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Chapter 1
Complex Variables
1.1 Introduction
Some basic deﬁnitions underlying Complex Analysis.
Deﬁnition 1.1.1 Set of points  any collection of points in the complex plane is
called an aggregate or a set of points. each point is called a member or element of the
set.
Deﬁnition 1.1.2 Neighbourhood of a point  Let z −z
o
 < ǫ, where z
o
is a given
point and ǫ is a small positive number. Then the neighbourhood of z
o
consists of all
points lying inside but not on a circle of radius ǫ with center at z
o
.
Deﬁnition 1.1.3 Limit point  a point z
o
is said to be the limit point of a set of
points S in the Argand plane if every neighbourhood of z
o
contains points of set S other
than z
o
. Thus, each point on the circumference of the circle z = r is a limit point of
the set z < r and these limit points do not belong to the set. Thus, limit points of a
set are not necessarily the points of the set. Accordingly, there are two types of limit
points:
(a) Interior points  A limit point z
o
of the set S is an interior point if in the neigh
bourhood of z
o
there exists entirely the points or the set S.
(b) Boundary points  A limit point z
o
which is not an interior point is said to be a
boundary point.
Deﬁnition 1.1.4 Bounded and unbounded sets  a set of points is said to be
bounded if there exists a positive number k such that z ≤ k is satisﬁed for all points
z of the set. If there does not exist such a number k, then the set is unbounded.
Deﬁnition 1.1.5 Open and Closed sets  a set containing entirely the inner points
is called an open set. E.g., the set deﬁned by z < r is an open set since it contains
only the inner points. But z ≤ r is a closed set.
Deﬁnition 1.1.6 Compact set  a closed and bounded set is called compact.
Deﬁnition 1.1.7 Convex or Connected set  an open set is said to be connected
if every pair of its points can be joined by a ﬁnite number of straight line segments all
of whose points belong to the set. For example, the set z < 1 is a connected set.
Deﬁnition 1.1.8 Domain  A connected open set is called an open region or domain.
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Deﬁnition 1.1.9 Closed domain  The set obtained by adding to an open connected
set its boundary points is called a closed domain or region.
Deﬁnition 1.1.10 Circular disk  the inequality z −z
o
 < ǫ represents the interior
of a circle of radius ǫ with center z
o
. This region is called an open circular disk.
The region given by z −z
o
 ≤ ǫ is called the closed circular disk.
1.2 Functions of a Complex Variable
A complex variable is an ordered pair of real variables, that is,
z = (x, y)
= x + iy
Let z = x + iy and w = u + iv be two complex variables. If for each value of z in S
(set of complex numbers) there corresponds one or more values of w in a well deﬁned
way, the w is said to be a function of z; thus
w = f(z)
Examples : w =
1
z
, w = z
2
, w = e
z
, etc.
If to each value of z, there corresponds only one value of w, then the function w(z) is
called a single valued function.
r
s
r
r
s
u
z
1
z
2
z
3



w
1
w
2
w
3
onetoone mapping
If w(z) takes more than one value corresponding to a value of z, then w(z) is a multi
valued function of z. For example,
w =
√
z
In this course we will concern ourselves with single valued functions.
Suppose w = u + iv is the value of f at z = x = iy where x, y, u and v are real,
u + iv = f(x + iy)
∴ f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
Example 1.2.1 If f(z) = z
2
,
u + iv = (x + iy)
2
= x
2
−y
2
+ 2ixy
⇒ u(x, y) = x
2
−y
2
and v(x, y) = 2xy
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Exercise 1.2.1 Let z = x + iy. Find u(x, y) and v(x, y) if f(z) = e
z
.
Solution 1.2.1
e
z
= e
x+iy
= e
x
(cos y + i sin y)
⇒ u(x, y) = e
x
cos y and v(x, y) = e
x
siny
Now try the following exercise problems.
Practice Questions
Express the following in the form u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
1. sin z 2. log z 3. cos z 4. z
3
5. e
z
6. z
2
+ 2z
1.3 Limits
Deﬁnition 1.3.1 Let w = f(z) be a function of z deﬁned at all points in some neigh
bourhood of z
o
. Then, the function f(z) is said to have a limit ℓ as z approaches z
o
if
for every positive real number ǫ there exists a positive real number δ such that
f(z) −ℓ < ǫ, ∀z, z
o
, z = z
o
in the domain 0 < z −z
o
 < δ.
The limit of f(z) as z approaches z
o
is a number ℓ and is given by
lim
z→zo
f(z) = ℓ
The evaluation of limits can be done using the following theorems on limits.
Theorem 1.3.1 If lim
z→zo
f(z) = ℓ and lim
z→zo
φ(z) = m, then
(i) lim
z→zo
[f(z) + φ(z)] = ℓ + m
(ii) lim
z→zo
[f(z)φ(z)] = ℓm
(iii) lim
z→zo
_
f(z)
φ(z)
_
=
ℓ
m
, m = 0.
Example 1.3.1 Find lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
.
