HET312 Control & Automation

1. Introduction To Control System
1. Control is the process of making a system variable to follow some desired value in some desired manner. 2. To control the system variable, the system under control must be understood. 3. Control theory is not just applicable to science and engineering. The concept may also be applied to business, social and political systems 4. The process to be controlled may be represented by a block diagram A. Open-loop control system Input Controller Process/Plant Output

5. Some processes may be inherently unstable – e.g. balancing inverted broomstick. Fortunately some of them can be made stable using closed-loop control. 6. Closed-loop control: Measures the output of the process ⇓ Compared it with the desired output (= input) ⇓ If output and input are not equal, then an error results ⇓ The controller will force the error to zero, i.e. output = input. 7. If the control, measurement and feedback are done by machine rather than human, then the control is termed Automatic Control. 8. The main objective of a control system is to make the process to follow the input as close as possible. ♣Reading list: Chapter 1 of both Dorf and Ogata

B. Closed-loop control system Input
Compare Controller Process/Plant

Output

Example 1.1: Many luxury cars have thermostatically controlled air conditioning systems. Sketch a block diagram of an air conditioning system where the driver sets the desired temperature on the dashboard panel. Identify (either process, controller, measurement, output, input) of each element of the thermostatically controlled cooling system.

Measurement

Example of control system: Driving a car
i. (Input) Driver desires to drive at 60km/h ii. (Controller) Driver depresses the accelerator iii. (Process) Car accelerates iv. (Measurement) Speed increase shown on the speedometer v. (Controller) driver compares the speed of the car with the desired speed, depressing / pressing the accelerator if necessary – for closed-loop

eg. 2: Cooking, unmanned vehicles

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W Wong 2004 1_1 - Intro 312

HET312 Control & Automation

2. Mathematical Modeling of Control Systems
1. To understand and control complex system, usually a mathematical model of the system must first be obtained – relationships between system variables. 2. The mathematical model is usually in the form of differential equation as it contains information about the system behavior as time progresses – Dynamics. 3. Laplace Transforms (LT) can be used to simplify the solution, i.e. finding the response as time progresses. 4. Usually, assumptions are made during the derivation of the mathematical model to simplify solution without severe inaccuracy. 5. Generally, in solving a control system:

2.1 Differential equations of physical system 1. The differential equations describing the dynamic performance of a physical system (mechanical, electrical, fluid, business etc) can be obtained: a. Mathematically by using physical laws, ⇐ b. Empirically by measuring the output and input of the system. 2. Examples will be shown to demonstrate the approach used to develop models using differential equations. Basically the equation relates the output with the input. The rest are all constants. Example 2.1: Spring-mass-damper system Assuming that the system is operating at the linear region, an external force, u(t) is applied to the system, causing a change in the displacement of the mass, y(t). Input = force u(t) Output = displacement y(t) Force produced by spring = ky Force produced by damper = b dy/dt Acceleration of the mass due to force = m d2y/dt2 Since the total force must be zero (physical law),

Define system & components

Formulate mathematical model + assumptions

& u = m&& + by + ky y
Writing differential equation

Solution of differential equation

Example 2.2: RCL circuit

Examine solutions & assumptions

i (t )
vi (t )

L
C

R

v o (t )

1

W Wong 2003 2_1 - Laplace

HET312 Control & Automation

Input = voltage vi(t) Output = displacement vo(t)

The Taylor Series expansion of the function g(x) at operating point x0 is:

& From Kirchoff’s Voltage Law, vi = Li + vo … (1)
v & From Kirchoff’s Current Law, i = Cvo + o … (2) R
Differentiate equation (2) and then substituting it into equation (1) gives:

g ( x) = g ( x0 ) + (x − x0 )

dg dx

+
x = x0

( x − x 0 )2
2!

d 2g dx 2

+K
x = x0

For a small range, x – x0 << 1 and hence the expansion can be simplified to a linear equation:

& v ⎞ ⎛ && v i = L⎜ C v o + o ⎟ + v o R⎠ ⎝ L && & vi = LCvo + vo + v o R
3. The above example are for linear time invariant (LTI), single input single output (SISO) control system. Other types of system may exist and can be modelled by similar manner.

g ( x) ≈ g ( x0 ) + (x − x0 ) g ( x) − g ( x0 ) = (x − x0 )

dg dx dg dx

x = x0

x = x0

Δy = m Δx

Example 2.3: Pendulum Oscillator model

♣Reading list: Section 2.1, 2.2 of Dorf, and Chapter 3.1, 3.2 & 4 of Ogata. 2.2 Linear approximation of physical systems 1. A linear system satisfies the properties of superposition.

x1 (t ) + x 2 (t ) → y1 (t ) + y 2 (t )
2. Most physical systems are linear within some range of the variables. E.g. spring-mass system. However all systems ultimately become non-linear as the variables are increased without limit. 3. To linearize non-linear elements over a range of the variables, Taylor Series expansion about the operating point is utilized.

The torque on the mass, T (θ ) = MgL sin θ To linearize the model about the equilibrium point at θ = 0°, the Taylor Series:

T (θ ) = T (0 0 ) + (θ − 0 0 )MgL cos 0 0 T (θ ) = θMgL

2

W Wong 2003 2_1 - Laplace

HET312 Control & Automation

2.3 Solving differential equation 1. If the system is linear time-invariant, Laplace transform can be used to simplify the solution of the differential equation. The solution of the differential equation let us know how the system behaves as time progresses.
System modelling Differential Equation Laplace Transform Solution by Inverse LT

6. To demonstrate the use of LT, consider the spring-mass-damper system in example 2.1. The differential equation describing the system is given by:

& u = m&& + by + ky y

Taking the Laplace transform of the differential equation,

& U ( s ) = m(s 2Y ( s ) − sy (0) − y (0) ) + b(sY ( s ) − y (0) ) + kY ( s )

2. Signals that are physically realizable always have a Laplace transform. The Laplace transformation for a function of time, f(t), is:

F ( s ) = L{ f (t )} =

If the input and the initial conditions are given by (HOWEVER, in almost all control design, all initial conditions are assumed 0): & u (t ) = 0 , y (0) = y 0 and y (0) = 0 The equation becomes

∫ f (t )e
0

− st

dt

and the inverse Laplace transform is written as:

1 st f (t ) = F ∫j∞ (s )e ds 2πj σ −
3. When using Laplace transform, we are actually solving the control system differential equation in the frequency domain, as opposed to the time domain. 4. Instead of using the mathematical equations above to perform Laplace transformation, a standard Laplace transforms table, as that shown in table 2.1, is available for time functions that will frequently appear in linear control analysis. 5. The Laplace variable s can be considered to be the differential operator so that:

σ + j∞

0 = ms 2Y ( s ) − msy 0 + bsY ( s ) − by 0 + kY ( s ) (ms + b ) y 0 Y (s) = ms 2 + bs + k
The equation is now in algebraic expression and hence the solution is simpler. 7. The Laplace equation can be simplified using partial fraction and the time response obtained by taking the inverse Laplace transform of each term. Let k/m = 2, b/m = 3 and y0 = 1, hence

Y (s) =
By partial fraction,

(s + 3 ) (s + 1)(s + 2)

d s≡ dt

&

1 ≡ ∫ dt s 0
n−2

t

Y (s) =

2 1 − (s + 1) (s + 2)

