Chapter 1

Complex Variables
1.1 Introduction
Some basic definitions underlying Complex Analysis.
Definition 1.1.1 Set of points - any collection of points in the complex plane is
called an aggregate or a set of points. each point is called a member or element of the
set.
Definition 1.1.2 Neighbourhood of a point - Let |z −z
o
| < ǫ, where z
o
is a given
point and ǫ is a small positive number. Then the neighbourhood of z
o
consists of all
points lying inside but not on a circle of radius ǫ with center at z
o
.
Definition 1.1.3 Limit point - a point z
o
is said to be the limit point of a set of
points S in the Argand plane if every neighbourhood of z
o
contains points of set S other
than z
o
. Thus, each point on the circumference of the circle |z| = r is a limit point of
the set |z| < r and these limit points do not belong to the set. Thus, limit points of a
set are not necessarily the points of the set. Accordingly, there are two types of limit
points:
(a) Interior points - A limit point z
o
of the set S is an interior point if in the neigh-
bourhood of z
o
there exists entirely the points or the set S.
(b) Boundary points - A limit point z
o
which is not an interior point is said to be a
boundary point.
Definition 1.1.4 Bounded and unbounded sets - a set of points is said to be
bounded if there exists a positive number k such that |z| ≤ k is satisfied for all points
z of the set. If there does not exist such a number k, then the set is unbounded.
Definition 1.1.5 Open and Closed sets - a set containing entirely the inner points
is called an open set. E.g., the set defined by |z| < r is an open set since it contains
only the inner points. But |z| ≤ r is a closed set.
Definition 1.1.6 Compact set - a closed and bounded set is called compact.
Definition 1.1.7 Convex or Connected set - an open set is said to be connected
if every pair of its points can be joined by a finite number of straight line segments all
of whose points belong to the set. For example, the set |z| < 1 is a connected set.
Definition 1.1.8 Domain - A connected open set is called an open region or domain.
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Definition 1.1.9 Closed domain - The set obtained by adding to an open connected
set its boundary points is called a closed domain or region.
Definition 1.1.10 Circular disk - the inequality |z −z
o
| < ǫ represents the interior
of a circle of radius ǫ with center z
o
. This region is called an open circular disk.
The region given by |z −z
o
| ≤ ǫ is called the closed circular disk.
1.2 Functions of a Complex Variable
A complex variable is an ordered pair of real variables, that is,
z = (x, y)
= x + iy
Let z = x + iy and w = u + iv be two complex variables. If for each value of z in S
(set of complex numbers) there corresponds one or more values of w in a well defined
way, the w is said to be a function of z; thus
w = f(z)
Examples : w =
1
z
, w = z
2
, w = e
z
, etc.
If to each value of z, there corresponds only one value of w, then the function w(z) is
called a single valued function.
r
s
r
r
s
u
z
1
z
2
z
3
-
-
-
w
1
w
2
w
3
one-to-one mapping
If w(z) takes more than one value corresponding to a value of z, then w(z) is a multi-
valued function of z. For example,
w =

z
In this course we will concern ourselves with single valued functions.
Suppose w = u + iv is the value of f at z = x = iy where x, y, u and v are real,
u + iv = f(x + iy)
∴ f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
Example 1.2.1 If f(z) = z
2
,
u + iv = (x + iy)
2
= x
2
−y
2
+ 2ixy
⇒ u(x, y) = x
2
−y
2
and v(x, y) = 2xy
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Exercise 1.2.1 Let z = x + iy. Find u(x, y) and v(x, y) if f(z) = e
z
.
Solution 1.2.1
e
z
= e
x+iy
= e
x
(cos y + i sin y)
⇒ u(x, y) = e
x
cos y and v(x, y) = e
x
siny
Now try the following exercise problems.
Practice Questions
Express the following in the form u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
1. sin z 2. log z 3. cos z 4. z
3
5. e
z
6. z
2
+ 2z
1.3 Limits
Definition 1.3.1 Let w = f(z) be a function of z defined at all points in some neigh-
bourhood of z
o
. Then, the function f(z) is said to have a limit ℓ as z approaches z
o
if
for every positive real number ǫ there exists a positive real number δ such that
|f(z) −ℓ| < ǫ, ∀z, z
o
, z = z
o
in the domain 0 < |z −z
o
| < δ.
The limit of f(z) as z approaches z
o
is a number ℓ and is given by
lim
z→zo
f(z) = ℓ
The evaluation of limits can be done using the following theorems on limits.
Theorem 1.3.1 If lim
z→zo
f(z) = ℓ and lim
z→zo
φ(z) = m, then
(i) lim
z→zo
[f(z) + φ(z)] = ℓ + m
(ii) lim
z→zo
[f(z)φ(z)] = ℓm
(iii) lim
z→zo
_
f(z)
φ(z)
_
=

m
, m = 0.
Example 1.3.1 Find lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
.
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Solution 1.3.1 since z = 1, we have:
z
3
−1
z −1
= z
2
+ z + 1
∴ lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
= lim
z→1
(z
2
+ z + 1)
= 3
Theorem 1.3.2 Let f(z) = u(x, y) +iv(x, y), z
o
= x
o
+iy
o
and w
o
= u
o
+iv
o
. Then,
the necessary and sufficient conditions that lim
z→0
f(z) = w
o
are that
(i) lim
(x,y)→(xo,yo)
u(x, y) = u
o
(ii) lim
(x,y)→(xo,yo)
v(x, y) = v
o
From Theorem 1.3.2 we can evaluate Example 1.3.1 as follows:
lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
, as z →1, x →1 and y →0. Thus,
z
2
+ z + 1 = (x + iy)
2
+ (x + iy) + 1
= x
2
+ x −y
2
+ i(y + 2xy) + 1
= (x
2
+ x −y
2
+ 1) + i(y + 2xy)
which tends to 3 as x →1 and y →0. Hence, lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
= 3.
1.4 Continuity
Let f(z) be defined at all points of the complex plane and let z
1
be a point of the plane.
Definition 1.4.1 The function f(z) is said to be continuous at z = z
1
if for every
positive number ǫ there exists another number δ such that
|f(z) −f(z
1
)| < ǫ whenever |z −z
1
| < δ
If the point z
1
is a limit point of the complex plane, then continuity of f(z) at z = z
1
means that
lim
z→z
1
f(z) = f(z
1
)
A necessary and sufficient condition that f(z) = u(x, y) +iv(x, y) be continuous is that
the real functions u(x, y) and v(x, y) should be continuous.
Definition 1.4.2 A function f(x, y) of two independent real variables x and y is said
to be continuous at point (x
o
, y
o
) if
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(i) f(x
o
, y
o
) is finite
(ii) lim
x→xo
y→yo
= f(x
o
, y
o
) in whatever way x →x
o
and y →y
o
.
Example 1.4.1 Given that
f(x, y) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
, x, y = 0
0 , x = y = 0
Discuss the continuity of f(x, y) at (0,0).
Solution 1.4.1
lim
(x,y)→(0,0)
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
y→0
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
y→0
_

y
3
y
3
_
= −1
and lim
x→0
y→0
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
x
3
x
3
= 1
Further, when y = mx
lim
x→0
y→0
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
x
3
−m
3
x
3
x
3
+ m
3
x
3
=
1 −m
3
1 + m
3
Since the limit is not unique, it follows that the function is not continuous at (0,0).
Another example!!
Example 1.4.2 Discuss the continuity of f(z) at z = 0.
f(z) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
x
3
−y
3
x
2
+ y
2
+ i
x
3
+ y
3
x
2
+ y
2
, z = 0
0 , z = 0
We proceed as follows in investigating the continuity of f(z) at (0,0).
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Solution 1.4.2 From f(z) we deduce that
u(x, y) =
x
3
−y
3
x
2
+ y
2
v(x, y) =
x
3
+ y
3
x
2
+ y
2
Now,
lim
x→0
y→0
u(x, y) = lim
y→0
(−y) = 0
lim
y→0
x→0
u(x, y) = lim
x→0
(x) = 0
Similarly,
lim
(x,y)→0
v(x, y) = 0 in whatever way x and y →0.
Hence u(x, y) and v(x, y) are continuous at (0,0). It follows that f(z) is continuous at
z = 0.
1.5 Differentiability
As in the case of limits and continuity, the concept of differentiation of a function of a
complex variable is defined in the same way as the real variable case.
Definition 1.5.1 The derivative of the function f(z) at z
o
is f

(z) and is given by
f

(z) = lim
z→zo
f(z) −f(z
o
)
z −z
o
= lim
h→0
f(z
o
+ h) −f(z
o
)
h
, where h = z −z
o
Example 1.5.1 Find the derivative of z
2
at z = z
o
.
Solution 1.5.1 We proceed as follows:
Let f(z) = z
2
f