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Solution 1.3.1 since z = 1, we have:
z
3
−1
z −1
= z
2
+ z + 1
∴ lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
= lim
z→1
(z
2
+ z + 1)
= 3
Theorem 1.3.2 Let f(z) = u(x, y) +iv(x, y), z
o
= x
o
+iy
o
and w
o
= u
o
+iv
o
. Then,
the necessary and suﬃcient conditions that lim
z→0
f(z) = w
o
are that
(i) lim
(x,y)→(xo,yo)
u(x, y) = u
o
(ii) lim
(x,y)→(xo,yo)
v(x, y) = v
o
From Theorem 1.3.2 we can evaluate Example 1.3.1 as follows:
lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
, as z →1, x →1 and y →0. Thus,
z
2
+ z + 1 = (x + iy)
2
+ (x + iy) + 1
= x
2
+ x −y
2
+ i(y + 2xy) + 1
= (x
2
+ x −y
2
+ 1) + i(y + 2xy)
which tends to 3 as x →1 and y →0. Hence, lim
z→1
z
3
−1
z −1
= 3.
1.4 Continuity
Let f(z) be deﬁned at all points of the complex plane and let z
1
be a point of the plane.
Deﬁnition 1.4.1 The function f(z) is said to be continuous at z = z
1
if for every
positive number ǫ there exists another number δ such that
f(z) −f(z
1
) < ǫ whenever z −z
1
 < δ
If the point z
1
is a limit point of the complex plane, then continuity of f(z) at z = z
1
means that
lim
z→z
1
f(z) = f(z
1
)
A necessary and suﬃcient condition that f(z) = u(x, y) +iv(x, y) be continuous is that
the real functions u(x, y) and v(x, y) should be continuous.
Deﬁnition 1.4.2 A function f(x, y) of two independent real variables x and y is said
to be continuous at point (x
o
, y
o
) if
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(i) f(x
o
, y
o
) is ﬁnite
(ii) lim
x→xo
y→yo
= f(x
o
, y
o
) in whatever way x →x
o
and y →y
o
.
Example 1.4.1 Given that
f(x, y) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
, x, y = 0
0 , x = y = 0
Discuss the continuity of f(x, y) at (0,0).
Solution 1.4.1
lim
(x,y)→(0,0)
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
y→0
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
y→0
_
−
y
3
y
3
_
= −1
and lim
x→0
y→0
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
x
3
x
3
= 1
Further, when y = mx
lim
x→0
y→0
x
3
−y
3
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
x
3
−m
3
x
3
x
3
+ m
3
x
3
=
1 −m
3
1 + m
3
Since the limit is not unique, it follows that the function is not continuous at (0,0).
Another example!!
Example 1.4.2 Discuss the continuity of f(z) at z = 0.
f(z) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
x
3
−y
3
x
2
+ y
2
+ i
x
3
+ y
3
x
2
+ y
2
, z = 0
0 , z = 0
We proceed as follows in investigating the continuity of f(z) at (0,0).
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Solution 1.4.2 From f(z) we deduce that
u(x, y) =
x
3
−y
3
x
2
+ y
2
v(x, y) =
x
3
+ y
3
x
2
+ y
2
Now,
lim
x→0
y→0
u(x, y) = lim
y→0
(−y) = 0
lim
y→0
x→0
u(x, y) = lim
x→0
(x) = 0
Similarly,
lim
(x,y)→0
v(x, y) = 0 in whatever way x and y →0.
Hence u(x, y) and v(x, y) are continuous at (0,0). It follows that f(z) is continuous at
z = 0.
1.5 Diﬀerentiability
As in the case of limits and continuity, the concept of diﬀerentiation of a function of a
complex variable is deﬁned in the same way as the real variable case.
Deﬁnition 1.5.1 The derivative of the function f(z) at z
o
is f
′
(z) and is given by
f
′
(z) = lim
z→zo
f(z) −f(z
o
)
z −z
o
= lim
h→0
f(z
o
+ h) −f(z
o
)
h
, where h = z −z
o
Example 1.5.1 Find the derivative of z
2
at z = z
o
.
Solution 1.5.1 We proceed as follows:
Let f(z) = z
2
f
′
(z
o
) = lim
h→0
(z
o
+ h)
2
−z
2
o
h
= lim
h→0
2hz
o
+ h
2
h
= 2z
o
Example 1.5.2 Show that the derivative of f(z) = ¯ z does not exist anywhere.
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Solution 1.5.2
f(z) = ¯ z = x −iy
f(z + ∆z) = x + ∆x −i(y + ∆y)
hence
f(z + ∆z) −f(z)
∆z
=
∆x −i∆y
∆x + i∆y
Now, lim
∆x→0
∆y→0
∆x −i∆y
∆x + i∆y
= lim
∆y→0
−i∆y
i∆y
= −1
and lim
∆y→0
∆x→0
∆x −i∆y
∆x + i∆y
= lim
∆x→0
∆x
∆x
= 1
Since the limit is not unique, f
′
(z) does not exist anywhere.
Theorem 1.5.1 If f(z) is diﬀerentiable at z
o
, then f(z) is continuous at z = z
o
.
Let us show a little proof of the above theorem.
We have,
lim
z→0
[f(z) −f(z
o
)] = lim
z→0
_
f(z) −f(z
o
)
z −z
o
(z −z
o
)
_
= lim
z→0
f(z) −f(z
o
)
z −z
o
· lim
z→0
(z −z
o
)
= 0
Hence, lim
z→0
f(z) = f(z
o
), which shows that f(z) is continuous at z = z
o
.
1.5.1 Rules for diﬀerentiation
(i)
d
dz
[c
1
f(z) + c
2
φ(z)] = c
1
f
′
(z) + c
2
φ
′
(z), where c
1
and c
2
are complex constants.
(ii)
d
dz
[f(z)φ(z)] = f
′
(z)φ(z) + f(z)φ
′
(z).
(iii)
d
dz
_
f(z)
φ(z)
_
=
f
′
(z)φ(z) −f(z)φ
′
[φ(z)]
2
, φ(z) = 0.