6. For the nth derivative of a function f(t), the Laplace transform is:

⎡dn ⎤ & L ⎢ n f (t )⎥ = s n F ( s ) − s n −1 f (0) − s n − 2 f (0) − K − sf dt ⎣ ⎦

From the Laplace table, the output response/solution is

(0) − f

n −1

(0)

y (t ) = 2e −t − e −2t

3

W Wong 2003 2_1 - Laplace

HET312 Control & Automation 4 W Wong 2003 2_1 .Laplace .

with all initial conditions assumed to be zero. 4. dy (0) = 0 and r(t) = 1 dt o -3 × -2 × -1 σ Example 2. it can be seen that: a.1 shows the poles (×) and zero (o) of the spring-massdamper system discuss earlier. in the earlier spring-mass-damper system.4 Find the time response for a system represented by the differential equation d2y dy + 4 + 3 y = 2r (t ) dt dt with the conditions y (0) = 1 . Figure 2.HET312 Control & Automation 2. jω Y ( s) 1 = 2 U ( s ) ms + bs + k Example 2.5 s-plane Figure 2.. U ( s ) = ms 2Y ( s ) + bsY ( s ) + kY ( s ) and the transfer function is given by: 2. the Laplace equation describing a control system is in the form: (s + b0 )(s + b1 )(s + b2 )..(s + a n ) Zeros Characteristic equation Poles 7. poles: determine the form of the time response b.. The roots of the numerator are called the zeros of the system. Generally.1 ⎡ M 1 s + b1 + b2 Given ⎢ − b1 ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎡V ( s ) ⎤ ⎡ R( s )⎤ . 5. zeros and transfer function 1. The roots of CE are called the poles of the system. Both poles and zeros can be of complex conjugate pairs. For example.(s + bm ) (s + a0 )(s + a1 )(s + a 2 ). zeros: set the magnitude of each response component (the residues of each component) function relating the input r(t) and output v1(t) 5 W Wong 2003 2_1 . The denominator when set equal to 0 is called the Characteristic Equation (CE) because the roots of the CE determine the nature of the time response. From the previous example. 8. Find the transfer k ⎥⎢ 1 ⎥ = ⎢ M 2 s + b1 + ⎥ ⎣V2 ( s )⎦ ⎣ 0 ⎥ ⎦ s⎦ − b1 6.4 Poles.. They can be plotted on the s-plane. if all initial conditions are zero.Laplace . 3. Transfer function of a linear system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable.

To find the final value of the time response (the steady state value). 5.5.Laplace . natural response dominates.HET312 Control & Automation 2.4 and 2. This theorem applies if and only if f(t) settles down to a definite value for t → ∞. the initial value is: f (0) = lim sY ( s ) = lim s s →∞ s →∞ (s + 3) = 1 (s + 1)(s + 2) 1 . The time response is consists of two parts: a.6: FVT and IVT 5.3. But if F(s) has poles on the imaginary axis or in the right half s-plane. 2. Find the initial and final value for the function F ( s ) = answers by finding f(t). 2.2 . the Final Value Theorem is used. Consider the previous spring-mass-damper example. 3. 4. the locations of the poles are not important. In applying initial value theorem. The response is due to two components: a. f(t) will contain oscillating or exponentially increasing time functions.6 of Ogata.2 shows the general output time response of a control system. During steady state. During transient.6 Initial and final value theorem 1. lim f (t ) = lim sF ( s ) t →∞ s →0 ♣Reading list: Section 2. Natural response: resulting from system dynamics 2. then final value exist.2 which is in agreement with the sketched result. Verify your s (s + 1) Example 2. and Chapter 2. 4. instability occurs.3. Transient response: response from initial state to final state b. the final value is: lim f (t ) = lim sY ( s ) = lim s t →∞ s →0 s →0 (s + 3) = 0 3 = 0 (s + 1)(s + 2) 1 × 2 Figure 2. Time response 2.5 of Dorf. 1. 7. natural response dies out and forced response dominates. Consider the previous spring-mass-damper example. 3. If the natural response never dies out when t → ∞. Figure 2. If all the poles of F(s) lie in the left half of the s-plane. Steady state response: response at final state 3. and hence there will be no final value. Initial value theorem is used to find the initial value of f(t) directly from the Laplace transform of f(t). f (0) = lim sF ( s ) s →∞ 6. Forced response: resulting from input stimulus b. 6 W Wong 2003 2_1 .

From example. Table 2.Block . the block diagram in figure 2. 4.4 7 W Wong 2003 2_7 . To represent system with several variables under control.3 3.3 represents the set of equations: This is the closed-loop transfer function (CLTF).4 can be reduced to a single block representation. an interconnection of blocks is utilized. some are given in table 2. There are many other block diagram transformation. For example.7 Block diagram representation 1. E ( s) = R( s) − C ( s) H ( s) C ( s) = G ( s) E ( s) So.2. The system transfer function can be found by: R(s) + _ E(s) G(s) C(s) H(s) Figure 2. U(s) G (s) = 1 Y (s) = 2 U ( s ) ms + bs + k Y(s) E ( s) = R( s ) − C ( s ) H ( s) C ( s ) = G ( s ) R( s ) − G ( s )C ( s ) H ( s ) C (s) G ( s) = R( s ) 1 + G ( s) H ( s ) 2.4. It consists of unidirectional operational blocks that represent the transfer function of the variables of interest. With the CLTF.HET312 Control & Automation 2. block diagram in figure 2.2 Figure 2. Consider the closed-loop negative feedback system shown in figure 2. Block diagram can be used to represent control systems relationship. the spring-mass-damper system.

The transfer function of the system can be determined using Mason’s Rule.Block . gain: a multiplying factor (constant or a transfer function) 8.7 Find the transfer function: A.Σ( gain products of all possible three loops that do not touch) + … Δi = ith forward path determinant = value of Δ for that part of the block diagram that does not touch the ith forward path. For a complex system. 7. Gi = path gain of ith forward path Δ = system determinant = 1 .Σ(all individual loop gain) + Σ(gain products of all possible two loops that do not touch) . Mason’s Rule: The transfer function associated with a signal flow graph is given by: Example 2. loop path: a path that leads from a given variable back to the same variable d. 8 W Wong 2003 2_7 . loop gain: the product of gains in a loop e. forward path: a path from input to output such that no node is included more than once b. An alternative method of representing the system uses line segments (often referred to as signal flow graphs). loop: any closed path that returns to its starting node c.HET312 Control & Automation 5. the block diagram approach can be a burden. Definitions for the application of Mason’s Rule: a. G(s) = where 1 ∑ Gi Δ i Δ B. 6.

Sensitivity of transfer function T with respect to process G is defined as: Y ( s) = G(s) R( s) In the limit. Transient and Steady State Response Analysis 3. Sensitivity A process is subject to changing environment. S G = 1 T T ΔT T SG = T ΔG G G ∂T = T ∂G And for closed-loop. for open-loop. this becomes: S G 2. Feedback.HET312 Control & Automation 3. An open-loop system operates without feedback and directly generates the output in response to an input signal. Example 3. the sensitivity of closed-loop system is better than open-loop system. aging and other factors that affect a control process. How would you reduce the sensitivity? C (s ) + _ K s (s + a ) R (s ) 1 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . Closed-loop feedback system uses the error between the desired and the actual response to control the process. S G = T 1 G (1 + GH ) 1 + GH − GH = 2 1 + GH G (1 + GH ) Since GH is usually >> 1. Y (s) G ( s) = R( s) 1 + G ( s) H ( s) 3.1 Feedback System 1. 4. Hence.1: Calculate the sensitivity of the CLTF to changes in parameter ‘a’. Reduces the effect of disturbance signal d. if used properly will improve control system response as it: a. Can easily change the transient response c. Sensitivity is the ratio of the fractional change in the transfer function to the fractional change in the parameter for a small incremental change. Reduces steady state error Sensitivity also applies to other parameters in the system. Reduces sensitivity to parameter variation b.

