat). 38. for instance. bars — 286-426. attached to different persons or to different situations. description of the eerie sunset: v. sc. 48. this particular quietus of Harmony expresses her aimless and indefmable attitude of waiting. marked).

berg's lecture on 'wozzeck' [1929]


then, in the final scene

of Act


the reaHstic sound

of snoring, coming from the

soldiers sleeping in their barracks


in the orchestra,

there in the

manner of

a choral

enunciation with closed

intermingUng with Wozzeck's

groaning in his sleep:

v. sc.


p. 169, bars 737-743.

or Chaconne, of scene 4 (Act I) is based on a dodecaphonic subject: v. sc. Act I, p. 55, bars 486-487.
It is really

The Passacaglia,

superfluous to mention that the variational treatsubject does not follow mechanical, or even absois it

ment of this

musical concepts. Rather

intimately connected with

the action of the opera. Already the presentation of the twelve-


series (see



transmuted into musical drama in


words of the scene. In its first by the words of the Doctor and nearly totally concealed by the excited Rubato of a CeUoRecitative. v. sc. Act I, p. 55-56, bars 488-495. This is followed by 21 variation-forms: v. sc. Act I, p. 57-72,
accompanies the
it is


nearly absorbed

bars 496-642.


use of the expression Variation'


quite legitimate: for

the one and only subject

on which

these sections are based
It is

represents the Doctor's obsessional *idee fixe'.

also re-

echoed in the words of Wozzeck, the tortured victim of the
Doctor's obsession. Cf. v.
(first half).




p. 61 (with upbeat), bars

ferously pleads for

the last variation the Doctor vociimmortahty (the most sublime of his many obsessions) the variational theme in the bass (which had been partially concealed throughout the development of the PassacagHa) now returns with emphasized distinctness in choralelike harmonies. It winds up the whole section in the manner of a Stretto: v. sc. Act I, p. 72, bars 638-656. It is closely followed by the 'Andante affettuoso' already







this lecture (v. sc. p. 73

fF.). Its



open up the final scene of Act i. Act II, beginning with the little introduction (which has also been played a short while ago cf. v. sc. Act II, p. 82) contains a Sonata-movement as the first of its musical forms. It is perhaps more than mere chance that the three characters of this scene Marie, her child and Wozzeck correspond with the three thematic groups of an orthodox sonata-exposition. This circumstance permits on principle the subsequent use of strict Sonata-form. The whole dramatic deployment of this trinket scene, the twofold recurrence of certain situations, and fmally, the head-on clash of the principal characters, are responsible for the continuing strict musical structure, which consists of a first recapitulation after the exposition, of a development section and fmally of a second recapitulation. The following table will


this clear:

The principal


v. sc.



p. 83,

bar 7 (with

upbeat)-! 4;

The bridge-passage The cantabile-group The conclusion-group

Act II, p. 84, bars 29-36; Act II, p. 85, bars 43-46; v. sc. Act II, p. 86, bars 55-59. And with it the whole exposition (Cf v. sc. Act II, p. 83/84, bar 7 with upbeat-59, except for the last beat).
v. sc. v. sc.

Then follows the first recapitulation,

repeating the exposition


if in a variational

and telescoped manner

V. sc.

Act II, p. 87, bars 60 with upbeat-96, first beat). The development section, i.e. the particular part of the scene in which the characters and their musical equivalents come to a head-on collision, leads up to the climax of the Sonata, i.e. to the musical reminiscence *Wir arme Leut','l quoted earlier

Cf. Music example


62. (H.F.R.)


berg's lecture
in this Lecture, a
V. sc.

on 'wozzeck'


motif which permeates the entire opera
bar 135).



p. 22,

The remaining music of this scene,

of the following change

of scene (which belongs to the preceding scene on musical grounds and functions as its Coda), demonstrates how the last reprise of the Sonata can be reached and the Sonata concluded

of C-major which you have just heard. (How could the objectivity of money be more relevantly expressed than by this chord !) 1 That this music of scenic transformation can boast of an independent musical life and therefore be classified as a small
sustained chord

by way of the

musical unit while simultaneously trying to coalesce with
succeeding section,


of the following device: when the transition-music begins, a Ghssando on the harp indicates its commencement; the same effect returns when the transition is ended, only the first time in a descending^, the
be the


second time
the orchestra


an ascending pp. Please watch






v. sc.

grows out of that C-major chord:



p. 93-96, bars

The following









be sure


intimately inter-con-

nected than the three figures of the preceding scene, linked


of blood-relationship. While the former scene

therefore engenders a musical

linked together hke

form in which the limbs were members of a family, that is to say, Sonata-form, the latter scene demands a more artificial pattern consisting of more disparate elements, namely, an Invention and a Fugue with three subjects. The motival limitation of

The bracketed
his typescript.

sentence contains an important correction by Berg, pencilled into The sentence, now referring to the 'SachUchkeit' (objectivity) of money, ran originally thus: '. could the "Niichternheit" (prosiness) of .' etc. (H.R.F.). money be more relevantly expressed
. .





these three subjects, in contradistinction to the tendency for a

more melodic

transition in the preceding

for this strictly fugal form.

Sonata-movement, severity, to be sure, is eased


the fact that the motifs are already well

known. They


the motif of the Captain, dominating already the very begin-

ning of the


scene of the opera: v.



p. 97, bars 171I,

172 (right hand); then the motif of the Doctor, from Act

one of Wozzeck's motifs; the one which had been foreshadowed without Hteral quotation ^in the preceding Sonata-movement: v. sc. Act II, p. 108, bars 273-274. The slow movement of this symphony-hke Act II is a 'Largo'. Apart from the obvious thematic connections of its sectional and independent structure it contains one other peculiar feature it is scored for a 'chamber orchestra' which is modelled on the Chamber Symphony No. i of Arnold Schoenberg. Incidentally, I intended thereby to pay homage to my teacher and master at this pivotal point of the opera. On this occasion I'd Hke to mention that it has been my endeavour, here as in other sections of the opera, to satisfy my desire for imity and integration, as well as for variety and multiphcity of form, by utilizing the possibilities of will fmd orchestration and of instrumental combination. You not infrequently in this opera sections or even whole scenes (hke this one) to which a specific sonorous body remains attached. In this way a small instrumental group in the manner of an 'obbligato' is attached to the little Suitemovement of scene i, Act I, for instance: five woodwinds and three kettledrums and harp, or three flutes, or four brass instruments only, or the quartet of strings. One self-contained section of scene 2, Act I, is entirely concerned with the sonority of muted brass and strings playing col legno; a fugal episode of
v. sc.


p. 97, bars 1 71-174; and, fmally,



berg's lecture

on 'wozzeck'



III is

limited to the sound of five solo strings only.

of the very last scene of the opera might be mentioned, the scene of the playing children, from which oboes, bassoons, trombones and doublebasses are totally
Finally the orchestration


To return once more to that *Largo'
duction and of



manner of its intro-

trailing-off could

be called an example of



achieve a kind of musical cohesion

by other

one of a return to the Tonic. The clarinet figurations which seem to emerge from the fugal subjectmatter of the preceding scene only to fade off^estabHsh a link with this 'Largo' at the point where the figuration seems to congeal: chord: v. sc. Act II, p. 124, bar 367; representing the first harmony-basis of the Largo theme: v. sc. Act II,


that the usual

p. 124, bar 364-368.

The end of that

'Largo' closes into the

same harmony which
retrogresthat chord

sively into the

again into

v. sc.

from which
p. 134, bars



had emerged previously:



406 (with

These figures of the


succeeding music of transition: v.


form also a bridge to the Act II, p. 135-136.






musical frame for a musico-dramatic scene from the

angle of orchestral sonorities.





letting the

play the Introduction with the


and by adding afterwards its musical mirror-reflection with which this scene fades out, only to merge imperceptibly into the transition-music which in turn introduces the next scene v/ith a slow Landler-movement. In this *Landler' and in the rest of the dance-music you may find sections which will strike you as being dissonant in a



way than that of strictly atonal music


dissonant, in the


of the simultaneous sound of several pieces in different you may be used to hearing them at a fun-fair. This obvious dissonance which emerges from primitive polytonaUty
keys, as

of course


but used not without judicious selection:


not only derives from the dramatic situation, but

also the result

of musical



example: the antecedent of a Landler in
to the Tonic.


fact that

according to the rules of formal construction

—either leads to

Dominant (D major) or back

both things happen simultaneously (who could blame the bhnd-fold rhapsodizings of an alcoholic band of beer fiddlers ?) leads to musical chaos: cf. v. sc. Act II, p. 136, bars 424-425. This chaos is prolonged when the section of the beer fiddlers

which had reached the Dominant returns to the Tonic of G minor according to rule, whereas another section with equal turns into the mediant justification by the laws of modulation of E flat major: cf. v. sc. Act II, p. 126, bar 429. It is a miracle that they manage to come together at the end of the Landler Listen to that now, please. The orchestra as


pointed out before




the introduction to the

Largo: Cf.

v. sc. Act II, p. 123, bar 360 (with upbeat) until bar and then the retrograde Coda with the succeeding Landler: v. sc. Act II, p. 134, bar 403 (with long upbeat) until

bar 442 (excluding the country-inn-music;


also p. 137, until

bar 447 inch).
I've already

mentioned that the following scene represents

the Scherzo within the framework of that dramatic


with which this Act II may be compared. The Landler which you have just now heard is the first subject of this Scherzo. A song by the first of the two tramps would correspond with a *first Trio', a Waltz played by the village-inn-band with a

