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Politehnica University of Timisoara
Transactions on Mechanics
Special issue
Workshop on
Vortex Dominated Flows –
Achievements and Open Problems
Timisoara, Romania, June 10  11, 2005
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE DESIGN OF SHIP PROPELLER
Mihaela AMORĂRIŢEI, Lecturer,
Naval Hydrodynamic Department
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati
*Corresponding author: 47 Domnesca Street, Galati, Romania
Tel.: (+40) 236 495400, Email: mamor@ugal.ro
ABSTRACT
The paper presents aspects regard propeller design
procedure, which involves theories and underlying
assumptions, analytical tools, computational fluid
dynamics models and model tests, to predict the
hydrodynamics performances of marine propeller in
nonuniform wake field behind ship. A properly
design propeller is a compromise between structural
and hydrodynamic considerations. The complex
nature of the design and operation of marine propeller
requires knowledge of basic hydrodynamics, naval
architecture and typical experience.
KEYWORDS
Propeller, standard series, lifting line theory,
lifting surface theory, panel method, RANS
NOMENCLATURE
J [] advance ratio
k
T,
k
Q
[] thrust, torque coefficient
C
T,
C
P
[] thrust/ power loading coefficient
Q [kN] propeller torque
T [kN] propeller thrust
1. INTRODUCTION
In recent years a drastic increase in power and
ship speed has been observed for all kind of vessels.
This new trend demands propulsion devices designed
to give maximum efficiency and to absorb minimum
power, with minimum cavitation, noise and vibrations.
The most common propulsion device is the screw
propeller, which convert power in thrust and play an
important role in the interaction between ship and
the main engine.
The design of a propeller operating in nonuniform
flow behind ship is an iterative process to optimise
the propeller efficiency with less restrictive constrains
concerning cavitation, noise, vibrations geometry
and strength. The propeller is an important source of
noise and vibration; for the performance of the ship,
cavitation is related to noise and pressure pulses and
bearing forces induced by propeller are related to
vibrations.
The design of screw propeller in nonuniform
flow behind ship can be carried out in three stages:
preliminary design, design and analysis. Once the
design point is chosen and the main parameters are
fixed, the problem is to design a propeller to give
specified performances in given conditions. In pre
liminary design the traditional propeller diagrams
are used, and the parameters estimated (diameter,
number of blades) are a starting point for next stages.
The second step, design, known like “indirect”
problem, can be done using the lifting line theory
with correction factors on lifting surface theory and
the objective is to find the blade geometry for a
specified distribution of blade loading over the radius.
Once the design is completed, the propeller is analysis
in all operating conditions: this is the third stage,
known like ”direct” problem, and the objectives are
to find the pressure distributions on propeller surfaces
and to evaluate the hydrodynamics performances of
propeller in offdesign conditions. In the design stage,
the performances of the propeller are predicted at
the design point, which corresponds only to a mean
flow. The real flow in the propeller plane behind
hull is nonuniform, the velocity changes magnitude
and direction at each propeller revolution, which
causes continues and cyclic fluctuation in blade
loading and pressure distribution [1].
The designer must analyses the propeller’s behaviour
in unsteady flow taking into account aspects regard
cavitation and fluctuations of unsteady forces and
moments arising from operation in nonuniform hull
wakes induced by the propeller and transmitted to
the hull through the water by pressure effects and
thought the shaft bearing.
The analysis of a propeller operating in nonuniform
flow behind ship can be carried out experimentally
and theoretically. Taking into account that the experi
mental tests in towing tanks and cavitation tunnel are
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
132
time consuming and expensive, more sophisticated
threedimensional theories were been developed steady
and unsteady liftingsurface theory, quasysteady
methods, Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes (RANS)
equations, boundary element methods/panel method.
The paper presents aspects regard propeller design
procedure, which involves various theories and under
lying assumptions, analytical tools, computational fluid
dynamics models and model tests, to predict the
hydrodynamics performances of marine propeller in
nonuniform wake field behind ship.
2. HULL PROPELLER INTERACTIONS
A propeller fitted at the stern of a ship operates in
water that has been disturbed by passage of the hull’s
ship, which “deform the original streamlines and
causes a retardation of the relative stream velocity due
to viscous actions”[2]. This disturbance behind the
ship is called wake. The wake velocity is associated
with the flow around ship’s hull and it varies in
magnitude and directions. The ratio of the average
velocity over the propeller disc to the ship speed V
is named the wake coefficient: w = 1v/V, and its
value depends largely of the shape of the hull and on
the propeller location. The rotation of the propeller
alters the pressure and velocity distribution around
the hull and increase the resistance of the ship. This
means that the thrust force T on the propeller has to
overcome both the ship’s resistance R and this increase
named “augment of resistance” R
T.
This loss of thrust
is expressed by mean of t = 1R/T, named thrust
deduction factor. The efficiency of the propeller
operating behind ship is different from its efficiency in
open water. Compared to open water conditions, the
propeller’s efficiency behind ship’s hull is affected
by “relative rotative efficiency” η
R
.
The flow behind ship is not uniform over the pro
eller disc and the inflow velocity to the propeller has
three radially and circumferentially varying compo
nents: an axial component along the axis of the pro
peller, and a tangential and a radial component in
the plane of the propeller disc. As a propeller blade
rotates, a section at any given radius passes through
regions of very different wake concentrations. These
variations are the cause of unsteady cavitation and
cyclic fluctuations in blade loading and pressure dis
tributions. The tangential velocity components are
very important when considering unsteady propeller
forces, while the radial components are generally small.
The axial velocity “v” varies from point to point
over the propeller disc, function of radius r and angular
position θ. The average velocity at a radius r is:
( )
2π
r
0
1
v = v r,θ dθ
2π
∫
(1)
The average wake velocity over the propeller disc is:
R R
v = 2π r v dr / 2π rdr
r
r r
b b
∫ ∫
(2)
A velocity fields as function of radius and angular
position is presented in Figure 1 and 2.
Figure 1. Curve of constant axial wake fraction.
Transversal velocity in propeller disc
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
Unghi
Va/V
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Figure 2. Axial velocity distribution
A useful presentation of the wake data field exploit
the cyclic variation of this patterns and writes for the
tree components of velocity:
( )
m
v v
a r
, = A + A cos mθ  β
m m
0
V V 1
∑
( )
m v
t
= A cos mθ  β
m m
V 1
∑
(3)
The wake harmonic functions of interest are those
of multiple of blade number qz for thrust and torque
on the shaft and those at qz ±1 for transverse and
vertical forces and moments [3].
A distinction must be made between nominal wake
and effective wake. The nominal wake is the wake
behind ship’s hull in absence of the propeller. The
wake velocities with the propeller operating behind
ship and developing thrust is named effective wake.
Presently, the knowledge of the distribution flow in
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
133
propeller plane is based on experimentally measure
ments. The nominal wake velocities are measured at
model scale using Pitot tubes. The concept of effective
wake implies that the influence of the propeller action
on the stern flow is incorporated and the effective wake
can’t be measured. Some total wake distributions
have been measured at full scale using LDV (Laser
Doppler Velocimeter). The radial distribution of
axial velocity components is transformed from the
nominal (without propeller) value for the model to an
effective (with propeller) value for the fullscale ship
by an indirect method based upon thrust (or torque)
identity: making the thrust coefficient K
T
(or torque
coefficient K
Q
) in open water and behind ship equal,
at same axial speed and rotation rate.
Theoretically, the effective fullscale wake distribu
tion velocity field can be obtained in two steps: first
the nominal wake measured behind the ship model
is corrected for scale effect using the treedimensional
contraction method proposed by Hoekstra [4]. To derive
the effective wake distribution from the scaled nominal
wake field, Huang’s method can be used [5]. The ef
fective velocity field can be obtained by subtraction
of the propellerinduced velocities from the total
velocities fields behind a ship with running propeller.
