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History 12- Terms to Identify (p. 143-149 Keylor) French Security on the Continent 1.

Issues of Franco-Italian Conflict (20s and 30s) a. France did not support Italys attempt to acquire the Dalmatian Coast during the peace process b. France was mistreating Italians in Tunisia c. France and Italy entered a naval race during the 1920s d. France had allied itself with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia while Italy tried to agitate Yugoslavian Serbs by supporting Croat separatists 2. Franco-Italian Shared Objective (30s) a. Anschluss of German-speaking Austria due to the increased threat to Czechoslovakia and war-making potential b. Creation of an economic federation and political association 3. Anschluss a. The union between Austria and Germany on the grounds that Austria contained German-speaking peoples 4. Austrian Crisis (1934) a. Chancellor Dollruss was assassinated by local Nazis who wanted Hitler to take over b. Plot was foiled when Italian troops were sent to the border to prevent an Anschluss c. Hitler repudiates the plot and Mussolini takes the credit 5. Result of Austrian Crisis (1934) a. January 1935: settled most differences in Africa in exchange for guaranteeing Italian consultations in the event Germany violates Treaty of Versailles or about the independence of Austria 6. German Repudiation of Disarmament Provision of the Treaty of Versailles (March, 1935) a. Hitler makes re-armament public 7. Stresa Conference (April, 1935) a. France, Britain and Italy jointly condemn Germany and threaten joint opposition to further violations b. France and Italy exchange secret pledges of military support if Germany enters Rhineland or Austria 8. Issues of Franco-Soviet Conflict (20s and 30s) a. France had issues with Russias Brest-Litovsk treaty and its debts to French investors b. Russia had issues with Frances anti-bolshevism and support of Poland c. France wanted to maintain the new status quo while Russia worked with Germany to ruin the postwar system 9. Franco-Soviet Relations Improve (30s) a. The rise of Hitler causes Russia to endorse Frances position at the disarmament conferences b. April 1933: Russo-German military collaboration ends and all military ties are cut

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c. New French-Russo relations clear the air of suspicions which gives Barthou an opportunity to create new security arrangements Louis Barthou a. Appointed French foreign minister in Feb. 1934 b. Gets assassinated in Oct. Franco-Soviet Dual Alliance Proposal (1934) a. Modeled on Locarno Treaty b. Germany, Russia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Finland and Baltic states would mutually guarantee their borders c. Bilateral agreement between France and Russia in that Russia would commit to France as per Locarno and France would commit to Russia as per this new pact d. Hitler rejects this proposal and Poland rejects allowing Russia to move troops through its land Pierre Laval a. Appointed new foreign minister in 1935 Lavals New Plan (1935) a. Cement relations between France, Britain and Italy to the point that Germany must enter into an agreement (as suggested by Mussolini in 1933) b. May 1935, France and Russia conclude a mutual assistance pact c. May 1935, Russia and Czechoslovakia made a similar pact d. Germany is now surrounded and isolated Soviet Comintern a. Communist international b. Presented a popular front against all forms of fascism Popular Front a. Viewed by French conservatives as a form of communist interference in French politics b. A coalition of France, Italy and Russia against German advances Reasons for Achievement of French Security (1935) a. France needed a decidedly anti-German coalition which led it to fascist Italy and communist Russia b. Italy and Russia were surprisingly friendly to each other which facilitated the process