To be sure. as it also functions as transition-music to the following scene its presenta- augmented form of a symphonic development-section played by the entire orchestra. on the other hand a Chorale-Variation (albeit of a parodistical bent) and in five parts. the repeat of the three with the — little sections (Landler. but as much as possible variational. which in turn concludes this Act laid in the soldiers' barracks. When that music breaks off suddenly. with that very scene I have already discussed the different patterns of Act III and a their form-generating principles. the snoring-chorus of tion conforms to the the sleeping soldiers in the barracks is heard through the Marziale (men- lowered curtain. reappears still in the form of a waltz. however. Thus the Landler surroundings although represented its new musical Trio' repeat Thus the 'first by the tramp's song repeated in so outspoken a variation that its basic harmonies are unfolded. in is accordance with the progress placed into quite is literal. The strictness of 279 . subjected to variational treatment. Finally. Now follows—in agreement —represent strict construction of such Scherzo movements (think of those in Schumann's symphonies) the repeat of the first tripartite Scherzo-group. Lied.berg's lecture on 'wozzeck' [1929] second Scherzo. resulting in a Chorale-melody in sustained notes which in its presentation by the Bombardon forms the basis for a 'melodrame'. The principle of scene i is theme. is therefore on the one hand the repeat of the 'first Trio'. Waltz) is not a literal one. played by the village band. is With that section the Rondo tioned before) introduced. is of the play. This — — melodrame. the harmless parody of a religious sermon. the hunting chorus of the village lads would — as being the central portion of that whole section a ^second Trio' in that connection. the repeat of the Waltz.

v. bar 104) suggestions of the trinket-scene of Act II (v. in all possible positions and aU sonorous combinations. here also in manifold guises. appears. sc. and that the double fugue. last note of the significant concluding cadence of Act indeed. in short. kg6. the hyper-sensitive music critic was able to notice and duly to report to liis readers the utter inefficiency of such an absurdly mathematical structure: Cf. now becomes a unifying element and. called Bible-scene place. sc. is based on a theme consisting of seven notes. of seven bars. consists with it its antecedent and consequent. is When fmally the murder of Marie 'B'. : ALBAN BERG architecture (I use this term dehberately) is responsible for the fact that this dual theme. committed to the sound of the ff drum beats on motives connected with her are sounded precipitately. the cohesive principle of the It following scene of murder. The mathematical character of this form might easily be scoffed at. 181-189. 280 . consisting of two subjects in accordance with the duaUsm inherent in the original theme. well happen in the very as may moment of death. That is what actually happened at the occasion of the first concert performance of this so this piece. which never took pp. p. . of course. Act III. 196. The low *B' in the doublebasses which the final chord of this is here added to Fugue (we have become acquainted with it as being the II). Act III. sc. that returns in sevenfold variation. as a pedal point. bars 1-12. bar 104) the drum major liimself (see the same bar) the motif scene i (cf. doubled in one or more octaves. Act III. p. They pass through life her consciousness with lightning speed and in a macabre grimace. like the real characters which had permeated her The Lullaby from . It occurred in a review of a performance of Although not a of that particular scene had actually single note of the music been performed. as sustained middle or treble part. v..

Act III. is. . 197.berg's lecture on 'wozzeck' [1929] of Marie bemoaning her wretched Hfe (bar 105) which finally away in the moment of her last breath with the motif of the dreamy fifths (previously discussed). This process produces the impression — — as if the resulting ostensible irregularity (which reaches the does the logical level of consciousness in the listener as little as order of the entries) imparted to that crescendo note on *B' a special breath of life. The short music of transition enunciates that *B' once more and this time unisono in the higher octave. not a matter of mere chance. To be sure. starts in the softest pianissimo possible in the its muted horn and increases sonority through gradually louder orchestral entries (without percussion) up to the most powerful outburst. sc. 122-129). It is a fact effect that this crescendo produces an even greater dynamic and intensity than does the repetition of that crescendo on *B' on different levels of the scale. but is used in The rhythm 281 . p. sc. bars 106-107. 198. like the chord arrived at by way of the crescendo-climax. Thereby both groups of these rhythmically ordered entries follow each other canonically. Entries of the winds as vv^ell as of the strings combined result in a kind of basic rhythmic pattern. the motive of waiting in vain. This is the rhythmic pattern on which the following scene is based (v. Now it fades . sc. as will become evident from every single bar. supported by the entire percussion-group. b. bars 117-121). and which establishes cohesion and unity. but of thematic importance. Act III. Re- garding these entries it may be observed that they do not occur assert at regular intervals but themselves according to a peculiar law of rhythm. p. p. that rhythm has not been superimposed on this scene. 197. Act III. just mentioned. as the only note of the entire scale which belongs to all instruments of the orchestra (c£ v. . Cf v. of course. as it were in the time-span of a mere crotchet beat.

bars 278-283. however. Act III. sc. Even melodic divisions. the sc. a similar example of that form of objectivity {Sachlichkeit) similar A (which is older than its in the following scene. for instance the quick Polka of the carousing young men and women with which these scene begins (cf. i. Act III. for instance: v. sc. by subdividing it into triplets or by presenting it in metrical two or more dovetailed canonic entries. on (v. bars 122-129). resp. V. sc. bars 152-159. sc. by superimposing another metre on this rhythm. the 282 . it achieves variety and formal multiplicity through the fact that this six-note chord is subjected to all imaginable variations. sc. 213. p. Act II. i p. bars 145-152). v. re-interpretations of its notes into new melodies occur: v. i. III. Act III. divisions.ALBAN BERG a manner permitting variability the highest degree of rhythmical and even within the limits of this rhythmical monotony. a group of six simultaneous notes only Act III. exactly as the single note or rhythm earlier on had been subjected to it: v. example of such utihzation of musical substance which had proved its worth earlier in the case of a single note. or better. On other hand. 217. Act III. or. fmally. completes also harmonically the Coda of (v. the preceding scene. ov by underpinning the accompaniment by this very rhythm (cf. or p. This is achieved by using melodies entirely based on this rhythm. or. by augmenting or diminishing this rhythm or by shifting its accent. based modern connotations) can be found on only one chord. inversions. Also this six-note chord has been announced has been mentioned before) in that earlier short transition-music with its great chmax on 'B'. (as bar 220). p. the change of scene Act is p. regroupings and changes of position with regard to all its notes. That chord. 199. Despite the fact that this scene closely tied to this six-note group. 210. p. sc. bar 247. bars 219-220). lie. 198.e. bar 27.e. 210. p. p. 217.

as it were. of course. the simultaneity of chords. 222. In fact. can be found already in the works of the Classics and the Romantics of music.berg's lecture formal structure in on 'wozzeck' [1929] this piece is achieved by the old sym- metrical three part-division of ancient merit. p. of that six-note chord: minor. 222. the waves of the pond submerging the drowning Wozzeck. all that could here be called ^impressionistic' in the sense of the aforesaid term is miles removed from the vague and bottomless sonorities of that particular style. a strong impressionistic influence. Despite this all this. entirely based on harmony and on This is. sc. despite : p. etc. while in the middle section seeking also basic support from other degrees of the chromatic returns to it its scale. For instance. Here only a more general remark. the dissolution D minor tonality of which signifies almost the v. For that ostensible Impressionism (using here again a famous artistic term of recent decades) which is allegedly to be detected here and there in my opera. the natural result in the case of a dramatic action which comes so near to the elemental happenings of nature itself. Act III. Act III. pp. quite apart from Wagner's imperishable musical reflections of Nature. bars 306-308. no attempt has to trace been made anywhere in style opera to estabhsh a musical which some listeners might be inclined back to the French. sc. to its tonal centre. functions simultaneously as a harmonic bridge to the follow- ing episode. Act II. It is obvious that music such as the foregoing. bars 297-305. the rising moon: v. 223-4. the croaking of toads v. with upbeat to D More of this anon. When this chord finally original position and. perhaps to Debussy. On the contrary: 283 . sc. Thus this six-note chord appears in the flanking parts of each scene based only on all one specific degree of the scale (but of course in all its variants). all must needs reveal melodic variants.

very climax. justified in calHng a 'perpetuum mobile' in accordance of these laws of form which of all. resulted all in a sound-combination which although scale contained the twelve notes of the chromatic —created in that particular context only the effect of a Dominant. likewise. From imis the musician's point of view this last orchestral interlude repre- sents a thematic development-section. This was achieved in the at its middle section of the piece. utilizing all the Its portant musical characters related to Wozzeck. Also the fmal scene of this Act just III (the scene of the playing children which you have continuous quaver-movement it heard) I with its was able and. leading naturally and inevitably back 284 to the D .e. at the point where its developmental entries tighten up to a veritable This it *Stretto'. extended to so vast D an has quences of its become possible to reach the ultimate conseaugmented compass. The final Scene (which we have heard already) is preceded by a somewhat longer orchestral piece. even as an appeal to the audience. extent that it minor key. the harfunction of which I have already to be sure. —an exception to monically disintegrating previously mentioned. Here it is based on a thematic earlier six-note group and in Act scene 2 —discussed —on an (I Ostinato of a progression of three chords. which is here meant to represent Humanity itself. I. in order to submit to with the old traditions of form) thus obeys one I had to promulgate myself first it later on. i. breaking through the framework of the dramatic plot and. Tliis should be understood from the dramatist's point of view as the Epilogue which follows Wozzeck's suicide. is. tripartite shape and its unifying principle Tliis is the rule of diis opera —Tonahty. as I have explained earlier in lecture. beHeve. it should also be appreciated as the composer's confession.— ALBAN BERG all is here based on tliis a strict musical principle.