− G1G2 H 2 N ( s) 1 + G1G2 H 1 H 2 6. the quality and constancy of feedback sensors must be assured!! Figure 3. V (s) = 1 s Therefore. ω ( s ) = = K s + 0 . This is equivalent to maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor. Consider a steel sheets rolling machine operating in open-loop. + _ ω ( s) V (s) = K s + 0 .1− K )t .1 ω (s) = 1 K s s + 0 . parameter such as gain can be adjusted to yield the desired response. For the system in Figure 3.1 + K The effect of noise on the output is: Y ( s ) = ( ) Figure 3. V ( s) = 1 s Disturbance signal is an unwanted input signal that affects the system’s output signal. If the machine operates in closed-loop.HET312 Control & Automation 5. noise in electronic circuit. Transient response Transient response is a very important characteristic of control systems.1t).g.1 ω (s) = 1 K s s + 0 . To increase the response.3 adjusted by adjusting K. the output resulting from the disturbance input is: ω ( s) = −G2 ( s)Td ( s) ω ( s) V (s) With the feedback loop.2. In a closed-loop system. Some noise signal may be introduced into the measuring sensor. as shown in figure 3. Disturbance Signal H1 must be increased in order to reduce the effect of disturbance.1 + K The time response of the machine when a unit step voltage input is applied is ω (t ) = K 1 − e (−0. without the feedback loop. the effect of disturbance can be decreased.2 2 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . In an open-loop system if the transient response is unsatisfactory then the process G(s) must be replaced or additional controller must be inserted. a controller needs to be added or the machine has to be changed. Therefore the speed of the response can be 0.3. which is slow. To improve both sensitivity and rejection to disturbance.1 − G2 ( s) Td ( s ) 1 + G1 ( s )G2 ( s ) H ( s ) The time response of the machine when an unit step voltage input is applied is ω(t) = 10K(1 – e-0. if G1(s)H(s) is made large enough. e.

the error between the input and the output is given by: E ( s) = R( s) − Y ( s) 1 E ( s) = R( s) 1 + G ( s) Using the final value theorem. However. The commonly used test input signals are shown in table 3.HET312 Control & Automation 7. Once a control system is designed on the basis of test signals. the performance of the system in response to actual input is generally satisfactory. 3. It will be discussed more in later section. 8.2 Test input signal 1. feedback also has its disadvantages: a. Increases the number of system components b.1. the error between the input and the output is given by: 3. May cause instability ♣ Reading list section 4. Therefore the closed-loop system will have smaller steady state error.5 of Dorf ♣ Reading list section 5. the steady state error when and unit step input is applied is: 1 e(∞ ) = lim s E ( s ) = 1 − G (0) s →0 s For closed-loop system.1 of Ogata 3 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . Increases system complexity c. Sensors used in feedback are costly and are subjected to noise and inaccuracy. d. In real system. a set of standard input functions is used to test the system.1 – 4. Steady state error is in fact an important performance spec. the steady state error when and unit step input is applied is: 1 1 e(∞ ) = lim s E ( s ) = s →0 s 1 + G (0) The value of G(s) when s = 0 is called the DC gain and its normally > 1. Steady state error Steady state error is the output error after the transient response has decayed (not to be confused with steady state response!!). The type of input signals used for analyzing system characteristics is determined by the input that the system will be subjected to most frequently. E ( s ) = R( s ) − Y ( s ) = R( s ) − G ( s ) R( s ) = (1 − G ( s ) )R( s ) Using the final value theorem. For open-loop system. 2.1 of Dorf and 5.

(s + a ) ω 2 +ω 2 .3 Pole position and transient response 1. If G ( s ) = ω s +ω2 2 . the real part of a pole indicates the decay rate of oscillation and the imaginary part determines the frequency. If G ( s ) = 4. The response is a damped oscillation with frequency of ω rad/s and a rate of decay of 1/a seconds. 4 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . The frequency is determined by the position of the poles in the jω-axis. A conjugate pair of poles on the s-plane imaginary axis yields time response which is a sustained oscillation. then g (t ) = e − at s+a conjugate pairs. The transient response of a control system is characterized by the position of the poles. This is an unstable system as the output s−b 5. Note that this only happen when there is at least a pole in the right-hand s-plane. then g (t ) = sin ωt . If G ( s ) = grows without bound as time progresses. Complex poles (and zeros) exist as 1 . As a general rule. then g (t ) = e bt . 2. If G ( s ) = 1 .HET312 Control & Automation 3. 3. then g (t ) = e − at sin ωt .

2 Step input Response to step input 2. or 4 time constants. 1 (which is just the Ts + 1 1 −t / T e . Ramp input 3. the steady state is reached only after infinite time. the time response is found as c(t ) = 1 − e − t / T . Mathematically. Generally a 2nd order system is written standard as: ωn C ( s) = 2 R ( s ) s + 2ςω n s + ω n 2 where ωn is the undamped natural frequency and ζ is the damping ratio. Comparing the system responses to these three inputs.4 First order system 1. As t 4. T is the time 2. the time response is found as c(t ) = t − T + Te − t / T . and the smaller the time constant is. the time response is: ( ) 3. 1− e −ςωnt ⎛ 1− ς 2 sin ⎜ ω d t + tan −1 ⎜ ς 1−ς 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 5 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . Impulse response is can be obtained by differentiating the step response. In practice the steady state is achieved as long as the output is within 2% of the final value. C ( s ) = approaches infinity. 5. eg. Consider a first order system (open or closed-loop) where the input-output relationship is given by: C ( s) 1 = R( s ) Ts + 1 1 1 .E.5 Response of a second order system 1. When 0 < ζ < 1 (underdamped) Impulse input The roots of the C. T 6. Taking the inverse Ts + 1 s 2 Laplace transform. C ( s ) = constant (time for the response to reach 63. = − ςω n ± j 1 − ς 2 ω n = −ςω n ± jω d . When a unit impulse input is applied. When unit step input is applied. When a unit step input is applied. the faster the system response. where ωd is the damped natural frequency. Taking the inverse Ts + 1 s Laplace transform. it is shown that the response to the derivative of an input signal can be obtained by differentiating the response of the system to the original system. C ( s ) = transfer function) and the time response is c(t ) = 1 1 . there will be an error T.2% of its final value).HET312 Control & Automation 3. When a unit ramp input is applied.

4.5 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback ( ) 6 . there will be no oscillation. critically damped and overdamped are depicted in figure 3. underdamped. The time responses for undamped. The response to unit step input is: Figure 3.4 c(t ) = 1 − cos ω n t which means that the system will be undamped and oscillate indefinitely. Figure 3.HET312 Control & Automation jω n 1 − ζ 2 ωn θ − ζω n σ − jω n 1 − ζ 2 3. 5. ζ = 0 (Undamped case) There will be a pair of conjugate poles in the imaginary axis at s = jωn.4. The response to unit step input is: 7. The response to unit step input is a combination of two decaying exponentials terms. 2nd order systems that have the same damping ratio but different ωn will exhibit the same overshoot and oscillatory pattern. c(t ) = 1 − e −ωnt (1 + ω n t ) Hence. ζ = 1 (Critically damped case) There will be two equal real roots at s = ωn. 6. The response of 2nd order system to impulse input can be obtained by differentiating the corresponding unit-step response since impulse function is just the derivative of step function. ζ > 1 (Overdamped case) There will be two real roots at − ςω n ± ς 2 − 1 ω n . 8.

