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Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol 2, No.

3, 2012

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Advertisement Movement through Electronic and Print Media: A Study on Bangladesh


MD. ABDULLAH AL JAMIL Department of Marketing, Comilla University, Kotbari, Comilla, Bangladesh. Postal Address: 16/F (Ground Floor), Tallabgh, Shukrabad, Mohahammadpur, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh. Country Code: 880. Cell No: 01712561508, 01674-931127 E-mail: tanvir1111@yahoo.com Abstract The advertising industry has already passed almost four decades of institutionalization in Bangladesh. At the beginning of information and telecommunications technology, the industry has practiced drastic drag in all its localities such as the number of advertising agencies, patron firms, research organizations, models, production houses, fashion houses, handicrafts and so on. The industry has inclined its contiguous circumstances as well as accustomed to cope-up with the changed position. Now, it is time to reunite the progress and find out what it has accomplished and what nevertheless to achieve. So far, the study has contemplated on the quantitative features of the industry but the qualitative approval however needs to be completed. This paper also concentrated on the qualitative characteristics of the industry and marks the trends in progress of the advertising industry while focusing on the potential prospects. Finally, it provides some courses of action leading to an environment promising and healthy for the advertising industry of Bangladesh. Key words: Advertisement, Generalization, Subliminal effect 1. Introduction

Through innovatory ease of information and communication methods, massive development in the number and types of media and the passage of time, the advertising industry in Bangladesh is flourishing and gathering multi hosted experiences. More and more advertising firms of different scopes and spans are joining in the industry adding to the level of rivalry. Deeper infiltration into the field along with greater mastery in the technical environs of the subject is adding to the know-how and strength of the industry. In this small country, advertisement has gone too far to create an example of a folk singer-cum-model becoming a woman member of the parliament (Bangladesh National Parliament Secretariat, 2009). All these facts congeal to bring out novel tendencies posturing massive influence on the culture of the nation. Some trends obviously promise positive results while some others designate a seizure of dissolution. The growth and potentiality of the industry places it in the prospective list of scholars from business studies and other fields. Business or monetary consideration of the industry is already widespread while sparing a scope to view it from the standpoint of the art of advertising. Advertising is a presentation of a story that makes scope for the whole thing possible. So, it must be considered both from monetary or structural perspectives and from the perspectives of its internal aesthetics, its lovable and endearing effects on various segments of the population, its ingenuity and creativity, its unique tones and ostracized nuisances, its harmony and hostility with societal forces. Finally, a holistic assessment should be made which is the motto of this paper. The paper starts with a glance on the present situation of the industry and concentrates on the television advertisements as they create sensational appeals to the most of the sensory receptors of the audience and is assumed the most effective advertising media since its beginning. It takes into consideration the advertisements from other media as well to prop the claims on trends in progress.

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2.

Objectives of the Study

Broad Objective: To indicate the recent advertisement practice by electronic and print media of Bangladesh. Specific Objectives: 1. 2. 3. To explore the academic distinctions made in the advertising arena of Bangladesh; To project future possibilities depending on the recent trends and distinctions; To detect a career path taken by the advertising personalities.

Finally, the paper undertakes to suggest some guidelines to further upgrade the level of advertising of the country and to promote the entire marketing environment by ensuring that all the stakeholders of the industry can be benefited. 3. Rationale of the study

This paper mainly focuses on implicit factors related to non-monetary, more obscure affairs and creativity of the advertisements that have gone unrevealed. Prior to this paper, others have endeavored to explore the surroundings and formation of the industry and to indicate the monetary matters like costs, revenue, market share, growth rate etc. So far, others have been trying to interpret the frequency of exposure, program rating, number of audience etc. All these efforts serve to reveal the explicit factors of advertisements. Certainly, there is a research gap in that the academic areas such as the factors related to source attractiveness and credibility, thought of message, latent concept, advertising influence on culture etc still remain undisclosed and unevaluated. However, the study cannot reach achievement until a total evaluation is made. This paper endeavors to bridge the gap.

4.

Methodology

This paper is prepared based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained through a sample survey conducted on managers of some advertising agencies of print and electronic media on the basis of convenient sampling technique. Interviews were conducted on them and the other professionals involved with these industries with the help of semi structured questionnaire. Moreover with the help of an internal TV card installed onto a personal computer and then the ad clips from various TV channels are recorded. Then only those clips with some considerable distinctions are spotted for analyzing. The distinctions, either drastic or not, are itemized under the headings such as hints, subliminal concept, shortcomings etc. Sources of significant secondary information included the whole range of advertisements on the different magazines, billboards, websites and newspapers throughout the year 2008, 2009 and 2010 are observed and analyzed for distinctions. Significant trends are spotted and then more ad-clips are recorded and analyzed to underline and emphasize the trends. No hard and fast calculations are carried out. All is considered from a holistic, on all sides of view.