Epilogue as a conclusion to my lecture (v.! berg's lecture minor of the Extending on 'wozzeck' sc. its conductor singers I and the supporting their collaboration. Ladies and I beg you to forget all theory and musical aeswhich have served my explanation. before you attend the Tuesday performance or a later one of the opera gentlemen thetics — — — *Wozzeck'. . of the Opera House in . p. 224to 228. addressed to the audience itself. my heartfelt thanks to the orchestra. Act III. . exclusive of the last beat). staged at this opera house 285 . [1929] recapitulation (v. for this beg the former now kindly to play sc. that would Hke express a request. pp. 228. bars 364-365). But before Act I III.


'Tiefe Sehnsucht* 287 . 'Viel Traume' (Amerling). 'Liebeslied' . 'Sehnsucht'. Bier'Abschied' (Monsterberg) 8. Note: dedicated to Emil Hertzka op. 'Heihge Himmer.d. 'Floten- Altenberg). 'Grenzen der 23. 'Ballade des ausseren Lebens' (Hofmannsthal) 24. i. du' (Busse). Vienna (ed. (Dolorosa). 18.XXIl/5. 5. baum). 'Uber Nacht' (Rognetti). 'Im Walde' (Bjornson). 'Soldatenbraut' (Morike). 'Spaziergang' (Mom- bert). 7. 'SternenfalF (Wilhelm) bliiht' 12. Evers). 'Unter der Linden' (Walther v. 'Spielleute' (Ibsen). 3. Vogelweide).CATALOGUE OF WORKS ORIGINAL COMPOSITIONS I 'Schliesse mir die A. I. 21. 'Die Musik' . together with II XV. 'Uber meinen Nachten' (Dolorosa). 9. . . 19. 26. Menschheit' (Goethe). I (Hohenberg). Early Songs (Voice and Piano). 'Hoffnung' (Peter Altenberg). 10. 20. (F. 13. 4. spielerin' (Peter 'Traurigkeit' (Peter Alten- berg). 17. 'So regnet es sich langsam ein' (Caesar Flaischlen). 'Herbstgefiihl' (Siegfried Fleischer). Auto- graph: lost. 6. und 15. 1930. Redlich). 2. J. 'Lied des SchifFermadels' (O. dass der Friihling so kortz (Arno Holz). 16.ugen heide\ i (Voice and Piano) 1900 (Storm). 'Verlassen' (Bo- hemian folksong). Published: Berlin. 22. 'Ich 11. 1955 Universal Edition. 'Wo der Goldregen steht' (Lorenz). 25. 'Er klagt. 14.

'Trinklied' 'AugenbHcke' (Hamerling) 56. 70 (c. 37. 'Wandert. 'Fromm' (Gustav Falke). 'Der milde Herbst anno 45' (Max Mell) 63. *0 war' mein Lieb II ein Roslein (Bums). 'Die Sorglichen' (Falke). SchlummerloseNacht' (Greif ) Weisheit' (Fischer) 47. 'Nachtgesang' (O. 'Ini Morgengrauen' (Stieler) 52. Bierbaum). Nos. (Wies- (Baumbach) 45. .f W. Autographs: in Helene Berg's possession. cit. 'An Leukon' (Gleim). . 'Aus Pfingsten' (Evers). PubHshed: No. 57. 28. Tales' (Knodt) 62. 'Erster Verlust' 'Siiss (Goethe). ^Reiselied' (Hofmannsthal) 31. was wir schauen' (EichendorfF) 49. 36. sind mir die Schollen des Grazie). 50. 51. Winter' rot' Schlaf). 288 . 'Mignon' (Goethe). 46. (Evers). 67. 2-25. 'Spuk' * (Hebbel). 'Leben' bacher). 38. 'Ich Hebe dich' (Grabbe). . 35-69: Summer 1904/5.. Scherer) 30. 'Menschenherz' (delle 'Holophan' (Wallpach). . 61. *Am Strande' (G. 27. No. 29. 'Trinklied' (Henckell). 39. (J. Dates of composition: Nos. 'Eure 44. 33. 53. 35. 'Grabschrift' (Jakobowski). 48. ' 43. 58. 64. *Uber den Berg' (Busse). 34. . 'Furcht' (Palma). 42. (Riickert). 'Geliebte Schone' (Heine). 70: 1908. 60. berg). . 'Vom (Geibel). 'Das stille Konigreich' (Busse). ALBAN BERG (Liliencron) . and 27-34: circa 1902. 41. 1937. Ende' (Marie Madeleine). 55. 70.. (Riickl). 69. 40. 26: 1904 or 1905. 59. 'Naherin' (Rilke). . op. 'Sehnsucht'. Reich. 'Liebe' (Pilke). 'Am Abend' Gespenster auferstehn' (Felix 'Wenn Dormann). 66. 54. J. 'Traum' (Semmler). No. 'Lauterung' (Hohenberg). 'Es wandelt. 32. (Hohen'Feme Lieder' 'Ich will die Fluren meiden' (Riic- kert). 'Scheidelied' . 65. 'Voriiber' . Nos. ihr Wolken' (Avenarius). 'Schatten- leben' (Graf). 68. I and 3: 1900.

Appendix i. First performance: November 8. The version for orchestra was acquired by the same firm. 'Liebesode' (O. completed 1908. III p. 23. Winter 1905/06. Hartleben). 3. in a Concert by Schoenberg's pupils. 1907. *Im Zimmer' (Johannes Schlaf). Nos. First performances Nos. 3 : Summer 1905. 1907. which vised Piano version at the Gesellschaft Musikfreunde. *Schilflied' (Lenau). 6. 1908. PJlke). : 7.CATALOGUE OF WORKS Appendix Berg. *Sommertage' i: (P. i. *Nacht' (Karl Hauptmann). The first performance of the orchestral version took place in Vienna on November 6. 289 . 2. *Die Nachtigall' (Th. Composed: Summer Twelve Variations for the Piano on an original theme. lost. Note: No. 2. Note: The songs are : dedicated to Helene Berg. 5. Publications: The re- was published 1928 by Universal Edition. No. but has remained unpublished so far. No. Storm). Autograph: lost. Autograph: 7. 7. 1928. 5-7: Spring Autographs: Helene Berg (except No. 1907. Composed: Summer performance: Vienna. Dates of composition No. Hohenberg). 3 and 4 were first performed in Vienna on November 7. 8 probably two songs. 25 and 26 are duets. Publication: Cf. in a Concert by Schoenberg's pupils. 4. Date of composition: presumably begun in 1907. E. M. Vienna. 2: Summer 1906. V VI Compositions for 6-8 part Chorus. No. 14). First November 1907. *Traumgekront' (R. Wien). Vienna. IV Fugue (with three subjects) for String Quintet and Piano. is mer der 1907. Autograph: Helene Berg. 4: Sum1908. Autograph: Helene Seven Early Songs (Voice and Piano). Nos.

2. i. . Leibowitz (only available on L. No. Date of composition: Begun early in 1909. Composed: Spring to early Sum1920. X Five songs by Peter AltenNo. Autograph: Helene Berg and texts on picture-postcard . No. cf. 4: Nichts ist gekommen. : Vienna. . : Riesen Starksten. Autograph: Haslinger. . op. . (from poem 'Dem Schmerz sein Recht'). Appendix 5). 191 1. Autograph: lost. in a second revised edition. . C. Vienna. lost. Universal Edition. . 1927. . . Berlin. 2. . : 290 . ist Friede. . i Seele wie No. No. Berlin. record. . op.ALBAN BERG VII Sonata for Pianoforte. VIII Four Songs for Voice and Piano. for voice and orchestra. op. 1927. 3 Uber die Grenzen des Gewitterregen. C. . and 4 are taken from Mombert's cycle of poems *Der Gliihende'. Composed: Full score completed in the autumn of 1912. Robert Lienau. Hebbel's i : 'Schlafen. Vienna. 1910. : . 3. Autograph: edition. mer 1907 Published: Date of composition Sumto Summer 1908. Robert Lienau. . Vienna. 191 1. lost. Universal Edition. . Publications: Vienna. on poems by Hebbel schlafen' and Mombert.P. Vienna. . Vienna. Note: Orchestral version by R. C. 1920. : . 3 . 5 Hier No. 2: Schlafend tragt man mich. Haslinger in a revised edition. PubUcations: 1910. Vienna. . berg. Haslinger in a revised Universal Edition. 1920. mer 1910. No. op. 1924. 4: Warm die Liifte. Note: Dedicated to Helene Berg. Note: Nos. First performance: April 24. 4. First perform- ance: April 24. No. All. 3 Nun ich der . completed spring 1910. 2: Sahst du nach dem bist du schoner. No. IX String Quartet.