(iv)
d
dz
f(φ(z)) = f
′
(φ(z)) · φ
′
(z)
1.6 CauchyRiemann equations
Let f(z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) be diﬀerentiable at z
o
= x
o
+ iy
o
. Then the ﬁrst order
partial derivatives of u and v with respect to x and y must exist at (x
o
, y
o
) and must
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satisfy the following equations.
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
CauchyRiemann Equations
Since the CauchyRiemann equations are only a necessary condition, they can be used
to locate points at which f
′
(z) does not exist.
Example 1.6.1 Show that the function deﬁned by f(z) = z is not diﬀerentiable at
the origin but is continuous everywhere.
Solution 1.6.1 Let f(z) = u + iv = z =
_
x
2
+ y
2
Thus, u =
_
x
2
+ y
2
, and v = 0
Now,
∂u
∂x
=
x
_
x
2
+ y
2
,
∂u
∂y
=
y
_
x
2
+ y
2
∂v
∂x
= 0 ,
∂v
∂y
= 0
When x = 0, and y = 0 we have
∂u
∂x
= 0 =
∂v
∂y
and
∂v
∂x
= 0 ,
∂u
∂y
= 0.
Similarly, when x = 0, and y = 0 we have
∂u
∂x
= 0 ,
∂v
∂y
= 0
and
∂u
∂y
=
∂v
∂x
= 0
Finally, when x = y = 0,
∂
∂x
u(0, 0) = lim
h→0
u(h, 0) −u(0, 0)
h
=
h
h
= ±1
which shows that the limit is not unique. Since the CauchyRiemann equations are also
not satisﬁed at the origin, it follows that f(z) = z is not diﬀerentiable at the origin
though its continuous everywhere.
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Example 1.6.2 Determine whether or not the CR equations are satisﬁed by the func
tion f(z0 = z
2
−3z.
Solution 1.6.2 We ﬁrst express f(z) in terms of u and v. That is,
f(z) = −3x + x
2
−y
2
+ i(3y + 2xy)
Thus, u(x, y) = −3x + x
2
−y
2
and v(x, y) = −3xy + 2xy
Now you can verify that
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
, and
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
Practice Questions
Verify whether the CauchyRieman equations are satisﬁed in each of the following.
1. f(z) = 3z
2
−3z + 1 2. f(z) =
1
z
3. f(z) = z 4. f(z) = z
2
5. f(z) =
z −1
z + 1
1.7 Analytic Functions
A function f(z) is said to be analytic in the domain D if it is diﬀerentiable at every point
in the domain D. Such a function is also called regular, holomorphic or monogenic.
If a function f(z is analytic at each point in the entire ﬁnite plane, then f(z) is an
entire function.
If f(z) is not analytic at z = z
o
but is analytic at some point in the neighbourhood of
z
o
, the z −o is called a singular point or singualrity oﬀ.
(a) If two functions are analytic in a domain D, their sum and their product are both
analytic in D
(b) The quotient of two analytic functions is also analytic provided the function in
the denominator does not vanish at any point in D.
1.7.1 Harmonic Functions
Any function f which possesses continuous partial derivatives of the ﬁrst order and
second order and satisﬁes the Laplace equation is called a harmonic function.
∂
2
f
∂x
2
+
∂
2
f
∂y
2
= 0 Laplace’s equation
If f(z) = u+iv is an analytic function, then the component functions u and v are both
harmonic functions.
Since f is analytic, the ﬁrst order partial derivatives of u and v satisfy the CR equa
tions.
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
and
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
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If we diﬀerentiate both sides of the equations with respect to x we obtain
∂
2
u
∂x
2
=
∂
2
v
∂x∂y
and
∂
2
u
∂x∂y
= −
∂
2
v
∂x
2
.....................(1)
Diﬀerentiating with respect to y gives
∂
2
u
∂y∂x
=
∂
2
v
∂
2
y
and
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= −
∂
2
v
∂y∂x
.....................(2)
Since partial derivatives are continuous,
∂
2
u
∂x∂y
=
∂
2
u
∂y∂x
and
∂
2
v
∂x∂y
=
∂
2
v
∂y∂x
Equating (1) and (2) gives us
∂
2
u
∂x
2
+
∂
2
u
∂y
2
= 0 and
∂
2
v
∂x
2
+
∂
2
v
∂y
2
= 0
which shows that u and v are harmonic.
If two given functions are harmonic in the domain D and their ﬁrst order partial
derivatives satisfy CR equations at every point of D, then v is a harmonic conjugate
of u.
1.8 Complex Integration
Let C be a smooth curve in the complex zplane having end points z
o
and z
n
. Let
z
1
, z
2
, z
3
, . . . , z
n−1
be any arbitrary number of intermediate points which subdivide the
curve C into n arcs z
o
z
1
, z
1
z
2
, z
2
z
3
, . . . , z
n−1
z
n
as shown in Figure 1.1.
Let ξ
1
, ξ
2
, . . . , ξ
r
, . . . , ξ
n
be the points chosen on the curve C such that ξ
1
lies on arc
z
o
z
1
, ξ
2
lies on z
1
z
2
, . . . , ξ
r
lies on z
r−1
z
r
and so on.
Let
S
n
=
n
r=1
f(ξ
r
)∆z
r
, where ∆z
r
= z
r
−z
r−1
.