5.

Literature Review

In Bangladesh, the size of the advertising industry is assumed to be tk.1200 crore (Rahman, M. 2010). Print media leads the industry with 43% market share while TV stands second at 36% of the advertising market of the country. The industry is growing at a rate of 10% per annum mainly due to the heightened competition among the major mobile operators (Rahman, M. 2010). Before the independence, there were only a few advertisement firms in Bangladesh, the erstwhile East Pakistan, due to inadequate industrialization and limited demand for ads. The pioneers were the firm like

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Bitopi, Asiatic, and Interspan who served the multinational firms like the Lever Brothers (Anwar F, 2009). The advertisement sector is so vast in terms of nature of the firms, span of operation, registration position and other magnitudes that it is so tough to properly bring them into a database. Bangladesh Television shows a total of 150 agencies in the country registered with them but the number exceeds 500 when both the formal and informal sectors are considered (Anwar F, 2009). On the other hand, Bangladesh Yellow Pages registers a total of 293 advertising and counseling agencies and firms today (Bangladesh Yellow Pages, 2010). Top nine advertising firms in descending order of market share- Adcomm, Asiatic, Bitopi, Unitrend, Grey, Interspeed, Popular, Madona, and Matra hold more than 70% of the formal market share while another 13% share is held by other firms and the rest remains the domain of in-house advertisements of business firms (Anwar F, 2009). Farhat Anwar classifies the advertisement media into two categories namely- Above the Line and Below the Line. He includes in Above the Line category the newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and satellite and cable television while the Below the Line category includes event management, in-house advertisement (company performing own advertisement) at point of purchase, outdoor advertisement (billboards, hoarding, neon signs, and bell signs), innovative activities (jatra, street drama) and advertisement on vehicle bodies or fliers. The market size of the formal advertising agencies accounted for about Tk.2 billion in 1999, while, in-house and outdoor advertisements by manufacturing or service providing companies and the informal agencies (non-registered agencies and individuals) accounted for about another Tk. 1 billion. The advertising agencies primarily serve the private national companies (PNC), multinational companies (MNC) and non-government organizations (NGO). The MNCs constitute more than 60% of the media share followed by the PNCs constitute 25%. The major client of the print media is the government (Anwar F, 2009). Types of Advertisements used in Bangladesh: Today there are different types of advertisements used in Bangladesh to promote the products and services, brands or companies to inform and persuade the customers about them. Advertising through advertising industry of Bangladesh employs varieties of forms, such as Television advertising, Infomercials, Radio advertising, covert advertising, press advertising, billboard advertising, mobile billboard advertising, In-store advertising, Street advertising, celebrity branding and online advertising (Search engine results pages,, banner ads, in text ads, online classified advertising, e-mail marketing and social network advertising i.e., facebook advertising etc). Monetary performance: Bangladesh Brand Forum (BBF) studies and publishes quantitative data on advertising spending by the companies or industries. It shows how the industry is enlarging, how the spending shifts from one media to another, one company to the other etc. In 2007, BBF showed the percentage of advertisement placed in different types of media (The Daily Star, 02 March, 2008). It showed that the highest portion (43%) of advertising went to the print media; TV covered only 36%, radio 4% and the rest by outdoor, cinema and the Internet. They calculated a 7% increase of ad-spending by major brands in 2007. They found out highest spending companies in ten categories namely- telecom, bank, real-estate, education, soft-drink, mobile-handset, personal-wash, electronics, shampoo and snacks. It estimated that the top ten categories of industries comprised almost 80% of total media spending that year. Frequency of exposure: In Bangladesh, institutions like Dhaka News and Ryans Archive and many others are doing some important work on capturing and analyzing the advertisements and news on both news-papers and TV channels. Dhaka News disseminates news on advertising expenditures of different mobile phone companies of Bangladesh in 2010. It claims TV commercials to be the most expensive form of advertising in the country (Rahman, M. 2010). It finds out that Robi surpasses Grameen Phone in July, 2010. It also analyses the plausible reason behind the substantial increase in the companys ad expense. Ryans Archive provides information on rate, time, and composition of advertisements in different print and digital media in Bangladesh. This archive makes available information on program rating, audience rating, data on TV commercial monitoring and other services.