The most reliable values of the hullpropeller inter
action coefficients: wake coefficient, thrust factor
and relative rotative efficiency will be found from
preliminary selfpropulsion model tests, in which a
model of new ship is propelled by a stock propeller
with principal characteristic as near as probable final
design.
3. PRELIMINARY DESIGN
At this stage of the design, the problem is to deter
mine propulsive performances of screw propeller and
the main characteristics of the propeller to achieve
the expected performance: diameter D, number of
blade z, mean pitch P/D, blade area ratio A
e
/A
o
. The
preliminary design requires dates from the hull of the
ship, the main engine and systematically screw series.
The main engine influences the propeller design
through the propeller rpm and delivered power. The
values of total resistance of the ship play a significant
role in the selection of the propeller, which must
overcome ship’s resistance. Dates regard hullpropeller
interaction: the effective wake coefficient, the thrust
coefficient, the relative rotative efficiency and any
restrictions such as a limit of the maximum diameter
of propeller may be helpful.
Prior to the preliminary design of a propeller is the
choosing of the propeller design point (Figure 3): com
bination of engine speed and power, which depends
upon so called “mission profile” of the ship: cruising
on long distances at middle speed, running shortly at
high speed, etc.
Figure 3. Ship propulsion running point [6]
The notations in Figure 3 are: 2  heavy propeller
curve (fouled hull and heavy weather); 6  light pro
peller curve (clean hull and calm water); MP  specified
propulsion MCR point; SP  service propulsion MCR
point; PD  propeller design point; PD’  alternative
propeller design point
The main particulars characteristics of the propeller
are usually determined by means of systematic pro
peller series based on the results of openwater tests
carried out on model propellers: Wageningen Bseries,
Gawn, etc. These screw series comprise models whose
geometrical characteristics such: pitch ratio, number
of blade, blade area ratio, shape of blade sections and
blade thickness are systematically varied. The hydro
dynamic characteristics of standard series are pre
sented in the form k
T
,k
Q
 J charts. Using the method
of the multiple linear regression analysis for each of
series, polynomial equations for the series hydrody
namic characteristics are obtained:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
z
Q x y
k
k k k
K , K = A z J P/D A /A
e o
T Q k
k
∑
(4)
where A
k
are regression coefficient and x
k
, y
k
and z
k
are the correspondent exponents of the independent
variable J, P/D, A
e
/A
0
. The propeller of optimum
efficiency can be automatically estimated using com
puted codes based on standard series.
In general, higher propeller efficiency is associated
with a larger propeller diameter and a lower shaft rpm.
It is usually desirable to install the largest diameter
than can be accommodated to the hull lines. There are,
however, special conditions to be considered: the after
body form of the hull depending of the type of the ship,
the necessary clearance between the tip of the pro
peller, etc. When the propeller diameter corresponding
to optimum efficiency for propellership system is
larger than can be accommodated, in these cases the
propeller diameter selected is a compromise.
In preliminary design, an important step is the choice
of number of propeller blades. Propellers may have
three, four, five or more blades. If the number of blade
increases, the optimum diameter and the openwater
efficiency decrease. From the point of view of effi
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
134
ciency, is a preference for a small number of blades.
But the major criterion in the selection of the number
of blades is vibration considerations. The fluctuations
of unsteady forces induced by the propeller and
transmitted to the hull through the water by pressure
effects and thought the shaft bearing are lower for a
larger number of blades. Not only the vibration
excitation is to be considered, also attention is to be
paid to the resonance structure. The choosing of the
number of blades, which has a common factor with
the number of cylinders of the Diesel engine, could
lead to vibrations problems [7]. The expanded blade
area is a result of optimization and may be restricted
by cavitation criteria (for example Burill diagrams).
The performances of a propeller designed based
on the systematic series are insufficient for today’s
expectation: the results give good agreement between
shaft power, propeller revolution and ship speed and
will be used as a starting point for the next stages.
4. DESIGN
When using systematic series charts, no account is
taken of the variation of the wake over the propeller
disc and the propeller is designed to suit average flow
conditions behind ship [8]. Once the main parameters
are fixed, the problem is to design a propeller to devel
oping thrust or absorbing the specified power at given
rpm, under given conditions. The inflow to the pro
peller is assumed to vary radially and the objective
is to find the blade geometry for a specified distribution
of blade loading over the radius. The pitch of the
sections can be chosen to suit the average wake at
each radius (wake adapted propeller) and the shape
of the blade is chosen to minimize cavitation. The
problem can be done using the circulation theory
(vortex theory) of propellers: lifting line theory with
correction factors on lifting surface theory.
In lifting line theory, each blade of propeller is re
placed by a bound vortex or lifting line, the circulation
Γ of which depends on the radial coordinate r. The
variation of Γ necessitates a free vortex line being
shed from the lifting line. The free vortex line with a
circulation distribution (Γ/dr)dr is not acted by forces.
The assembly of adjacent free vortex lines forms a
free vortex sheet (trailing vortex sheet) helicoidal in
shape.
The velocity induced by the vortex system of the
propeller can be determinate by the law of Biot Savart
or by Lapace’s equation. Using the Biot Savart law,
the velocity vector induced by a vortex line of cir
culation Γ at a point in space is:
Γ
dl x R
V = a P
3
4π
l R
∫
(5)
where R is the vector distance between the point and
the vortex vector dl. The problem is reduced at an inte
gral along the vortex line. The second way to establish
this velocity field uses the Laplace’s differential
equation, which applies since the flow outside of
vortex space is a potential flow and the problem is
reduced to a boundary problem of a linear partial
differential equation [9].
A propeller that is rotates in the water induces three
velocity components: axial, tangential and radial.
Certain assumptions are required: one of them is
that there is no contraction or reduction in diameter
of the slipstream [10]. The radial component of the
induced velocity can be ignored and the other two com
ponents, axial u
A
and tangential u
T
must be calculated.
From the circulation distribution, the induced velocities
can be computed based on the Lerbs induction factors:
R dr
u 1 dG
a 0
= i ;
a
V 2 dr r  r r
o
A 0 b
R dr u
1 dG
0 T
= i ;
T
V 2 dr r  r r
o
A 0 b
∫
∫
(6)
where V
A
is a average, nominal axial wake velocity
determined by means of measured axial wake ve
locity components V
x
(r, θ):
1 2π
1
V = dr V (r, θ)
x
A
π o
0
∫ ∫
(7)
and i
a
and i
T
are the Lerbs induction factor which
are expressed in a Fourier series.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
¥
a
i j, j = I j cos (nj )
a n
0 0
n=0
¥
t
i j, j = I j cos (nj )
n
T 0 0
n=0
∑
∑
(8)
Propeller design using circulation theory is divided
in two parts. The first part named hydrodynamic stage
consists on determining the values of nondimensional
circulation Γ and the induced velocities u
A
and u
T
. The
second stage consists on determining the optimum
blade geometry from the point of view of cavitation
suppression at the shockfree angles of attack and
strength criteria. Lifting line calculation is always made
in steady conditions. The mean value of the wake
(average wake velocity over the propeller disc) and
the average velocity over one revolution at different
radius are known. The required thrust or delivery
power has to be specified.
The diagram of velocities around a blade section at
radius r is presented in Figure 4, where α is the attack
angle, β the advance angle, β
I
the hydrodynamic pitch
angle, δ the final pitch angle.
From the velocity diagram, the relation between
induced velocities u
A
and u
T
is:
tgβ u u
A T i
+ tgβ = 1
i
V V tgβ
A A
(9)
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
135
Figure 4. Velocity diagram
For specified values of β
I
at various radii the values
of dimensionless circulation G are calculated substi
tuting relations (6) in (9). Each of the induction factors
and circulation are expresses in Fourier series and a
set of linear equations can be solved to calculate the
values of circulation at various radii.