If the curve is divided into smaller and smaller parts so that n → ∞, ∆r → 0
and is the summation tends to a unique limit, that is, independent of the choice of
the intermediate points and the manner in which the subdivision is performed, the the
unique limit S
n
is called the line integral (or deﬁnite integral) of the complex function
f(z) taken along the curve C between the points z −o and z
n
and is denoted by
lim
n→∞
S
n
=
_
zn
zo
f(z) dz
Here are some basic deﬁnitions you must be familiar with in dealing with complex
integrals:
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6
p
p
q
p
p
q
p
q
q
z
o
z
1
z
2
z
3
. . .
p
z
r
z
n
z
n−2
q
p
p
ξ
1
ξ
2
ξ
3
ξ
r
ξ
n
z
n−1
z
r−1
p
p
pp
qq r
q
q
p
p pq
p
pp
p
pp
p
p
p
p
Figure 1.1
• Continuous arc : a set of points z = (x, y) satisfying
z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β
where x(t) and y(t) are continuous functions of the real variable t.
• Multiple points : a point z
1
is a multiple point of the arc if the equation
z
1
= x(t) + iy(t)
is satisﬁed by two or more values of t in the given range.
• Jordan arc : a continuous arc having no multiple points.
Jordan Curve or Simple closed curve:
Given the continuous arc z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β, If x(t) = (β) and
y(α) = y(β) and if there is no other multiple point on the continuous arc deﬁned
by z, then this continuous arc is a Jordan curve or a simple closed curve.
The circle x = a cos t, y = a sin t (0 ≤ t ≤ 2π) is a simple closed curve.
• Contour : a curve composed of a chain of ﬁnite number of regular Jordan arcs.
Simply Connected and multiply Connected domains
A domain is simply connected if the interior of every closed contour in the domain
consists only the points of the domain.
In general, a domain is said to be mfold connected if its boundaries consist of m
distinct parts without common points.
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
"!
#
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
&%
'$
simply connected
doubly connected
triply connected
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
1.8.1 Contour Integration
Let f(z) be deﬁned from z = a to z = b. The the integral of f(z) from z = a to z = b
is deﬁned in terms of the values of f(z) at points along the contour C extended from
z = a to z = b. Such an integral is called a line integral, its value depending upon
the choice of C as well as upon f, a and b.
_
C
f(z) dz =
_
b
a
f(z)
dz
ds
ds
Example 1.8.1 Find the integral of z
2
along the contour C where C is given by z(s) =
s + is
2
, 0 ≤ s ≤ 1.
Solution 1.8.1 From the deﬁnition of contour integration we have,
_
C
z
2
dz =
_
C
f(z)
dz
ds
ds
Now, z(s) = s + is
2
and
dz
ds
= 1 + 2is
⇒
_
C
z
2
dz =
_
1
0
(s + is
2
)
2
(1 + 2is)ds
=
_
1
0
(s
2
−s
4
+ 2is
3
)(1 + 2is)ds
=
_
1
0
(s
2
−5s
4
)ds + i
_
1
0
(4s
3
−2s
5
)ds
=
s
3
3
−s
5
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
0
+ i
_
s
4
−
s
6
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
0
= −
2
3
+ i
2
3
Exercise 1.8.1 (a) Integrate
_
C
z
2
dz where C is the contour given by
z(s) =
_
2s , 0 ≤ s ≤ 1
2 + i(s −1) , 1 ≤ s ≤ 2
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(b) Evaluate
_
C
z
2
dz where C is the straight line joining the origin O to the point
P(2, 1) on the complex plane.
1.8.2 Cauchy’s Integral Theorem
Theorem 1.8.1 If a function f(z) is analytic at all points inside and on a closed
contour C, then
_
C
f(z) dz = 0
We need to prove Theorem 1.8.1 inorder to appreciate its usefulness in evaluating
certain types of complex integrals. the proof is as follows.
Proof: Let R be a closed region consisting of all points inside and on a closed contour
C and let C be described in the counter clockwise sense.
From Green’s theorem, if P(x, y), Q(x, y and their partial derivatives
∂P
∂y
and
∂Q
∂x
are
continuous singlevalued functions over a closed region R bounded by the curve C, then
_
C
(Pdx + Qdy) =
__
R
_
∂Q
∂x
−
∂P
∂y
_
dxdy
Now, let f(z) = u(x, y) be analytic throughout R in the z plane. Then dz = dx +idy.
Thus,
_
R
f(z) dz =
_
C
(u + iv)(dx + idy)
=
_
C
(udx −vdy) + i
_
C
(vdx + udy) (1.1)
Since f(z) is analytic, f
′
(z) exists in R and then u and v and their ﬁrst partial deriva
tives are continuous in R.
Applying Green’s Theorem on the rightside of equation 1.1,
_
R
f(z) dz =
__
R
_
−
∂v
∂x
−
∂u
∂y
_
dxdy + i
__
R
_
∂u
∂x
−
∂v
∂y
_
dxdy
Since f(z) is analytic, the CR equations must be satisﬁed.
∂u
∂x
=
∂v
∂y
and
∂u
∂y
= −
∂v
∂x
⇒
_
C
f(z) dz = 0
Example 1.8.2 Verify Cauchy’s theorem for the function f(z) = z where C is the
circle z = 2.
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Solution 1.8.2 We know that we can express z in polar form as z = re
iθ
. So, for
z = 2 we can write this function as z = 2e
iθ
. Thus, if z = 2e
iθ
, then dz = 2ie
iθ
dθ.