in 1952/53. conducted by Webern. No. conducted by Johannes 291 Schiiler. performance 1930. First Universal Performances: of 'Praeludium' and 'Reigen' on June 5. Berlin. off. Note: Dedicated . Summer 191 3. No. Dresden. First performance: March 31. 1921. Composed: 1914. first performance of all three pieces in Oldenburg. ed. Rome and during the winter XI Four pieces for Clarinet and Piano. First Performance: October 17. G. Full score of 'Praeludium' and 'Marsch' completed on September 8. 5 first 5. in *Musical Quarterly'. New York. Composed: Kassowitz. Pubhcations: 1923. Vienna. Autograph: Gottfried Vienna. XII Three pieces for big orchestra. Apostel). published in the magazine It *Menschen'. was reprinted 1948. 1919. Vienna (of the revision 1929/30). 6. 1924. conducted by Jasha Horenstein. 1914. 1923. in 1930. Praeludium. revision undertaken which was published Edition. Haslinger. Vienna in Schoenberg's 'Verein fiir musikahsche PrivatauffUhrungen'. Vienna. The full score has remained unpublished so far. 4 and 5). 191 3. R. Vienna. First complete performances. Leibowitz. C. op. Universal Edition (edition for voice and Pianoforte. Universal Edition. 1954. facsimile-reproduction of the autograph. H. Vienna. October issue. Vienna. Schirmer. Publications: 1953. Marsch. full score of 'Reigen' completed in August 191 5. Universal Edition. Note: Dedi- cated to Arnold Schoenberg. Oxford (original drafts of Nos. op. Reigen.CATALOGUE OF WORKS Bodleian Library. 5. E. Vienna. Autograph: Universal Edition. Publications: 1920. It was prematurely broken Paris. ed.

First performances of the 'Three fragments'.S. orchestration completed: July 23. Hbretto completed: Summer 1917. 1926. Note: Dedicated to XIV Chamber Concerto for Piano.) vocal score self. 1925. H. short score completed: end of 1920. Vienna. Universal Edition. Werfel (U.. (short score). conductor: Hermann Alma Maria Mahler. taken over by Universal Edition. First performance: December 14. Vienna (full score and vocal score). 1925. hbretto pub- hshed (Universal Edition). conductor: Erich Kleiber. based on dramatic fragment by Georg BUchner. 1923. : Universal Edition. 1925.A. Autograph: Full score: Helene Berg. Autograph: Library of Congress.S. Universal Edition. orchestration completed: April 1 92 1. Vienna-ZurichLondon. Trio — arr. F. on the occasion of op.C. composition started: late Summer 191 7. Opera in three acts. 7. D. as The second Movement the 'Adagio' was arranged 1935 Trio for Violin. Pubhca- tions: 1925. Frankfurt/Main. 1956 pubhcation of pocket score. 1924. Dates of composition: decision to set Biichner's frag- ment: May 1914. Universal Edition. (full ington. facsimile of 292 . by the composer him- 1923. Publications: (arr. Viohn and thirteen wind players. Alma Mahler1922.ALBAN BERG to Arnold Schoenberg. and publication of full Universal Edition. WashU. 1914). reprint of vocal score score. June 1924. Vienna. Klein). Dates of composition: Sketch: Summer 1923 to February 9. XIII WOZZECK. Clarinet and Piano in by composer. score). Scherchen. the 'Three fragments for voice and orchestra' pubhshed. Berlin. his 40th the birthday (September 14. Vienna.

XV performance of of mov. formances: January tet). — 1955. 1927. 1930. Schliesse mir die Augen heide (Storm) II (cf. Vienna. Concert Aria with orchestra. conductor. orch. Zemlinsky. 1930. Autographs: Full score: heirs of Alexander v. Stein). Vienna. Note: Dedicated to Alex- ander V. arr. Vienna. for str. Unifull score versal Edition (vocal score.CATALOGUE OF WORKS the autograph. 1936.Berlin. Pubhcations: 1930. First the Trio — arr. Berlin. arr. Pubhcations: together with I.: three Universal Edition. I. completed: August 23. Die Musik. Vienna. XXII. Scherchen. Composed: late Summer 1925. Trio 1956: pocket score (reprint). 1955. Autograph: Emil Hertzka's heirs. 1929. Zemlinsky. Redlich). Vienna (Kohsch-Quar1929. orch. I). Note: Dedicated to Arnold Schoenberg. Berlin Arr. February issue. No. (conductor: Horenstein). Universal Edition.: January 31. by E. Note: C£ Note to No. 1927. Universal Edition. XVII Le VinJDer Wein. First performance: March 27. First per8. 3 and 4 for String Orchestra in 1928. score. Arr. 1927. XVI Lyric Suite for String Quartet. Vienna. Full score u 293 . for str.: 1928. for orch. Universal Edition. in the German translation by Stefan George. 2. Composed: May to July 23. Autograph: Ruzena Herlinger. Universal Edition arr. Universal Edition (ed. Vienna. arrangement of the middle movements 2. Vienna. Dates of composition: October 1925 to October 1926. a setting of Baudelaire's poem. Vienna. 1924). Pubhcations: Pocket str. 1929. on the occasion of his 50th birthday (September 14.

1935). : Reich. interrupted until late August 1935. Variations. 16. LULU. First W. agreement with Wedekind's August 1929. Konigsberg Herlinger. short score completed: April 1934. performance February 1930. Stein) of Acts I and II only. Composed: Summer 1930. Full score also unpublished.ALBAN BERG unpublished so far. vocal score (arr. cf. singer: XVIII Four-part Canon 'Alban Berg an das Frankfurter Opernhaus' (words by the composer). Lulu-Sym- phony (containing Rondo. composition begun Spring 1929. Adagio). Ostinato. Autograph: Library of Congress. Universal Edition (full score).S. First performances June : 4. 1930. Note: Composed for the celebration of the 50th It anniversary of the opera house in Frankfurt/Main. Dates of composition: Decision taken: Spring 1928. 1934. Viemia. The orchestration of Act III remains incomplete. i. orchestration of opera begun: Autumn 1934. 1935. first performed in XIX Frankfurt/Main in February 1930. op. Act III unpublished. U. Vienna. Libretto published: 1937. conductor: Scherchen. based on Frank Wedekind's plays 'Earth Spirit' and 'Pandora's Box'. Universal Edition. conductor: versal Edition (Acts 294 . First performance of Lulu-Symphony: November 30. (Prussia). 'Lulu-Symphony' arranged: Summer 1934. Publications: 1936. publication: 1937. Appendix. Frankfurt/Main. Vienna. p. then resumed and carried on until the composer's death (December 24. libretto complete: Spring 1929. Autograph: Helene heirs: : Berg. Opera in 3 acts. E. Lied der Lulu. Uni- I and II only). contains in text and music allusions to Schoenberg's Opera 'Von Heute auf Morgen'. cit.

on the occasion of his 60th birthday (September 1934). ARNOLD SCHOENBERG: 'Litanei' Gurreliedcr. lost. Piano Duet 191 3/1 5. Vienna. text 1911. arr.A. and 'Entriickung' (middle movements of the String arr. Louis Krasner. ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPOSITIONS BY OTHERS FRANZ schreker: Der feme Klang. Vienna. XX The Violin Concerto. Quartet. Barcelona. for published in 1921). First II performance of the opera-fragmen (Acts I and and end of Act is II only) June : 2. for voice and Piano (completed in 1912. piano (full score). Universal Edition Universal Edition. Universal Edition. Note: Dedicated to Louis Krasner. revised by Berg soloist: shortly before his death. 9. Universal Edition. Publications: 1936. vocal score with text. 1937. Kurzmann). vocal score with Vienna. the occasion of his 50th birthday (December 1933). 1938. 1912. First performance: 1936. April 19. on 3.CATALOGUE OF WORKS Kleiber. Stadtheater Zurich (conductor: Denzler). 'To the score: Memory of an Angel. August 11. op. Universal Edition. 295 .S. (R. orchestration completed: Vienna. 1935. Autograph: Louis Krasner.' 1935: Composed: Short April to July 12. Note: 'Das Lied der Lulu' the dedicated to Anton Webern. Chamber Symphony op. the whole opera is dedicated to Arnold Schoenberg. U. Vienna. arr. 10). conductor: Scherchen. 14.

Einaudi editori. under the same title in H. 1913. No. E. 26/27. Pubhshed: 191 3. Lecture on WOZZECK. spoken in the RAVAG. Condensed r6sum6 publ. ed. 577. Vienna. ital. Italian transl. It is lost. Vienna (ed. 5. Dem Lehrer. op. Rognoni. R. 296 . Short thematic analysis by Alban Berg. Saggi 173.*). Thematic analysis and Guide. Universal Edition. also in a shortened edition. 1912. 1949 and in 'Music Today'. H. 52. in N. (R) * English transL publ. 1930.. Rognoni's 'Espressionismo e dodecafonia'. First published in the magazine *23'. Brussels. Reich. Pubhshed: Universal Edition. Reich).. in L. 'Was ist atonal?': Radio-Dialogue. Symposium 'Arnold Schoenberg'. und Mehsande. Manuscript lost. 9. No. SHORTER ARTICLES N. Myers. 1954. cit. First given in 1929 in numerous German cities. 1936. RO = Reprint in cit. op. on April 23. L. No. II. U. Thematic analysis by Alban Berg.B. A more detailed analysis was planned and perhaps sketched in 1920 and later. 3695. publ. Scherchen's 'Musica Viva'. Cycle of Lectures on Schoenberg's Music. 6268. 1954. Pelleas op. 3rd ed. First complete pubhcation: Cf. No. delivered in Vienna in the winter 1932/33. Slonimsky's 'Music since 1900'. Nos. Published: Vienna. Piper & Co.ALBAN BERG LONGER ARTICLES AND LECTURES ARNOLD schoenberg: 'Gurrelicder'. Munich. 6140. Chamber Symphony. transl. London.. Universal Edition. op. 1949. by Alban Berg. W. June 1936. 1937.: (as far as pubhshed) R — Reprint by W. Appendix 2.

