WORKSHEET 3_II References – making a bibliographical list Reference lists - guidelines and examples Each reference provides the

essential details for the location of the information: Who wrote it? Who published it? Where was it published? When was it published? Information required A book reference should contain: • author(s) or editor(s) - may also be a corporate organisation such as the British Medical Association (BMA) • title • edition number • place of publication • publisher • date of publication Book chapter references also contain: • the title and editor(s) of the whole work as well as the title and author(s) of the chapter • first and last page numbers of the chapter Standard journal article reference should contain: • author(s) • title of article • journal title (often in abbreviated form) • year • volume; issue and first and last page numbers Including the issue number for a journal is essential if the page sequence does not continue throughout a whole volume, but is not required if there is one sequence. Styles prescribe specific formatting and punctuation - for example: • the year may, or may not be enclosed in brackets • the journal title may be given in italics or underlined • the volume numbers may be given in bold Examples of reference formatting The examples which follow are all given in the Harvard format with the year after the author’s name. If using the Vancouver or numeric system the year should be placed after the source name. Journal article Gillies DA, (2001) Popper and computer induction Bioessays 23 (9) 613-622 Books Personal author(s) Carpenter, D. (2003) The struggle for mastery: Britain 1066-1284. London: Allen Lane Editor(s) Kumar P, Clark M, editors. (2002) Kumar & Clark Clinical medicine 5th ed. Edinburgh: W B Saunders Organisation as author British Medical Association. (1993) Complementary medicine: the BMA guide to good practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press Chapter in book Ormond, L. (2004). ‘Victorian Romance: Tennyson’, in Saunders, CJ (ed.) A Companion to Romance: From Classical to Contemporary. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 48-53 Theses or dissertations Guichard V. (2003) The ABC of Film. PhD thesis. University of London. Official Publications Department of Environment (1986) Landfill wastes. London, HMSO (Waste Management paper, 26) Diagrams or illustrations Danielson E (2005) Efferent connections of the vermis. in: Standring, S. (ed) Grays Anatomy 39th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier, p364, illus. General tips • List all authors, but if the number exceeds six, list the first six followed by et al. Some styles may require that all authors be listed, no matter how many • For journal articles, having the journal title in italics and the volume number in bold is a common convention which aids clarity • Keep capitalisation to a minimum THE AUTHOR-DATE APPROACH This is often referred to as the Harvard, or sometimes as the Parenthetical system, because the name and date are placed in parentheses (brackets). MLA (Modern Languages Association), and APA (American Psychological Association) are also widely used styles which use the author-date approach. Two styles that have

downloaded or printed the web page. ie (as cited by --) eg eg “Brown’s results cited by Jones (1999. Issue 3. 1985. the date the information was published or updated (either year or full date) the title of the work. • The reference list contains the sources you have cited in alphabetical order by author's surname. in the citations: • if an item has two authors. for example. Ovid Technologies Inc. title. Indicate this in the references. but its incidence varies widely (Bassendine 1987. For example. telnet://. use ‘and’ eg (Brown and Black 1995) • if there are three or more authors use ‘et al’ which means ‘and others’ eg (Brown et al 1995) in the reference list: all authors names should be included. 1996b • If two authors have the same surname. CINAHL.1002/14651858. differentiate them with an `a b c' annotation. medium. 1986. • If the work is to be published. but you wish to include the findings of that research as reported in a review or textbook. 1987. 153-160.advocated the footnotes approach to referencing are now recommending an author-date approach as an alternative MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) and Chicago or Turabian • The references are cited in the main body of the text by inserting the author surname and year of publication in brackets at the relevant point. the page number on which the quote appears should also be given eg (Jones 1999 p255) Now also (Jones 1999:225) Style guides Rules for the number of authors’ names to include in the citations and in the reference list are specified in the style guides for individual journals. Brown 1991. 1994 • When two or more references to the same author have been cited from the same year. Secondary referencing • NEVER cite an article you have not seen in full. eg: Newens et al (1997) Changes in reported dietary habit and exercise levels after an uncomplicated first myocardial infarction in middle-aged men. Example: In the Text Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world (Cook 1985). then you must cite the review article or book which refers to the original work. the url (including the internet access protocol (for example ftp://. or if the page is no longer available. Malignant tumours of the liver. Chichester: Wiley. This statement is necessary to allow for any subsequent changes which may be made to the page. You should not cite an article based only on an abstract • If it is impossible to read the original article. J Clin Nurs 6(2). Smith TH 1992. add their initials to the text. N and Feldman. For example. In: The Cochrane Library. Vitale 1986).CD004031 (Citation as instructed) Internet sources A standard reference to an internet source should include the author. plus the accessed date. The accessed date is the date you viewed. Web-based information presents additional problems as it is subject to change or may disappear from the web completely. place of publication and publisher. Vitale GC. Polk HC. Heuser LS. Hepatocellular carcinoma: one of the world's most common malignancies. Electronic sources Citing electronic information can be problematic. (Accessed 28th May 1998). For example. Q J Med 223: 705-708. Ibuprofen for Alzheimer’s disease (Cochrane Review). • When quoting directly from a text. eg: Tabet. permission must be sought from the original creator before inclusion of any graphic material. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol 1:1-16 Cook GC. year. http://) and the hosting web site. a date in brackets will be sufficient. DOI: 10. . Some database producers may advise on the citation format. For example: Cook's key paper on Hepatocellular carcinoma (1985) is often cited in this area. Smith W 1992 • If you refer explicitly to an author in the main text. Surg Clin North Am 66: 723-741 Details • When two or more references to the same author have been cited. Smith 1996a. H. Reference List Bassendine MF. Full-text (online). p563) indicated that…” • The use of secondary referencing in scientific writing is strongly discouraged Diagrams and illustrations • Scanned or electronic images included in written work should always be acknowledged by citation. arrange them in chronological order by date of publication. Full-text documents from online or CD databases A standard reference should contain: Author/editor. Aetiological factors in hepatocellular cancers. 2005. if this is not obvious from the url.

