Strength properties of concrete using volcanic ash and calcium oxide as admixtures

BY MATHEW A. J.

SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING,IN PARTIAL , FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF THE BACHELORS OF TECHNOLOGY(B-TECH) IN BUILDING.

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING, SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY.

FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, MINNA, NIGER STATE.

For more information contact Email-johnybiz07@yahoo.co.uk Tel-+234(0)8051524039

ABSTRACT Pozzolanic materials have long demonstrated their effectiveness in producing high performance concrete .This work evaluates the potentials’ of volcanic ash(VA) and Quicklime as a total replacement for ordinary Portland cement. This research work studied the suitability of volcanic ash incorporated with quicklime for the construction of low cost houses for the generality of the masses. The research work focuses on the compressive strength of volcanic ash when CaO replaces the volcanic ash at 20% and 30% replacement, and cured at 7,14,21 and 28 days respectively to determine the compressive strength. The compressive strength of the volcanic ash concrete increased with curing age and the maximum compressive strength was attained with 30% replacement of volcanic ash with quick lime was 19.19N/mm2 at 28days while the maximum compressive strength at 20% replacement of volcanic ash with quicklime was 17.48N/mm .The setting time of volcanic ash concrete was slower when compared to conventional OPC concrete.The strength increases as the replacement of the volcanic ash with calcium oxide increases.The specific gravity of volcanic ash was found to be 3.04.while the bulk density was found to be 1394kg/m3 .The slump ranges from 30mm-50mm in all the mix.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Volcanic activity is an event that has always been associated with destruction and catastrophe. Volcano was named after the god of fire and forge. This perception is gradually fading as researchers in Latin America, Africa and Canada are investigating on how volcanic ash can be used as a basic material for low cost housing.(Newton. 2002) Portland cement the most common building materials is expensive because of the large amount of energy involved in producing itthis is due largely to the fact that, It must be fired at high temperature and the cost of transportation is high.(Newton.2002) Day (2005) in his research emphasized the need for a viable alternative, since much of the population in developing countries lives in inadequate housing. The prospect of reducing the cost hinges on reducing the price of building materials. The uses of volcanic ash in building dates back to thousands of years ago(Encarta 2007).The pyramids of Shaanxi in china was built using volcanic ash and lime as the binding agent. Archeological evidence has also shown that some building erected in the era of roman empire was constructed using a combination of quicklime, pozzolanic ash and an aggregate made from pumice.(Encarta 2007)

The properties of concrete has been altered since the roman and Egyptian times, when it was discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set under water. Volcanic ash in addition to its natural cementaceous properties serves the purposes of aggregates that fills the voids between the fine sand aggregates and cement.(F.A.O Report 2005) There are lots of materials which has the ability to act as a pasta for building construction purposes(Powell 1984).The aggregate used in construction are non cementacious solid particle, which are either natural occurring or a by product of some industrial process(Varshey 1978) Varshey further stated that the grading of aggregates is broadly classified into fine and coarse aggregate; the fine aggregates is less than 5mm while the coarse aggregates is above 5mm.Water plays a significant contribution on the workability and pumpability,when in excess the compressive strength of the concrete could be adversely affected(BS 1981).The grade of concrete is its characteristics strength and it durability depends on the usage of adequate proportion of each of the constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete is the most important materials in construction work, its selection is frequently governed by the strength required, which in turn depends on the intensity of loading and the form and size of the structural members (W.H. Mosely et al 1999).The strength of concrete is assessed by measuring the crushing strength of cubes or cylinders of

concrete made from the mix.These are usually cured and tested after twenty eight days according to standard procedures. Experiment conducted Evuti(2006) and Hassan(2006) stipulated that the major difference between cement and volcanic ash is that volcanic ash has calcium oxide content of 11.6% while Portland cement contains 66% calcium oxide content.These discrepancy in calcium oxide content was responsible for the slow setting and low strength in volcanic ash concrete. Researches conducted by Day(2005) also confirm the calcium oxide deficiencies,when he added one quarter of lime to volcanic ash,the natural volcanic ash behaves like Portland cement.Pozzolana and lime can be produced with much less sophisticated technology than Portland cement, however it takes two to three times the volume of pozzolana required to make a concrete with the same strength. The strength normally improves with age since pozzolana reacts more slowly than cement, and at one year about the same strength is obtained(Encarta 2007) Evuti (2006) shows that calcium chloride addition to volcanic ash boosted the lime content of volcanic ash, but the corrosive nature of calcium chloride to reinforcement rods is the main reason for research

into an alternative admixtures that will increase the lime content without corroding metals used as reinforcement. Calcim oxide,CaO,is obtained by the thermal decomposition of calcium trioxonitrate (IV).It is also known as quicklime or simply lime.It is the most common ‘alternative’ binders to which other materials, known as pozzolanas, can be added to enhance strength and water resistance. Other binders such as gypsum, sulphur, bitumen, mud and animal dung have also been used.Lime was known to the Greeks and was widely used by the Romans. The Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius published the first specification for the use of lime in building in his celebrated work De Architectura. The Romans also knew how to make a lime-pozzolana cement by adding materials such as volcanic ash or powdered bricks, tiles and pottery to lime. That lime is an appropriate and durable binding material, especially when mixed with pozzolana, is well proven. The Pont du Gard at Nimes in France, a Roman aqueduct built in AD 18 with hydraulic lime-based mortar, is still waterproof; the excellence of the mortar is attributed to the selection of the materials and to the time spent tamping the mix into place during construction.(Encarta 2007) The utilization of lime as an admixture has several advantages such as; excellent resistance to water penetration, whilst allows vapour

penetration, high open porosity, high ductility to joint and massive masonry, excellent plasticity and hydraulic properties. This inherent properties of lime combines very well with pozzolanas such as volcanic ash thereby facilitating Improved workability, Improved water retention/reduced bleeding, Improved sulphate resistance .Improved resistance to alkali – aggregate reaction, and Lower heat of hydration(Magaret 2005) 1.1 AIM OF THE RESEARCH To determine the strength properties of concrete produced with volcanic ash and CaO as admixtures 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH To determine the effect of addition of calcium oxide in the strength of concrete obtained from volcanic ash To correlate using statiscal means, the extent to which calcium oxide can improve the strength of volcanic ash concrete To make recommendation based on the findings of the research work

1.3

SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH WORK The research work will cover the use of calcium oxide at 20% and

30% replacement of the volcanic ash 1.4 NEED FOR THE RESEARCH Portland cement, the most common building material, is expensive because of the large amount of energy involved in producing it. It must be fired at high temperatures and the transportation costs are high. The need for a viable alternative is immense, since much of the population in developing countries lives in inadequate housing. The prospect of reducing the cost hinges on reducing the price of building materials. Pozzolan cement made from volcanic ash is proving to be one answer. 1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH The methodology to be used for the work includes the followings 1) Review of related literatures Casting of cubes 150 x 150 x 150mm containing the constituents materials ( Aggregates, Volcanic ash and calcium oxide at 20% and 30% replacement of volcanic ash and finally the curing of the cubes for 7,14, 21, and 28 days respectively. The crushing of the cubes for 7 , 14 , 21

and 28 days so as to determine the respective compressive strength of specimen.
For more information contact Email-johnybiz07@yahoo.co.uk Tel-+234(0)8051524039

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