After the problem of circulation and induced ve
locities is solved, the ideal thrust loading coefficient
C
Ti
and ideal power coefficient C
Pi
are calculated by
relations:
( ) ( )
1 u
2 1
T
C = 4z G 1 w r  dr
T
tgβ V r
i
A b
∫
j \
, (
, (
( ,
( ) ( )
3
1 u G 1 w r
A
C = 4z 1+ dr
P
tg β V r
i
A b
∫
j \
, (
, (
( ,
(10)
Iteratively, the hydrodynamic pitch angle β
i
is ad
justed to match the ideal thrust loading coefficient (or
the ideal power coefficient) to the required values:
8T
i
C =
T 2 2
i π×ρ×V ×D
,
P
i
C =
P 3 2
i π×ρ×V ×D
(11)
The relation between the dimensionless circulation
G and the lift coefficient C
L
is:
2 π×G×cosβ C ×c
L i
=
u
D 1
T

tgβ V
A i
(12)
where c is the chord length of blade section at r
radius and Dpropeller diameter
When the final values of Γ, u
A
, u
T
, hydrodynamic
pitch angle β
I and C
L
c/D are determined, the geometri
cal design can started. The lift coefficient depends
on upon the type of airfoil section, its chamber ratio,
thickness chord ratio and the angle of attack. The
problem is to select a combination of chord length,
chamber, blade contour and pitch to match the data
from hydrodynamic design. The pitch is chosen
according to the hydrodynamic pitch to attain shock
free entry, and the chord length c must satisfy cavitation
and strength criteria [2],[12].
The airfoil sections generally used in propeller
designed using the circulation theory are NACA 16,
NACA66. The thickness distribution must satisfy a
classification society class, a linear variation of blade
thickness is often adopted.
One of the major defects of the lifting line theory
is that the propeller blade is represented by a vortex
line or lifting line. The induced velocities are evaluated
only one point on the lifting line. Since the propeller
blades are like lifting surfaces, have a finite thickness
and operate in a viscous flow, it is necessary to correct
the value of angle of attack and chamber ratio to account
for lifting surface, thickness and viscous effects. Lifting
surface correction may be made using the factors
due to Morgan[13]. The factor correct ideal inflow
angle and chamber by:
( ) ( ) ( )
pl
α r = k r ×α +k r ×t
α
t i o/D
f
max
(r) = k
c
(r) f
pl
max
(13)
where k
α
, k
t
and k
c
are lifting surface correction factors
to the angle of attack, for thickness, respectively for
chamber ratio.
The pitch angle will be:
( ) ( ) ( ) δ r = β r +α r
i
(14)
A suitable distribution of skew to define the ex
panded blade may be selected at this stage. Theoretical
and experimental data show the advantages of highly
skewed propellers compared with conventional pro
pellers. The advantages, in general are reduction in
unsteady bearing forces and pressure forces and
increased cavitation inception speeds. The reason
for the decrease of unsteady bearing forces with
increasing skew can be found by examining the ship
wake. The purpose of skewing a blade is to allow
each radial section of the blade to enter the wake at
a different instant, thereby reducing the peak forces.
The effect of skew on unsteady forces and moments
depends on the wake’s structure; an arbitrary skew
use without consideration of the wake structure could
lead to very disappointing results [11]
5. ANALYSIS
Once the design is completed, the propeller is analy
sis in all operation conditions taking into account the
complete wake distribution. This is the third stage,
known like ”direct” problem, and the objectives are to
find the pressure distributions on propeller surfaces,
to evaluate the hydrodynamics performances of
propeller in offdesign conditions and to determine
how the ship’s wake influences the cavitation per
formances and the unsteady forces induced by the
propeller and transmitted to the hull through the water
by pressure effects and thought the shaft bearing. Some
times, the pressure distribution is taken as an indication
of the behaviour of the cavitation on the blades.
In the design stage, the hydrodynamic performances
of the propeller are predicted at the design point,
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
136
which correspond only to a mean flow. The real
flow is not uniform, the inflow velocity to the pro
peller has radially and circumferentially varying
components, as a propeller blade rotates, a section at
any given radius passes through regions of very
different wake concentrations and may therefore
give rise of unsteady loading.
The analysis required a detailed geometrical descrip
tion of the propeller, the effective wake distribution
and the operational conditions of the propeller. The
purpose of analysis is to study the propeller’s behavior
in steady and unsteady flow and the objectives are:
• calculation of the open water characteristics;
• calculations of pressure distribution on propeller
blades operating in uniform flow or in a radially
varied circumferential mean flow;
• calculation of pressure distribution on propeller
blades in various blade positions and cavitation
prediction;
• calculation of the unsteady forces and moment
acting on propeller shaft (bearing forces);
• calculation of the hull pressures fluctuation.
It will be clear that unsatisfactory results from these
calculations could lead to a new iterative design cycle
(with a changed propeller geometry).
Circulation theory, RANS and Panel methods can
predict the open water performances of propeller very
accurately. The quasisteady methods are still used
for calculations of unsteady hydrodynamic propeller
forces. The quasisteady method propose by Sasajima
[14] seem to be a practical prediction method for
bearing forces.
An important step in propeller analysis is to find
the pressure distribution on propeller blade, problem,
which can be solved using steady and unsteady
liftingsurface theory in two ways. In one method:
”mode function method” the lifting surface model,
stationary or instationary, is solved analytically or
numerically by finding from the boundary conditions
the coefficients in the expressions in the integral equa
tions. The “vortex lattice method” and the panel method
employ singularity distributions over the blades and
from the boundary conditions of no penetration, the
strength of the singularities is determined [7].
A development of the unsteady liftingsurface
theory and the numerical solution of the mathematical
model are presented by V. van Gent [2]. Some as
sumptions concerning the schematic representation
of propeller are made. The thickness of the blade and
the presence of the hub are not taken into account.
The geometry and the positions of each lifting surface
are approximated by the projection of the blade contour
on a helicoidal surface with constant pitch. The
mathematical formulation of the mean line section
of the lifting surfaces is:
( ) ( ) ( ) F* = θ +ω×t  ε  z / ρ tgφ  f / ρsinφ = 0
R
(15)
where :
ξ = x  fcosφ
θ = φ + f/rsinφ
ρ = r
(16)
and (x,r,φ) are the coordinates of the helical line and
(ξ,ρ,θ) are the coordinates of the mean line, φ 
pitch angle and the pitch of the helicoidal surfaces is
P = 2πr tgφ = 2π/a.
The boundary condition at the lifting surface is that
the velocity component normal to this surface is zero:
( )
F*
+ U' ×grad F* = 0
t
∂
∂
JJG
(17)
where U' is the deviations of the main flow and it
has three components: an axial component:  U + u
o
+u
p
, a radial component:  v
o
+v
p
and a tangential
component  w
o
+w
p
. Subscript o indicate disturbances
present in main flow and subscript p indicate disturbances
due to the hydrodynamic action of the lifting surfaces.
Equation (17) can be written:
( ) ( )
( )
F* F* F*
+ U+ u + u + v + v
o p o p
t x r
1 F*
+ w + w = 0
o p
r φ
∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂ ∂
∂
∂
(18)
Starting from this equation, a relation between the
geometry of the lifting surface, the kinematic distur
bance of the fluid motion and the pressure jump distri
bution over the lifting surface can be established. The
problem is to find the pressure distribution when the
propeller geometry is given. The integral equation is
transformed in a set of linear algebraic equations easy
to solve.