_
C
f(z) dz =
_
2π
0
2e
iθ
· 2ie
iθ
dθ
= 4i
_
2π
0
2e
iθ
dθ
= 4i
e
2iθ
2i
¸
¸
¸
¸
2π
0
= 2(e
4πi
−1)
= 2(cos 4π + i sin 4π −1)
= 0
1.8.3 Cauchy Integral Formula
Consider the integral
I =
_
C
1
z −a
dz (a = constant)
f(z) =
1
z −a
is not analytic at z = a. This function is not deﬁned at this point and
thus cannot posses a derivative.
Let C involved in this deﬁnition be a simple closed curve. If the point z = a is outside
the curve, then Cauchy’s theorem holds and I = 0. That is,
_
C
1
z −a
dz = 0
If z = a is inside C, I = 0.
Now, if C is a circle of radius R centered at z = a, we evaluate the integral by setting
z = a + Re
iθ
. Thus, dz = iRe
iθ
dθ.
∴ I =
2π
_
0
1
a + Re
iθ
−a
· iRe
iθ
dθ
=
2π
_
0
i dθ
⇒ I = 2πi
This is true for any simple closed path which encircles z = a.
If f(z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and z
o
is any point interior to C,
then,
f(z
o
) =
1
2πi
_
C
f(z)
z −z
o
dz
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Exercise 1.8.2 (i) Evaluate
_
C
z
2
z −2
dz, C being the circle z = 3.
(ii) Show that
_
C
z dz
9 + 9z −z
2
−z
3
= −
1
4
πi, C being the circle z = 2.
1.9 Derivatives of an Analytic Function
If f(z) is holomorphic in a region D bounded by a simple closed curve C, then its
derivatives of all orders exist and are analytic at each point of the domain D.
Theorem 1.9.1 If f(z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and z
o
is a point
inside C, then
f
(n)
(z
o
) =
n!
2πi
_
C
f(z)
(z −z
o
)
(n+1)
dz
Example 1.9.1 Evaluate
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
(z −2)
4
dz, where C is the circle z = 3.
Solution 1.9.1 We begin by letting f(z) = 2z
2
− z − 2. Comparing Theorem 1.9.1
with our integral, z
o
= 2 and n = 3. Thus we can write the integral as
f
(3)
(2) =
6
2πi
_
C
f(z) dz
(z −2)
4
Thus,
f
′
(z) = 4z −1
f
′′
(z) = 4
f
′′′
(z) = 0
∴
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
(z −2)
4
dz =
πi
3
f
(3)
(2)
= 0
Exercise 1.9.1 Evaluate
(i)
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
z
2
−4z + 4
dz, C : z = 3 (ii)
_
C
2z
2
−z −2
(z −2)
3
dz, C : z = 3
(iii)
_
C
dz
z
2
(z −3)
, C : z = 2
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
1.10 Taylor’s series
Theorem 1.10.1 Taylor’s Theorem
Let f(z) be analytic inside a circle C with center at z
o
and radius r
o
. Then at each
point inside C, f(z) can be expanded in ascending powers of (z −z
o
and may be written
as
f(z) = f(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
1!
f
′
(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
2
2!
f
′′
(z
o
) + . . . +
(z −z
o
)
n
n!
f
(n)
(z
o
) + . . .
=
∞
n=0
(z −z
o
)
n
n!
f
(n)
(z
o
)
This is Taylor’s series for f(z) with center at z
o
. The series converges to f(z).
In particular case when z
o
= 0, we obtain the Maclaurin series for f(z).
Example 1.10.1 Find the Taylor series expansion of
1
1 −z
about the point z = 0.
Solution 1.10.1 f(z) =
1
1 −z
, z
o
= 0.
f(z) = f(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
1!
f
′
(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
2
2!
f
′′
(z
o
) + . . .
Now,
f(z) =
1
z −1
⇒f(z
o
) = f(0) = 1
f
′
(z) =
1
(1 −z)
2
⇒f
′
(z
o
) = 1!
f
′′
(z) =
2
(1 −z)
3
⇒f
′′
(z
o
) = 2!
f
′′′
(z) =
6
(1 −z)
4
⇒f
′′
(z
o
) = 3!
f
iv
(z) =
24
(1 −z)
5
⇒f
′′
(z
o
) = 4!
.
.
.
.
.
.
f
(n)
(z) =
n!
(1 −z)
n+1
⇒f
(n)
(z
o
) = n!
Finally, we can write the series as
f(z) = f(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
1!
f
′
(z
o
) +
(z −z
o
)
2
2!
f
′′
(z
o
) + . . .
= 1 + z +
z
2
2!
· 2! +
z
3
3!
· 3! + . . .
⇒
1
1 −z
= 1 + z + z
2
+ z
3
+ . . . .
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Exercise 1.10.1 Expand by Taylor’s series:
(i)
1
z
about the point z = 1.
(ii)
1
1 + z
2
about z = 0.
You can also verify the following important power series:
e
z
= 1 +
z
1!
+
z
2
2!
+
z
3
3!
+ . . . +
z
n
n!
+ . . . , z < ∞
sinz =
z
1!
−
z
3
3!
+
z
5
5!
+ . . . + (−1)
n+1
z
2n−1
(2n −1)!
+ . . . , z < ∞
cos z = 1 −
z
2
2!
+
z
4
4!
−. . . (−1)
n
z
2n
(2n)!