(z
o
) = lim
h→0
(z
o
+ h)
2
−z
2
o
h
= lim
h→0
2hz
o
+ h
2
h
= 2z
o
Example 1.5.2 Show that the derivative of f(z) = ¯ z does not exist anywhere.
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Solution 1.5.2
f(z) = ¯ z = x −iy
f(z + ∆z) = x + ∆x −i(y + ∆y)
hence
f(z + ∆z) −f(z)
∆z
=
∆x −i∆y
∆x + i∆y
Now, lim
∆x→0
∆y→0
∆x −i∆y
∆x + i∆y
= lim
∆y→0
−i∆y
i∆y
= −1
and lim
∆y→0
∆x→0
∆x −i∆y
∆x + i∆y
= lim
∆x→0
∆x
∆x
= 1
Since the limit is not unique, f

(z) does not exist anywhere.
Theorem 1.5.1 If f(z) is differentiable at z
o
, then f(z) is continuous at z = z
o
.
Let us show a little proof of the above theorem.
We have,
lim
z→0
[f(z) −f(z
o
)] = lim
z→0
_
f(z) −f(z
o
)
z −z
o
(z −z
o
)
_
= lim
z→0
f(z) −f(z
o
)
z −z
o
· lim
z→0
(z −z
o
)
= 0
Hence, lim
z→0
f(z) = f(z
o
), which shows that f(z) is continuous at z = z
o
.
1.5.1 Rules for differentiation
(i)
d
dz
[c
1
f(z) + c
2
φ(z)] = c
1
f

(z) + c
2
φ

(z), where c
1
and c
2
are complex constants.
(ii)
d
dz
[f(z)φ(z)] = f

(z)φ(z) + f(z)φ

(z).
(iii)
d
dz
_
f(z)
φ(z)
_
=
f

(z)φ(z) −f(z)φ

[φ(z)]
2
, φ(z) = 0.
(iv)
d
dz
f(φ(z)) = f

(φ(z)) · φ

(z)
1.6 Cauchy-Riemann equations
Let f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) be differentiable at z
o
= x
o
+ iy
o
. Then the first order
partial derivatives of u and v with respect to x and y must exist at (x
o
, y
o
) and must
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satisfy the following equations.
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
Cauchy-Riemann Equations
Since the Cauchy-Riemann equations are only a necessary condition, they can be used
to locate points at which f

(z) does not exist.
Example 1.6.1 Show that the function defined by f(z) = |z| is not differentiable at
the origin but is continuous everywhere.
Solution 1.6.1 Let f(z) = u + iv = |z| =
_
x
2
+ y
2
Thus, u =
_
x
2
+ y
2
, and v = 0
Now,
∂u
∂x
=
x
_
x
2
+ y
2
,
∂u
∂y
=
y
_
x
2
+ y
2
∂v
∂x
= 0 ,
∂v
∂y
= 0
When x = 0, and y = 0 we have
∂u
∂x
= 0 =
∂v
∂y
and
∂v
∂x
= 0 ,
∂u
∂y
= 0.
Similarly, when x = 0, and y = 0 we have
∂u
∂x
= 0 ,
∂v
∂y
= 0
and
∂u
∂y
=
∂v
∂x
= 0
Finally, when x = y = 0,

∂x
u(0, 0) = lim
h→0
u(h, 0) −u(0, 0)
h
=
|h|
h
= ±1
which shows that the limit is not unique. Since the Cauchy-Riemann equations are also
not satisfied at the origin, it follows that f(z) = |z| is not differentiable at the origin
though its continuous everywhere.
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Example 1.6.2 Determine whether or not the C-R equations are satisfied by the func-
tion f(z0 = z
2
−3z.
Solution 1.6.2 We first express f(z) in terms of u and v. That is,
f(z) = −3x + x
2
−y
2
+ i(3y + 2xy)
Thus, u(x, y) = −3x + x
2
−y
2
and v(x, y) = −3xy + 2xy
Now you can verify that
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
, and
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
Practice Questions
Verify whether the Cauchy-Rieman equations are satisfied in each of the following.
1. f(z) = 3z
2
−3z + 1 2. f(z) =
1
z
3. f(z) = |z| 4. f(z) = |z|
2
5. f(z) =
z −1
z + 1
1.7 Analytic Functions
A function f(z) is said to be analytic in the domain D if it is differentiable at every point
in the domain D. Such a function is also called regular, holomorphic or monogenic.
If a function f(z is analytic at each point in the entire finite plane, then f(z) is an
entire function.
If f(z) is not analytic at z = z
o
but is analytic at some point in the neighbourhood of
z
o
, the z −o is called a singular point or singualrity off.
(a) If two functions are analytic in a domain D, their sum and their product are both
analytic in D
(b) The quotient of two analytic functions is also analytic provided the function in
the denominator does not vanish at any point in D.
1.7.1 Harmonic Functions
Any function f which possesses continuous partial derivatives of the first order and
second order and satisfies the Laplace equation is called a harmonic function.

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
= 0 Laplace’s equation
If f(z) = u+iv is an analytic function, then the component functions u and v are both
harmonic functions.
Since f is analytic, the first order partial derivatives of u and v satisfy the C-R equa-
tions.
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
and
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
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If we differentiate both sides of the equations with respect to x we obtain

2
u
∂x
2
=

2
v
∂x∂y
and

2
u
∂x∂y
= −

2
v
∂x
2
.....................(1)
Differentiating with respect to y gives

2
u
∂y∂x
=

2
v

2
y
and

2
u
∂y
2
= −

2
v
∂y∂x
.....................(2)
Since partial derivatives are continuous,

2
u
∂x∂y
=

2
u
∂y∂x
and

2
v
∂x∂y
=

2
v
∂y∂x
Equating (1) and (2) gives us

2
u
∂x
2
+

2
u
∂y
2
= 0 and

2
v
∂x
2
+

2
v
∂y
2
= 0
which shows that u and v are harmonic.
If two given functions are harmonic in the domain D and their first order partial
derivatives satisfy C-R equations at every point of D, then v is a harmonic conjugate
of u.
1.8 Complex Integration
Let C be a smooth curve in the complex z-plane having end points z
o
and z
n
. Let
z
1
, z
2
, z
3
, . . . , z
n−1
be any arbitrary number of intermediate points which subdivide the
curve C into n arcs z
o
z
1
, z
1
z
2
, z
2
z
3
, . . . , z
n−1
z
n
as shown in Figure 1.1.
Let ξ
1
, ξ
2
, . . . , ξ
r
, . . . , ξ
n
be the points chosen on the curve C such that ξ
1
lies on arc
z
o
z
1
, ξ
2
lies on z
1
z
2
, . . . , ξ
r
lies on z
r−1
z
r
and so on.
Let
S
n
=
n

r=1
f(ξ
r
)∆z
r
, where ∆z
r
= z
r
−z
r−1
.
If the curve is divided into smaller and smaller parts so that n → ∞, |∆r| → 0
and is the summation tends to a unique limit, that is, independent of the choice of
the intermediate points and the manner in which the subdivision is performed, the the
unique limit S
n
is called the line integral (or definite integral) of the complex function
f(z) taken along the curve C between the points z −o and z
n
and is denoted by
lim
n→∞
S
n
=
_
zn
zo
f(z) dz
Here are some basic definitions you must be familiar with in dealing with complex
integrals:
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-
6
p
p
q
p
p
q
p
q
q
z
o
z
1
z
2
z
3
. . .
p
z
r
z
n
z
n−2
q
p
p
ξ
1
ξ
2
ξ
3
ξ
r
ξ
n
z
n−1
z
r−1
p
p
pp
qq r
q
q
p
p pq
p
pp
p
pp
p
p
p
p
Figure 1.1
• Continuous arc : a set of points z = (x, y) satisfying
z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β
where x(t) and y(t) are continuous functions of the real variable t.
• Multiple points : a point z
1
is a multiple point of the arc if the equation
z
1
= x(t) + iy(t)
is satisfied by two or more values of t in the given range.
• Jordan arc : a continuous arc having no multiple points.
Jordan Curve or Simple closed curve:
Given the continuous arc z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β, If x(t) = (β) and
y(α) = y(β) and if there is no other multiple point on the continuous arc defined
by z, then this continuous arc is a Jordan curve or a simple closed curve.
The circle x = a cos t, y = a sin t (0 ≤ t ≤ 2π) is a simple closed curve.
• Contour : a curve composed of a chain of finite number of regular Jordan arcs.
Simply Connected and multiply Connected domains
A domain is simply connected if the interior of every closed contour in the domain
consists only the points of the domain.
In general, a domain is said to be m-fold connected if its boundaries consist of m
distinct parts without common points.
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
"!
#
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
&%
'$
simply connected
doubly connected
triply connected
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
1.8.1 Contour Integration
Let f(z) be defined from z = a to z = b. The the integral of f(z) from z = a to z = b
is defined in terms of the values of f(z) at points along the contour C extended from
z = a to z = b. Such an integral is called a line integral, its value depending upon
the choice of C as well as upon f, a and b.
_
C
f(z) dz =
_
b
a
f(z)
dz
ds
ds
Example 1.8.1 Find the integral of z
2
along the contour C where C is given by z(s) =
s + is
2
, 0 ≤ s ≤ 1.
Solution 1.8.1 From the definition of contour integration we have,
_
C
z
2
dz =
_
C
f(z)
dz
ds
ds
Now, z(s) = s + is
2
and
dz
ds
= 1 + 2is