166 ff. W. (R) Open Letter to Arnold Schoenberg. Reich. 'Festschrift fiir of 'Das Opemproblem'. publ. Stuttgart. (R) Erziehung des Zeitungslesers article tut not. Verbindliche Antwort aufeine unverbindliche Rundfrage. 'Neue Musik-Zeitung'. cit. (Thematic analysis of Berg's Chamber Concerto.CATALOGUE OF WORKS Der Verein fiir musikalische Privatauffuhrungen in Wien. 219. Musik'. *Why is Schoenberg's Music so hard to imderstand?'. new introduction paragraph. Vl/ August-Sept. ' Berhn. 1924. (RO) Anweisungen zur Einstudierung des 'Wozzeck' (1930). identical with the section XXIV/ 5. (R). (R) A Word About 'Wozzeck\ Modern Music. (R) Die musikalischen Formen in meiner Oper Wozzeck'. Jahrbuch 1926 der in 'The August 1952. 1934. Jahrbuch 1929 der UE. V/i. Uni- ux 297 . Feb. Cambridge.A. (R) (RO) Das 'Opemproblem'. 1927. Vienna 1925. Praktische in der Oper. by the composer). Nov. p. 1937. by W. X/8. UE. publ. Geburtstag. Warum issue ist Schoenbergs Musik so schwer verstandlich? Special of the 'Anbruch' at the occasion of Schoenberg's 50th birthday. Lederer. edition under: transl. p. 191 9. From *2$ Jahre Neue UE. 1924. 'Melos'. Reich. 'Die Musik'. (R) Except for a *Pro Domo' Zum 60. Feb. op. October 1928. Credo. Engl. July/ August issue 1953. Fragment of an unpublished written in Summer 1920. Operntheater. Wien.S. XVI/5. UE. U. Wien. Music Review'. Wozzeck —Bemerkungen von Alban Berg (1930). by Anton Swarowsky and Joseph H. Arnold Schoenberg'.. From the Society's leaflet. (R) Die Stimme (R). January 1930. Wien. 'Die Musik'. 'Gesang'. First publ. XIII/3. Anbruch. issue. Vgl. Wien. 1928. Wien. 1928.

Reich. An Adolf Loos. (R) Zu Franz Schuberts 100 Todestag. Verlag der Buchhandlung Richard Lanyi. 1934. 1937. June 1920. 'Stimmen iiber Karl Kraus'. (R) An Karl Kraus. Il/No. Ansprache. Geburtstag von Adolf Loos am 10 December 1930'. February issue. W. Wien. cit. zum 60. 18 Vorstellung Ernst Kreneks. (R) Handel und Bach. 11-12. Nov. by by W.ALBAN BERG versal Edition. January 1928. No. op. Wien. March 1935. publ. 1932. First publ. Wien. '23'. 28 April. Berlin. 1925. Wien. op. Verlag der Buchhandlung Pichard Lanyi. Reich. cit. 20 June. (R) Die Musikalische Impotenz der 'neuen AsthetiU Hans Pjitzners. 20-21. 1928. *Unterhaltungsblatt' der VosFirst sischen Zeitung. 1937. (R) 298 . Anbruch. Gedenkrede auf Emil Hertzka. (R) 3 Ansprache. 'Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag. ('Pult undTaktstock')..

m. This Discography. 1952). by permission. Dial 15 France.p. microgroove except those marked which are 78 r. Beardslee (Sop. Dial. Classic.) Zurich Radio Orchestra W. coarse "^^ groove. Harvey (Sop. Classic. Clough and J. list is indication of present auaiJability for intended to be exhaustive. L. F.) J. Dial 15 France Classic. Monod (Piano) America. Dial. N. America. Inclusion of a catalogue number is no which manufacturer's up-to-date catalogues should be countries of issue. Beardslee (Sop. B. Dial 15 France. LL13 France. on the ' World's Encyclopaedia of Recorded Music' by F. *AN LEUKOn' —SONG (1908) (Piano) America.DISCOGRAPHY The following consulted. Goehr. compiled by W.) B. London. manufacturer Under each composition are listed the various recorded performances with the and catalogue numbers. L. Monod (Piano) SEVEN EARLY SONGS (1907) C. the first and second supplements thereto. Eurochord.p. Dial. G. is based. All records are 33 J r. C6174 Monod 299 . LPG628 L. Lyrichord. C6174 B. Beardsley (Sop.) J. Cuming {Sidgwick and Jackson. Tupas (Piano) B. C6174 SEVEN EARLY SONGS (Orchestrated) America Concert Hall G12 K. Rowe (Sop. The works are in chronological order of composition THEODOR STORM-SONG (1900 Version) America. and unpublished material for the forthcoming third supplement supplied by the Authors.) J.m. Aspinall.

Eurochord B. RS3 Manchon-Thies (Piano) France. 2 (1908/9) (Sop. Skolowsky (Piano) Gesellschaft. Classic — France. MEL 94008 Germany.ALBAN BERG PIANO SONATA OP. Eurochord.) France. Hallmark. Tupas (Piano) FOUR SONGS OP. Phillips NO2131L G. LAP 1059 Great Britain. OP. Rowe LPG 628 B. LL13 France. 628 T. Ury (Piano) Great Britain. Argo ATM1006 (Existence doubtful) A. America. Esquire TW4-001* 300 .* Germany.) Chamber Orchestra R. Schier-Tiessen (Piano) France. Leibowitz — America. Phillips NBL 5025 International. Columbia ML 4871 Great Britain. I (ipoS) America. Telefunken TW30031 FOUR SONGS C. Lyrichord LL13 France.* Z. Lyrichord. Deutsche Gram- mophon 72140. Classic C2084* C6174 Great Britain. Ducretet-Thomson. 5032.) America. Dial. Dial 15 (L. Canada.P. DucretetThomson. 2 (Orches- Rene Leibowitz) trated L Joachim (Sop. Gould (Piano) J. Poly dor. Tupas (Piano) LPG.

7164 B. Budnevich (Piano) America. Jagel (Tambour-major) R. (in set ML4737 SL 188) International. Lyrichord LL. Classic L. PIANO OP.) J. Tupas (Piano) E. Bartok Recording New Music Juilliard Quartet Soc. BRS906 BRS006) (old no.12 THEODOR STORM Version) —SONG (1925 America. Monod (Piano) VozzECK M. Dial 15. Farrell (Marie) FCX157/8 Harell (Wozzeck) F. Columbia. Phillips AO1178L FOUR PIECES FOR CLARINET 5 (191 3) AND America. Forrest (Clarinet) B. L.13 France. C. J. E. Eurochord LPG628 S. Mitropoulos 301 .DISCOGRAPHY STRING QUARTET OP. France. SLii8(2) France. Monod (Piano) C6174 H. (1925) America. Quartet America. Tichmann (Clarinet) R. Columbia. Classic. Dial. Beardslee (Sop. Dial 15 France. Dial. 3 (1910) America. Columbia. Thomas (Clarinet) America. Herbert (Doctor) Chorus of the Schola Cantorum. Philharmonic Sym- phony Orchestra of New York conducted by D. Concert Hall G.

Esquire.) Philadelphia OrchestraE. Dial. TW4-004/9* Great Britain. C609/8 Monod (Piano) Paris Chamber Orchestra Great Britain. Columbia. G. Felsted. Artist 500 and America. —R. Jansen Unknown Berendt soloist America.ALBAN BERG three excerpts from America. Ribla (Sop. Allegro-Elite 3144 orchestra conducted by CHAMBER CONCERTO (1925) R. Artist (SetJ. Charmy (Violin). Dial 9 France. Borner (Sop. Inst. Vox PL8660 Vox PL 8660 Pro Musica Wind Group Byrns — LYRIC SUITE FOR STRING America. Zelka (Piano) Great Britain. Dial. Great Britain. Ormandy LX1158/9* America. Leibowitz I. L89004 GitHs (VioHn) America. C2107/12* France.) Jansen 1301/2* Sym. Classic.12)* C. L. America. MX347* ML2140 America. Orch. Classic. Dial 5 QUARTET (1927) The (New) Pro-Arte Quartet Sweden. CL5003/5* (Set CL3)* Sweden. of Los Angeles —W. Columbia. Columbia. Set *wozzeck' G. Metronome CLP5003 302 .S. J. Metronome.