New orientations in analysis of propeller in un
steady flow are CFD methods: panel methods, RANS
methods. The flow around propeller can be derived
from the equations of motions using boundary condi
tions. In a viscous flow the equations of motions are
called Navier Stokes equations and the boundary
conditions at the wall is the no slip conditions. In an
inviscid flow the effect of viscosity can be neglected
and when rotation is also neglected the equations of
motions become simpler: the Laplace’s equation. In
that case the boundary condition is that the flow is
tangential to the wall.
The circulation theory neglects the effects of blade
thickness and the prediction of the pressure distribu
tion of the leading edge is not valid. This problem is
overcome in surface panel methods. The common
description of equation of motion is Laplace’s equation
that assumes that the flow is a potential flow. A dis
tribution of singularities is placed on panels on the sur
face of hub and blades. The boundary condition of
tangential flow is satisfied on the panels. With the as
sumption of incompressible, inviscid and irrotational
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
137
fluid, the flow field around a propeller is characterized
by a perturbation velocity potential Φ, which satisfies
( )
2
φ x, y, z, t = 0 ∇ (19)
Considering a surface S composed of the propeller
blade surface S
B
, hub surface S
H
and wake surface
S
W
, a constant source and doublet distributions are
used to write the perturbation potential ( ) t P, φ at any
point P(x,y,z,t) on the boundary surface:
( ) ( )
( )
1
2πφ P = φ Q, t dS
n R P, Q
S
Q
∂
∫∫
∂
, ]
, ]
¸ ]
( )
( )
φ Q, t 1
 dS
n R P, Q
S
Q
∂
∫∫
∂
(20)
where Q(x’,y’,z’,t) is the source point where singu
larity is located and R(P,Q) – distance between point
P and Q. The flow around propeller has to be derived
from the motion equations using boundary conditions
as follows:
• the kinematic boundary conditions on S
B
and S
H
is that no flow across blade and hub surface :
( )
( )
φ Q, t
=  V x', r', θ'  Ωt) + Ω×r ×n
W Q
n
Q
∂
∂
, ]
¸ ]
(21)
• the wake surface is assumed to have zero thickness.
The normal velocity jump and the pressure jump
across S
W
is zero, while a jump in potential is
allowed.
( ) ( )
+ 
φ Q, t φ Q, t
= ,
n n
Q Q
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
+ 
p = p pe S
W
(22)
where
±
φ
±
p are the value of potential and the
pressure on the wake surface (on the upper and
lower side).
A Kutta condition must be imposed at the trailing
edge. This is a physical condition that the velocity at
the trailing edge of the blade should be finite. The
Kutta condition was developed: the pressure same at
the two control points of the upper and lower panel
adjacent to the trailing edge:
( ) ( ) ( )
+ 
Δp r, t = p r, t  p r, t = 0
TE TE TE
(23)
The solution of equation (20) is the perturbation
velocity potential. The perturbation velocities are
obtained by taking the derivatives of the velocity po
tential over the surface φ ∇ ' V . Adding the tangential
component of the relative inflow V
I
(x,y,z,t) to the
perturbation velocity, the total velocity on the surface
S is obtained. Applying the Bernoully’s equation in
unsteady flow, the pressure on propeller surface is:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 φ t 2 1
p t = p + ρ V t  V t  ρ
I 0
2 t
∂
∂
j \
, (
( ,
(24)
A numerical procedure to solve the boundary integral
equations (20) is presented in [16].
The panel methods are useful for calculation of
blade pressure distribution in steady and unsteady
flow and for prediction the cavitation characteristics
of propeller. This method allows the calculation of
minimum pressure at the leading edge and handles
the root and the tip better. A very dense grid with small
panels is necessary at the leading edge.
The effect of viscosity on the flow around propeller
blades can be taken into account using numerical solu
tions of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS)
equations. The solutions of Navier Stokes equations
make it possible to calculate the flow in those regions
which are dominated by viscous effects: the tip vortex,
the hub vortex and separation along the leading edge [19].
The ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes equations
are:
v
i
= 0
x
i
∂
∂
( )
v
v p i
i
ρ + ρv = ρ×F + τ  ρv' v' j ij
i j
t x x x
j i j
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂
∂ ∂ ∂
(25)
These equations are formally identical with Navier
Stokes equations valid for laminar flow with the
exception of the additional term τ
ij
(Reynolds stress
tensor), which represents the transfer of momentum
due to turbulent fluctuations. Empirical models are
necessary to describe the effects of turbulent: the so
called turbulence models. The Kε turbulence model
is one of the most employed two equations and it is
based on the solution of equations for the turbulent
kinetic energy and the turbulent dissipations rate [21].
In some applications (turbo machines, propellers),
the control volume is rotating about some axis and the
equations are solved in a rotating frame of reference.
The relative velocity is introduced:
W = V  ω× r (26)
and Coriolis and centripetal terms must be included
in source term..
To solve the Navier Stokes equations the boundary
condition at the wall is the not slip conditions. For
the homogeneous inflow around propeller blade the
rotational periodic boundary condition can be use.
The advantage of application of viscous flow method
is the possibility of taking into account the interaction
between the wake field of the ship and the propeller
inflow. The RANS codes are important to the investi
gations of hullpropeller interactions problems. In
RANS calculations the notion of effective wake is also
no longer necessary, the flow can be calculated from
the far upstream, even including the flow around the
hull. RANS codes required computational grids in the
Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS, Timisoara, Romania, June 1011, 2005
138
entire fluid region including the body surface and the
solution required a very large number of iterations [23].
The final evaluation of the designed propeller can
be done by model tests and tests on full scale. The
hullpropeller interaction coefficients and the hydro
dynamic performances of a propeller behind ship are
usually determined through model experiments: open
water experiments, selfpropulsion experiments,
cavitation experiments, unsteady hull pressure and
bearing forces measurements. The designed propeller
should be tested in model scale in towing tanks and
in cavitation tunnel. A dummy model (shorted ship
model) or grids are installed in the cavitation tunnel
upstream the propeller to generate a flow similar to
that of a fullscale ship wake.
The tests are time consuming, expensive and ad
vanced experimental equipment are required. These
facts oblige to improve continuously the design tech
nique and apply modern theoretical methods to predict
the hydrodynamic characteristics of propellers in
nonuniform wake. This is not to say that theoretical
methods replace the experimental investigation, but
rather the propeller design process can benefits by
the intelligent application of that. One of the CFD
advantages is that a greater number of design alter
natives can be investigated in a less time.
6. CONCLUSIONS
The paper presents aspects regards propeller design
procedure and practical considerations. The paper
reflects the work of a great number of researchers as
well as the author experience in ship propeller design.
A successful propeller design means a compromise
between many conditions: high efficiency, strength,
no cavitation, low vibration and noise excitations.
These facts oblige to improve continuously the design
technique and apply modern methods to predict the
hydrodynamics performances of marine propeller in
nonuniform wake field behind ship.
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Unsteady hydrodynamic propeller forces: validation
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2. Van Gent W., Van Oossanen P. (1973) Influence of
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3. Breslin J., Andersen P. (2003) Hydrodynamics of ship
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4. Hoekstra M. (1974) Prediction of full scale wake char
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7. Holtrop J. (2000) The Design of Propellers, 34
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8. Comstock J.P., Editor (1967) Principle of naval
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9. Lerbs, H.W. (1952) Moderately Loaded propellers with a
Finite Number of Blade and an Arbitrary Distribution
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10. Eckhardt M.K., Morgan W.B. (1955) A Propeller
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11. Cumming R. A, Morgan W.B. Boswell R.J (1972) Highly
Skewed Propellers, Annual Meetingof The Society of
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12. Dumitrescu H., Georgescu A, Ceanga V., Popovici J.S.