_
C
z
2
dz =
_
1
0
(s + is
2
)
2
(1 + 2is)ds
=
_
1
0
(s
2
−s
4
+ 2is
3
)(1 + 2is)ds
=
_
1
0
(s
2
−5s
4
)ds + i
_
1
0
(4s
3
−2s
5
)ds
=
s
3
3
−s
5
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
0
+ i
_
s
4

s
6
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
0
= −
2
3
+ i
2
3
Exercise 1.8.1 (a) Integrate
_
C
z
2
dz where C is the contour given by
z(s) =
_
2s , 0 ≤ s ≤ 1
2 + i(s −1) , 1 ≤ s ≤ 2
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(b) Evaluate
_
C
z
2
dz where C is the straight line joining the origin O to the point
P(2, 1) on the complex plane.
1.8.2 Cauchy’s Integral Theorem
Theorem 1.8.1 If a function f(z) is analytic at all points inside and on a closed
contour C, then
_
C
f(z) dz = 0
We need to prove Theorem 1.8.1 inorder to appreciate its usefulness in evaluating
certain types of complex integrals. the proof is as follows.
Proof: Let R be a closed region consisting of all points inside and on a closed contour
C and let C be described in the counter clockwise sense.
From Green’s theorem, if P(x, y), Q(x, y and their partial derivatives
∂P
∂y
and
∂Q
∂x
are
continuous single-valued functions over a closed region R bounded by the curve C, then
_
C
(Pdx + Qdy) =
__
R
_
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
_
dxdy
Now, let f(z) = u(x, y) be analytic throughout R in the z plane. Then dz = dx +idy.
Thus,
_
R
f(z) dz =
_
C
(u + iv)(dx + idy)
=
_
C
(udx −vdy) + i
_
C
(vdx + udy) (1.1)
Since f(z) is analytic, f

(z) exists in R and then u and v and their first partial deriva-
tives are continuous in R.
Applying Green’s Theorem on the right-side of equation 1.1,
_
R
f(z) dz =
__
R
_

∂v
∂x

∂u
∂y
_
dxdy + i
__
R
_
∂u
∂x

∂v
∂y
_
dxdy
Since f(z) is analytic, the C-R equations must be satisfied.
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
and
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x

_
C
f(z) dz = 0
Example 1.8.2 Verify Cauchy’s theorem for the function f(z) = z where C is the
circle |z| = 2.
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Solution 1.8.2 We know that we can express z in polar form as z = re

. So, for
|z| = 2 we can write this function as z = 2e

. Thus, if z = 2e

, then dz = 2ie

dθ.
_
C
f(z) dz =
_

0
2e

· 2ie


= 4i
_

0
2e


= 4i
e
2iθ
2i
¸
¸
¸
¸

0
= 2(e
4πi
−1)
= 2(cos 4π + i sin 4π −1)
= 0
1.8.3 Cauchy Integral Formula
Consider the integral
I =
_
C
1
z −a
dz (a = constant)
f(z) =
1
z −a
is not analytic at z = a. This function is not defined at this point and
thus cannot posses a derivative.
Let C involved in this definition be a simple closed curve. If the point z = a is outside
the curve, then Cauchy’s theorem holds and I = 0. That is,
_
C
1
z −a
dz = 0
If z = a is inside C, I = 0.
Now, if C is a circle of radius R centered at z = a, we evaluate the integral by setting
z = a + Re

. Thus, dz = iRe

dθ.
∴ I =

_
0
1
a + Re

−a
· iRe


=

_
0
i dθ
⇒ I = 2πi
This is true for any simple closed path which encircles z = a.
If f(z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and z
o
is any point interior to C,
then,
f(z
o
) =
1
2πi
_
C
f(z)
z −z
o
dz
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Exercise 1.8.2 (i) Evaluate
_
C
z
2
z −2
dz, C being the circle |z| = 3.
(ii) Show that
_
C
z dz
9 + 9z −z
2
−z
3
= −
1
4
πi, C being the circle |z| = 2.
1.9 Derivatives of an Analytic Function
If f(z) is holomorphic in a region D bounded by a simple closed curve C, then its
derivatives of all orders exist and are analytic at each point of the domain D.
Theorem 1.9.1 If f(z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and z
o
is a point
inside C, then
f
(n)
(z
o
) =
n!
2πi
_
C
f(z)
(z −z
o
)
(n+1)
dz
Example 1.9.1 Evaluate
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
(z −2)
4
dz, where C is the circle |z| = 3.
Solution 1.9.1 We begin by letting f(z) = 2z
2
− z − 2. Comparing Theorem 1.9.1
with our integral, z
o
= 2 and n = 3. Thus we can write the integral as
f
(3)
(2) =
6
2πi
_
C
f(z) dz
(z −2)
4
Thus,
f

(z) = 4z −1
f
′′
(z) = 4
f
′′′
(z) = 0

_
C
2z
2
−z −2
(z −2)
4
dz =
πi
3
f
(3)
(2)
= 0
Exercise 1.9.1 Evaluate
(i)
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
z
2
−4z + 4
dz, C : |z| = 3 (ii)
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
(z −2)
3
dz, C : |z| = 3
(iii)
_
C
dz
z
2
(z −3)
, C : |z| = 2
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
1.10 Taylor’s series
Theorem 1.10.1 Taylor’s Theorem
Let f(z) be analytic inside a circle C with center at z
o
and radius r
o
. Then at each
point inside C, f(z) can be expanded in ascending powers of (z −z
o
and may be written
as
f(z) = f(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
1!
f

(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
2
2!
f
′′
(z
o
) + . . . +
(z −z
o
)
n
n!
f
(n)
(z
o
) + . . .
=

n=0
(z −z
o
)
n
n!
f
(n)
(z
o
)
This is Taylor’s series for f(z) with center at z
o
. The series converges to f(z).
In particular case when z
o
= 0, we obtain the Maclaurin series for f(z).
Example 1.10.1 Find the Taylor series expansion of
1
1 −z
about the point z = 0.
Solution 1.10.1 f(z) =
1
1 −z
, z
o
= 0.
f(z) = f(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
1!
f

(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
2
2!
f
′′
(z
o
) + . . .
Now,
f(z) =
1
z −1
⇒f(z
o
) = f(0) = 1
f

(z) =
1
(1 −z)
2
⇒f

(z
o
) = 1!
f
′′
(z) =
2
(1 −z)
3
⇒f
′′
(z
o
) = 2!
f
′′′
(z) =
6
(1 −z)
4
⇒f
′′
(z
o
) = 3!
f
iv
(z) =
24
(1 −z)
5
⇒f
′′
(z
o
) = 4!
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
(n)
(z) =
n!
(1 −z)
n+1
⇒f
(n)
(z
o
) = n!
Finally, we can write the series as
f(z) = f(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
1!
f

(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
2
2!
f
′′
(z
o
) + . . .
= 1 + z +
z
2
2!
· 2! +
z
3
3!
· 3! + . . .

1
1 −z
= 1 + z + z
2
+ z
3
+ . . . .
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Exercise 1.10.1 Expand by Taylor’s series:
(i)
1
z
about the point z = 1.
(ii)
1
1 + z
2
about z = 0.
You can also verify the following important power series:
e
z
= 1 +
z
1!
+
z
2
2!
+
z
3
3!
+ . . . +
z
n
n!
+ . . . , |z| < ∞
sinz =
z
1!

z
3
3!
+
z
5
5!
+ . . . + (−1)
n+1
z
2n−1
(2n −1)!
+ . . . , |z| < ∞
cos z = 1 −
z
2
2!
+
z
4
4!
−. . . (−1)
n
z
2n
(2n)!
+ . . . , |z| < ∞
1
1 + z
= 1 −z + z
2
−z
3
+ . . . + (−1)nz
n
+ . . . , |z| < 1
ln(1 + z) = z −
z
2
2
+
z
3
3
−. . . (−1)
n+1
z
n
n
+ . . . , |z| < 1
1.10.1 Laurent’s Series
In expanding a function f(z) by means of Taylor’s series at a point z
o
, f(z) must be
analytic at z
o
. Laurent’s series gives an expansion of f(z) at a point z
o
even if f(z) is
not analytic at z
o
.
Theorem 1.10.2 If f(z) is analytic between and on two circles C
1
and C
2
having
common radii r
1
, r
2
(r
1
> r
2
), then at each point z between them, f(z) can be expanded
by a convergent series of positive and negative powers of (z −z
o
), namely,
f(z) = a
o
+a
1
(z−z
o
)+a
2
(z−z
o
)
2
+. . .+a
n
(z−z
o
)
n
+
b
1
z −z
o
+
b
2
(z −z
o
)
2
+. . .+
b
n
(z −z
o
)
n
+. . .
where
a
n
=
1
2πi
_
c
1
f(z

