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**Lecture 7: Multivariable loop shaping
**

Elling W Jacobsen School of Electrical Engineering KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

EL2520 Control Theory and Practice

Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.se

Course structure

Three parts 1. SISO control revisited 2. Multivariable control a. Multivariable linear systems b. Multivariable loop shaping (today) c. Linear quadratic control d. H2, H1 and design example e. Decentralized control and decoupling f. Glover-McFarlane loop shaping 3. Systems with hard constraints

EL2520 Control Theory and Practice

Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.se

se .Multivariable systems cont’d Last lecture… • Transfer matrices and block diagram manipulations (order matters!) • Poles and zeros of multivariable systems (from transfer matrices) • System gain and amplification (directions matter!) …continued this lecture • Recap of last lecture • Fundamental limitations and robustness of MIMO systems • Modern multivariable loop shaping EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

The multivariable frequency response For a linear multivariable system Y(s)=G(s)U(s). corresponding input singular vector.se . we have We can bound the amplification at any frequency using with equality if U(i) parallell w. EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

The multivariable frequency response For MIMO systems it is convenient to plot log((G(i ))) vs log() – gives “envelope” of amplification across frequency Example: heat exchanger from last lecture Bandwidth not a single value.se . but a range. Depends on input directions EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

se . EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. and make sure that largest singular value is small at high frequencies.Multivariable (open-) loop shaping Similar reasoning as in SISO case gives requirements on GFy Note: should push up smallest singular value at low frequencies.

The system gain As for scalar systems.se . we get where Note: the infinity norm computes the maximum amplifications across frequency (sup) and input directions ( ) EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

Poles and zeros of MIMO systems Definition. EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. The poles of G(s) are the roots of its pole polynomial Definition.se . The zeros of the G(s) are the roots of its zero polynomial. The pole polynomial of a system with transfer matrix G(s) is the common denominator of all minors of G(s) Theorem. The zero polynomial of G(s) is the greatest common divisor of the maximal minors of G(s). normed so that they have the pole polynomial of G(s) as denominator. Theorem.

there exist vectors up. directions matter! For a multivariable system with pole p. vp: Similarly.se . and u(t)=0 for t<0. along with initial values x(0)=xz so that y(t)=0 for t¸ 0 EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. vz: As for scalar systems. a zero at z implies that there exists a signal on the form u(t)=vze-zt for t¸ 0. a zero at zi implies the existence of vectors uz.Notes on poles and zeros For scalar system G(s) with poles pi and zeros zi. For a multivariable system.

Which is the input singular vector corresponding to the zero? EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.5.se .Example: RHP zeros Consider the system System has zero for s=0.

1) and (1. 1) 1 0 -1 0 2 2 4 6 8 10 (u . u2)=(1.-1) y 1(green) and y 2(blue) 2 (u1. u2)=(0. 0) 1 0 -1 0 2 2 4 6 8 10 (u1.Example: RHP zeros cont’d Step responses for (u1.0).se . (0. u2)=(1. -1) 1 0 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Clear non-minimum phase behavior! 1 2 Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. u )=(1.

Let G have a zero z in the right half plane. Then. but not on the individual channels (more in the example at the end of this class)! EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.Limitations due to RHP poles and zeros As for SISO systems. and let the scalar transfer function WS be stable and minimum phase. a necessary condition for is that Note.se . Implies bandwidth limitations on maximum singular value. RHP zeros and poles limit achievable performance Example (non-minimum phase zero).

However.se .4-88. at input or output) • Direction of perturbation important! Example: Steady-state model of a distillation column given by singular if (1.g.9.2) element is perturbed from -86. reasonable perturbations are on the form so perturbed system can never become singular EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.MIMO robustness (*) Key differences between SISO and MIMO robustness: • Critical where uncertainty enters (e.

se . EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.A standard formulation (*) “Pull out” uncertain perturbations into block-diagonal matrix with Note: one block per uncertain perturbation. distillation column example has a single uncertain parameter. e.g.

g.e.se . e. require that The structured singular value: find smallest structured perturbation (in terms of ) that renders closed-loop unstable. causes Then.The structured singular value (*) Conservative to use small gain. the structured singular value Powerful framework for analysis and design of robust MIMO controllers • Details out of the scope of this course • Learn more in our graduate (PhD-level) course on robust control! EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. i.

se .Multivariable systems cont’d Last lecture… • Transfer matrices and block diagram manipluations (order matters!) • System gain and amplification (directions matter!) • Poles and zeros of multivariable systems (from transfer matrices) …continued on this lecture • Recap of last lecture • Fundamental limitations and robustness of MIMO systems • Modern multivariable loop shaping EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

Mixed sensitivity design Convenient to design controller by constraining critical transfer matrices Forbidden area Forbidden area Note: Now.se . WS are matrices. constraints on maximum singular values EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

Approximate design specifications Problem: find controller that satisfies specifications Computationally more convenient to use the approximate form Can be viewed as the norm of an extended system EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.se .

se .The extended system EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

se .The extended system (cont’d) Control design is based on the following model EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.

EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.se .The control design problem Find controller that minimizes (some) norm of closed-loop system from w to z. WU part of system dynamics. Model: Assumption: Note: Dynamics of weights WS. WT.

H1 optimal control Finding a controller that satisfies can be done by solving a Riccati equation with =1. the controller fulfills the specifications (note: observer+state feedback) EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.se . If solution P satisfies P¸ 0. A-BBTP stable.

then add one by one Ex. Make sure weights are stable and minimum phase (why?) 2. When channels are very different. Use simple weights with easy interpretation. 4. 3. limit number of ”tuning knobs” in design 1.se . Ex. Start shaping most important transfer matrix. use diagonal weights EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.How to select weights Useful to constrain weights. Start with scalar weights (only use matrix-weights when needed).

-1) EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.se . with corresponding input direction (1.Example Consider the system with RHP zero RHP zero at z=0.5.

se . EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. a reasonable weight is The mixed sensitivity design achieves min=2. Reasonable sensitivities.5.A first design… Since system has RHP zero at z=0. but poor time-domain performance.79.

A second design… Can shift bandwidth limitation from one channel to the other (i. limitation on maximum singular value remains) Time response on channel two much better.e. alter singular vectors.se . EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth. constraint on bandwidth of maximum singular value of S still present.

se . directions Key concepts from SISO analysis carry over • fundamental limitations. part science (must practice!) EL2520 Control Theory and Practice Elling W Jacobsen jacobsen@kth.Conclusions More elements of multivariable system theory • Multivariable frequency responses. robustness. gains. loop shaping Modern loop shaping • Mixed sensitivity design: minimizing H1 norm of extended system • Optimal solution is state-feedback plus observer • Tuning knobs for design are weight functions • Weight selection: part art. poles/zeros.

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