785s. 3. 5. ζω n 4 Settling time.2. Small value of ζ causes too much overshoot. and too large value causes too sluggish response. Peak time. The rise time and overshoot conflict with each other.6 Standard Performance measures for 2nd order system 1. t p = π ωd ⎛ ζπ −⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 1−ζ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Percentage overshoot. %OS = e Damping.1: Standard performance measures Find the peak time. i.3 both Ogata and Dorf 7 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback .HET312 Control & Automation 3. section 5. 1. In practice. both cannot be reduced at the same time.5%.8. percentage overshoot and settling time (2% criterion) for the following system (ans: 0. it is usually desired that the damping ratio to be about 0. Example 3.33s) ♣ Reading list.4 to 0. t s = ζω n 3 (2% criterion) (5% criterion) ts = ζω n 2.e. ζ = × 100% − ln (%OS ) π 2 + ln 2 (%OS ) 1 Time constant. The performance characteristics of a control system are specified in terms of the transient response to unit step input with all initial conditions at zero. 9.

Therefore. 4. the output of a higher-order system for input r(t) is given by: −b+a −c+a T (s) = − b + c + − c + b (s + b ) (s + c ) Hence. Example 3. the responses that correspond to these poles decay rapidly to zero. A pair of closely located poles and zeros will effectively cancel each other.. 2.2 Find the partial fraction of the following equation and comment on the effect of poles and zeros. For those poles that are located far left from the jω-axis.3. If there is a zero close to a pole. Factoring and taking the partial fraction of the above equation gives: 2 T (s) ≈ C ( s) = q + 2r = n (s + b )(s + c ) a Hence. Dorf 5.. then the residue/effect of this pole is small. 7. + a n −1 s + a n r b (s + ζ ω ) + c ω a q aj k k k k 1− ζ k +∑ +∑ k 2 2 s j =1 s + p j k =1 s + 2ζ k ω k s + ω k m≤n If the zero is very far left to the poles (a is much larger compared to b and c). 10.3.HET312 Control & Automation 3.7 Higher-order systems 1.. but the zeros determine the shape of the response (magnitude of the response components) 5. the zero looks like a gain factor. + bm −1 s + bm R( s) C ( s) = a 0 s n + a1 s n −1 + . The response of higher order systems is the sum of the responses of 1st and 2nd order systems. Generally. Assume a 2nd order system with an additional zero at s = -a: G ( s) = s+4 (s + 3)(s + 30) T (s) = By partial fraction expansion. 6.4 8 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback .4. Poles determine the type of transient response. then: 3. if the real part of the poles exceeds 5 times the real part of the poles nearest to the jω-axis. (s + a ) (s + b )(s + c ) ♣Reading list: Ogata 5. zero affects the residue or magnitude of the response components b0 s m + b1 s m −1 + . 5. 5.. they will have negligible effect on the system response (assuming that there are no zeros nearby the nearest poles).

If N = 0. The constant G(0) is called the position error constant. Any physical control system inherently suffers steady-state error in response to certain types of inputs.8 Steady state error 1. lim sG (0) = lim s Q s →0 s →0 ∏ k =1 (bi s + 1) K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) A = = K . 2. 4.1 Position error constant With step input (of magnitude A). hence ess= 0. hence ess = 0 s N ∏ Q=1 (bi s + 1) k e ss = lim s s →0 A A 1 = s 1 + G ( s ) 1 + G (0) Type 0 system is incapable of following a ramp input in the steady state.8. This constant is used The open-loop transfer function can be written as: to express the steady state error for ramp input. hence ess = Q s →0 s →0 ∏ 1+ K k =1 (bi s + 1) K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) = = ∞ . Kp. lim sG (0) = s Q s →0 K s ∏ k =1 (bi s + 1) For higher order system. etc. Steady state error. hence ess = For type 1 system.Classification of control systems – system type number Consider the unity feedback system: K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) 1 = For type 0 system. lim sG (0) = s s →0 R( s) .2 Velocity Error Constant With ramp input (magnitude A). the system is type 0. This constant is used to express the steady state error for step input.HET312 Control & Automation 3. For type 1 or higher. the system is type 1. K ∏ M (a s + 1) = G ( s ) = N iQ1 i s ∏ k =1 (bi s + 1) The index “N” denotes the system type number. is another important performance measure. lim G (0) = lim N Q s →0 s →0 s ∏ k =1 (bi s + 1) 3. 1 + G(s) K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) = = ∞ . 3. ess. lim G (0) = lim = K . If N = 1. 9 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . e ss = lim s s →0 A 1 A = lim 2 s 1 + G ( s ) s →0 sG (0) s →0 The velocity error constant is defined as K v = lim sG (0) . K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) = = 0 . The error can be found by applying final value theorem to E ( s ) = 3.8. hence ess = ∞ For type 0 system.

2: Steady state error in terms of gain K ♣ reading list: 5. find the value of K that gives a 10% error in the steady state when ramp input is applied.3: Steady state error Given the control system shown below. while maintaining the transient response.3 Acceleration Error Constant With parabolic/acceleration input (magnitude A). lim s 2 G (0) = s 2 s →0 For higher order system. lim s 2 G (0) = s 2 s →0 K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) = = 0 . hence ess = 2 Q Ka s ∏ k =1 (bi s + 1) K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) = = ∞ . lim s G (0) = lim s s →0 s →0 ∏ Q=1 (bi s + 1) k 2 2 120 ( s + 2) ( s + 3)( s + 4) For type 1 system. 5tu(t) and 5t2u(t) to the following system. The acceleration error constant is defined as K a = lim s 2 G (0) . K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) = = 0 . ess = lim s s →0 1 A A = lim 2 3 s → 0 s G (0) s 1 + G (s) s →0 The error constants describe the ability of a unity-feedback system to eliminate or reduce steady state error. K ( s + 5) s ( s + 6)( s + 7)( s + 8) For type 2 system. Example 3. hence ess = 0 N Q s ∏ k =1 (bi s + 1) Example 3.9 of Ogata 10 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback .2: Steady state error Find the steady state errors for input of 5u(t). where u(t) is a unit step function. lim s 2 G (0) = s 2 s →0 Table 5. hence ess = ∞ For type 0 system. hence ess = ∞ s ∏ Q=1 (bi s + 1) k K ∏ iM1 (ai s + 1) 1 = = K .8. This constant is used to express the steady state error for acceleration input. it is desired to increase the error constants. Generally.HET312 Control & Automation 3.

system with poles on the imaginary axis (jω). There are few distinct cases: Case 1: No element in the first column is zero e.E. and hence the stability too. Apart from finding the C. For unstable system.: G ( s ) = a n s n + a n −1 s n −1 + . then the system is said to be stable. when a system is subjected to a bounded input the response is bounded in magnitude. 3. roots to determine stability (which will be tedious for high order system). The number of changes = roots with positive real part. Routh Array where 4. The location of the poles in the s-plane determines the transient response.. Thus a necessary and sufficient condition for a system to be stable is that all the poles of the system transfer function must have negative real parts (left-hand side of the plane). If. 4. All coefficient must be non-zero c.HET312 Control & Automation 4. + a1 s + a0 = 0 2.1 Routh-Hurwitz (RH) stability criterion 1. 4. 5. G(s) = s3 + s2 + 2s + 24 1 W Wong 2004 4_1 -Stable . 3. 2. This technique determines the stability of a system with C. System Stability 1. the characteristic equation has a least one roots in the right-hand s-plane OR repeated jω roots. E.g. No sign changes in the first column of the Routh Array.E. other simpler techniques exist. For the system to be stable: a.. All the coefficient must be of the same sign b.g. Marginally stable system is only stable for certain bounded input.