+ . . . , z < ∞
1
1 + z
= 1 −z + z
2
−z
3
+ . . . + (−1)nz
n
+ . . . , z < 1
ln(1 + z) = z −
z
2
2
+
z
3
3
−. . . (−1)
n+1
z
n
n
+ . . . , z < 1
1.10.1 Laurent’s Series
In expanding a function f(z) by means of Taylor’s series at a point z
o
, f(z) must be
analytic at z
o
. Laurent’s series gives an expansion of f(z) at a point z
o
even if f(z) is
not analytic at z
o
.
Theorem 1.10.2 If f(z) is analytic between and on two circles C
1
and C
2
having
common radii r
1
, r
2
(r
1
> r
2
), then at each point z between them, f(z) can be expanded
by a convergent series of positive and negative powers of (z −z
o
), namely,
f(z) = a
o
+a
1
(z−z
o
)+a
2
(z−z
o
)
2
+. . .+a
n
(z−z
o
)
n
+
b
1
z −z
o
+
b
2
(z −z
o
)
2
+. . .+
b
n
(z −z
o
)
n
+. . .
where
a
n
=
1
2πi
_
c
1
f(z
′
)
(z
′
−z
o
)
n+1
dz
′
, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
and
b
n
=
1
2πi
_
c
2
f(z
′
)
(z
′
−z
o
)
n+1
dz
′
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
with the integrals taken in the counter clockwise sense.
Example 1.10.2 Expand f(z) =
z
(z −1)(2 −z)
in Laurent series valid for
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
(i) z < 1 (ii) 1 < z < 2 (iii) 0 < z −2 < 1
Solution 1.10.2 f(z) =
z
(z −1)(2 −z)
can be expressed in terms of its component
fractions as f(z) =
1
z −1
+
2
2 −z
.
Now, for
(a) z < 1 we have
1
z −1
= −
1
1 −z
= −(1−z)
−1
= −(1+z+z
2
+z
3
+. . .) ............(i)
and
2
2 −z
=
2
2
_
1 −
z
2
_ =
1
1 −
z
2
=
_
1 −
z
2
_
−1
= 1+
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+. . . ..........(ii)
Combining (i) and (ii) we have
f(z) = −(1 + z + z
2
+ z
3
+ . . .) + (1 +
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+ . . .)
= −
_
z
2
+
3
4
z
2
+
7
8
z
3
+ . . .
_
(b) 0 < z < 1
We split the series into two parts. First when z > 1 we have
1
z −1
=
1
z
_
1 −
1
z
_ =
1
z
_
1 −
1
z
_
−1
=
1
z
_
1 +
1
z
+
1
z
2
+ . . .
_
...........(iii)
and when z < 2 ,
2
2 −z
=
_
1−
z
2
_
−1
=
_
1+
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+. . .
_
..............(iv)
Thus, f(z) =
1
z
_
1 +
1
z
+
1
z
2
+ . . .
_
+
_
1 +
z
2
+
z
2
4
+
z
3
8
+ . . .
_
(c) 0 < z −2 < 1
First let u = z −2 ⇒0 < u < 1
∴ f(z) =
z
(z −1)(2 −z)
= −
u + 2
(u + 1)u
= −
2
u
+
1
u + 1
when u < 1 (1 + u)
−1
= 1 −u + u
2
+ . . .
Thus, f(z) = −
2
z −2
+ 1 −(z −2) + (z −2)
2
−. . .
1.11 Zeros of a Function
Let f(z) be an analytic function. If f(z) = 0, the z
0
is a zero of f(z).
Since f(z) is analytic at z
0
, there exists a neighborhood of z
0
at which f(z) can be
expanded in Taylor’s series
f(z) = a
0
+ a
1
(z −z
0
) + a
2
(z −z
0
)
2
+ . . . , +a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+ . . . , z −z
0
 < r
0
.
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
where a
0
= f(z
0
) and a
n
=
f
(n)
(z
0
)
n!
.
If z
0
is a zero of f(z), then f(z
0
) = 0 and a
0
= 0.
If a
0
= 0 and a
1
= 0, then z
0
is a simple zero.
If a
0
= a
1
= a
2
= . . . = a
m−1
= 0 but a
m
= 0, the z
0
is a zero of order m.
Thus, we can deﬁne a zero of order m by the condition
f(z
0
) = f
′
(z
0
) = . . . = f
(m−1)
(z
0
) = 0 and f
(m)
= 0.
So we can write f(z) = (z −z
0
)
m
g(z) where g(z) is analytic and g(z
0
) = a
m
= 0.
Theorem 1.11.1 Let z
0
be a zero of an analytic function f(z). There is a neighbour
hood of f
0
throughout which f(z) has no other zeros, unless f is identically zero. Thus,
if an analytic function is not identically zero, then its zeros are isolated.
Example 1.11.1 1. f(z) = (z + 1)
4
has a zero of order 4 at z = −1.
2. f(z) = cos z has simple zeros at z = ±
π
2
, ±
3π
2
, . . ..
3. Find the zeros of f(z) =
_
z −1
z
2
+ 1
_
2
Solution 1.11.1 f(z) = 0 when (z −1)
2
= 0. Thus, z = 1 is a zero of order 2.
1.12 Singularities of a Function
If a function f(z) is analytic at every point in the neighbourhood of a point z
0
except
at z
0
itself, z
0
is called a singularity or singular point of the function.
Example 1.12.1 Locate and name all singularities of
f(z) =
z
6
+ 2z
3
+ 3
(z + 1)
2
(z
2
+ 1)
Solution 1.12.1 (z + 1)
2
(z
2
+ 1) = 0
z = −1, z = ±i
1.12.1 Isolated Singularity
For f(z) =
1
z
, z = 0 is an isolated singularity since f(z) is analytic everywhere except
at z = 0.