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Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol 2, No.3, 2012
Cost associated with the Advertisement in the Print and Electronic media: Advertising costs of four most popular Newspapers are given below: Newspaper Front Page (Tk.) The Daily Prothom Alo The Daily Kaler Kontho The Daily Jughantor The Daily Ittefaq 9000 7500 8000 7000 Last Page (Tk.) 7000 5500 6000 6000 3200 3500 5000 3500 2800 2500 3000 2500 4000 3500 3000 3000 3rd Page (Tk.) 5Page (Tk.) Sport Page (Tk.)

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Average Cost

5200 4500 5000 4400

Table: Advertising costs of Newspapers (Colored, per column inch); (Source: Advertising Agencies of Newspapers of Bangladesh in 2010). Spot Advertising costs of Bangladeshi TV Channels are given below: Name of Channel BTV NTV ATN Bangla Channel I RTV ETV Normal spot (TK) 40000 25000 25000 30000 25000 30000 Fixed Position (TK) 45000 30000 32000 30000 28000 35000 Film Chunk (TK) 50000 35000 35000 32000 30000 30000 Just Before of News (TK) 65000 42000 40000 40000 35000 45000 50000 35000 32000 35000 30000 35000 1st Mid break in News(TK) 2nd Mid Break in News (TK) 40000 25000 20000 22000 20000 28000 Average Cost (TK) 48333 32000 30667 31500 28000 33833

Table: Spot Advertising costs of Bangladeshi TV Channels (Per minute); (Source: Advertising Agencies of TV Channels in 2010). 6. Findings and Analysis Majority of the advertisements cast beautiful and eye-catching models rather than the knowledgeable and skilled. In fact, there are shortages of celebrity experts in the fields of sports, cookery or engineering. Famous culinary experts like Tomy Miah, Siddika Kabir, hair expert like Jawed Habib, Kaniz Almas, cricketer Sakib Al Hasan, Masrafee Bin Mortaza, Ashraful are but a few. There is scarcity of celebrity experts in most other fields. The areas of health, sports other than cricket, news anchors, professionals in teaching sector, Medicare sector, organizational heads and others have remained uncared and unexplored. As a result, the ad-agencies have to fully dependent on the attractive models rather than expertise. These models in turn enjoy some sort of transcendence and secularity with respect to the variety of product they endorse for. There are some advertisements where logical claims or claims on products superiority that the ads intend to communicate relatively longer and relates to the deep-set human feelings like nationalism, fraternal longing and warmth, independence etc. For example, an ad-clip shows some children stealing flowers from a garden early in the morning. The owner of the garden chases them out of the garden. Later, to his utter astonishment the garden owner discovers that they are making a model of the Shahid Minar, the monument resembling the martyrs of the great language movement, on which they yearned to put the garlands of flowers as a mark of tribute to the martyrs. Then he felt sympathetic and he

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Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol 2, No.3, 2012

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himself brought garlands to them. The scene with its serene morning scene creates patriotic feelings in the audience. At this very last moment the name of Grameen Phone is just pronounced once; nothing is said about the product nor is anything claimed. Many other clips fall in the category as in a piece where a middle aged woman laments over the faded memory of her younger brother, with his photograph in her hand, whom she left beyond a river bank, in a dark night, in the rush days of the Independence War in 1971. A message of condolence goes for all such pained souls losing their dear ones in the liberation war. At the very end of the scene, the company name is quietly but clearly pronounced. Again, nothing is said about the product nor anything claimed. It is a sign of advancement of advertisements in Bangladesh that advertisers successfully use the subliminal effect to create deeper streams on audience mental map. In 1957 market researcher James Vicary was first introduced the concept of subliminal effect in marketing. Take for example the advertisement claiming Alo ashbey, that is, Light will come. The advertisement reiterates the only claim-light will come with an indefinable and deep tone stinking of something vital, more than ordinary. In coherence to the reflective tone, imprecise and inspiring arabesques of female figures go on expressively dancing and revolving with the analytic mode of liberty of women power. Other subliminal effects like passive voice, songs for arousal, rhythmic poses are also in applied today. The advertising industry is not beyond the realm of linguistic excess observed in Bangladesh. Almost all the media are using Colloquial speech or unusual forms of Bangla language. Colloquial speech from the districts of Barisal, Noakhali, Magura, Pabna and those from the older part of Dhaka city are widespread in advertisements for different products. Almost regularly, these colloquies assume some sense of humor that amuses people but the practices veritably ruin the linguistic knowledge base of some sects of people. Specially, the youngsters are the most exposed to this malpractice. Many of the advertisements show the use of models who do not convey any verbal message; rather they just appear to decorate the ad i.e., as indirect sources. Female models are more frequent as indirect sources. Exteriors of pairs are also common as indirect source. The castings of indirect sources in couple to adventurous or romantic settings are often irrelevant to the products of interest. A close study of the creative thinkers, copy-writers, illustrators, models, producers, media planners and others of the like may reveal a clear course of expected positions motivating and leading these professionals at different stages of their career. However, the path is woven into other industries in Bangladesh. The career track has become obvious starting with a model and continuing up to a film producer and beyond, to some self-actualizing position in the state mechanism. Lately, it has become a frequently observed phenomenon that beginners start career as models in an advertisement clips. Then they promote to play a role of minor characters in some TV plays and upon performance of several successful episodes, get established as professional/affiliated models in advertisements as well as characters in TV plays. Then they wait for the favorable moment to do something legendary in advertisements or in short films. Afterwards, they seek to produce ad-clips on their own and yet later, to become a film producer or director.