G(s) = s5 +2s4 + 2s3 + 4s2 + 11s + 10 Form a polynomial from the s2 row and then differentiate it. e. Case 3:There are zeros in the first columns and the other elements of the row containing the zero are also zero. Then replace the zeros row with the coefficient of this new polynomial and proceed as normal. 2 W Wong 2004 4_1 -Stable . Relative stability is measured by the relative real part of each root.g.2 Relative stability 1.HET312 Control & Automation Case 2: There are zeros in the first column e.g. a being the shift of the imaginary to the left. 2. The roots of the polynomial from the s2 row must also be tested for its stability. G(s) = s5 +6s4 + 12s3 + 12s2 + 11s + 6 4. The RH Criterion can be extended to ascertain relative stability by replacing s = sn – a.

appears as the multiplying factor. This is the root locus criterion for which the root locus construction is based on. of zeros Centroid of asymptotes. can be written as: 1 + KP ( s ) = 0 so that the parameter of interest. Also. The root locus development in this course involves only the unity feedback system characterized by: 5. as K increases. Root locus on the real axis can only exist to the left of an odd number of poles + zeros. φ A = 180 0 + n360 0 number of asymptotes 1 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . those section of the root locus not bounded by finite zeros asymptote towards infinity. 1. The root locus is the locus of roots in the s-plane of the characteristic equation of the closed-loop system. However. From the characteristic equation: ∑ poles − ∑ zeros number of asymptotes (only the real part) KG ( s) = 1 arg[KG ( s)] = 180° ± k 360° which is true for every point on the root locus. Root Locus Analysis 1. starting from poles ending at zeros (starting from gain K = 0 to gain K = ∞). The performance of a system is determined by the position of the roots of the transfer function in the s-plane. Angle of asymptotes. 2. The main advantage of root locus is that closed-loop information is obtained from the open-loop transfer function.1 Root Locus Construction. 5. 1+ K ∏s + z ∏s + p j =1 i =1 n M i =0 j 1 + KG ( s ) = 0 Step 3: Asymptotes The root loci must be symmetrical with respect to the horizontal real axis because complex roots must appear as pairs of complex conjugate roots. K.HET312 Control & Automation 5. Step 1: Writing the characteristic equation 1 + KG ( s) = 0 Step 2: Root locus on the real axis Mark the poles and zeros of G(s). it is applicable to any system as long as the C. Mark the root locus on the real axis. 3.E. as a parameter (usually the forward gain K) is varied from 0 to infinity. of poles – no. σ A = 4. Number of asymptotes = no. making the solution of the closed-loop characteristic equation unnecessary.

Substitute this value into the C. The gain Kx required in order to locate the closed-loop poles at s = sx is given by: Kx = ∏ (s + p ) n j j =1 m b( s ) 1+ K =0 a( s) The point of breakaway and break-in can be found by solving for s in: ∏ (s + z ) i i =1 s=sx b da db −a =0 ds ds Example 5.E.5 s ( s + 1)( s + 2 ) jω × θx θ1 ο θ3 θ2 × × σ θ3 − θx− θ2− θ1 = 180° 2 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . The characteristic equation can be rewritten as: Step 7: Finding the gain K This step is NOT required for the root locus construction. but it will be useful to find the required gain to produce the poles at the desired location. (1+ KG(s)) has complex poles or zeros.2: Root Locus Construction. the angle of departure or arrival of the locus at these poles must be found. 2 . Find the associated forward gain K and use it to find the third non-dominant pole. Sketch the root locus and find the dominant poles that produce a damping ratio of 0. The same technique is applicable for both arrival and departure angle. then the locus must breakaway or break-in. Compute the Routh array for variable K and find the value that results in marginal stability.E. Using the condition: (sum of zero angles) – (sum of pole angles) = 180° Example 5.HET312 Control & Automation Step 4: Imaginary axis Crossover Points RH Criterion can be used to determine this point. This can be done by taking a test point very close to the complex pole of interest and using the angle criterion. Step 5: Real axis breakaway and break-in points If the locus exists on the real-axis.1: Root Locus Construction. Sketch the root locus for: Step 6: Angle of arrival and departure If the C. and solve for jω.5.

1-7. A zero. the gain can also be adjusted to satisfy other specification such as settling time and damped natural frequency. 5. 2. s = -a.3: Root Locus Construction. K c (s + a ) s 3. the following function is multiplied to the forward path: K c (s + a ) s From the root locus.1-6. so that the transient response is maintained. Note: Table 6. For PI controlled system. Damping ratio and natural frequency in this case are not applicable!!. there is a dominant single pole near the imaginary axis for a wide range of K and hence the system would behave as a first order system.HET312 Control & Automation Example 5. In fact this is called a PI controller. Adding additional poles or zeros to the forward path may change the root locus of the system and hence the transient and steady state response of the system – basis of controller design. The additional pole at the origin will increase the system type number. which can be written as: Gc ( s ) = K P + Note: Apart from satisfying the damping ratio. Sketch the root locus for: 5. 4.3 of Ogata.2 Effect of PI controller 1. which is set close to the pole has the effect of canceling out the magnitude and angle contributions from the pole and therefore ensures that the root locus remains approximately the same.3 Dorf KI s where KP = Kc and KI = Kca 3 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . ♣ Reading list: 6.1 in pg 357 of Ogata provides a very quick reference of what the root locus might look like for certain system. 7. thus reducing the steady state error to zero.

01.412: K v = lim sG ( s ) = s →0 2. 2 .e. For PD controlled system.4: Effect of PI controller Consider the system below. K c (s + a ) 4 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback .5K = 0.515 2 The steady state error = 1 = 1. PD controller on the other hand improves the transient response. The steady state error however is now reduced to 0. the following function is multiplied to the forward path: Find the new steady state error to unit ramp input: e ss = lim s s →0 1 s2 1 =0 K c ( s + 0.2.HET312 Control & Automation Example 5.5 s ( s + 1)( s + 2 ) Find the velocity error constant and then steady state error to unit ramp input when K = 0. i.3 Effect of additional zeros (PD controller) 1. The previous controller improves the steady state response. 2. K c (s + a ) s 5. Both have almost the same root locus and hence the same pole at the desired damping ratio.01) 2 . This is possible by the use of a PI Controller. (a can be any arbitrary value as long as it is near the origin). by increasing the system type number. The zero is set near to the origin. same transient response. There will be a steady state error when a ramp input is applied since it is a type 1 system.94 Kv The steady state error can be reduced to zero. which is the same as that in example 5. say a=0.5 K 1+ s s ( s + 1)( s + 2) K c (s + a ) The root locus for both the controlled (Kc = 1) and uncontrolled system is shown in the following figure.