)
(z

−z
o
)
n+1
dz

, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
and
b
n
=
1
2πi
_
c
2
f(z

)
(z

−z
o
)
n+1
dz

, n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
with the integrals taken in the counter clockwise sense.
Example 1.10.2 Expand f(z) =
z
(z −1)(2 −z)
in Laurent series valid for
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
(i) |z| < 1 (ii) 1 < |z| < 2 (iii) 0 < |z −2| < 1
Solution 1.10.2 f(z) =
z
(z −1)(2 −z)
can be expressed in terms of its component
fractions as f(z) =
1
z −1
+
2
2 −z
.
Now, for
(a) |z| < 1 we have
1
z −1
= −
1
1 −z
= −(1−z)
−1
= −(1+z+z
2
+z
3
+. . .) ............(i)
and
2
2 −z
=
2
2
_
1 −
z
2
_ =
1
1 −
z
2
=
_
1 −
z
2
_
−1
= 1+
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+. . . ..........(ii)
Combining (i) and (ii) we have
f(z) = −(1 + z + z
2
+ z
3
+ . . .) + (1 +
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+ . . .)
= −
_
z
2
+
3
4
z
2
+
7
8
z
3
+ . . .
_
(b) 0 < |z| < 1
We split the series into two parts. First when |z| > 1 we have
1
z −1
=
1
z
_
1 −
1
z
_ =
1
z
_
1 −
1
z
_
−1
=
1
z
_
1 +
1
z
+
1
z
2
+ . . .
_
...........(iii)
and when |z| < 2 ,
2
2 −z
=
_
1−
z
2
_
−1
=
_
1+
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+. . .
_
..............(iv)
Thus, f(z) =
1
z
_
1 +
1
z
+
1
z
2
+ . . .
_
+
_
1 +
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+ . . .
_
(c) 0 < |z −2| < 1
First let u = z −2 ⇒0 < |u| < 1
∴ f(z) =
z
(z −1)(2 −z)
= −
u + 2
(u + 1)u
= −
2
u
+
1
u + 1
when |u| < 1 (1 + u)
−1
= 1 −u + u
2
+ . . .
Thus, f(z) = −
2
z −2
+ 1 −(z −2) + (z −2)
2
−. . .
1.11 Zeros of a Function
Let f(z) be an analytic function. If f(z) = 0, the z
0
is a zero of f(z).
Since f(z) is analytic at z
0
, there exists a neighborhood of z
0
at which f(z) can be
expanded in Taylor’s series
f(z) = a
0
+ a
1
(z −z
0
) + a
2
(z −z
0
)
2
+ . . . , +a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+ . . . , |z −z
0
| < r
0
.
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
where a
0
= f(z
0
) and a
n
=
f
(n)
(z
0
)
n!
.
If z
0
is a zero of f(z), then f(z
0
) = 0 and a
0
= 0.
If a
0
= 0 and a
1
= 0, then z
0
is a simple zero.
If a
0
= a
1
= a
2
= . . . = a
m−1
= 0 but a
m
= 0, the z
0
is a zero of order m.
Thus, we can define a zero of order m by the condition
f(z
0
) = f

(z
0
) = . . . = f
(m−1)
(z
0
) = 0 and f
(m)
= 0.
So we can write f(z) = (z −z
0
)
m
g(z) where g(z) is analytic and g(z
0
) = a
m
= 0.
Theorem 1.11.1 Let z
0
be a zero of an analytic function f(z). There is a neighbour-
hood of f
0
throughout which f(z) has no other zeros, unless f is identically zero. Thus,
if an analytic function is not identically zero, then its zeros are isolated.
Example 1.11.1 1. f(z) = (z + 1)
4
has a zero of order 4 at z = −1.
2. f(z) = cos z has simple zeros at z = ±
π
2
, ±

2
, . . ..
3. Find the zeros of f(z) =
_
z −1
z
2
+ 1
_
2
Solution 1.11.1 f(z) = 0 when (z −1)
2
= 0. Thus, z = 1 is a zero of order 2.
1.12 Singularities of a Function
If a function f(z) is analytic at every point in the neighbourhood of a point z
0
except
at z
0
itself, z
0
is called a singularity or singular point of the function.
Example 1.12.1 Locate and name all singularities of
f(z) =
z
6
+ 2z
3
+ 3
(z + 1)
2
(z
2
+ 1)
Solution 1.12.1 (z + 1)
2
(z
2
+ 1) = 0
z = −1, z = ±i
1.12.1 Isolated Singularity
For f(z) =
1
z
, z = 0 is an isolated singularity since f(z) is analytic everywhere except
at z = 0.
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
1.12.2 Removable Singularity
The singularity point z = z
0
is called removable if
lim
z→z
0
f(z) exists
f(z) =
z
2
−a
2
z −a
, z = a is a removable singular point.
Theorem 1.12.1 Let f(z) be analytic in the domain D except at z = z
0
. Then z
0
is
an isolated singularity of f(z) and we can draw two concentric circles with center at z
0
such that f(z) can be expanded in a Laurent’s series in the annular region between the
two circles. Thus,
f(z) =

n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
. ¸¸ .
regular part of f(z)
+

n=1
b
n
(z −z
0
)
n
. ¸¸ .
principal part in the
(1.2)
neighbourhood ofz
0
z
0
is a removable singularity if b
n
= 0, ∀n, or if lim
z→z
0
f(z) exists.
1.12.3 Essential Singularity
If b
n
in (1.2) contains an infinite number of terms, then z = z
0
is an isolated essential
singularity of f(z).
Thus, there exists no finite n such that
lim
z→z
0
(z −z
0
)f(z) = a finite constant.
1.13 Poles of a Function
Consider again
f(z) =

n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+

n=1
b
n
(z −z
0
)
n
. ¸¸ .
principal part
If the principal part terminates, at n = m (say), then f(z) becomes
f(z) = a
0
+ a
1
(z −z
0
) + . . . +
b
1
z −z
0
+ . . . +
b
m
(z −z
0
)
m
The isolated singular point z = z
0
is called a pole of order m.
A pole of order 1 is called a simple pole.
A pole of order 2 is called a double pole.
Example 1.13.1 Determine the order of the pole of the function f(z
0
) =
1
z
3
(z + 4)
.
Solution 1.13.1 f(z
0
) has a pole of order 3 at z = 0 and a simple pole at z = −4.
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
1.14 Residues
Let z
0
be an isolated singularity of f(z). Then there exists a positive number r, such
that f(z) is analytic at each point of the region 0|z − z
0
| < r, and in which it can be
represented by the Laurent’s series
f(z) =

n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+

n=1
b
n
(z −z
0
)
n
where
a
n
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z

)
(z

−z
0
)
n+1
dz

, n = 0, 1, . . . .
and
b
n
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z

)
(z

−z
0
)
n+1
dz

, n = 1, 2, . . . .
b
1
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z

)dz

=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z)dz (1.3)
where C is any closed contour around z
0
(counterclockwise) such that f(z) is analytic
on C and interior to C, except at z = z
0
.
b
1
is the coefficient of
1
z −z
0
and is called the residue of f(z) at the isolated singular
point z
0
.
Thus, Res
z=z
0
f(z) = b
1
From (1.3), Res
z=z
0
f(z) =
1
2πi
_
C
f(z)dz, where f(z) is analytic everywhere on and
within C except at z
0
.
If f(z) has a simple pole at z = z
0
, the residue of f(z) is given by
Res
z=z
0
f(z) = lim
z→z
0
(z −z
0
) · f(z)
Example 1.14.1 Find the residue of f(z) =
1
z(z −4)
at each of its poles.
Solution 1.14.1 f(z) has simple poles at z = 0 and z = 4.
Thus,
when z = 0
Res
z=0
f(z) = lim
z→0
z ·
1
z(z −4)
= −
1
4
and when z = 4
Res
z=4
f(z) = lim
z→4
(z −4) ·
1
z(z −4)
=
1
4
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Suppose f(z) has a pole of order m,
f(z) =

n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+
b
1
z −z
0
+
b
2
(z −z
0
)
2
+ . . . +
b
m
(z −z
0
)
m
(z −z
0
)
m
f(z) =

n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
m+n
+ b
1
(z −z
0
)
m−1
+ . . . + b
m
(1.4)
Differentiating (1.4) (m−1) times,
d
m−1
dz
m−1
[(z −z
0
)
m
f(z)] =