Obviously, the younger performers are meticulously pursuing the course, though not all. According to Shehreen I. K. and Karim, E, (2010) they seriously struggle to take modeling as sole profession but small and irregular pay makes it necessary to take it as part-time. A simple diagram as follows may depict the trendChild model Model or actress Model affiliated with a commercial Ad-clip or short film producer Film producer or director Positions in the State mechanism

(Figure: Career trend of ad models) Very recently, it has become brightly conspicuous that the advertisements are rich with a sense of independence. The most noticeable is that, Jagoroner Gann (energizing songs) is a buzz in the entire

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Developing Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol 2, No.3, 2012

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environment of advertisements. The telecommunication companies of Bangladesh are doing a good thing to promote an environment auguring well for the sense of independence. Individual freedom and self-establishment is also expressed through recent advertisements. As already said, personal freedom, achievement, self-consciousness and other individualistic attributes in advertisements express a sense of personal freedom. There is a direct positive relationship between the advertisement industry and TV, short film and cinema industries in Bangladesh. The exchange relationship among these industries is easily observed in the practices like use of common models in advertisements, TV plays, short films and cinemas; the evolution of models to ad-producers to film developers, and so on. Most of the famous people in the arena are common assets to all these industries. Mostofa Sarwar Farooki is not only a successful ad-producer but also a producer of TV plays and the trendsetter in the present day of Bangla telefilm. Tinni, Mousumi, Tisha are not only super models of Bangladeshi advertisement but also stars of TV plays and films. Mou was not merely an affiliated model with Keya beauty soap; she is a master dancer indeed. The audience has already noticed that advertisers have gone far to search for space for ads not only physical but also digital. However, some innovative efforts attract wonder like the TV or radio news headings named after a commercial; the advertisers even buy TV news intervals for promotion. It was somewhat novel in Bangladesh that a newspaper can use a cover page for advertisement. The daily Prothom Alo introduced special cover page advertisement for the City Bank when it launched American Express Credit Card to Bangladesh. Now the advertisements not only communicate a piece of product information but also offer the audience with much pleasure and fun. Mahfuz Ahmed, a famed actor turned director of TV play and producer of TV ads evaluates the works of his predecessors in this way- Amitav Reza and Mostofa Sarwar Farooki have heralded a distinctive dimension to the ad-clips; now the audience even enjoys the ads. They do not seem to be merely 30-40 second ad-clips, rather resemble complete cinemas (Prothom Alo, 2009). The claim appears correct when we see the Nana-nati advertisements (the grand father and his grand son). They are really humorous and humorous. A Keya Ball soap advertisement cast in a setting of an election campaign depicts a candidate to the chairmanship of Union Council feels embarrassed at the brighter presence of an assistant dressed in a shirt whiter than his one. Incidentally, the shirt was washed with Keya Ball soap. The facial expression and comical threat by the candidate to his aide in the ad-piece create much fun and enjoyment among the audience. Cultural elements put forward by advertisements today are confidence, competition, individualism, freedom of women, self expression, self establishment, hedonism (the eat-drink-and-enjoy stance of life), beauty-consciousness, loquaciousness, romance etc. In the heart of todays advertising industry infests greed, selfishness and voracity. Actually, the desired qualities like fellow felling, caring and sharing, donating etc are nearly absent in todays advertisements; and though visible ever, swallowed up and overwhelmed by the aforesaid maladies. Today Advertising has changed the form of patronization. At present, commercial undertakings have replaced the royal patronizing authorities. National and multinational companies are sponsoring various cultural programs. Everyday numerous concerts, musical shows, exhibitions, model hunting competitions, sport events etc are taking place, backed by the sponsorships of companies. Jui, a brand of coconut oil, presents the recently released romantic cinema Monpura. Among the talent hunting programs, the Lux-Channel-i Superstar, ATN Bangla-Trokader Taroka, and Close-up-One on the ntv are some examples. The industry exhibits a glut of fresh advertisements on some occasions round the year. December, the month of victory in the fight for national freedom, brings a row of advertisements marking victory and frenzy; March, the month of independence, provokes an array of ads colored with freedom and national appreciation. February, the month of language, prompts free music and advertisements redolent of the