16) π 2 + ln 2 (0. Step 3: Locate the compensator (controller) zero Using the 180° Criterion.23° 86. which can be written as: Gc ( s ) = K P + K D s where Kc = KD and a = KP/Kc 69. t s = K= s ( s + 4) ( s + 6) 1 = Gcomp ( s )G ( s ) ( s + 3) = 47.1 . Damping ratio.25° Example 5.24 Step 2: Plot the RL of the original system The desired poles are not on the root locus.HET312 Control & Automation 3. Then find the gain K required to achieve the required poles.70° 120. it is just to show how the root locus has changed.637 The following figure shows the new root locus plot for the system.5038 3.98 s = −3. locate the zero.5: Effect of PD controller Consider the system below 1 s ( s + 4 )( s + 6 ) Design a PD controller that will yield 16% overshoot and 1. Step 1: Calculate the desired poles Based on the specified performance. 5 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . The only way is to change the root locus by adding in an additional zero.64 Therefore. ζω n = 1.28° 96. Note that this will be a dominant 2nd order plant and hence the equation for standard 2nd order system can be used.64 ± j6.1s settling time. The zero is at s = -3 and the gain K. The additional zero would change the root locus completely. no matter what K is the desired poles will not be achieved. hence the transient response. Hence.64 − j 6. ζ = Settling time.24 − ln(0. find the required poles. the desired dominant poles are at s = -3.8325 = 0.16) 4 = − 1. Though this is not required. In fact this is called a PD controller. ζω n = 3. 4.

Chapter 7 of Dorf. ♣ Reading list: 6.HET312 Control & Automation * As a general rule. steady state error is improved by PI controller and transient response is improved by PD controller. lag and lead compensators are used. * Note that the PI and PD controllers discussed in here are just ONE configuration of the controller.g.3 of Ogata.1-6. More of these compensators will be discussed in HET489. * PI and PD controllers are difficult to realize in physical system. Instead. 6 W Wong 2004 3_1 -Feedback . There are many more other configurations. velocity feedback controller. e.

− (∠jω − p1 + ∠jω − p 2 + .. Frequency response method is very useful as often the mathematical expressions for the system are not available.) For example..1: For the sinusoidal input x(t) = X sin ωt. differs from the input only in amplitude and phase angle. find the steady state output: x Y (s) = kn k1 αs + β + . The output from the system will be sinusoidal in the steady state. 3. allows the characteristics and the mathematical model of the system to be obtained.. 2. + + 2 s + p1 s + pn s + ω 2 K Ts + 1 y taking the inverse Laplace transform. Frequency Response Methods 1.HET312 Control & Automation 6. This last term is a sinusoidal term given by: Ans: y ss (t ) = XK 1 + T 2ω 2 sin ωt − tan −1 Tω ( ) 1 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . y (t ) = A T ( jω ) sin(ωt + ∠T ( jω )) Thus. only the last term is left as each exponential term decays to zero as t → ∞. which is measured experimentally.. The frequency response of a system is defined as the steady state response of the system to a sinusoidal input signal. 5... as time t → ∞. Angle. what this means is: Magnitude. From the root locus.. consider a system Y ( s ) = T ( s ) R ( s ) With input r (t ) = A sin ωt .. T ( jω ) = ( jω − z1 )( jω − z 2 ). ∠T ( jω ) = ∠jω − z1 + ∠jω − z 2 + . ( jω − p1 )( jω − p 2 ). 4. the steady state output signal depends only on the magnitude and phase of T(jω) (called the ‘sinusoidal’ transfer function) at a specific frequency ω. The transfer function describing the behavior of a system to sinusoidal input can be obtained by replacing s with jω in the system transfer function T(s)... The frequency response of the system. Y ( s ) = T ( s ) Expanding the partial fraction Aω s +ω2 2 Example 6.

2 of Dorf For high frequency. b. Phase angle of sinusoidal transfer function ∠G(jω) vs frequency on logarithmic scale. G ( s ) = 3. As frequency is further increased the phase angle tends towards -90°. Consists of two graphs plotted on semilog paper: a.1 Bode Diagram 1. 4. the phase angle is -45°. τ = time constant 1 + jωRC 1 + jωτ The transfer function. sinusoidal T. the sinusoidal transfer function can be expressed by: Gain = 20 log10 | G ( jω ) |= For low frequency. Gain = G ( jω ) = R(ω ) + jX (ω ) = G ( jω ) ∠G ( jω ) 7. As with any complex expression. Beyond this point the gain reduces at 20dB per decade or 6dB per octave.F. Consider the system shown below: V2 ( s ) 1 = V1 ( s ) 1 + RCs 1 1 Hence. dB) vs frequency on logarithmic scale. 8. 8. Bode Diagram / Logarithmic plot ii. Gain = Phase is given by: Breakpoint 6. 2 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . G ( jω ) = = . At the breakpoint. The frequency at which the gain plot starts to slope downward is called the breakpoint and at this frequency that the gain is reduced by 3dB. Gain = At ω = 1/τ. ω << 1/τ. 2. Logarithm of the magnitude of sinusoidal transfer function (20log10|G(jω)|.1. ω >> 1/τ.1 of Ogata. There are a variety of techniques for frequency domain analysis. Nichols plot / Log-Magnitude vs phase plot ♣ reading list: Section 8. 3 commonly used representation of sinusoidal transfer functions: i.HET312 Control & Automation 6. Nyquist plot / Polar plot iii..

g.e. Act as low/high pass filter. multiply gain and phase by n For zero. the corner frequency or the –3dB point. 1 = −20 log ω dB jω The gain decays at a rate of 20dB per decade phase = – tan-1 ∞ = –90° - 3 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . They intersect at ω = 1/T. Instead of plotting bode diagram by calculating the gain and phase angle for every frequency.for zero. This may be considered as two asymptotes.e. 2. .Horizontal straight line at 20Log K dB .for pole.1 Constructing the block diagram / plot 1. Varying the time constant T shifts the corner frequency to left or right. first is the constant 0dB gain and the other is decreasing at a rate of 20dB per decade.For multiple poles/zeros at the origin. If there are n poles at the break frequency. For multiple poles/zeros. e. the bode diagram of a transfer function can be approximated. gain = 20 log c) First order factor zero & pole (1 + jωT) . This is the breakpoint.For pole. b) Zero & pole at the origin (jω) / derivative & integral factors . There are 4 main factors when constructing a bode diagram representing the 4 basic fundamentals of a system transfer function: a) Constant gain K . crossing the – 45° at ω = 1/T. for 2 poles at frequency ω. i. . then the rate of reduction in gain and the phase angles are increased by factor of n. just like when plotting the Root Locus.1.No effect on the phase. i. gain = 20 log ω dB phase = 90° . multiply gain and phase by n The two asymptotes are a good approximation of the actual plot. –20Log ωT dB at high frequency.Phase = – tan-1 ωT. Gain = 0dB at low frequency. φ = 0. the gain and phase angle are the same but of different polarity. the gain reduces at 40dB per decade and the breakpoint phase angle is -90°. the gain and phase angle are the same but of different polarity.HET312 Control & Automation 5. 6. but the shape of the bode plot remain the same.