n=0
a
n
(m + n)(m + n + 1) . . . (n + z)(z −z
0
)
n+1
+ b
1
(m−1)!
thus, b
1
=
1
(m−1)!
lim
z→z
0
d
m−1
dz
m−1
[(z −z
0
)
m
f(z)]
⇒Res
z=z
0
f(z) =
1
(m−1)!
lim
z→z
0
d
m−1
dz
m−1
[(z −z
0
)
m
f(z)]
Example 1.14.2 Calculate the residue of
z
2
e
z
(z−a)
3
.
Solution 1.14.2 z = a is a pole of order 3,
∴ Res
z=a
f(z) =
1
2!
lim
z→a
d
2
dz
2
_
(z −a)
3
z
2
e
z
(z −a)
3
_
=
1
2
lim
z→a
d
2
dz
2
_
z
2
e
z
_
=
1
2
lim
z→a
(z
2
e
z
+ 4ze
z
+ 2e
z
)
=
1
2
[e
a
(a
2
+ 4a + 2)]
=
e
a
2
(a
2
+ 4a + 2)
Exercise 1.14.1 Find the residues of
1.
z
2
+ 5
z(z + 3)
2
2.
z
(z −1)(z −2)
2
at the poles.
1.14.1 Cauchy’s Residue Theorem
If C is a closed contour within and on which a function f(z) is analytic except for a
finite number of singular points z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
n
interior to C, then
_
C
f(z) dz = 2πi(R
1
+ R
2
, . . . + R
n
)
where R
j
is the residue of f(z) at z = z
j
.
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Example 1.14.3 Find
_
C
z
z + 1
dz , where C is the circle |z| = 2.
Solution 1.14.3 z = −1 is a simple pole,
Res
z=−1
f(z) = lim
z→−1
_
(z + 1)
z
z + 1
_
= −1

_
C
z
z + 1
dz = 2πi(−1)
= −2πi
Exercise 1.14.2 Evaluate
1.
_
C
sin πz
z
6
dz where C is a unit circle at the origin.
2.
_
C
dz
z
3
(z −1)
, C : |z| = 2
3.
_
C
z + 1
z
2
−2z
dz , C : |z| = 3
4.
_
C
e
−z
(z −1)
3
dz , C : |z| = 3
5.
_
C
e
z
z
2
−1
dz
(a) given that C is the circle |z −1| = 1
(b) given that C is the circle |z −i| = 1
HIT223 - 2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology

Definition 1.1.9 Closed domain - The set obtained by adding to an open connected set its boundary points is called a closed domain or region. Definition 1.1.10 Circular disk - the inequality |z − zo | < ǫ represents the interior of a circle of radius ǫ with center zo . This region is called an open circular disk. The region given by |z − zo | ≤ ǫ is called the closed circular disk.

1.2

Functions of a Complex Variable

A complex variable is an ordered pair of real variables, that is, z = (x, y) = x + iy Let z = x + iy and w = u + iv be two complex variables. If for each value of z in S (set of complex numbers) there corresponds one or more values of w in a well defined way, the w is said to be a function of z; thus w = f (z) 1 , w = z 2 , w = ez , etc. z If to each value of z, there corresponds only one value of w, then the function w(z) is called a single valued function. Examples : w = z2 s z3 r z1 r
rw1 s w2 uw3

one-to-one mapping

If w(z) takes more than one value corresponding to a value of z, then w(z) is a multivalued function of z. For example, √ w= z In this course we will concern ourselves with single valued functions. Suppose w = u + iv is the value of f at z = x = iy where x, y, u and v are real, u + iv = f (x + iy) ∴ f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) Example 1.2.1 If f (z) = z 2 , u + iv = (x + iy)2 = x2 − y 2 + 2ixy ⇒ u(x, y) = x2 − y 2 v(x, y) = 2xy

and

vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology

z 3 5. y) and v(x. Then.2. then z→zo z→zo (i) lim [f (z) + φ(z)] = ℓ + m z→zo (ii) lim [f (z)φ(z)] = ℓm z→zo (iii) lim z→zo f (z) ℓ = .Exercise 1. Example 1.3.1 If lim f (z) = ℓ and lim φ(z) = m. sin z 2.1 Find lim z3 − 1 . z→1 z − 1 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology HIT223 . y) = ex cos y and v(x.1 Let z = x + iy. in the domain 0 < |z − zo | < δ. Find u(x.3. cos z 4.1 Let w = f (z) be a function of z defined at all points in some neighbourhood of zo . y) + iv(x. Theorem 1. The limit of f (z) as z approaches zo is a number ℓ and is given by z→zo z = zo lim f (z) = ℓ The evaluation of limits can be done using the following theorems on limits. y) = ex sin y Now try the following exercise problems. zo . φ(z) m m = 0. y) if f (z) = ez . log z 3. z 2 + 2z 1. Practice Questions Express the following in the form u(x.1 ez = ex+iy = ex (cos y + i sin y) ⇒ u(x. ez 6.3. Solution 1.2.2009 . ∀z. the function f (z) is said to have a limit ℓ as z approaches zo if for every positive real number ǫ there exists a positive real number δ such that |f (z) − ℓ| < ǫ. y) 1.3 Limits Definition 1.

2 Let f (z) = u(x.3. y) + iv(x.4. then continuity of f (z) at z = z1 means that lim f (z) = f (z1 ) z→z1 A necessary and sufficient condition that f (z) = u(x.y)→(xo . y) = vo (x. Definition 1.3. lim z→1 z − 1 z 2 + z + 1 = (x + iy)2 + (x + iy) + 1 = x2 + x − y 2 + i(y + 2xy) + 1 z3 − 1 = 3. zo = xo + iyo and wo = uo + ivo .2 A function f (x.1 The function f (z) is said to be continuous at z = z1 if for every positive number ǫ there exists another number δ such that |f (z) − f (z1 )| < ǫ whenever |z − z1 | < δ If the point z1 is a limit point of the complex plane.4 Continuity Let f (z) be defined at all points of the complex plane and let z1 be a point of the plane.Solution 1. Definition 1. x → 1 and y → 0.3. Hence. y) be continuous is that the real functions u(x. y) = uo v(x.3. we have: z3 − 1 z−1 ∴ z3 − 1 z→1 z − 1 lim = z2 + z + 1 = lim (z 2 + z + 1) z→1 = 3 Theorem 1.y)→(xo .yo ) lim From Theorem 1. y). as z → 1.yo ) lim u(x.1 as follows: z3 − 1 .1 since z = 1. the necessary and sufficient conditions that lim f (z) = wo are that z→0 (i) (ii) (x. yo ) if vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . y) and v(x. y) of two independent real variables x and y is said to be continuous at point (xo . Thus. Then. lim 1. z→1 z − 1 = (x2 + x − y 2 + 1) + i(y + 2xy) which tends to 3 as x → 1 and y → 0. y) should be continuous.2 we can evaluate Example 1. y) + iv(x.4.

y) =    0 Discuss the continuity of f (x. Another example!! Example 1. it follows that the function is not continuous at (0.4.0).0) x3 + y 3 lim = = and x3 − y 3 x→0 x3 + y 3 lim y→0 . HIT223 .2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .(i) f (xo . yo ) in whatever way x → xo and y → yo . y) at (0. yo ) is finite (ii) x→x = f (xo .4.y)→(0.4. when y = mx x3 − y 3 x→0 x3 + y 3 lim y→0 = = x3 − m3 x3 x→0 x3 + m3 x3 lim 1 − m3 1 + m3 Since the limit is not unique.1 Given that  3  x − y3   3 x + y3 f (x. lim o y→yo Example 1. z=0  2 x + y2 x + y2 f (z) =    0.  3 x3 + y 3  x − y3  +i 2 . x. z=0 We proceed as follows in investigating the continuity of f (z) at (0.0).1 x3 − y 3 (x. y = 0 . x=y=0 x3 − y 3 x→0 x3 + y 3 lim y→0 y→0 lim − lim y3 y3 = −1 = x3 =1 x→0 x3 Further. Solution 1.2 Discuss the continuity of f (z) at z = 0.0).

x→0 y→0 y→0 x→0 x3 − y 3 x2 + y 2 x3 + y 3 x2 + y 2 lim (−y) = 0 lim (x) = 0 lim u(x.y)→0 lim v(x. y) = x→0 Similarly. the concept of differentiation of a function of a complex variable is defined in the same way as the real variable case.0).1 Find the derivative of z 2 at z = zo .1 The derivative of the function f (z) at zo is f ′ (z) and is given by f ′ (z) = f (z) − f (zo ) z − zo f (zo + h) − f (zo ) = lim .5 Differentiability As in the case of limits and continuity.2 Show that the derivative of f (z) = z does not exist anywhere. y) = N ow. Definition 1. Hence u(x. It follows that f (z) is continuous at z = 0. (x.4. 1. y) = 0 in whatever way x and y → 0. y) = v(x. y) = y→0 lim u(x.5. y) are continuous at (0.2 From f (z) we deduce that u(x. Solution 1.1 We proceed as follows: Let f (z) = z 2 f ′ (zo ) = 2 (zo + h)2 − zo h→0 h 2hzo + h2 = lim h→0 h = 2zo lim Example 1. where h = z − zo h→0 h z→zo lim Example 1.5.Solution 1. y) and v(x.5.5. ¯ vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .