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Language Movement. Two Eids, Puja ceremonies, sultry summers, bleak winters, festive parliamentary elections etc turn to be good reasons to induce streams of theme-based advertisements. Advertising also creates nuisance today. It invades all the openness of the city, pollutes sound by new video display units placed at the shopping-hubs. Some below-the-line advertisements are rampant, creating public nuisance. They are not in the least fact-checked. Handouts and slips likely to endorse the sex pills, herbals etc are often thrown into buses through the windows to the annoyance of the passengers. Many of the advertisements exhibit constructive nuances contributing to the body of Bangladeshi advertisements. Fair & Lovely empowers their customers with the ability to become fairness experts themselves. Advertisement of Doctor Milk Candy embraces characters from Ek Dui Tin Sisimpur, a popular TV-serial for children. Wheel introduces a whiteness scale to enable the customers to compare whiteness with. Asian City, a construction firm, metes out fresh humor amid the customers by incorporating a Bengali proverb Nake tel die ghumao tapping linguistic resources of Bangla literature. Many of the recently released advertisements by the phone companies like Grameen Phone and Banglalink do exhibit excellence in emancipating people from prejudice, ignorance and lack of information. They empower their customers through information. Television advertisements teach children many bad habits that are contrary to the sense of sound life. Our school texts teach children to have all types of food items with due zeal whereas television advertisements influences them to be choosy and problematic for the parents. Eldomilk shows a boy child thrust out his mouthful of rice awkwardly and claim khabo na, meaning I will not eat. It firmly violates the norms promoted in the school texts. Another ad shows a mother who claims in a Pran Orange Juice advertisement that oranges are sour and her child does not eat natural oranges. Rather she is happy that her child drinks Pran Orange Juice. The reality is that the juice is packed with much preservative dangerously harmful for the kidneys of the children. At the same time Bangladeshi market environment is infested with unbridled adulteration (Khan M. A. 2010). Children are sometimes depicted as greedy and selfish. An ad for a potato-cracker encourages them to lock the door to enjoy it alone. On the other hand a girl child model increases her friends by distributing her chips and crackers. Clearly, one promotes selfishness and the other openheartedness.

7.