(1990) Calculul Elicei, Editura Academiei Romane
13. Morgan W.B., Silovic V., Denny V., (1968) Propeller
Lifting Surface Correction. SNAME, Report No.11
14. Sasajima T., (1971) Usefulness of quasiSteady Approach
for Estimation of Propeller Bearing Forces, Proceedings
15. V.van Gent P., (1980) On the Use of Lifting Surface
Theory for Moderately and Loaded ship Propellers,
Publication no.536 Nederlands Ship Model Basin
16. Hoshino, T. (1998) Comparative Calculations of
Propeller Performance in Steady and Unsteady Flows
Using a Surface Panel Method, 22th ITTC Propulsion
Committee Propeller RANSPanel Method Workshop,
Grenoble, France
17. *** (1998) 22th ITTC Propulsion Committee Propeller,
Conclusions of RANS  Panel Method Workshop,
Grenoble, France
18. Lee, J.T. (1987) A Potential Panel Method for Analysis
of Marine Propeller in Steady Flows Massachusetts
Institute of Technology
19. Kuiper G.. (2000) Basics of Propeller Design, 34
th
WEGEMT School, Delft
20. Bertram V. (2000) Practical Ship Hydrodynamics,
British Library
21. Blazek J. (2001) Computational Fluid Dynamics: Prin
ciples and Applications, Elsevier
22. Ceanga V. (2003) Dinamica Sistemelor de Propulsie,
Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica
23. Lungu A. (2001) CFD Modeling of Tip Vortex for
Open Water Marine Propellers, NuSEng’01, Galati
24. Amoraritei M. (2003) Practical Aspects in Propeller
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of Galati, Fascicle XI
25. Amoraritei M. (2004) Theoretical Studies Concerning
Screw Propeller in Unsteady Flow, TEHNONAV 2004,
Conference Proceeding, “Ovidius” University Constanţa
26. Hoekstra M. (2000) Effective wake and its computational
Prediction, 34
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WEGEMT School, Delft
27. Van Wijngaarden E. (2000) The propeller as a source
and vibration, 34
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WEGEMT School, Delft
28. Ghose J.P., Gorkarn R.P., (2004) Basic ship propulsion,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
2. The wake velocity is associated with the flow around ship’s hull and it varies in magnitude and directions.β m ) V 1 (3) ∫ v (r. boundary element methods/panel method. analytical tools. Presently. HULL.9 1 Figure 2. Figure 1.6 0.θ )dθ 0 (1) The wake harmonic functions of interest are those of multiple of blade number qz for thrust and torque on the shaft and those at qz ±1 for transverse and vertical forces and moments [3].3 0. These variations are the cause of unsteady cavitation and cyclic fluctuations in blade loading and pressure distributions. computational fluid dynamics models and model tests. The paper presents aspects regard propeller design procedure. function of radius r and angular position θ.4 0. a section at any given radius passes through regions of very different wake concentrations.4 0.2 0. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS.5 0. The tangential velocity components are very important when considering unsteady propeller forces. more sophisticated threedimensional theories were been developed steady and unsteady liftingsurface theory.132 Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS.β m ) V V 1 vt m = ∑ A mcos ( mθ . which “deform the original streamlines and causes a retardation of the relative stream velocity due to viscous actions”[2]. The axial velocity “v” varies from point to point over the propeller disc. = A 0 + ∑ A m cos ( mθ .6 0. June 1011. This means that the thrust force T on the propeller has to overcome both the ship’s resistance R and this increase named “augment of resistance” RT. quasysteady methods.7 0.PROPELLER INTERACTIONS A propeller fitted at the stern of a ship operates in water that has been disturbed by passage of the hull’s ship. The rotation of the propeller alters the pressure and velocity distribution around the hull and increase the resistance of the ship. the knowledge of the distribution flow in . 2005 time consuming and expensive. Timisoara.1 0 0 60 120 180 Unghi 240 300 360 0. the propeller’s efficiency behind ship’s hull is affected by “relative rotative efficiency” ηR. The nominal wake is the wake behind ship’s hull in absence of the propeller. This disturbance behind the ship is called wake. and its value depends largely of the shape of the hull and on the propeller location. Transversal velocity in propeller disc Va/V 1 0.9 0. Romania.8 0. Compared to open water conditions. This loss of thrust is expressed by mean of t = 1R/T. and a tangential and a radial component in the plane of the propeller disc. The ratio of the average velocity over the propeller disc to the ship speed V is named the wake coefficient: w = 1v/V. The flow behind ship is not uniform over the proeller disc and the inflow velocity to the propeller has three radially and circumferentially varying components: an axial component along the axis of the propeller. The average velocity at a radius r is: vr = 1 2π 2π The average wake velocity over the propeller disc is: R R v = 2π ∫ r vr dr / 2π ∫ rdr r r b b (2) A velocity fields as function of radius and angular position is presented in Figure 1 and 2. A distinction must be made between nominal wake and effective wake. As a propeller blade rotates. which involves various theories and underlying assumptions. Curve of constant axial wake fraction. The efficiency of the propeller operating behind ship is different from its efficiency in open water.5 0. named thrust deduction factor.7 0. Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes (RANS) equations. to predict the hydrodynamics performances of marine propeller in nonuniform wake field behind ship. while the radial components are generally small. The wake velocities with the propeller operating behind ship and developing thrust is named effective wake. Axial velocity distribution A useful presentation of the wake data field exploit the cyclic variation of this patterns and writes for the tree components of velocity: m va v r .8 0.
polynomial equations for the series hydrodynamic characteristics are obtained: z Q x y KT . five or more blades. It is usually desirable to install the largest diameter than can be accommodated to the hull lines.service propulsion MCR point. Propellers may have three. blade area ratio Ae/Ao.specified propulsion MCR point. Prior to the preliminary design of a propeller is the choosing of the propeller design point (Figure 3): combination of engine speed and power. To derive the effective wake distribution from the scaled nominal wake field. the problem is to determine propulsive performances of screw propeller and the main characteristics of the propeller to achieve the expected performance: diameter D.propeller design point. Using the method of the multiple linear regression analysis for each of series. These screw series comprise models whose geometrical characteristics such: pitch ratio. 3. the necessary clearance between the tip of the propeller. The preliminary design requires dates from the hull of the ship.Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS.heavy propeller curve (fouled hull and heavy weather). shape of blade sections and blade thickness are systematically varied. SP . the main engine and systematically screw series. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS. running shortly at high speed. From the point of view of effi . yk and zk are the correspondent exponents of the independent variable J. The values of total resistance of the ship play a significant role in the selection of the propeller. P/D. etc. PD’ . There are.J charts. In preliminary design. Romania. the thrust coefficient. Theoretically. which depends upon so called “mission profile” of the ship: cruising on long distances at middle speed. In general. etc. the relative rotative efficiency and any restrictions such as a limit of the maximum diameter of propeller may be helpful. 6 . 2005 133 propeller plane is based on experimentally measurements. The propeller of optimum efficiency can be automatically estimated using computed codes based on standard series. four. at same axial speed and rotation rate. June 1011. Ship propulsion running point [6] The notations in Figure 3 are: 2 . which must overcome ship’s resistance. KQ = ∑ Ak (z ) k (J ) k ( P/D) k (Ae/Ao ) k (4) k where Ak are regression coefficient and xk. Dates regard hullpropeller interaction: the effective wake coefficient. MP . the effective fullscale wake distribution velocity field can be obtained in two steps: first the nominal wake measured behind the ship model is corrected for scale effect using the treedimensional contraction method proposed by Hoekstra [4]. The hydrodynamic characteristics of standard series are presented in the form kT. Ae/A0. PD . Gawn. When the propeller diameter corresponding to optimum efficiency for propellership system is larger than can be accommodated. blade area ratio. The concept of effective wake implies that the influence of the propeller action on the stern flow is incorporated and the effective wake can’t be measured. If the number of blade increases.light propeller curve (clean hull and calm water). The nominal wake velocities are measured at model scale using Pitot tubes. PRELIMINARY DESIGN At this stage of the design. thrust factor and relative rotative efficiency will be found from preliminary selfpropulsion model tests. number of blade z. the optimum diameter and the openwater efficiency decrease. Timisoara. Some total wake distributions have been measured at full scale using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimeter). mean pitch P/D. special conditions to be considered: the afterbody form of the hull depending of the type of the ship. in these cases the propeller diameter selected is a compromise. number of blade. in which a model of new ship is propelled by a stock propeller with principal characteristic as near as probable final design. The radial distribution of axial velocity components is transformed from the nominal (without propeller) value for the model to an effective (with propeller) value for the fullscale ship by an indirect method based upon thrust (or torque) identity: making the thrust coefficient KT (or torque coefficient KQ) in open water and behind ship equal. The effective velocity field can be obtained by subtraction of the propellerinduced velocities from the total velocities fields behind a ship with running propeller.kQ . The most reliable values of the hullpropeller interaction coefficients: wake coefficient. etc. higher propeller efficiency is associated with a larger propeller diameter and a lower shaft rpm. Huang’s method can be used [5]. Figure 3. an important step is the choice of number of propeller blades. The main engine influences the propeller design through the propeller rpm and delivered power. however.alternative propeller design point The main particulars characteristics of the propeller are usually determined by means of systematic propeller series based on the results of openwater tests carried out on model propellers: Wageningen Bseries.