Theorem 1. φ(z) = 0.1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Rules for differentiation d [c1 f (z) + c2 φ(z)] = c1 f ′ (z) + c2 φ′ (z). lim [f (z) − f (zo )] = f (z) − f (zo ) (z − zo ) z→0 z − zo f (z) − f (zo ) = lim · lim (z − zo ) z→0 z→0 z − zo = 0 lim z→0 Hence.6 Cauchy-Riemann equations Let f (z) = u(x. y) be differentiable at zo = xo + iyo .1 If f (z) is differentiable at zo . lim f (z) = f (zo ).Solution 1. dz d [f (z)φ(z)] = f ′ (z)φ(z) + f (z)φ′ (z). f (z + ∆z) − f (z) ∆z ∆x − i∆y ∆x→0 ∆x + i∆y lim ∆y→0 = = and ∆x→0 ∆x − i∆y ∆y→0 ∆x + i∆y lim = Since the limit is not unique.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .5. which shows that f (z) is continuous at z = zo .5. yo ) and must HIT223 . We have. Then the first order partial derivatives of u and v with respect to x and y must exist at (xo .2 f (z) = z = x − iy ¯ ∆x − i∆y ∆x + i∆y −i∆y = −1 ∆y→0 i∆y lim ∆x =1 ∆x→0 ∆x lim f (z + ∆z) = x + ∆x − i(y + ∆y) hence N ow.5. where c1 and c2 are complex constants. Let us show a little proof of the above theorem. dz φ(z) d f (φ(z)) = f ′ (φ(z)) · φ′ (z) dz 1. y) + iv(x. f ′ (z) does not exist anywhere. z→0 1. dz d f (z) f ′ (z)φ(z) − f (z)φ′ = [φ(z)]2 . then f (z) is continuous at z = zo .

1 Let f (z) = u + iv = |z| = Thus. and v = 0 x2 + y 2  ∂u ∂v    = − ∂y ∂x Similarly. Solution 1. 0) − u(0. u = Now. it follows that f (z) = |z| is not differentiable at the origin though its continuous everywhere. ∂x ∂u = 0. Example 1. Since the Cauchy-Riemann equations are also not satisfied at the origin. ∂x When x = 0. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y      Cauchy-Riemann Equations Since the Cauchy-Riemann equations are only a necessary condition. 0) = lim = = ±1 h→0 ∂x h h which shows that the limit is not unique.satisfy the following equations. and y = 0 we have ∂u ∂v = 0. and y = 0 we have ∂u ∂v =0= ∂x ∂y and ∂v = 0. when x = 0. ∂ u(h. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology ∂u ∂v = =0 ∂y ∂x . when x = y = 0.6. ∂u = ∂y ∂v =0 ∂y y x2 + y2 x2 + y 2 . 0) |h| u(0. ∂y x x2 + y2 . ∂u = ∂x ∂v = 0.6.1 Show that the function defined by f (z) = |z| is not differentiable at the origin but is continuous everywhere. they can be used to locate points at which f ′ (z) does not exist. =0 ∂x ∂y and Finally.

7. then the component functions u and v are both harmonic functions. then f (z) is an entire function. f (z) = z−1 z+1 2. f (z) = 1 z 3.1 Harmonic Functions Any function f which possesses continuous partial derivatives of the first order and second order and satisfies the Laplace equation is called a harmonic function.6. f (z) = |z|2 1. f (z) = |z| 4. the z − o is called a singular point or singualrity off.7 Analytic Functions A function f (z) is said to be analytic in the domain D if it is differentiable at every point in the domain D.2 Determine whether or not the C-R equations are satisfied by the function f (z0 = z 2 − 3z. Such a function is also called regular. Since f is analytic.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . That is. (a) If two functions are analytic in a domain D. their sum and their product are both analytic in D (b) The quotient of two analytic functions is also analytic provided the function in the denominator does not vanish at any point in D. u(x.2 We first express f (z) in terms of u and v. y) = −3x + x2 − y 2 and v(x. ∂2f ∂2f + 2 =0 ∂x2 ∂y Laplace’s equation If f (z) = u + iv is an analytic function. y) = −3xy + 2xy ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v Now you can verify that = . and =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x Practice Questions Verify whether the Cauchy-Rieman equations are satisfied in each of the following. f (z) = 3z 2 − 3z + 1 5. the first order partial derivatives of u and v satisfy the C-R equations. If a function f (z is analytic at each point in the entire finite plane. ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v = and =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x HIT223 . f (z) = −3x + x2 − y 2 + i(3y + 2xy) Thus. holomorphic or monogenic.Example 1. If f(z) is not analytic at z = zo but is analytic at some point in the neighbourhood of zo . 1.6. Solution 1. 1.

1.If we differentiate both sides of the equations with respect to x we obtain ∂2v ∂2u ∂2u ∂2v = and = − 2 ..1.(2) ∂y∂x ∂ y ∂y 2 ∂y∂x Since partial derivatives are continuous. Let z1 ... zn−1 be any arbitrary number of intermediate points which subdivide the curve C into n arcs zo z1 . .. the the unique limit Sn is called the line integral (or definite integral) of the complex function f (z) taken along the curve C between the points z − o and zn and is denoted by zn n→∞ lim Sn = zo f (z) dz Here are some basic definitions you must be familiar with in dealing with complex integrals: vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .. If two given functions are harmonic in the domain D and their first order partial derivatives satisfy C-R equations at every point of D. .. then v is a harmonic conjugate of u. . that is..... . . . zn−1 zn as shown in Figure 1.. . independent of the choice of the intermediate points and the manner in which the subdivision is performed... .. Let Sn = r=1 n f (ξr )∆zr . |∆r| → 0 and is the summation tends to a unique limit.. . z2 . . z1 z2 . ξ2 lies on z1 z2 . ξr . . ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v ∂2u = and = ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂x∂y ∂y∂x Equating (1) and (2) gives us ∂2u ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v + 2 = 0 and + 2 =0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂x2 ∂y which shows that u and v are harmonic........ . If the curve is divided into smaller and smaller parts so that n → ∞.. where ∆zr = zr − zr−1 ..... ξ2 .. ... .... .....8 Complex Integration Let C be a smooth curve in the complex z-plane having end points zo and zn . .. z2 z3 . z3 .. .. .(1) ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x Differentiating with respect to y gives ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v ∂2u = 2 and =− . ξn be the points chosen on the curve C such that ξ1 lies on arc zo z1 . Let ξ1 . . . ξr lies on zr−1 zr and so on.

If x(t) = (β) and y(α) = y(β) and if there is no other multiple point on the continuous arc defined by z. Simply Connected and multiply Connected domains A domain is simply connected if the interior of every closed contour in the domain consists only the points of the domain. Jordan Curve or Simple closed curve: Given the continuous arc z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β. • Jordan arc : a continuous arc having no multiple points. • Contour : a curve composed of a chain of finite number of regular Jordan arcs. p zr−1 qr ξr pq zr q p p zn−2 p qpp z n−1 - Figure 1. y) satisfying z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β where x(t) and y(t) are continuous functions of the real variable t..6 pqp zn ξn pq ξ1 zo p pp ξ2 z1 qp ξ3 z2 z3 pq . In general.1 • Continuous arc : a set of points z = (x. y = a sin t (0 ≤ t ≤ 2π) is a simple closed curve. a domain is said to be m-fold connected if its boundaries consist of m distinct parts without common points. • Multiple points : a point z1 is a multiple point of the arc if the equation z1 = x(t) + iy(t) is satisfied by two or more values of t in the given range. The circle x = a cos t.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . HIT223 . then this continuous arc is a Jordan curve or a simple closed curve..

Such an integral is called a line integral.@ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @@ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ AA AAA# A A '$ &% "! doubly connected simply connected triply connected 1.1 Find the integral of z 2 along the contour C where C is given by z(s) = s + is2 . z(s) = s + is2 and ⇒ dz = 1 + 2is ds 1 0 1 z 2 dz = C (s + is2 )2 (1 + 2is)ds (s2 − s4 + 2is3 )(1 + 2is)ds (s2 − 5s4 )ds + i 1 1 0 = 0 1 = 0 (4s3 − 2s5 )ds 1 0 s6 s3 − s5 + i s4 − = 3 3 0 2 2 = − +i 3 3 Exercise 1. a and b.8.1 (a) Integrate C z 2 dz where C is the contour given by 2s . Solution 1.8. z 2 dz = C C f (z) dz ds ds Now. 0≤s≤1 2 + i(s − 1) . its value depending upon the choice of C as well as upon f. The the integral of f (z) from z = a to z = b is defined in terms of the values of f (z) at points along the contour C extended from z = a to z = b.8. 0 ≤ s ≤ 1. b f (z) dz = C a f (z) dz ds ds Example 1.1 From the definition of contour integration we have.8.1 Contour Integration Let f (z) be defined from z = a to z = b. 1 ≤ s ≤ 2 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology z(s) = .