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
1.12.2 Removable Singularity
The singularity point z = z
0
is called removable if
lim
z→z
0
f(z) exists
f(z) =
z
2
−a
2
z −a
, z = a is a removable singular point.
Theorem 1.12.1 Let f(z) be analytic in the domain D except at z = z
0
. Then z
0
is
an isolated singularity of f(z) and we can draw two concentric circles with center at z
0
such that f(z) can be expanded in a Laurent’s series in the annular region between the
two circles. Thus,
f(z) =
∞
n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
. ¸¸ .
regular part of f(z)
+
∞
n=1
b
n
(z −z
0
)
n
. ¸¸ .
principal part in the
(1.2)
neighbourhood ofz
0
z
0
is a removable singularity if b
n
= 0, ∀n, or if lim
z→z
0
f(z) exists.
1.12.3 Essential Singularity
If b
n
in (1.2) contains an inﬁnite number of terms, then z = z
0
is an isolated essential
singularity of f(z).
Thus, there exists no ﬁnite n such that
lim
z→z
0
(z −z
0
)f(z) = a ﬁnite constant.
1.13 Poles of a Function
Consider again
f(z) =
∞
n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+
∞
n=1
b
n
(z −z
0
)
n
. ¸¸ .
principal part
If the principal part terminates, at n = m (say), then f(z) becomes
f(z) = a
0
+ a
1
(z −z
0
) + . . . +
b
1
z −z
0
+ . . . +
b
m
(z −z
0
)
m
The isolated singular point z = z
0
is called a pole of order m.
A pole of order 1 is called a simple pole.
A pole of order 2 is called a double pole.
Example 1.13.1 Determine the order of the pole of the function f(z
0
) =
1
z
3
(z + 4)
.
Solution 1.13.1 f(z
0
) has a pole of order 3 at z = 0 and a simple pole at z = −4.
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
1.14 Residues
Let z
0
be an isolated singularity of f(z). Then there exists a positive number r, such
that f(z) is analytic at each point of the region 0z − z
0
 < r, and in which it can be
represented by the Laurent’s series
f(z) =
∞
n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+
∞
n=1
b
n
(z −z
0
)
n
where
a
n
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z
′
)
(z
′
−z
0
)
n+1
dz
′
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
and
b
n
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z
′
)
(z
′
−z
0
)
n+1
dz
′
, n = 1, 2, . . . .
b
1
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z
′
)dz
′
=
1
2πi
_
C
f(z)dz (1.3)
where C is any closed contour around z
0
(counterclockwise) such that f(z) is analytic
on C and interior to C, except at z = z
0
.
b
1
is the coeﬃcient of
1
z −z
0
and is called the residue of f(z) at the isolated singular
point z
0
.
Thus, Res
z=z
0
f(z) = b
1
From (1.3), Res
z=z
0
f(z) =
1
2πi
_
C
f(z)dz, where f(z) is analytic everywhere on and
within C except at z
0
.
If f(z) has a simple pole at z = z
0
, the residue of f(z) is given by
Res
z=z
0
f(z) = lim
z→z
0
(z −z
0
) · f(z)
Example 1.14.1 Find the residue of f(z) =
1
z(z −4)
at each of its poles.
Solution 1.14.1 f(z) has simple poles at z = 0 and z = 4.
Thus,
when z = 0
Res
z=0
f(z) = lim
z→0
z ·
1
z(z −4)
= −
1
4
and when z = 4
Res
z=4
f(z) = lim
z→4
(z −4) ·
1
z(z −4)
=
1
4
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Suppose f(z) has a pole of order m,
f(z) =
∞
n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
n
+
b
1
z −z
0
+
b
2
(z −z
0
)
2
+ . . . +
b
m
(z −z
0
)
m
(z −z
0
)
m
f(z) =
∞
n=0
a
n
(z −z
0
)
m+n
+ b
1
(z −z
0
)
m−1
+ . . . + b
m
(1.4)
Diﬀerentiating (1.4) (m−1) times,
d
m−1
dz
m−1
[(z −z
0
)
m
f(z)] =
∞
n=0
a
n
(m + n)(m + n + 1) . . . (n + z)(z −z
0
)
n+1
+ b
1
(m−1)!
thus, b
1
=
1
(m−1)!
lim
z→z
0
d
m−1
dz
m−1
[(z −z
0
)
m
f(z)]
⇒Res
z=z
0
f(z) =
1
(m−1)!
lim
z→z
0
d
m−1
dz
m−1
[(z −z
0
)
m
f(z)]
Example 1.14.2 Calculate the residue of
z
2
e
z
(z−a)
3
.
Solution 1.14.2 z = a is a pole of order 3,
∴ Res
z=a
f(z) =
1
2!
lim
z→a
d
2
dz
2
_
(z −a)
3
z
2
e
z
(z −a)
3
_
=
1
2
lim
z→a
d
2
dz
2
_
z
2
e
z
_
=
1
2
lim
z→a
(z
2
e
z
+ 4ze
z
+ 2e
z
)
=
1
2
[e
a
(a
2
+ 4a + 2)]
=
e
a
2
(a
2
+ 4a + 2)
Exercise 1.14.1 Find the residues of
1.
z
2
+ 5
z(z + 3)
2
2.
z
(z −1)(z −2)
2
at the poles.