The assembly of adjacent free vortex lines forms a free vortex sheet (trailing vortex sheet) helicoidal in shape. j0 = ∑ Ia ( j) cos (nj0 ) n n=0 ¥ t iT j. The diagram of velocities around a blade section at radius r is presented in Figure 4. From the velocity diagram. could lead to vibrations problems [7].r0 b uT 1 R dG dr0 = ∫ iT . each blade of propeller is replaced by a bound vortex or lifting line. under given conditions. β the advance angle. axial uA and tangential uT must be calculated. The first part named hydrodynamic stage consists on determining the values of nondimensional circulation Γ and the induced velocities uA and uT. the circulation Γ of which depends on the radial coordinate r. j0 = ∑ I n ( j) cos (nj0 ) n=0 ( ) ( ) (8) (5) Propeller design using circulation theory is divided in two parts. The pitch of the sections can be chosen to suit the average wake at each radius (wake adapted propeller) and the shape of the blade is chosen to minimize cavitation. tangential and radial. The required thrust or delivery power has to be specified. The variation of Γ necessitates a free vortex line being shed from the lifting line. Romania. 4. δ the final pitch angle. the problem is to design a propeller to developing thrust or absorbing the specified power at given rpm. VA 2 r dro r . But the major criterion in the selection of the number of blades is vibration considerations. θ) 0π o (7) and ia and iT are the Lerbs induction factor which are expressed in a Fourier series. In lifting line theory. which applies since the flow outside of vortex space is a potential flow and the problem is reduced to a boundary problem of a linear partial differential equation [9]. The problem can be done using the circulation theory (vortex theory) of propellers: lifting line theory with correction factors on lifting surface theory. the relation between induced velocities uA and uT is: uA VA + tgβ i uT VA = tgβ i 1 tgβ where R is the vector distance between the point and the vortex vector dl. ¥ ia j. The velocity induced by the vortex system of the propeller can be determinate by the law of Biot Savart or by Lapace’s equation. From the circulation distribution. June 1011. DESIGN When using systematic series charts. A propeller that is rotates in the water induces three velocity components: axial. βI the hydrodynamic pitch angle. The problem is reduced at an inte (9) . Lifting line calculation is always made in steady conditions. The fluctuations of unsteady forces induced by the propeller and transmitted to the hull through the water by pressure effects and thought the shaft bearing are lower for a larger number of blades. 2005 ciency. The second way to establish this velocity field uses the Laplace’s differential equation. The free vortex line with a circulation distribution (Γ/dr)dr is not acted by forces. The inflow to the propeller is assumed to vary radially and the objective is to find the blade geometry for a specified distribution of blade loading over the radius. The performances of a propeller designed based on the systematic series are insufficient for today’s expectation: the results give good agreement between shaft power. Using the Biot Savart law. where α is the attack angle. The choosing of the number of blades. The expanded blade area is a result of optimization and may be restricted by cavitation criteria (for example Burill diagrams). Once the main parameters are fixed. Timisoara. nominal axial wake velocity determined by means of measured axial wake velocity components Vx (r. θ): 1 1 2π VA = ∫ dr ∫ Vx (r. the induced velocities can be computed based on the Lerbs induction factors: 1 R dG dr0 . Certain assumptions are required: one of them is that there is no contraction or reduction in diameter of the slipstream [10]. which has a common factor with the number of cylinders of the Diesel engine.134 Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. Not only the vibration excitation is to be considered. The radial component of the induced velocity can be ignored and the other two components. no account is taken of the variation of the wake over the propeller disc and the propeller is designed to suit average flow conditions behind ship [8].r0 b ua = (6) where VA is a average. ∫ ia VA 2 r dro r . is a preference for a small number of blades. The second stage consists on determining the optimum blade geometry from the point of view of cavitation suppression at the shockfree angles of attack and strength criteria. also attention is to be paid to the resonance structure. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS. The mean value of the wake (average wake velocity over the propeller disc) and the average velocity over one revolution at different radius are known. the velocity vector induced by a vortex line of circulation Γ at a point in space is: VP = dl x R a ∫ 4π l R 3 Γ gral along the vortex line. propeller revolution and ship speed and will be used as a starting point for the next stages.
the geometrical design can started. Since the propeller blades are like lifting surfaces.w ( r ) dr tgβ V r i A b NACA66. In the design stage. the ideal thrust loading coefficient CTi and ideal power coefficient CPi are calculated by relations: 1 2 1 uT CT = 4z ∫ G 1. Theoretical and experimental data show the advantages of highly skewed propellers compared with conventional propellers. thickness chord ratio and the angle of attack. the hydrodynamic pitch angle β i is adjusted to match the ideal thrust loading coefficient (or the ideal power coefficient) to the required values: 8T i CT = i π × ρ × V 2 × D2 . in general are reduction in unsteady bearing forces and pressure forces and increased cavitation inception speeds. a linear variation of blade thickness is often adopted. the hydrodynamic performances of the propeller are predicted at the design point. known like ”direct” problem. The airfoil sections generally used in propeller designed using the circulation theory are NACA 16. Sometimes. uT. it is necessary to correct the value of angle of attack and chamber ratio to account for lifting surface. Velocity diagram For specified values of βI at various radii the values of dimensionless circulation G are calculated substituting relations (6) in (9). The advantages. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS. After the problem of circulation and induced velocities is solved. the pressure distribution is taken as an indication of the behaviour of the cavitation on the blades. its chamber ratio. The pitch is chosen according to the hydrodynamic pitch to attain shock free entry. 2005 135 Figure 4. The reason for the decrease of unsteady bearing forces with increasing skew can be found by examining the ship wake.Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. The thickness distribution must satisfy a classification society class. respectively for chamber ratio. This is the third stage. The problem is to select a combination of chord length. The lift coefficient depends on upon the type of airfoil section. chamber. Timisoara. Romania. One of the major defects of the lifting line theory is that the propeller blade is represented by a vortex line or lifting line. ANALYSIS Once the design is completed.w ( r )) u C P = 4z ∫ 1+ A V tg β r i A b dr (10) Iteratively. blade contour and pitch to match the data from hydrodynamic design. Each of the induction factors and circulation are expresses in Fourier series and a set of linear equations can be solved to calculate the values of circulation at various radii. and the objectives are to find the pressure distributions on propeller surfaces. The pitch angle will be: (14) δ (r ) = β (r ) + α ( r ) i 3 1 G (1. thereby reducing the peak forces. The purpose of skewing a blade is to allow each radial section of the blade to enter the wake at a different instant. The factor correct ideal inflow angle and chamber by: pl α ( r ) = kα ( r ) ×αi + k t ( r ) × to/D (13) fmax (r) = kc (r) fplmax ( ) where kα. for thickness. and the chord length c must satisfy cavitation and strength criteria [2]. the propeller is analysis in all operation conditions taking into account the complete wake distribution. have a finite thickness and operate in a viscous flow. thickness and viscous effects. June 1011. The effect of skew on unsteady forces and moments depends on the wake’s structure. to evaluate the hydrodynamics performances of propeller in offdesign conditions and to determine how the ship’s wake influences the cavitation performances and the unsteady forces induced by the propeller and transmitted to the hull through the water by pressure effects and thought the shaft bearing. an arbitrary skew use without consideration of the wake structure could lead to very disappointing results [11] 5. Lifting surface correction may be made using the factors due to Morgan[13]. hydrodynamic pitch angle βI and CLc/D are determined. The induced velocities are evaluated only one point on the lifting line. .[12]. where c is the chord length of blade section at r radius and Dpropeller diameter When the final values of Γ.C P i P = i π × ρ × V3 × D 2 (11) The relation between the dimensionless circulation G and the lift coefficient CL is: CL × c D = 2 π × G × cosβi 1 tgβ i uT VA (12) A suitable distribution of skew to define the expanded blade may be selected at this stage. uA. kt and kc are lifting surface correction factors to the angle of attack.