1) on the complex plane. let f (z) = u(x. the proof is as follows. the C-R equations must be satisfied. Proof: Let R be a closed region consisting of all points inside and on a closed contour C and let C be described in the counter clockwise sense. Q(x. ∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ⇒ C and ∂u ∂v =− ∂y ∂x f (z) dz = 0 Example 1.2 Cauchy’s Integral Theorem Theorem 1.1 If a function f (z) is analytic at all points inside and on a closed contour C.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . Thus. f (z) dz = R R Since f (z) is analytic. 1. − ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y dxdy + i R ∂u ∂v − ∂x ∂y dxdy Since f (z) is analytic. y). y and their partial derivatives ∂y ∂x continuous single-valued functions over a closed region R bounded by the curve C. then f (z) dz = 0 C We need to prove Theorem 1.1) Applying Green’s Theorem on the right-side of equation 1. Then dz = dx + idy.8.2 Verify Cauchy’s theorem for the function f (z) = z where C is the circle |z| = 2.8. y) be analytic throughout R in the z plane.1 inorder to appreciate its usefulness in evaluating certain types of complex integrals. then (P dx + Qdy) = C R ∂Q ∂P − ∂x ∂y dxdy Now. ∂Q ∂P and are From Green’s theorem.1.8. f (z) dz = R C (u + iv)(dx + idy) (udx − vdy) + i (vdx + udy) C C = (1. HIT223 . if P (x.8.(b) Evaluate C z 2 dz where C is the straight line joining the origin O to the point P (2. f ′ (z) exists in R and then u and v and their first partial derivatives are continuous in R.

8. for |z| = 2 we can write this function as z = 2eiθ . So. 1 f (z) dz f (zo ) = 2πi z − zo C vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . Now. If f (z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and zo is any point interior to C. dz = iReiθ dθ. 2π ∴ I = 0 2π 1 · iReiθ dθ a + Reiθ − a i dθ = 0 ⇒ I = 2πi This is true for any simple closed path which encircles z = a. then Cauchy’s theorem holds and I = 0. If the point z = a is outside the curve. I = 0. if C is a circle of radius R centered at z = a. 2π f (z) dz = C 0 2eiθ · 2ieiθ dθ 2π = 4i = 4i 2eiθ dθ 0 2π e2iθ 2i 4πi 0 = 2(e = 0 = 2(cos 4π + i sin 4π − 1) − 1) 1. we evaluate the integral by setting z = a + Reiθ . f (z) = Let C involved in this definition be a simple closed curve.3 Cauchy Integral Formula 1 dz z−a Consider the integral I= C (a = constant) 1 is not analytic at z = a.2 We know that we can express z in polar form as z = reiθ . Thus.8. then. if z = 2eiθ . This function is not defined at this point and z−a thus cannot posses a derivative. Thus. 1 dz = 0 z−a C If z = a is inside C.Solution 1. then dz = 2ieiθ dθ. That is.

(z − 2)3 C : |z| = 3 (iii) C C : |z| = 2 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology HIT223 . zo = 2 and n = 3.1 Evaluate C 2z 2 − z − 2 dz. z 2 − 4z + 4 z 2 (z dz . z−2 (ii) Show that C 1 z dz = − πi.1 We begin by letting f (z) = 2z 2 − z − 2.9.9.Exercise 1.2 (i) Evaluate C z2 dz. Theorem 1. f ′ (z) = 4z − 1 ′′ ′′′ 6 2πi C f (z) dz (z − 2)4 f (z) = 4 f (z) = 0 2z 2 − z − 2 dz = (z − 2)4 ∴ C πi (3) f (2) 3 = 0 Exercise 1.1 Evaluate (i) C 2z 2 − z − 2 dz. − 3) C : |z| = 3 (ii) C 2z 2 − z − 2 dz. 2 − z3 9 + 9z − z 4 1. C being the circle |z| = 3. then n! f (z) f (n) (zo ) = dz 2πi (z − zo )(n+1) C Example 1.8.9. where C is the circle |z| = 3.1 with our integral.9.9 Derivatives of an Analytic Function If f (z) is holomorphic in a region D bounded by a simple closed curve C.9.2009 . C being the circle |z| = 2.1 If f (z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and zo is a point inside C. (z − 2)4 Solution 1. Thus we can write the integral as f (3) (2) = Thus. Comparing Theorem 1. then its derivatives of all orders exist and are analytic at each point of the domain D.

. .1 Taylor’s Theorem Let f (z) be analytic inside a circle C with center at zo and radius ro . . . f (z) can be expanded in ascending powers of (z − zo and may be written as (z − zo ) ′ (z − zo )2 ′′ (z − zo )n (n) f (zo ) + f (zo ) + . . we can write the series as f (z) = f (zo ) + (z − zo ) ′ (z − zo )2 ′′ f (zo ) + f (zo ) + . . f (z) = f (zo ) + 1! 2! n! ∞ (z − zo )n (n) f (zo ) = n! n=0 This is Taylor’s series for f (z) with center at zo . .1 f (z) = 1 about the point z = 0. 1 z−1 1 (1 − z)2 2 (1 − z)3 6 (1 − z)4 24 (1 − z)5 n! (1 − z)n+1 f (n) (z) = ⇒ f (n) (zo ) = n! Finally. we obtain the Maclaurin series for f (z).1. . . + f (zo ) + . 2! 3! = 1 + z + z2 + z3 + . f (z) = f ′ (z) = f ′′ (z) = f ′′′ (z) = f iv (z) = . 1! 2! z2 z3 = 1+z+ · 2! + · 3! + . 1−z (z − zo ) ′ (z − zo )2 ′′ f (z) = f (zo ) + f (zo ) + f (zo ) + .10.1 Find the Taylor series expansion of Solution 1. . Then at each point inside C. . . 1−z 1 . . Now. .10.10. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology ⇒ 1 1−z . . 1! 2! ⇒ f (zo ) = f (0) = 1 ⇒ f ′ (zo ) = 1! ⇒ f ′′ (zo ) = 2! ⇒ f ′′ (zo ) = 3! ⇒ f ′′ (zo ) = 4! . zo = 0. Example 1.10 Taylor’s series Theorem 1. . . The series converges to f (z). In particular case when zo = 0.

1 Expand by Taylor’s series: (i) (ii) 1 about the point z = 1. . n = 0.10. .+an (z−zo )n + where an = 1 2πi c1 b1 b2 bn + +. . 1 + z2 You can also verify the following important power series: z z2 z3 zn + + + . . . f (z) must be analytic at zo . |z| < 1 1+z zn z2 z3 + − . . . . 2. . (−1)n+1 + . namely. . . Theorem 1.Exercise 1.10. + (−1)n+1 + . . (z ′ − zo )n+1 and bn = 1 2πi c2 f (z ′ ) dz ′ . + + . |z| < ∞ 1! 3! 5! (2n − 1)! z2 z4 z 2n + − .10. . |z| < ∞ cos z = 1 − 2! 4! (2n)! 1 = 1 − z + z 2 − z 3 + .1 Laurent’s Series In expanding a function f (z) by means of Taylor’s series at a point zo . . . . 1. . r2 (r1 > r2 ). ... . 3. |z| < ∞ 1! 2! 3! n! z3 z5 z 2n−1 z sin z = − + + . . . . (−1)n + . . . (z ′ − zo )n+1 with the integrals taken in the counter clockwise sense. n = 1. z − zo (z − zo )2 (z − zo )n f (z ′ ) dz ′ . + (−1)nz n + . f (z) can be expanded by a convergent series of positive and negative powers of (z − zo ). Example 1.2 If f (z) is analytic between and on two circles C1 and C2 having common radii r1 . . .2 Expand f (z) = z in Laurent series valid for (z − 1)(2 − z) vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology HIT223 .+ +.2009 . Laurent’s series gives an expansion of f (z) at a point zo even if f (z) is not analytic at zo . then at each point z between them. 2.10. . . . f (z) = ao +a1 (z−zo )+a2 (z−zo )2 +. 3. . . . . . |z| < 1 ln(1 + z) = z − 2 3 n ez = 1 + 1. . z 1 about z = 0.

