INTELLIGENCE

1.1 Introduction
Intelligence including the abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, reasoning, learning, retaining, planning, and problem solving. Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animals and plants. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of machines or the simulation of intelligence in machines.

1.2 History
Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere which derives from inter-legere meaning to "pick out" or discern. A form of this verb, intellectus, became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous. This term was however strongly linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the Active Intellect (also known as the Active Intelligence). This entire approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in their English philosophical works. Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit" (translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth") as a typical example of a logical absurdity. The term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has later been taken up (without the scholastic theories which it once implied) in more contemporary psychology.

1.3 Definition
1. A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or testtaking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do. 2. The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

3. The unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation.

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2.0 Human intelligence
Human intelligence is the collection of Abstract thought, Communication, Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, Knowledge, Learning, Memory, Problem solving, Reaction time, Reasoning, Understanding, Visual processing. 2.1 Theories and Models There are many different theories that explained the different aspects of human intelligence in one or another way. Cattell– Horn–Carroll theory, Fluid and crystallized intelligence, General intelligence factor, Intelligence quotient, Theory of multiple intelligences, Triarchic theory of intelligence, PASS theory of intelligence. 2.1.1 Catell Horn Carroll Thoery Recent advances in current theory and research on the structure of human cognitive abilities have resulted in a new empirically derived model commonly referred to as the Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory of cognitive abilities (CHC theory). CHC theory of cognitive abilities is an amalgamation of two similar theories about the content and structure of human cognitive abilities. The first of these two theories is Gf-Gc theory (Raymond Cattell, 1941; Horn 1965), and the second is John Bissell Carroll's (1993) Three-Stratum theory. Carroll's expansion of Gf-Gc theory to CHC theory was developed in the course of a major survey of research over the past 60 or 70 years on the nature, identification, and structure of human cognitive abilities. That research involved the use of the mathematical technique known as factor analysis. In comparison to other well-known theories of intelligence and cognitive abilities, CHC theory is the most comprehensive and empirically supported psychometric theory of the structure of cognitive and academic abilities. The CHC model was expanded by McGrew (1997), later revised with the help of Flanagan (1998), and extended again by McGrew (2011). There are a fairly large number of distinct individual differences in cognitive ability, and CHC theory holds that the relationships among them can be derived by classifying them into three different strata: stratum I, "narrow" abilities; stratum II, "broad abilities"; and stratum III, consisting of a single "general" ability. 2.1.2 Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic. It is necessary for all logical problem solving, especially scientific, mathematical and
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technical problem solving. Fluid reasoning includes inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Crystallized intelligence is the ability to use skills, knowledge, and experience. It should not be equated with memory or knowledge, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory. 2.1.3 General Intelligence Factor The g factor, where g stands for general intelligence, is a statistic used in psychometrics to model the mental ability underlying results of various tests of cognitive ability. Developed in 1904 by psychologist Charles Spearman to account for imperfect correlations in IQ tests, this model is considered the first theory of intelligence. Spearman observed that schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects were positively correlated, and reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor, which he termed "general intelligence." He developed a model in which variations in intelligence test scores are explained by two kinds of factors: first, variables specific to each individual mental task: the individual abilities that would make a person more skilled at a specific cognitive task; and second a variable g that accounts for the positive correlations across tests, representing general ability. 2.1.4 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) An intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. When modern IQ tests are constructed, the mean score within an age group is set to 100 and the standard deviation to 15. Today almost all IQ tests adhere to the assignment of 15 IQ points to each standard deviation, but this has not been the case historically. Approximately 95% of the population has scores within two SDs of the mean, i.e., an IQ between 70 and 130. 2.1.5 Theory of Multiple Intelligence The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations between these. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this
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task. The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process. Such a fundamentally deeper understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication.

2.1.6 Triarchic Theory of Intelligence The triarchic theory of intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in the research of human intelligence. The theory by itself was groundbreaking in that it was among the first to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach. Sternberg’s definition of human intelligence is ―mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life‖ which means that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternberg’s theory comprises three parts: componential, experiential, and practical.