Translated by.. various – books.uk). Personal communication. ll. line/lines loc. just in case they aren't effectively archived or disappear • learn to appraise critically and evaluate resources in terms of currency and authority – resources that don’t cite a specific author or publication date should be treated with caution • if there is no apparent author. editor. General tips for electronic sources • always bookmark useful web documents • save and print all the documents and correspondence that you intend to cite. which is illus. New Shakespeare folio discovered. and others <Lat. F (fred. revised /reviewed trans.g. Manuscript (s) N.25f.p. the standard journal reference information will suffice. illustrator l.opere citato (no longer used) p. 1st August 1996. ff. 35n6) n. in the work previously cited <Lat.htm (accessed 17th March 1998). Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (online). (2005) ‘Fairer Funding for Adult Learning’ BERA Higher education special interest group discussion list. July 5th. translation UP University Pres (as in Cambridge UP) Vide see <Lat.05) Personal email messages Smith. translator. compare <Lat. try and identify the most relevant and specific corporate unit. ca. chapters.ac. Vide TASK 1 Write a bibliographical list (10 items.jiscmail.. pp. illustrated. (Online) available at http://www. in the same place <Lat. P. Email to J Brown (joyce. Reprinted rev. no date (publication date is not given) N. loco citato ms.3.7. appendix c. circum – used with dates cf. cit.uk/iss/ir/refs/ Some commonly used abbreviations: app.ac.) for the article / research paper you are to produce by the end term. internet sources etc. following page/pages: p.nursingworld/ojin/tpc1/tpc1_6. If however the journal is only available in electronic form then the web address and access date are obviously essential. work op.smith@kcl. (no longer used) i. nn note(s) (used after a page number: 35n. Discussion list messages Example Ainley. in the place previously cited <Lat.Web document Example Nye. David.circa. Available from: http://www. (1998) A physician’s guide to fibromyalgia syndrome (online). et alia f. page(s) rpt. for example <Lat.html (accessed 15. that is <Lat.brown@kcl. or email the Webmaster for advice • if no date is available. Available: http://www.cit. no place (of publication) op opus <Lat. A.uk/lists/BERA-HE-SIG. You should always obtain permission from an email correspondent before quoting their email address. about <Lat.ac.. (2005) June 5th. means page 25 and the following page ibid.e.uk). confer ed. editors (more than one) e..d.ac. Example Brown.muhealth. (1996) Primary Care Nurse Practitioners: Do Not Blend the Colors in the Rainbow of Advanced Practice Nursing. exempli gratia et al.html (accessed 20. articles. M.org/~fibro/fm-md.kcl. mss.. edition eds. .00) Ejournal article Where journals are available in print form as well as online it is unnecessary to refer to the online access details. state clearly ‘no date given’ www.