Potential Prospect of Advertisement in Bangladesh

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The industry is going on learning many things from more mature markets and nations with long heritage of rich culture as Mostofa Sarwar Farooki gets inspiration from the famous Iranian film producer Abbas Kiarostami. The trend to follow Indian advertisements in Bangladesh will continue as is true in the case of TV serials. The industry will gradually shift its foundation to more digital communications. Mobile, broadcast TV and Internet advertising will mar the growth of mass media based advertising on TV, radio, newspaper, and magazine as evident in western countries. Niche advertising swells at the presence of well-defined and well-distinguished social groups. Social media and social networking sites as these networks usually connect smaller groups of people but clearly defined and similar in nature as customers. Networks like facebook are very popular and pools friend groups who interchange almost all thoughts and share practical problems of daily life. Companies will arrange competitions for the business students and creative people of different fields to conceive innovative ideas and buy them with instant cash and thus reduce their agency cost. At present, the tk.1200-crore-industry is booming at the rate of 10% per year; the credit goes to the intense battle among the major phone companies over winning customers (Rahman, M. 2010). The trend says there will be more academic excellence in advertisements, more application of psychological methods and conditioning. In the face of heightened competition, companies will spend more on promotion. They will make binding relations with the full service agencies, not only for advertisements but also for other forms of promotions, especially online promotions. As the trend of publicity is already in, some portion of the advertising budget will be allocated to the favorable depiction of the marketer or the products through indirect methods like coverage in reports, magazines, films, TV plays, sponsorship of events etc. The careers of majority advertisement personalities will follow the path portrayed earlier in this article whereas experts from other fields will fetch breakthroughs to the industry. Therefore, advertising will always be a career interwoven with other highly expressive areas. The industry will next search for experts in all walks of life. Media and advertisement courses will open a door to private universities just in the same way as journalism has given an opportunity to them in Bangladesh. As already stated, business students of this digital age are very alert and creative. They are very much eager to take the challenge of creativity. The universities also will come forward to satiate the demand of the day. Recommendations Follow intellectual intensity: Advertisers should explore deeper in academic areas like sources from different new fields, novel extents of credibility, trustworthiness and attractiveness, message formats, new facet rational and emotional appeal, various effecting styles, subliminal effect, negation, sidedness, contrast, comparative advertisement etc. in this way they can easily avoid the humdrums of traditional ads and attract audience more efficiently. Reduce the use of indirect sources: Advertisements in the country have long been under the spell of beauty girls and fashion forward males. It seems that the people involved here considered only the likability feature of the models. Actually, the use of indirect models in ads is somewhat akin to the use of passive sentences in a piece of business writing; both being boring to the audience. However, recent advertisements have shown that persons severely lacking beauty or likability may well prove attractive to the audience by dint of familiarity to and more specifically similarity with the audience. The use of an unfamiliar and undersized young male model in the role of varsity-admission seeking student in a Grameen Phone ad made the clip the most attractive. Similar other pieces prove that the industry, today, can replace the use of indirect models for attractiveness with other models apt for the situation.

8.

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Digitally knock the unused talents: Advertisers should utilize information technology to tap the creative power of unfamiliar but genuine talents who are less cared and unevaluated. These people may remain unexplored in all walks of life. Students often do not find any scope to expel their creative ideas generated in their course works. This digital age provides them much opportunity to be creative but their ideas do not see the auguring face of fruition in practical field due to the absence of opportunity. Standardize compensation: The models and creative personnel work under pressure, as they do not have regularly salaried jobs. If they have permanent jobs, modeling is secondary. Therefore, they cannot give full concentration to their creative work. Advertisers must ensure their regular remuneration to ensure quality work. Bring inter-disciplinary collaboration: Inter-disciplinary collaboration must be encouraged to enhance advertising. In fact advertising is like a form of collage art that makes room for almost everything real, unreal or surreal. It offers an ample opportunity to intermingle literary lucidity, historical evidence, fictional fantasy, scientific precision or universal truth. Creative people from all academic areas should be brought to enhance the industry.

References 1. Anwar F. (2009). Advertising. Banglapedia. http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/A_0049.htm (visited on March 09, 2009) 2. Bangladesh National Parliament Secretariat. (2009). List of MPs in 9th National Parliament of Bangladesh. http://www.parliament.gov.bd/9th_Parliament_MP%20List.pdf (visited on January 23, 2010) 3. Bangladesh Yellow Pages. (2010). http://www.bdyellowbook.com/catalog/Business___Services/Advertising_Agencies___Counselors/ (visited on February19, 2010) 4. Boorstin, Daniel J. (1992). The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-events in America. Vintage. ISBN:0679741801 5. Khan M. A. (2010). Inverse Relationship Between Price and Adulteration. The New Nation. (November 20, 2007) http://www.ittefaq.com/issues/2007/11/20/news0586.htm (visited on January 20, 2010) 6. Palmer Adrian (2000), 1st Edition, Advertising, Principles of Marketing, Oxford University Press 7. Prothom Alo. (March 06, 2009). Page 22. Bigyaponchitro Nirmata Binodon. 8. Rahman, M. (2010). Share of television advertisement: Robi crosses Grameen Phones cost on TVC. Dhaka News. (July 26, 2010) http://www.dhakanews.info/share-of-television-advertisement-robi-crosses-grameen-phone%E2%80%99scost-on-tvc/ (visited on August 20, 2010) 9. Shehreen I. K. and Karim, E. (2010). Facing the Spotlight. Stories Behind the News. The Daily Star. (December 25, 2009) 10. The Daily Star. (March 02, 2008). Telecom operators battle fuels increase in advertising spend. Business. 11. UTalkMarketing. (2010). TV is most effective advertising medium. Industry Research. http://www.utalkmarketing.com/Pages/Article.aspx?ArticleID=14500&Title=TV_is_most_effective_advert ising_medium_ (visited on January 20, 2010)

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