.. z z z ...... f (z) = 1 z z −1 z z2 z3 2 = 1− = 1+ + + +. . If f (z) = 0..10. + 1 + + + + ..... 2 4 8 z z2 z3 + + + . .) .. . .(i) z−1 1−z 2 2 1 z −1 z z2 z3 = = 1− and = = 1+ + + +. |z − z0 | < r0 ...11 Zeros of a Function Let f (z) be an analytic function. z−1 2−z Now.(i) |z| < 1 (ii) 1 < |z| < 2 (iii) 0 < |z − 2| < 1 Solution 1.. .. 2 + 1 − (z − 2) + (z − 2)2 − ..... z−2 when |u| < 1 Thus. ..... vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . . Since f (z) is analytic at z0 . there exists a neighborhood of z0 at which f (z) can be expanded in Taylor’s series f (z) = a0 + a1 (z − z0 ) + a2 (z − z0 )2 + . .. .. First when |z| > 1 we have 1 = z−1 1 1 z 1− z 1 = z 1 1− z −1 = 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + . .. . .. f (z) = − 1...(ii) z z 2−z 2 2 4 8 1− 2 1− 2 2 Combining (i) and (ii) we have f (z) = −(1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + .. .) 2 4 8 (b) 0 < |z| < 1 We split the series into two parts.. +an (z − z0 )n + ........ Thus. z z 2 4 8 .... .2 f (z) = z can be expressed in terms of its component (z − 1)(2 − z) 1 2 fractions as f (z) = + .... 2−z 2 2 4 8 2 3 1 1 z z z 1 + + 2 + . for (a) |z| < 1 we have 1 1 =− = −(1−z)−1 = −(1+z+z 2 +z 3 +..) + (1 + = − z 3 2 7 3 + z + z + . . .(iii) and when |z| < 2 . the z0 is a zero of f (z). . .... . . ..(iv) (c) 0 < |z − 2| < 1 First let u = z − 2 ∴ f (z) = ⇒ 0 < |u| < 1 z u+2 2 1 =− =− + (z − 1)(2 − z) (u + 1)u u u+1 (1 + u)−1 = 1 − u + u2 + .

There is a neighbourhood of f0 throughout which f (z) has no other zeros.11. .1 Let z0 be a zero of an analytic function f (z).1 Isolated Singularity 1 For f (z) = . Find the zeros of f (z) = z−1 z2 + 1 2 Solution 1.12 Singularities of a Function If a function f (z) is analytic at every point in the neighbourhood of a point z0 except at z0 itself.1 f (z) = 0 when (z − 1)2 = 0. then z0 is a simple zero.1 Locate and name all singularities of f (z) = Solution 1.11. Example 1. . 2 2 3. if an analytic function is not identically zero. unless f is identically zero. Theorem 1. π 3π 2. z0 is called a singularity or singular point of the function. z = ±i z 6 + 2z 3 + 3 (z + 1)2 (z 2 + 1) 1. we can define a zero of order m by the condition f (z0 ) = f ′ (z0 ) = . f (z) = (z + 1)4 has a zero of order 4 at z = −1. z = 0 is an isolated singularity since f (z) is analytic everywhere except z at z = 0. . . n! If z0 is a zero of f (z). . Thus. where a0 = f (z0 ) and an = If a0 = 0 and a1 = 0. HIT223 .f (n) (z0 ) . f (z) = cos z has simple zeros at z = ± . = am−1 = 0 but am = 0. So we can write f (z) = (z − z0 )m g(z) where g(z) is analytic and g(z0 ) = am = 0. 1.11. then f (z0 ) = 0 and a0 = 0. the z0 is a zero of order m. If a0 = a1 = a2 = .1 1. ± .1 (z + 1)2 (z 2 + 1) = 0 z = −1. Thus.12.12.12. then its zeros are isolated. Thus. = f (m−1) (z0 ) = 0 and f (m) = 0. Example 1. z = 1 is a zero of order 2. .. .2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .

Example 1. Thus. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .. Thus.12. Then z0 is an isolated singularity of f (z) and we can draw two concentric circles with center at z0 such that f (z) can be expanded in a Laurent’s series in the annular region between the two circles. or if limz→z0 f (z) exists.13.1 Determine the order of the pole of the function f (z0 ) = z 3 (z 1 . 1.. . Solution 1.2) regular part of f(z) principal part in the neighbourhood of z0 z0 is a removable singularity if bn = 0.12. + A pole of order 1 is called a simple pole. + 4) b1 bm + . A pole of order 2 is called a double pole.13.12.1. at n = m (say). then z = z0 is an isolated essential singularity of f (z). ∀n.3 Essential Singularity If bn in (1.2 Removable Singularity The singularity point z = z0 is called removable if z→z0 lim f (z) exists f (z) = z 2 − a2 .13 Poles of a Function ∞ ∞ Consider again f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 )n + n=1 bn (z − z0 )n principal part If the principal part terminates. then f (z) becomes f (z) = a0 + a1 (z − z0 ) + .1 f (z0 ) has a pole of order 3 at z = 0 and a simple pole at z = −4.2) contains an infinite number of terms.1 Let f (z) be analytic in the domain D except at z = z0 . z = a is a removable singular point. z−a Theorem 1. 1. . + z − z0 (z − z0 )m The isolated singular point z = z0 is called a pole of order m. ∞ ∞ f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 )n + n=1 bn (z − z0 )n (1. there exists no finite n such that z→z0 lim (z − z0 )f (z) = a finite constant.

. z(z − 4) Solution 1. where f (z) is analytic everywhere on and C If f (z) has a simple pole at z = z0 . except at z = z0 .1 f (z) has simple poles at z = 0 and z = 4. 2. . Thus. . .2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . Resz=z0 f (z) = b1 From (1. and in which it can be represented by the Laurent’s series ∞ ∞ f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 ) + n n=1 bn (z − z0 )n where an = and bn = 1 2πi 1 2πi 1 2πi C f (z ′ ) dz ′ . such that f (z) is analytic at each point of the region 0|z − z0 | < r.3). Thus.1. Then there exists a positive number r. when z = 0 Resz=0 f (z) = z→0 lim z · 1 4 1 z(z − 4) = − and when z = 4 Resz=4 f (z) = = z→4 lim (z − 4) · 1 4 1 z(z − 4) HIT223 . (z ′ − z0 )n+1 f (z ′ )dz ′ = 1 2πi f (z)dz C C b1 = (1. . . (z ′ − z0 )n+1 f (z ′ ) dz ′ . 1 b1 is the coefficient of and is called the residue of f (z) at the isolated singular z − z0 point z0 . 1 2πi f (z)dz. 1.3) C where C is any closed contour around z0 (counterclockwise) such that f (z) is analytic on C and interior to C. Resz=z0 f (z) = within C except at z0 . the residue of f (z) is given by Resz=z0 f (z) = lim (z − z0 ) · f (z) z→z0 Example 1. n = 0.1 Find the residue of f (z) = 1 at each of its poles.14 Residues Let z0 be an isolated singularity of f (z). . . n = 1.14.14.

1 Find the residues of z2 + 5 z(z + 3)2 z 2. . . (n + z)(z − z0 )n+1 + b1 (m − 1)! 1 dm−1 lim [(z − z0 )m f (z)] (m − 1)! z→z0 dz m−1 1 dm−1 lim [(z − z0 )m f (z)] (m − 1)! z→z0 dz m−1 z 2 ez . then f (z) dz = 2πi(R1 + R2 . 1 d2 z 2 ez lim 2 (z − a)3 2! z→a dz (z − a)3 1 d2 lim 2 z 2 ez 2 z→a dz 1 lim (z 2 ez + 4zez + 2ez ) 2 z→a 1 a 2 [e (a + 4a + 2)] 2 ea 2 (a + 4a + 2) 2 1. . ∞ f (z) = n=0 ∞ an (z − z0 )n + b1 b2 bm + + .14. .14. + Rn ) C where Rj is the residue of f (z) at z = zj .4) (z − z0 )m f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 )m+n + b1 (z − z0 )m−1 + . .Suppose f (z) has a pole of order m. dm−1 [(z − z0 )m f (z)] = dz m−1 thus. .. (z−a)3 Example 1. z2 . b1 = ⇒ Resz=z0 f (z) = ∞ n=0 an (m + n)(m + n + 1) . ∴ Resz=af (z) = = = = = Exercise 1. (z − 1)(z − 2)2 1..2 z = a is a pole of order 3. .2 Calculate the residue of Solution 1. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . + bm Differentiating (1.1 Cauchy’s Residue Theorem If C is a closed contour within and on which a function f (z) is analytic except for a finite number of singular points z1 . at the poles.14. .4) (m − 1) times. . + 2 z − z0 (z − z0 ) (z − z0 )m (1.14. . zn interior to C. .

where C is the circle |z| = 2. z 2 − 2z e−z dz . C sin πz dz where C is a unit circle at the origin.3 z = −1 is a simple pole. (z − 1)3 ez dz z2 − 1 C : |z| = 2 C : |z| = 3 C : |z| = 3 2. z+1 Solution 1. z 3 (z − 1) z+1 dz . C (a) given that C is the circle |z − 1| = 1 (b) given that C is the circle |z − i| = 1 HIT223 . C 4. C 5.14.14. z6 dz .2 Evaluate 1.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .3 Find C z dz . C 3. Resz=−1 f (z) = z→−1 lim (z + 1) z z+1 = −1 ⇒ z dz = 2πi(−1) z+1 = −2πi C Exercise 1.14.Example 1.

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