f / ( ρsinφ ) = 0 (15) where : ξ = x .U + uo +up . ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS. φ pitch angle and the pitch of the helicoidal surfaces is P = 2πr tgφ = 2π/a. which can be solved using steady and unsteady liftingsurface theory in two ways.fcosφ θ = φ + f/rsinφ ρ=r (16) and (x.r. RANS methods. The geometry and the positions of each lifting surface are approximated by the projection of the blade contour on a helicoidal surface with constant pitch. Equation (17) can be written: ∂F * ∂t + U + uo + u p ( ) ∂∂Fx* + (vo + vp ) ∂∂Fr* =0 + wo + w p ( )r 1 ∂ F* ∂φ (18) ( ) Starting from this equation. a radial component: . New orientations in analysis of propeller in unsteady flow are CFD methods: panel methods. inviscid and irrotational . Subscript o indicate disturbances present in main flow and subscript p indicate disturbances due to the hydrodynamic action of the lifting surfaces. The flow around propeller can be derived from the equations of motions using boundary conditions. This problem is overcome in surface panel methods. The boundary condition at the lifting surface is that the velocity component normal to this surface is zero: ∂ F* ∂t + U'× grad F * = 0 ( ) (17) where U' is the deviations of the main flow and it has three components: an axial component: .zR / ( ρ tgφ ) . The common description of equation of motion is Laplace’s equation that assumes that the flow is a potential flow. as a propeller blade rotates. The quasisteady method propose by Sasajima [14] seem to be a practical prediction method for bearing forces.φ) are the coordinates of the helical line and (ξ. problem.wo +wp . The thickness of the blade and the presence of the hub are not taken into account. The boundary condition of tangential flow is satisfied on the panels. a relation between the geometry of the lifting surface. A distribution of singularities is placed on panels on the surface of hub and blades. The analysis required a detailed geometrical description of the propeller. Timisoara. The circulation theory neglects the effects of blade thickness and the prediction of the pressure distribution of the leading edge is not valid. Some assumptions concerning the schematic representation of propeller are made. • calculation of the unsteady forces and moment acting on propeller shaft (bearing forces). An important step in propeller analysis is to find the pressure distribution on propeller blade. The purpose of analysis is to study the propeller’s behavior in steady and unsteady flow and the objectives are: • calculation of the open water characteristics. • calculations of pressure distribution on propeller blades operating in uniform flow or in a radially varied circumferential mean flow. • calculation of the hull pressures fluctuation. The real flow is not uniform. the strength of the singularities is determined [7].θ) are the coordinates of the mean line. With the assumption of incompressible. Circulation theory. The “vortex lattice method” and the panel method employ singularity distributions over the blades and from the boundary conditions of no penetration. The quasisteady methods are still used for calculations of unsteady hydrodynamic propeller forces. the inflow velocity to the propeller has radially and circumferentially varying components. stationary or instationary. In that case the boundary condition is that the flow is tangential to the wall. In an inviscid flow the effect of viscosity can be neglected and when rotation is also neglected the equations of motions become simpler: the Laplace’s equation. RANS and Panel methods can predict the open water performances of propeller very accurately.ε . In one method: ”mode function method” the lifting surface model. van Gent [2]. The problem is to find the pressure distribution when the propeller geometry is given. the kinematic disturbance of the fluid motion and the pressure jump distribution over the lifting surface can be established. It will be clear that unsatisfactory results from these calculations could lead to a new iterative design cycle (with a changed propeller geometry). In a viscous flow the equations of motions are called Navier Stokes equations and the boundary conditions at the wall is the no slip conditions.ρ. The integral equation is transformed in a set of linear algebraic equations easy to solve. A development of the unsteady liftingsurface theory and the numerical solution of the mathematical model are presented by V. The mathematical formulation of the mean line section of the lifting surfaces is: F* = θ + ω× t . • calculation of pressure distribution on propeller blades in various blade positions and cavitation prediction. is solved analytically or numerically by finding from the boundary conditions the coefficients in the expressions in the integral equations.136 Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. the effective wake distribution and the operational conditions of the propeller. a section at any given radius passes through regions of very different wake concentrations and may therefore give rise of unsteady loading.vo +vp and a tangential component . Romania. June 1011. 2005 which correspond only to a mean flow.