Rodzinsky ii589/iD*(SetM465)* America. Boerner (Sop. HafEier W. Columbia LOX 594/6* 303 . Janssen *LULU (1928-34) I. of Los Angeles —W. Herlinger —orchestra conducted by H. Set SLi2i(3) Kmentt (Artist) O. — VIOLIN CONCERTO (1934) L. Columbia. Decca. *DER WEIn' (1928) —CONCERT ARIA (Sop. 595133/38* (Old Nos. Set i8i* France. Capitol L8150 Great Britain.) R. Poly dor. Capitol Sym.5 DISCOGRAPHY Gaiiniir Quartet America. CA 8244/47* America. Wiener (Dr Schon) Vienna Symphony Orchestra conducted H. 516659/62)* Great Britain. Columbia Cleveland Orchestra— A. Set Jtiiliard Quartet MM 957* America.) — Janssen America. LYRIC SUITE ML2148 —ORCHESTRATED —no Recording exists details known. Orch. Columbia. Steingruber (Lulu) CCL75 1 America. Vox. Columbia. Scherchen Manufacturer and Catalogue Number unknown C. Columbia ML 4857 AustraHa. Krasner (Violin) America.

Vox PL 8660 Vox PL 8660 W. Philharmonia Orchestra P. S. Orch. Pittsburgh Festival Pittsburgh Sym. Kletzki Columbia FCX 297 Great Britain. Angel 35091 France. Pro Musica Symphony Great Britain. Gertler (Violin) America. Strickland (Violin) Goldberg America. Columbia 33C1030 I.— — ALBAN BERG A.— CB181 W. Gitlis (Violin) America. Steinberg. 304 .

David: 'Lulu' von Alban Berg (Schwz. August-Sept. 13). 1948. 13. 2. London. Violin Concerto (in Ralph Hill's 'The Concerto'. also: M. Mainz) Mosco Carrier: Alban Berg. Musikztg. 77. Musikzeitschrift Alban Berg's 'Lyriscbe Suite'. Eine Studie liber Klang und Ausdruck. Staples Press. 1935) K. 77. p. No. H. H. 1925/2). Die formalen Grundlagen des Blaserquintetts von Arnold Schoenberg (Anbruch. asterisk. Osterr. 362-379. No. Jg. Musikztg. Felix Greissle: London. 9. (Revue Musicale. Weterings: Une nouvelle oeuvre d' Alban Berg: Loulou. Vienna. p. I July. 1937. 385). Deutsch: Le Concerto de Chambre d' Alban Berg (Schwz. Fritz Bouquet: Gestalt. 12. pamphlets and booklets have one books have two. Collaer—J. 'Wozzeck'. 1949. 1951/52). pp. 1944.) Study of 20th Century Harmony. No. Heft Roberto Gerhard: Berg's 'Wozzeck' (Foyer. London. Paris.BIBLIOGRAPHY* Musikblatter des anbruch: Alban Berg's 'Wozzeck' und die Musikkritik (Musik der Gegenwart. BUhnen Essen. 305 .) Vorbericht (Schwz. 1925)* (May issue) Kurt Blaukopf: Autobiographische Elemente in Alban Berg's 1954. No. 397 fF. 1952. 2nd ed. (Melos. Eimert: Alban Berg (Blatter der Stadt. Spielzeit 1952/53. UE. P. Eine Flugblatterfolge. Jg. No. 9). Musikztg.

Anleitung zur Zwolftonkomposition* (UE.)** special. Sc.J. January.S. Washington D. January. XXII/4.. Klein: Uber den 'Mutterakkord' (Die Musik. 134 P. A short History of Opera 2 Bd. XIII/2. pp.) d' Alban Hans Keller: The eclecticism of Wozzeck (Music Review. Berg: Lulu (review of LP record Columbia SL-121). das aus 12 ver- Tonen und verschiedenen InterLinz. 1924.) Herbert Hiibner: Alban wart'. Sp. May * 1952. (Mus. 306 . No. Heft 195 1.** Hans Hollaender: Alban Berg (Mus..). Qu. 1681 ff. Grout: R. 1952). Library of Congress. U. ed. XIV/i. 1953. 2 Wozzeck' print of a Berg (Acte III. 5323/5. 212. F. F. XII/4.C. pp. November 1952). 1937). (Paris. P. Oct.) Unterweisung im Tonsatz (Mainz. 1953. Cambridge. pp.** Hill: Report on the Berg-Schoenberg Corres- pondence (Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions. 4). Sept. Variationen iiber schiedenen ein Berlin. Berg (in *Musik in Geschichte u. 1925). Mainz).. (La Revue Musicale. 1947 ff. April 1952. 55-59.ALBAN BERG D.. 3).A. Hindemith: ff. GegenBlume.. ]. Kassel. January. *Modell-Typ zugleich aus 1 1 If. 87-98 (offchapter from the publication of 1952). 1936. 1947. pp. H. 1936). A Note on Schoenberg's Tone-Rows and the tonal system of the future (Musical Quarterly. vallen besteht (mit Pierre Jean Jouve Vorwort und Analyse) : and Michel Fano Wozzeck ou le nouvel opera. iiber Hanns Jelinek: Versuch den Sirm der Verwendung von Zwolftonreihen (Melos.). No. Wien. S. ff. Q. Jouve: Matiere musicale de Wozzeck (Preuves. pp.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Correspondence with H. : con ima introduzione 1952.' (The Music Review. Redlich on 'Alban Berg and the C major triad' XIII/4. p.) GeschichtHche Vorform der Zwolftontechnik (Acta Musicologica..* Zwolfton-Kontrapunktstudien.* Schoenberg and Introduction a la his school. Qu'est-ce que la Musique de douze sons? (Ed. Janin. p. and : 307 . 4/N0.S. 1937). Ed. Mitchell The Emancipation of the Dissonance. F. 302 Ernst Krenek : 'Fiinf Orchesterlieder nach Ansichtskartentexten von Peter Altenberg tlber neue op. (It di G.A. 1947). 5) 4 (with reprint of (Mus. Gatti. 1952. 1935).** Innovation and Tradition in contemporary music III : Alban 8. Musik (Wein. 1949)** Gian Francesco Malipiero L' Opera di Gian Francesco MaHpiero. Berg: or the seduction to Truth (Horizon. contains two letters by Berg to Malipiero. 332. Reich's *Alban Berg'. Theorists. October. Mainz. Rene Leihowitz: Schoenberg et IV/q. L'Arche. Wien. D. Edizione di Treviso. son ecole. op. fF. 1948). Alban Berg's five orchestra songs op. 1934. Dika Liege. dated July 17 and September Zqffa Lissa: 19. 4' (in W. M. (Paris. VII. p. transl. 43 ff. Heft 1947).. 1943). Schott. Vol.** Musique de douze sons (Paris. Dynamo. 1948). *Lulu (Holland Festival 193 1. A selected Bibhography of the writings of Composers. May. *New developments of the Twelve-Tone Technique. U. XIV/4. Newlin). London. in Ital.). 1937). Qu. 1949 (transl..

1920). Symphonic (Anbruch. Hans Pjitzner: Ein Verwesungssymptom ? (Miinchen.ALBAN BERG Critics (The Music Book. Vol. London. Schoenberg's neue Oper ('Von Heute auf Morgen'). Redlich : Gustav Mahler — pp. XIII/4. 40 ff.) Schoenberg's 'Erwartung' in Wiesbaden (Anbruch. Miinchen. Die neue Asthetik der musikahschen Impotenz. H. seine Orchesterwerke'. II/7-8. pp.) 1947).** Dika Newlin: Bruckner. VII of Hinrichsen's Year Book. May 1952. No. 1952. Schoenberg's TonaUtat. Nov. Modal System (The Music Review. IV/March-April 1927. XVI. Paris). F. 1919). Nov. Schoenberg's late style (The Music Review. 1941. 141 fF.. Sonder- 'Schoenberg u. Futuristengefahr.* Die Welt der V. Mahler. pp. 11. Emit Petschnig: Atonales OpernschafFen ('Die Musik'.. Sonderheft *Gustav Mahler'). (Blatter der Frankfurter Oper. 1930. Schoenberg (New York. K.). Febr. 274 ff). pp. 280 Twelve-Tone Tonahty (The Monthly Musical Record. G. 1924). Jg. heft. VI und VII. Perle: Evolution of the Tone Row: The Twelve-Tone II/4. October. Desire Pacque: L'Atonalite ou mode chromatique unique (La Revue Musicale. 191 7. ff. Berlin. Heft 3/4 Febr. 1952. Zu Schoenberg's Instrumentierung zweier Bachscher Choral- vorspiele ('Pult & Taktstock'. 6. eine Erkenntnis (Nuremberg.) 308 . Rankl: Arnold Schoenberg (The Score. 1930. 1943). X/2 February 1928).).

London. Febr. Alban Berg (Die Musik. Alban Berg and the C major Triad. 1952. Alban Berg's *Lulu' (Mus. the Jan. Musikzeitschrift. 6). (The Music Review. (with letters by Berg on the genesis . 1930) together with the two Storm-Lieder 'Schhesse mir die Augen beide'. 309 .. BerHn. 1937. U.** Article *Alban Berg' in Grove's Diet. 1955. *Lulu' the text and music (Modern Music. 1955. Vienna. The Music Review. (Anbruch. XXII/5. Wien. 23 at the May 1932). Febr. 1955. Oct. Alban Berg (mit Bergs eigenen Schriften und Beitragen von Theodor Wiesengrund-Adorno und Ernst Krenek). 1927) in Mus. Nov. U. XII/4. XXXVIIl/i. Suppl. 195 1). XII/4. pp. May issue. Modern Music. Q. 1930). XIII/3. V/i. of Music and Musicians.** Willi Reich: 'Wozzeck' —a guide to the words and music of Opera by Alban Berg (Modem Music. XII/3. 1954. 38 ff. Dent's). (Correspondence. 1936). No. XII/3.* Reprint (together with Berg's 'A word about Wozzeck').) *Der Symphoniker Alban Berg' (history of the genesis of op. issue. Alban Berg und der Schoenberg-Kreis (Lecture Volkshochschule Mannheim. — April 1935). Osterr. *Bruckner and Mahler' (Master Musicians. August 1952. 4 Febr. Mainz.. 1940. 2 of a series of Monographs. *Alle guten Dinge'. Mahler's Wirkung in Zeit und Raum. Arnold Schoenberg.S.A. Q.S. April 1930).A. of the Chamber Concerto). 193 1).BIBLIOGRAPHY 'Von Heute auf Morgen (Hamburgischer Correspondent. . Melos (Schott). Nov.