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2.1.7 Pass Theory The Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence, first proposed in 1975 ( Das, Kirby, and Jarman,1975) and later elaborated by Das, Naglieri & Kirby(1994) and Das, Kar & Parrila, (1996) challenges g-theory on the grounds that the brain is made up of interdependent, but separate, functional systems. Neuroimaging studies and clinical studies of individuals with brain lesions make it clear that the brain is modularized; for example, damage to a very specific area of the left temporal lobe will impair the production (but not the comprehension) of spoken and written language. Damage to an adjacent area will have the opposite impact, preserving the individual’s ability to produce, but not understand speech and text.

3.0 Fields of Study
There are different fields of study in intelligence in which research and developments are being in progress. It includes Cognitive epidemiology, Evolution of human intelligence, Psychometrics, Heritability of IQ, Impact of health on intelligence. 3.1 Cognitive Epidemiology Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality. Typically, test scores are obtained at an early age, and compared to later morbidity and mortality. In addition to exploring and establishing these associations, cognitive epidemiology seeks to understand causal relationships between intelligence and health outcomes. Researchers in the field argue that intelligence measured at an early age is an important predictor of later health and mortality differences. 3.2 Evolution of Human Intelligence The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved. These theories are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the emergence of human language. The timeline of human evolution spans approximately 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. The first 3 million years of this timeline concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus and the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the Paleolithic). Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are already apparent in great apes although in lesser sophistication than in humans.

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3.3 Psychometrics Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational measurement. The field is primarily concerned with the construction and validation of measurement instruments such as questionnaires, tests, and personality assessments. It involves two major research tasks, namely: (i) the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and (ii) the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement. Those who practice psychometrics are known as psychometricians. All psychometricians possess a specific psychometric qualification, and while many are clinical psychologists, others work as human resources or learning and development professionals. 3.4 Heritability of IQ The study of the heritability of IQ investigates the relative importance of genetics and environment for phenotypic variation in intelligence quotient (IQ) in a population. "Heritability", in this sense, "refers to the genetic contribution to variance within a population and in a specific environment". There has been significant controversy in the academic community about the heritability of IQ ever since research began in the 19th century. IQ is a polygenic trait under normal circumstances according to recent research. However, certain single gene genetic disorders can severely affect intelligence, with phenylketonuria as an example. 3.5 Impact of Health on Intelligence Health can affect intelligence in various ways. This is one of the most important factors in understanding the origins of human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood-brain barrier is less effective. Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth.

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4.0 Factors Related to Intelligence
There are many factors related to intelligence some are listed below. Environment and intelligence Neuroscience and intelligence Race and intelligence 4.1 Environment and Intelligence Environment and intelligence research investigates the impact of environment on intelligence. This is one of the most important factors in understanding human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability. Historically, there has been great interest in the field of intelligence research to determine environmental influences on the development of cognitive functioning, in particular, fluid intelligence, as defined by its stabilization at 16 years of age. 4.2 Neuroscience and Intelligence Neuroscience and intelligence concerns the various neurological factors that may be responsible for the variation of intelligence within a species or between different species. Much of the work in this field is concerned with the variation in human intelligence, but other intelligent species such as the non-human primates and cetaceans are also of interest. The basic mechanisms by which the brain produces complex phenomena such as consciousness and intelligence are still poorly understood. 4.3 Race and Intelligence Race is a classification system used to categorize humans into large and distinct populations or groups by heritable phenotypic characteristics, geographic ancestry, physical appearance, and ethnicity. In the early twentieth century the term was often used, in its taxonomic sense, to denote genetically diverse human populations whose members possessed similar phenotypes. This sense of "race" is still used within forensic anthropology (when analyzing skeletal remains), biomedical research, and race-based medicine. In addition, law enforcement utilizes race in profiling suspects and to reconstruct the faces of unidentified remains. Because in many societies, racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of social stratification, for social
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scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable. As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, and social institutions. Accordingly, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction.

5.0 Types of Intelligence
There are nine types of intelligence as explained by Howard Gardner.

5.1 Naturalist Intelligence (“Nature Smart”) Designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations). This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. It is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences, which can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars, sneakers, kinds of makeup, and the like. 5.2 Musical Intelligence (“Musical Smart”) Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. This intelligence enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music, as demonstrated by composers, conductors, musicians, vocalist, and sensitive listeners. Interestingly, there is often an affective connection between music and the emotions; and mathematical and musical intelligences may
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share common thinking processes. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves. They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss.