propellers). This is a physical condition that the velocity at the trailing edge of the blade should be finite. hub surface SH and wake surface SW. θ' .. t ) at any point P(x.z’. W ∂n Q (22) where φ ± p ± are the value of potential and the pressure on the wake surface (on the upper and lower side).pe S . For the homogeneous inflow around propeller blade the rotational periodic boundary condition can be use. The relative velocity is introduced: (26) W = V ω×r and Coriolis and centripetal terms must be included in source term. In some applications (turbo machines.y. t ) p + = p . the pressure on propeller surface is: 2 2 ∂φ ( t ) 1 p ( t ) = p0 + ρ VI ( t ) . z. r'. t ) ∂n Q = ∂φ ( Q. which represents the transfer of momentum due to turbulent fluctuations. RANS codes required computational grids in the (23) The solution of equation (20) is the perturbation velocity potential. the control volume is rotating about some axis and the equations are solved in a rotating frame of reference.p. The ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes equations are: ∂vi ∂x i ρ ∂t =0 ∂ vi + ρv j ∂ vi ∂x j = ρ×F  ∂p ∂x i + ∂ ∂x j (21) ( τij . VW ( x'. the flow can be calculated from the far upstream. Q ) 1 dS (20) R ( P. The solutions of Navier Stokes equations make it possible to calculate the flow in those regions which are dominated by viscous effects: the tip vortex. Romania.y. Empirical models are necessary to describe the effects of turbulent: the socalled turbulence models. t ) = 0 (19) Considering a surface S composed of the propeller blade surface SB.ρ 2 ∂t (24) .V ( t ) . t ) ∂n Q 1 dS R ( P. The flow around propeller has to be derived from the motion equations using boundary conditions as follows: • the kinematic boundary conditions on SB and SH is that no flow across blade and hub surface : ∂φ (Q. the total velocity on the surface S is obtained.Q) – distance between point P and Q.y’. the flow field around a propeller is characterized by a perturbation velocity potential Φ. June 1011.Ωt) + Ω × r ) × n Q A numerical procedure to solve the boundary integral equations (20) is presented in [16].( r. A Kutta condition must be imposed at the trailing edge. the hub vortex and separation along the leading edge [19].t) on the boundary surface: ∂ 2πφ ( P ) = ∫∫ φ (Q.Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS. Applying the Bernoully’s equation in unsteady flow. y. The advantage of application of viscous flow method is the possibility of taking into account the interaction between the wake field of the ship and the propeller inflow. which satisfies ∇ 2φ ( x.t) to the perturbation velocity.z. The perturbation velocities are obtained by taking the derivatives of the velocity potential over the surface V ' = ∇φ . 2005 137 fluid. The Kutta condition was developed: the pressure same at the two control points of the upper and lower panel adjacent to the trailing edge: + ΔpTE ( r. even including the flow around the hull. In RANS calculations the notion of effective wake is also no longer necessary. To solve the Navier Stokes equations the boundary condition at the wall is the not slip conditions. The panel methods are useful for calculation of blade pressure distribution in steady and unsteady flow and for prediction the cavitation characteristics of propeller. t ) = pTE ( r. t ) ∂n Q S ∫∫ S ∂φ (Q. a constant source and doublet distributions are used to write the perturbation potential φ (P.ρv'i v'j ) (25) • the wake surface is assumed to have zero thickness. The effect of viscosity on the flow around propeller blades can be taken into account using numerical solutions of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. t ) = 0 TE These equations are formally identical with Navier Stokes equations valid for laminar flow with the exception of the additional term τij (Reynolds stress tensor). t ) ∂n Q = . ∂φ +(Q. Q ) where Q(x’.z. t ) . while a jump in potential is allowed. A very dense grid with small panels is necessary at the leading edge. Adding the tangential component of the relative inflow VI (x. This method allows the calculation of minimum pressure at the leading edge and handles the root and the tip better. The normal velocity jump and the pressure jump across SW is zero. The RANS codes are important to the investigations of hullpropeller interactions problems.t) is the source point where singularity is located and R(P. The Kε turbulence model is one of the most employed two equations and it is based on the solution of equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent dissipations rate [21]. Timisoara. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS.
Amoraritei M. The tests are time consuming. Popovici J. 34th WEGEMT School. but rather the propeller design process can benefits by the intelligent application of that. Didactica si Pedagogica 23. selfpropulsion experiments. Tecnica Italiana. (2000) Practical Ship Hydrodynamics. H. Cambridge University Press 4. Symposium on High Powered Propulsion of large Ships. low vibration and noise excitations. Ceanga V. Boswell R. Huang T. Comstock J. New York 10. June 1011. These facts oblige to improve continuously the design technique and apply modern methods to predict the hydrodynamics performances of marine propeller in nonuniform wake field behind ship. ACHIEVEMENTS AND OPEN PROBLEMS. British Library 21. unsteady hull pressure and bearing forces measurements. Grenoble. (1987) A Potential Panel Method for Analysis of Marine Propeller in Steady Flows Massachusetts Institute of Technology 19. Groves N. Delft 8. V. CONCLUSIONS The paper presents aspects regards propeller design procedure and practical considerations. J. Publication no.. Amoraritei M. (1973) Influence of wake on propeller loading and cavitation 3. Annual Meeting of The Society of Naval Architects and marine Engineers New York 11.. Denny V. This is not to say that theoretical methods replace the experimental investigation. (2003) Practical Aspects in Propeller Design. Prevert R. (1952) Moderately Loaded propellers with a Finite Number of Blade and an Arbitrary Distribution of Circulation. Fascicle XI 25. Galati 24. (2003) Dinamica Sistemelor de Propulsie.P. (2001) CFD Modeling of Tip Vortex for Open Water Marine Propellers. Popovici J. (1993) Unsteady hydrodynamic propeller forces: validation among theoretical calculation. (2000) Basics of Propeller Design. Holtrop J. no cavitation. The designed propeller should be tested in model scale in towing tanks and in cavitation tunnel. Proceedings. Dumitrescu H.. (1998) Comparative Calculations of Propeller Performance in Steady and Unsteady Flows Using a Surface Panel Method. A. Proceedings. (2004) Basic ship propulsion. (2000) The Design of Propellers. Ghose J. (1980) On the Use of Lifting Surface Theory for Moderately and Loaded ship Propellers. Delft 20.. Morgan W. *** (1998) 22th ITTC Propulsion Committee Propeller.. 13th Symposium on naval hydrodynamics.. Editura Academiei Romane 13. (2000) The propeller as a source and vibration.J (1972) Highly Skewed Propellers. Hoshino. Conclusions of RANS . Totolici St. Report No. France 17. experiment and fullscale measurement. T.S. Breslin J.. Kharagpur .T. These facts oblige to improve continuously the design technique and apply modern theoretical methods to predict the hydrodynamic characteristics of propellers in nonuniform wake.. NuSEng’01. Hoekstra M. strength.138 Proceedings of the Workshop on VORTEX DOMINATED FLOWS.. Van Wijngaarden E. The Annals of “Dunarea de Jos” University” of Galati.K. Anno LVIIIN. Annual Meetingof The Society of Naval Architects and marine Engineers New York 12. Conference Proceeding.11 14. 34th WEGEMT School. 34th WEGEMT School. Gorkarn R. Sasajima T. Lungu A.B. Annual meeting of the Society of naval Architects and marine Engineering.B. Hoekstra M.. Van Oossanen P.T. Bertram V.. REFERENCES 1.P. (1968) Propeller Lifting Surface Correction.S. pp 7591 2.. The final evaluation of the designed propeller can be done by model tests and tests on full scale.B. Lee. (1980) Effective wake: theory and experiment. SNAME...2.. Morgan W. The hullpropeller interaction coefficients and the hydrodynamic performances of a propeller behind ship are usually determined through model experiments: open water experiments. One of the CFD advantages is that a greater number of design alternatives can be investigated in a less time. Cumming R. A successful propeller design means a compromise between many conditions: high efficiency. 34th WEGEMT School.P. Delft 27. Indian Institute of Technology.W. (2003) Hydrodynamics of ship propellers. Trincas G. A dummy model (shorted ship model) or grids are installed in the cavitation tunnel upstream the propeller to generate a flow similar to that of a fullscale ship wake. Blazek J. Eckhardt M. Wageningen 5. (1990) Calculul Elicei. Georgescu A. TEHNONAV 2004. Delft 28.. (1971) Usefulness of quasiSteady Approach for Estimation of Propeller Bearing Forces.536 Nederlands Ship Model Basin 16. Ceanga V. Romania. The paper reflects the work of a great number of researchers as well as the author experience in ship propeller design.van Gent P.. Editor (1967) Principle of naval architecture 9. (2001) Computational Fluid Dynamics: Principles and Applications. Kuiper G. expensive and advanced experimental equipment are required. Morgan W. (2000) Effective wake and its computational Prediction. Van Gent W. MAN B&W (1996) Basic Principles of Ship Propulsion 7.Panel Method Workshop. Silovic V. Proceedings 15. Elsevier 22. (1955) A Propeller Design Method. (1974) Prediction of full scale wake characteristics based on model wake survey. 2005 entire fluid region including the body surface and the solution required a very large number of iterations [23]. Tokyo 6. 22th ITTC Propulsion Committee Propeller RANSPanel Method Workshop. “Ovidius” University Constanţa 26. cavitation experiments.. (2004) Theoretical Studies Concerning Screw Propeller in Unsteady Flow. NMSB.C. Andersen P. Ed. Lerbs. Timisoara. 6. France 18. Grenoble.
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