635 fF.** London. 1955. Biihnen. 'Lulu* Zur deutschen ErstaufFiihrung von Alban Berg's (Blatter der Essener Stadt.. 24/25. 'Melos'. June 1937. Dokumente JR. 1940. Nos. Schaefke: Alban Berg's Opera 'Wozzeck' ('Melos'. Aus unbekannten Briefen von Alban Berg an Anton Webern (Schweiz. especially Chapters V and VL H.). Febr. eine Wiener Musikzeit- — schrift (ed. Rockliff ). February 1936. Zurich. Nos. 310 . 1952). 1955. 11. Heft 12. written in 1935). Rottweiler: Zur Lulu-Symphonie Erinnerungen an den Lebenden ('23'. 1955.). pp. 1952). No. Atlantis Verlag. Josef Rufer: — Die Komposition mit zwolf Tonen (Engl. 106 if. 2. 1936). (Berlin. *Aus Alban Berg's Jugendzeit'. Oper 1937). Dec. einer Freundschaft (Berg's letters to Schoenberg. Das Basler Kammerorchester. Arnold Schoenberg: Harmonielehre. 'Melos'. Mainz. Vienna. February 1953). Berg-Number. 1936). Mainz. 'Lulu' (Zur Ziircher UraufFiihrung der 77. 1926). issue. : 1954). No. 24-26. Alban Berg Number of '23'. p. June i. W. 1952. Jg. Musikztg. 1955.ALBAN BERG Article 'Twelve Note Music' (Grove's Diet. Jg. Suppl. Spielzeit 1952/53. Alban Berg's *Lulu-Symphonie' (Neue Ziircher Zeitung. 93. Alban Berg's (Schweiz. March Alban Berg's Opera 'Lulu' (Melos. Programme Stadtttieater Zurich. 191 1. Heft Versuch einer Geschichte der Zwolftonmusik (In *Alte und neue Musik'. Reich). edition. Luigi Rognoni Expressionismo e dodecaphonia (Giuho Einaudi. Musikztg.

zum 75. 1937) Alban Berg (1949) (Cf.). 'Arnold Schoenberg'. 311 . Geburtstag berg's. Appendix III). Humphrey Searle: Alban Berg's Early Works (The Listener. 16. 1937) and Idea (New York. London. Thompson: Obituary (Musical America. 52). 173. Aug. Sonderheft 'Arnold Schoenberg'. Style Zu meinem 50. Schoenberg and the Future (The Music Book.-Sept. Anton Webern (Chesterian. London). 195 1). Sonderheft 1924). 1927). Reich op. No. Yearbook VII. Slonimsky (in Slonimsky. Einige (Re- printed frequently. Heft. RocklifF. 1954. 1922).June 1952). Geburtstag (Anbruch.BIBLIOGRAPHY Brief an N. Erwin Stein: Neue Formprinzipien (Anbruch.** (Ziirich. Sharp: 'Wozzeck' (The Music Review. Maty as Seiber: Composing with Twelve Notes (Music Survey IV/3. 20th Century Counterpoint. 10. 1936). Analyse der 'Lyrischen Suite' (Philharmonia score. No. 1952. Jan. reprint in W. RockhfF. Alban Berg 'Orpheus in u. G. 1924). p. Stimmen.** 'Stimmen': Sonderheft. XIIl/i. Arnold SchoenBerlin. 195 1). London 1953. Walter Schrenk: Manfred Gurlitt's 'Wozzeck' (Anbruch. 204. Aug. VIII/5. p. 1955. H. cit. Wien. June-July issue. 1950) Alban Berg (Programmbuch der Diisseldorfer Oper. 'Music since 1900 New York.) Bemerkungen zu Schoenbergs Zwolftonreihen (Anbruch. pp. 134 ff. No. New Guises'. UE.. 1930.* 10.-Sept. 1926). H. VI. 1926). VI. Stuckenschmidt: Neue Musik Arnold Schoenberg O. (Berhn. Hinrichsen.

K. Gegenwart. H.** Versuch iiber Wagner op. (Berlin. 1952).ALBAN BERG Ernst Viebig: Berg's 'Wozzeck' (Die Musik. XXI/7.** Philosophic der neuen Musik (Tubingen. 6. Zur Zwolftontechnik (Anbruch Xl/7-8. Analyses in W. 1925). W. Reich's *A. No. 1929).)** *Neue Musik in der Entscheidung'. 491). 1921). 1937 (Cf.'. This is the spelling adopted in this book. 1954. 1929. March-April 1927). 1946). 1947 & ff. XV/7. April 1923). 1928/29. Worner: Article 'Expressionismus' (Musik in Gesch. London. An Alban Berg MS. 312 .** 1 Since 1945 he publishes under the name T. 1949). Berlin. Mainz. 1949. Westphal: A. 8 VII/12. K.) Berlin. Th. Adomo.B. at Oxford (Tempo. Egon Wellesz: Arnold Schoenberg (Vienna-Leipzig. Schoenberg's Weg zur Zwolftonmusik (Die Musik. Berlin. infra). Wiesengrund-Adorno^ : Alban Berg: zur UraufFiihrung des Wozzeck (Anbruch. p.) Musik der Gegenwart (Mainz.* Die neue Instrumentation (2 vols. Orchesterstiicke 16 (Pult & Taktstock Sonderheft ^Schoenberg'.

. i3off Der Wein. 27ff Fragments from Wozzeck. 64ff. 4. Hans Erich. 65. 132. op. 236 233. 4ofF. Three Orchestral Pieces. 36. 17. 94. 13 off Arrangements (Schoenberg) 37ff. 2o6ff. Alban: Storm-Lied I. i63ff. 212 Lyric Suite. ii3ff. op. 235ff. 121. 226. op. 7iff. 27ff. i57fF Bartok. 158. 36. 207 Lulu. 229 Gurrelieder. 14 Bach. 204(1) Chorale *Es ist genug'. 217(1). 44. 47ff Helene Berg. 208. 68. An Leukon. 205. 55ff. i55ff. 39. ii2ff. 37. 122. I37ff. 188. 24off ii6ff. op. Honore de. I97ff. 234 Wozzeck. I98ff Chamber Concerto. 127. 156. 36. 313 . E. 130 Plan to a Symphony ('Seraphita'). 66 ff. 45ff. Peter. 237 74ff. 56. 214(1) Violin Concerto. 23 iff. Ludwig van. 204. 44(1). 36. op. 115. i38fF Symphony VI. 155 12 Variations for the Piano. 217. 25. Plates) ii5ff. i. 56. 3 off. 30. i55fF Beethoven. 57. 226 Four songs. 232. 213 Altenberg. 72. 109. 13 iff. Adorno. Schoenberg. 239. 217. 36. Charles. i6iff. op. 205(1) Balzac. 69. 106. 26lff '25 years of Universal Edition'. 49ff. 209 Lulu-symphony. 109(2). W. 231 Letters to Piano Sonata. 2. Bela. 45. 72. 235ff. op. I76ff. op. 40 Seven Early Songs. refer to footnotes numbers in parentheses. Johann Rudolf. op. 228 Apostel. 37ff. 131 218(1) 2i9ff. Theodore de. 19. du Donnerwort'. 36. 229 Altenberg-songs for voice and orch. 23 ff Chamber Symphony. op. 37. 58ff. 205(1). 234ff Anton Webern. 231. P. 234 Berg. 225. 170. 127. 247ff (Facsimile) 234ff String Quartet. 99 Four pieces for Clarinet and Piano. 238. op. 31. 44(1). 153 Baudelaire. 67ff. 9. Lecture on Wozzeck. 237 160. I37ff. i38fr DiabeUi-Variations. 6. 213 Cantata 'O Ewigkeit. Ahle. 36. I97ff. 2i2ff. 4ofF. 99. printed next to a page on that page. 88fF String Quartet in minor. C. 179(1) A Leanings towards 27ff serial composition. 85. 204. Ruzena Arnold Herlinger. I59ff Storm-Lied II. 229 3. 46.: : INDEX Note: Numbers number. Johann Sebastian. 226. 56. 97(2). 113. 226 Banville. 143. (version for orchestra) 44(1). op. 25 Fidelio. i75ff. refer to pages. String Quartet. 203 ff Canon to Von Heute auf Morgen. 44ff. 65fF. 191. 25ff. T. 207(1). 59(1). 10. 156 (cf. 204(1). 229. 222ff. 84ff. 24fF. 203 ff. 31. 37. 65ff. I59ff. 238 Three Bach. 13(1). 5. 58. 109. 169..