5.3 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (“Number/Reasoning Smart”) Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations. It enables us to perceive relationships and connections and to use abstract, symbolic thought; sequential reasoning skills; and inductive and deductive thinking patterns. Logical intelligence is usually well developed in mathematicians, scientists, and detectives. Young adults with lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns, categories, and relationships. They are drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments. 5.4 Existential Intelligence Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here. 5.5 Interpersonal Intelligence (“People Smart”) Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. It involves effective verbal and nonverbal communication, the ability to note distinctions among others, sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others, and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives. Teachers, social workers, actors, and politicians all exhibit interpersonal intelligence. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are leaders among their peers, are good at communicating, and seem to understand others’ feelings and motives. 5.6 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“Body Smart”) Bodily kinesthetic intelligence is the capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and the perfection of skills through mind–body union. Athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople exhibit well-developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence.

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5.7 Linguistic Intelligence (“Word Smart”) Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and meaning of words and to apply meta-linguistic skills to reflect on our use of language. Linguistic intelligence is the most widely shared human competence and is evident in poets, novelists, journalists, and effective public speakers. Young adults with this kind of intelligence enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing crossword puzzles. 5.8 Intra-personal Intelligence (“Self Smart”) Intra-personal intelligence is the capacity to understand oneself and one’s thoughts and feelings, and to use such knowledge in planning and directioning one’s life. Intra-personal intelligence involves not only an appreciation of the self, but also of the human condition. It is evident in psychologist, spiritual leaders, and philosophers. These young adults may be shy. They are very aware of their own feelings and are self-motivated. 5.9 Spatial Intelligence (“Picture Smart”) Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions. Core capacities include mental imagery, spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphic and artistic skills, and an active imagination. Sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence. Young adults with this kind of intelligence may be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles, or spend free time drawing or daydreaming.

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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
6.1 Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. Various models and definitions have been proposed of which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature. Criticisms have centered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions. 6.2 History The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation. In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. 6.3 Definitions 1. Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. 2. Emotional intelligence refers to the capacity to recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationship. 3. Emotional intelligence is the innate potential to feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, describe, identify, learn from, manage, understand and explain emotions.

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7.0 Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: The perception of emotions. The ability reason using emotions. The ability to understand emotions. The ability to manage emotions. 7.1 The Perception of Emotions The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. 7.2 Reasoning With Emotions The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. 7.3 Understanding Emotions The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he's been fighting with his wife. 7.4 Managing Emotions The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management. According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are, "arranged from more basic psychological

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processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the relatively simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion"

8 .0 Measuring Emotional Intelligence
"In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report that is, ability testing is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers." --John D. Mayer 8.1 Reuven BAR- ON’s EQ-i A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness. According to Bar-On, Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. 8.2 Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions. 8.3 Seligman Attribution Style Questionnaire (SASQ) Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism. 8.4 Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies.

9 .0 Future of Emotional Intelligence
Peter Salovey: ―I think in the coming decade we will see well-conducted research demonstrating that emotional skills and competencies predict positive outcomes at home with one’s family, in school, and at work. The real challenge is to show that emotional intelligence matters over-andabove psychological constructs that have been measured for decades like personality and IQ. I believe that emotional intelligence holds this promise."

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10.0 Importance of Emotional Intelligence
John Gottman: "In the last decade or so, science has discovered a tremendous amount about the role emotions play in our lives. Researchers have found that even more than IQ, your emotional awareness and abilities to handle feelings will determine your success and happiness in all walks of life, including family relationships." McCown et al: "Experiencing one's self in a conscious manner--that is, gaining selfknowledge--is an integral part of learning." Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, and Palfai: "People in good moods are better at inductive reasoning and creative problem solving." John D. Mayer: "An emotion occurs when there are certain biological, certain experiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously." Mayer & Salovey: "People high in emotional intelligence are expected to progress more quickly through the abilities designated and to master more of them."

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