− tan ω2 1− 2 ωn 2ζ - At ω = 0. a resonant peak occurs which will be determined by the damping ratio ζ. 20 log 1 ⎛ ω ⎞ ⎛ 1 + 2ζ ⎜ j ⎟ + ⎜ ⎜ ω ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ n⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ω2 ⎞ ⎛ ω ⎞ ⎟ = −20 log ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 2ζ 2 ⎜ ω ⎟ ⎜ ω ⎟ n ⎠ ⎝ ω⎞ n ⎠ ⎝ j ⎟ ωn ⎟ ⎠ 2 2 - For low frequencies.90° There are no simple way to sketch the actual curve without referring a standard curves for different damping ratio as shown below. ⎡⎛ ω ⎞ 2 ⎛ ω ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ + 2ζ ⎜ j d) Quadratic factors.HET312 Control & Automation - ω ωn −1 The phase angle. ⎢⎜ j ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ω ⎟ + 1⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎝ ω n ⎠ ⎥ n ⎠ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ ± . phase angle . At corner frequency ω = ωn.The gain. the phase angle equals 0°. 4 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . gain = − 20 log 2 = −40 log dB ωn ωn Near the frequency ω = ωn. gain = 0 dB ω2 ω For high frequencies.

5 jω + 1)(⎜ ⎟ + j 0.1: Bode diagram Sketch the approximate bode diagram for the transfer function: G ( s) = Solution: Setting s = jω and factoring. It only exist when damping ratio is 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 0. 5. 2nd order Example 6. 2.7071. The resonant frequency ωr is the frequency when the gain is highest. 2500( s + 10) s ( s + 2)( s 2 + 30 s + 2500) G ( jω ) = 5 2500 (10)(0.1jω 5 1/jω 1/(1+ 0. the smaller the damping ratio. Higher frequency translates to faster response. The phase angle when the peak occurs is: − tan −1 ζ 1/jω 1/(1+ 0.5jω) ω r = ω n 1 − 2ζ 2 Hence. M r = 2nd order 1 2ζ 1 − ζ 2 1 − 2ζ 2 3. The resonant frequency and the bandwidth can be related to the speed of the transient response. the resonant frequency is closer to the natural undamped frequency.6⎜ ⎟ + 1) ⎝ 50 ⎠ ⎝ 50 ⎠ 5 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . The magnitude of the resonant peak.5jω) 4. It is given by: 1 + 0.1 jω + 1) 2 ⎛ jω ⎞ ⎛ jω ⎞ 2( 2500 ) jω (0.HET312 Control & Automation Resonant frequency ωr and resonant peak value Mr 1. Overshoot is related to the resonant peak since both are related to the damping ratio.

HET312 Control & Automation System Identification 1.5rad/s ⎛s ⎞ 5⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ s ⎞ s ⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ 6 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . The phase is initially at –90°.5rad/s ω=11. b. ω=2. e. As frequency further increases. As frequency increases. Usually a single pole would cut the ω = 1 rad/s at 0dB. the system is likely to have a complex pole pair. Therefore. Phase angle also increases from –90° to –50°. 3. suggesting the existence of another pole at higher frequency. The estimated transfer function is therefore: ⎛ s ⎞ 5.5 ⎠ ⎛ s ⎞ + 1⎟ s⎜ ⎝ 11. suggesting that there is zero to cancel out the effect of the pole at origin. Example 6. 2. If the gain plot shows a resonant peak.43 c. the gain is 14. d. the break frequency for both zero and pole can be estimated at 2.5rad/s and 11. Therefore. there is a pole at the origin. the gain curve has a gradient of 20dB/decade. The bode diagram is usually obtained experimentally by applying sinusoidal input and the output is allowed to settle. At low frequency.7dB. It is also possible to derive the transfer function from a bode diagram.5 rad/s.2: Bode diagram Estimate the system transfer function from the frequency response: a. At ω = 1 rad/s. By sketching the asymptotes on the phase curve. there is a constant gain of 5. the gain curve decreases at a rate of 20dB/decade. The gain and phase are measured over a range of input frequencies.5 ⎠ This is slightly different from the actual transfer function due to the fact that we are using asymptotes for the estimation. the gain curve flattens.43⎜ + 1⎟ ⎝ 2 .

It is important to show the frequency graduation of the plot.60 6.33 0. consider the transfer function: G ( s) = Replace s = jω. we can evaluate the real and complex value of the sinusoidal transfer function of G(s) and plot the Nyquist diagram.96 -1.7 -103° -1.60 -0. the gain and phase are used as these are obtainable via practical measurements. 2.85 -135° -0.66 0. 4. 4 4 = jω (0. ω = 6.24 -0.93 3.3 jω + 1) jω − 0.HET312 Control & Automation 6. |G(jω)| ∠G(jω) Re G(jω) Im G(jω) ω 0 ∞ -90° -1.83 4. Example 6.2 Polar plot / Nyquist Plot 1.83 rad/s 3. The phase angle is measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis.09ω 4 and φ = − tan −1 − 3. G ( jω ) = 4 s(0.2 4 −j 2 1 + 0.09ω 3 The values of the magnitude and phase angle for a range of frequency are shown in the table below. Normally.3s + 1) Alternatively. The real and imaginary values are given in the same table.13 -4.3: Nyquist plot 5.12 ∞ 0 -180° 0 0 7 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp .33 ω G ( jω ) = − 1. This is also a plot of the real and imaginary parts of G(jω).20 -∞ 0. 6.09ω ω + 0.3ω 2 The magnitude and phase angle are written as: | G ( s ) |= 4 ω 2 + 0.27 -153° -0.66 rad/s ω = 0.54 1. The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G(jω) is a plot of the magnitude of G(jω) versus the phase angle of G(jω) on polar coordinates as ω is varied from zero to infinity.66 2. For example.2 -117° -0.66 rad/s ω = 1.

1. This plot actually combines the two plots of magnitude and phase angle vs frequency in bode diagram to one. The advantages of this plot are that: a. 2. To summarize the different plot. a change in the gain constant of G(jω) merely shifts the curve up (for increasing gain) and down (for decreasing gain) but the shape of the curve remains the same. refer to the figures below which shows the different plot for system with transfer function: H (s) = 1 s + 20s + 2500 2 8 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . Closed loop system can be determined quickly c. Relative stability can be worked out easily. 6. A plot of logarithmic magnitude in dB versus the phase angle for frequency range of interest. In Nichols plot.3 Log-Magnitude versus phase plot / Nichols plot. Plotting the Nichols plot for system in example 6.HET312 Control & Automation 6. b. Compensation can be designed easily.3. The curve is graduated in terms of frequency ω. 4. 5. 3.

the magnitude of G(jω) at very low frequencies: ω →0 lim G ( jω ) = KV ω Determination of Error Constants Consider the unity feedback control system: Therefore. KV = ω The open-loop sinusoidal transfer function: 3. Also referred to as dead time. 2. Transport lag normally exist in thermal. Position Error Constant For type 0 system. When this line intersect with 0dB.HET312 Control & Automation Transport Lag 1. When this line intersect with 0dB. Acceleration Error Constant For type 2 system. but the phase angle reduces linearly with ω. Velocity Error Constant For type 1 system. the magnitude of G(jω) at very low frequencies: ω →0 K ∏ iM1 (ai jω + 1) = G ( jω ) = ( jω ) N ∏ Q=1 (bi jω + 1) k lim G ( jω ) = Ka ω2 Therefore. Ka = ω2 9 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . It does not affect the magnitude but causes excessive phase lag at high frequencies. It is modelled by: 1. hydraulic and pneumatic systems. 2. at low frequency the gain will be a line decaying at a rate of 20dB/decade. the magnitude of G(jω) at very low frequencies: ω →0 lim G ( jω ) = K p G ( jω ) = e − jωT The magnitude and angle are: Therefore. at low frequency the gain will be a line decaying at a rate of 40dB/decade. at low frequency the gain will be a horizontal line at 20log KP dB | G ( jω ) |= 1 ∠G ( jω ) = −ωT The gain of the transfer function is always unity or 0dB.