ySff. i98ff. 87(1) JeUnek. I38ff. Helene (wife). 182(1). i68fF Mombert. 123(1). 229. Frederic. Gerhart. 214 Wunderhorn-songs. 96 Goethe. 13 off. Dostoievsky. S. Ghristoph Wilhbald. Rata. Ruzena. H. 79(1) George. Karl. 205(1) Busoni. Fehx. 60. 76(2). 66(1). 98. KoHsch Quartet. 203 ff Kraus. 200 Monteverdi. Fedor. Lissa. 153. F. 200 Kurzmann. 113. 38 Maeterlinck. 14. Wolfgang Amadeus. 169. 37. 236 Garner. Hugo von. 96 Milhaud. Giacomo. Darius. Alfred. 113(2) Puccini.. Herlinger. Hanns. Emil. 237 Kleiber. Sanzio. 226 Burmeister.Werfel. Johannes. 45ff. 4iff. R. 237 Gropius. 20. Paul. 35ff. I9ff String Quartet in B flat major. Maurice. 200. Stefan. 237 Bouquet. T. 144. 241 Klein. 227 Horenstein. 87 Mahpiero. von. Ezra. Max. Karl Heinrich. 211 X. Mosco. Giovanni. op. Glaude. Hans. 229 Eisler. Ernest. 55fF. 229 14. Leibowitz. 203 fF. 226 major. 226(2) Janacek. 209 Gurlitt. 75ff Mahler. 7off. Jasha. 50 VI. Paul. Alma. 25(1). Rene. 138 Krasner. 226 II. 203(1). 60. 29. 138 Horwitz. 229fF Kassowitz. 226 Dukas. Leos. 152. Hohenberg. 226 Berg. 236fF Polnauer. 13(1). 242 Symphony I. 7ofr. Joseph. 41. 91 Mahler. Karl. 138. Johanna (mother). 218 Rankl. I42ff Brahms. 228. Georg. 114(1). 65ff. 200 Hofmannsthal. 218. 217. I9fr KV. 86fr. 218 i63ff. 79 idffF. 217(1) Hindemith. Otto. 11 off.. 161. i66ff Greissle. Friedrich.INDEX Berg. 121 Bruckner. Gottfried. 156. gzft 218 Pfitzner. 224ff Berg. Glaudio. 71 Eliot. Fritz. 57. 228. 226 VII. 200 Debussy. 203 ff. 589. Fritz. 4off Mozart. Buchner. Manfred. 77 Reger. 113 Gasella Alfredo. Josef. Konrad (father). Franz. 26 Faust-symphony. 126. 27 Symphony IV. Franz Joachim. Anton. S. 229ff. 143. 74ff. Ferruccio. Erich. Karl. Gustav. 156 Ghopin. 25(1) Liszt. 71. 66 Don 75ff. Haydn. 154 Lied von der Erde. 179(3) Zofja. 96 Hauptmann. 113(1) Kokoschka. 200 Raphael. 212 209. 5off Franzos. Manon. Louis. 71 Vm. 19 Hebbel. 113(2) V. 13(1). yyff. W. 238 I09ff. i68ff. 75ff. Paul. 237 Mahler. 38 Pelleas et Melisande. David. 55ff. J. 66(1). 217. Hanns 13(1). 44(1). 218. 209 210. 60(1). 204flf i3fF. Oskar. 13(1). 237 Jockl. 237 314 . 13(1) III. Gian Francesco. Etienne Nicolas. iSsfF HHl. 224ff. I55ff Gluck. 156 Mehul. 107(1) EK. Mephisto Waltz. 226(1) GarroU Lewis. 132. 237 Pound. 69. i4off. op. 209 Piano Quartet in A Krenek.

60. 24. 157 Siegfried Idyll. i69ff. 30. 4iff Verkldrte Nacht. 47. 23. Rabindranath. 142 Travmeck. 17. op. 80(2) . 14 String Quartet. 150. 25fF. 52. 90 Stravinsky. 74fF. 190 Wellesz. 280 Seidlhofer. Wedekind. 132(1). 22. 66. 74fF. 15. 68. Hermann. Chamber Symphony. isoff. 50. op. 128 Wesendonk songs. 226 I38ff. 58fF. 35. 118 Gdtterddmmerung. i63fF. 54 On Alban Berg {Wozzeck). 35fF. 18. 69. 131. Stein. 315 80. 242. 16. 10. i38fF Schumann. 66(1) Wilde. Josef. 21. 63. 29 Poems from 'Das buch der hangenden garten' for Voice and Piano. Rothmueller. 237. op. I59(i). 54 Six Orchestral Pieces. 22lff. 21. S. op. 60. 75. op. ii8ff. 140. 74. 51 Parsifal. I55ff. i4fF. Streichquartett op. 230 Wolf. op. Egon. 25(2). 218(1). 15. 65fr Symphony. Willi. 181 Serenade. Strindberg. 25(1) String Quartet in minor op. Anton. 207(1) Erwartung. 201. 30.INDEX Reich. 22. I4ff. 237 Elektra. 229 Ricercata'. 54 Fiinf Satze f. 9off. 143. 232ff Five Orchestral Pieces op. op. 239ff Four Songs op. 58. 183 op. 204. i66fF. 43. 59. 229 i. 131 Zweig. 180. D 10. i02fF Tannhduser. 228 Bruno. op. 255 Strauss. op. 15 Ode to Napoleon. A Erwin. Arnold. i85fF Pandora's Box. I07ff. Carl Maria von. 113. 13(1). 16 Arrangement of J. 7. op. 114(1). Frank. op. 29 Hero's Life. 27. 156. 204. op. 4ifF. 118(1) Watznauer. i78fF. 92ff Ariadne. 66. 97 Die gluckliche Hand. 160(4) Piano Variations. 4iff. op. 227 Weber. 52 Salome. Richard. Arnold. 75fr. 25. 26. Oscar. 237 und Melisande. Two Songs op. op. 32. 175(2).. Franz. 22fF. 218 Schreker. op. 26 — 11. 55. 76ff. Bach's *Fuga Opera Von Heute auf Morgen. Alexander von. 54. 229 Lyric Symphony. op. 4. 37. 5 iff Thus Spake Zarathustra. 170. 13 iff Tristan. (s). Hermann. 55ff. 201 fF. i. 117. 229 Five Songs. 178 Scherchen. z^. i4ifF Meistersinger. 3. 74ff. 62. 25fF. 52. 2. 50. 9. 179(1). 9off Death and Transfiguration. 46. i63ff. H. 237 Schoenberg. 164^. 6. Hans. 217 Richard. 245ff Earth Spirit. 207ff. op. 16. 236. 15 Gurrelieder. 13(1). 230fF. PassacagHa. 30. 204(3). 14. 58. 58ff.fF 85ff Six small Piano Pieces op. 237 Rufer. 90 Schubert. 60(2). Wagner. op. 230 Three Piano Pieces op. 85ff. 85 Pelleas Tagore. op. Hugo. 205 Schmied. 41. Johannes. Marco. 226 Schiller. op. 74ff Scriabin. I98ff. Opera Moses und Aron. 15. 5. op. 44 Fifteen 96ff. Josef. 65fF. Robert. 129(1) Quintet for wind. 56 Pierrot Lunaire. 196(1) 13(1). 118(1). Rosenkaualier. 40. Chamber Symphony No. 160(4). op. 58. H. 232ff Five Piano Pieces. i77fF. 239 Der Feme Klang. 204(1) 156. 226. 237. 227ff. 93. 58ff. op. 5off String Quartet in F sharp minor. 15. Igor. 207(1) Harmonielehre. 108. 109. 160. op. Anatole. 201 60(2). op. Franz. August. 89. 226 Stuckenschmidt. 5. 201. igfF. 13. 69 Zemlinsky. 96 Webern. 13. ii4flf. 9ofF. 13 35ff. 227 i69fF. 36. 24. 217. 214(1). 19. 66(1) Five Pieces for Orchestra. op. 41.

ERRATA [in the music examples] Example 9 27 75 80 the last note is a crotchet. bar 2: last last is note 'D'. add tie between last note of bar 4 and first note of bar 5. 5. 4 and 97 106 107 138 note dotted quaver. add: (C). first note is 'E flat'. 96 add first ties between notes : 3. is 'E'. is bar 2 : the penultimate rest a semiquaver rest. note 316 . bar 2 add triplet sign above first two notes. add repeat initial bar. delete slur above upper stave in bars i and 2. sign. to first notes : 157 175 185 final quintuplet. on staves i and 2. bar: add ties bars 3-4. middle part: tie first 149 between notes 7 and 8. left-hand stave.


Library Bureai Cat.'. . ---/v FEB 2 MAY 1 8 1 M 1989 - r . Date Due OCT 2 2 1964 "^ 3AH DEC IS M. 21 JAM 29 APR MAY jA r. 9.. No.) r^i «l 1873 1974 1 3 i( ?P .• 3 -# fS r> ^ -.rL 1 T965 Yhj^-^ f -67 Z j. 1137 .9.

H^M Redhch. ML 410 B47 R35 Redlich.d. the man and ^^^^ ^99^ 00334 7668 his music.F. Alban Berg Music : the man and his .ISIC I I R. Hans Ferdinand Alban Berg. H.

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