If the value of the C. a. poles (P) result in anti-clockwise encirclements of –1 16. 11. P can be found from the open-loop information (R.4 Nyquist Stability Criterion 1. For stability. Before this Routh-Hurwitz criterion was used to determine system stability in the time domain. plane N = Z – P times in clockwise direction. Nyquist stability criterion relates the open-loop frequency response G(jω)H(jω) to the number of zeros and poles of 1 + G(s)H(s) that lie in the righthalf s-plane.T. there must be no clockwise encirclement and number of counterclockwise encirclement of –1 must be the same as P.E plane encircles the origin of the C.L.E. if the contour encloses one pole of the C. R.. Consider the closed-loop system shown below. there is one encirclement of the origin of the CE-plane in the clockwise direction. zeros (Z) result in clockwise encirclements of –1 b. 1 + G(s)H(s). the number of encirclement increases accordingly. 1 + G(s)H(s) is merely G(s)H(s) shifted to the right by 1. the value of the whole transfer function is evaluated for s = j0 → j∞. c.E..H. there is one encirclement of the origin of the CE-plane in the counter-clockwise direction. Such contour is called the Nyquist Path. b. 3. (or neither). the number of zero is what we are trying to determine using Cauchy’s Theorem. R. 9. poles of G(s)H(s)). 7. 10 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . is evaluated for all value of s on the Nyquist path contour: a.E. 6. For the C.F. if the contour encloses the zero of the C. 2. as shown in the following figure. 5. 10.HET312 Control & Automation 6. then G(s)H(s) must encircle –1. If there are multiple poles or zeros.. Note that before this. all the roots of the characteristic equation 1 + G(s)H(s) = 0 must lie on the left-half s-plane. Nyquist Stability Criterion can be used to determine closed-loop system stability from its 1open-loop frequency response and 2open-loop poles.H.E.H. when plotting the Nyquist diagram. there is no encirclement of the origin of the F-plane. Let the contour for the value of s in the s-plane encloses the entire right-half splane in clockwise manner. of the CLTF. Zeros of 1 + G(s)H(s) are the poles of the CLTF <. the corresponding contour in the C. if the contour encloses both the pole and zero of the C. Cauchy’s Theorem: If a clockwise contour in the s-plane encircles Z zeros and P poles of the C.stability Poles of 1 + G(s)H(s) are the poles of G(s)H(s) Hence.E. system to be stable.E. 8. 17. 4. Therefore if 1 + G(s)H(s) encircles the origin.

Stable system. 19.8 of Ogata K s (as + 1) Example 6. The magnitude of G(s)H(s) as r zero or a constant. ∞ in s = rejφ and will normally approach There are no –1 encirclement. in real life. Example 6. Hence the system will have no closed-loop poles on the left hand s-plane.1 0. ♣ Reading list: section 8. This is essentially the open-loop information.76 79. Note that we are constructing the Nyquist diagram for G(s)H(s) and NOT 1 + G(s)H(s). HOWEVER. 20.39 -41.HET312 Control & Automation Sketching the Nyquist diagram 18.5° 1 11 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . Find the stability of the following system using the Nyquist Criterion.4: Stability via Nyquist Criterion.7 and 8.e. The contour for the range -∞ < ω < 0. the magnitude and phase of G(jω)H(jω) for the range 0+ < ω < +∞ must first be obtained.is just the complex conjugate (reflection on the real-axis) of the contour for the range 0+ < ω < +∞ . G ( s ) H ( s ) = 21. G ( s ) H ( s ) = K s (as + 1)(bs + 1) 100 ( s / 10 + 1)( s + 1) 2 10 20 100 ∞ ω |G(jω)| ∠G(jω) 0 0. 100 (s / 10 + 1) 1 (s + 1) Plot the polar plot for G ( s ) H ( s ) = Example 6. which is just the Nyquist plot of G(jω)H(jω).3: Stability via Nyquist Criterion.5: Stability via Nyquist Criterion. To sketch the Nyquist diagram. Nyquist diagram are usually obtained from EXPERIMENTAL frequency response. i.

The gain and phase margin can also be obtained from the Bode diagrams and log-magnitude-versus-phase plots of the open-loop transfer function. Phase margin – the amount of additional phase lag of the GH(jω) at unity magnitude that will result in a marginally stable system. using the s-plane. 6. as shown in the following figure. Gain margin – the increase in the system open-loop gain when phase = –180° that will result in a marginally stable system.Nyquist criterion can be used to analyze relative stability for the frequency response method. 3.HET312 Control & Automation 6. The closer the closed-loop poles are to the jω axis. Previously. Both gain and phase margins must be given together in the determination of relative stability. the relative stability of a system is measured by the relative settling time of each root. Usually measured in dB. 2.5 Relative Stability 1. the closer the GH(jω) locus is to the –1+j0 point. 12 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . 4. 5. A system with shorter settling time (further to the left or larger negative real part) is considered to be more relatively stable.

HET312 Control & Automation 7. 2. that is the open-loop transfer function has neither poles or zeros in the right-hand s-plane. as shown below. 8.8 of Ogata 3. only unity feedback system is considered. the systems that are studied here are minimum-phase systems. After that. The phase margin. If G(jω) is plotted on the Nichols Chart. For non-minimum phase system.7 and 8.6 Nichols Chart Consider the unity feedback system 1 s (s + 1)(0. Nichols Chart displays the curves for the relationship between the open-loop and closed-loop frequency response in Nichols plot. the complete Nyquist diagram must be studied for stability determination. Example 6. It is always possible to reduce a closed-loop system to unity-feedback config. Unless otherwise stated. Plotting the open-loop frequency response in Nichols plot and superimpose it with the Nichols Chart gives the following figure. the gain and phase characteristic of the corresponding closed loop system can be obtained. the magnitude and phase angle of the corresponding closed-loop system can be read off straight from the chart. gain margin. Remember: For relative stability. ♣ Reading list: section 8.6 Closed-loop frequency response of a unity feedback system 1.5s + 1) 6. 13 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . resonant peak and bandwidth of the closedloop system can be determined.

14 W Wong 2004 6_1 -FreqResp . = 5dB 4.Find the vertical shift needed to obtain the required resonant peak. but is shifted up or down according to the gain Example 6.Superimpose the locus with Nichols Chart .First.7 Consider the unity-feedback control system whose open-loop transfer function is: G ( jω ) = K jω (1 + jω ) Determine the value of gain K so that the peak resonant magnitude of is = 1. . If the open-loop gain is varied. The bandwidth is the frequency of the intersection of G(jω) with –3dB locus = 1.4 dB .8rad/s. c. b.HET312 Control & Automation a. The resonant peak is the gain for b. The resonant frequency is the frequency of the single intersection between G(jω) with the Nichols chart locus = 0.3rad/s. the shape of G(jω) in Nichols Chart remains the same. construct the log-magnitude versus phase plot for G(jω)/K (unity gain).