1.14.1 Cauchy’s Residue Theorem
If C is a closed contour within and on which a function f(z) is analytic except for a
ﬁnite number of singular points z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
n
interior to C, then
_
C
f(z) dz = 2πi(R
1
+ R
2
, . . . + R
n
)
where R
j
is the residue of f(z) at z = z
j
.
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Example 1.14.3 Find
_
C
z
z + 1
dz , where C is the circle z = 2.
Solution 1.14.3 z = −1 is a simple pole,
Res
z=−1
f(z) = lim
z→−1
_
(z + 1)
z
z + 1
_
= −1
⇒
_
C
z
z + 1
dz = 2πi(−1)
= −2πi
Exercise 1.14.2 Evaluate
1.
_
C
sin πz
z
6
dz where C is a unit circle at the origin.
2.
_
C
dz
z
3
(z −1)
, C : z = 2
3.
_
C
z + 1
z
2
−2z
dz , C : z = 3
4.
_
C
e
−z
(z −1)
3
dz , C : z = 3
5.
_
C
e
z
z
2
−1
dz
(a) given that C is the circle z −1 = 1
(b) given that C is the circle z −i = 1
HIT223  2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
Deﬁnition 1.1.9 Closed domain  The set obtained by adding to an open connected set its boundary points is called a closed domain or region. Deﬁnition 1.1.10 Circular disk  the inequality z − zo  < ǫ represents the interior of a circle of radius ǫ with center zo . This region is called an open circular disk. The region given by z − zo  ≤ ǫ is called the closed circular disk.
1.2
Functions of a Complex Variable
A complex variable is an ordered pair of real variables, that is, z = (x, y) = x + iy Let z = x + iy and w = u + iv be two complex variables. If for each value of z in S (set of complex numbers) there corresponds one or more values of w in a well deﬁned way, the w is said to be a function of z; thus w = f (z) 1 , w = z 2 , w = ez , etc. z If to each value of z, there corresponds only one value of w, then the function w(z) is called a single valued function. Examples : w = z2 s z3 r z1 r
rw1 s w2 uw3
onetoone mapping
If w(z) takes more than one value corresponding to a value of z, then w(z) is a multivalued function of z. For example, √ w= z In this course we will concern ourselves with single valued functions. Suppose w = u + iv is the value of f at z = x = iy where x, y, u and v are real, u + iv = f (x + iy) ∴ f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) Example 1.2.1 If f (z) = z 2 , u + iv = (x + iy)2 = x2 − y 2 + 2ixy ⇒ u(x, y) = x2 − y 2 v(x, y) = 2xy
and
vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology
z 3 5. y) and v(x. Then.2. then z→zo z→zo (i) lim [f (z) + φ(z)] = ℓ + m z→zo (ii) lim [f (z)φ(z)] = ℓm z→zo (iii) lim z→zo f (z) ℓ = .Exercise 1. Example 1.3.1 If lim f (z) = ℓ and lim φ(z) = m. sin z 2.1 Find lim z3 − 1 . z→1 z − 1 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology HIT223 . y) = ex cos y and v(x.1 Let z = x + iy. in the domain 0 < z − zo  < δ. Find u(x.3. cos z 4.1 Let w = f (z) be a function of z deﬁned at all points in some neighbourhood of zo . y) + iv(x. Theorem 1. The limit of f (z) as z approaches zo is a number ℓ and is given by z→zo z = zo lim f (z) = ℓ The evaluation of limits can be done using the following theorems on limits. y) = ex sin y Now try the following exercise problems. zo . φ(z) m m = 0. y) if f (z) = ez . log z 3. z 2 + 2z 1. Practice Questions Express the following in the form u(x.1 ez = ex+iy = ex (cos y + i sin y) ⇒ u(x. ez 6.3. Solution 1.2.2009 . ∀z. the function f (z) is said to have a limit ℓ as z approaches zo if for every positive real number ǫ there exists a positive real number δ such that f (z) − ℓ < ǫ. y) 1.3 Limits Deﬁnition 1.
2 Let f (z) = u(x.3. y) + iv(x.4. then continuity of f (z) at z = z1 means that lim f (z) = f (z1 ) z→z1 A necessary and suﬃcient condition that f (z) = u(x.y)→(xo . y) = vo (x. Deﬁnition 1.3. lim z→1 z − 1 z 2 + z + 1 = (x + iy)2 + (x + iy) + 1 = x2 + x − y 2 + i(y + 2xy) + 1 z3 − 1 = 3. zo = xo + iyo and wo = uo + ivo .2 A function f (x.1 The function f (z) is said to be continuous at z = z1 if for every positive number ǫ there exists another number δ such that f (z) − f (z1 ) < ǫ whenever z − z1  < δ If the point z1 is a limit point of the complex plane.4 Continuity Let f (z) be deﬁned at all points of the complex plane and let z1 be a point of the plane.Solution 1. Deﬁnition 1. x → 1 and y → 0.3. Hence. y) be continuous is that the real functions u(x. y) = uo v(x.3. we have: z3 − 1 z−1 ∴ z3 − 1 z→1 z − 1 lim = z2 + z + 1 = lim (z 2 + z + 1) z→1 = 3 Theorem 1.y)→(xo .yo ) lim From Theorem 1. y). as z → 1.yo ) lim u(x.1 as follows: z3 − 1 .1 since z = 1. the necessary and suﬃcient conditions that lim f (z) = wo are that z→0 (i) (ii) (x. yo ) if vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . y) and v(x. y) of two independent real variables x and y is said to be continuous at point (xo . Thus. Then. lim 1. z→1 z − 1 = (x2 + x − y 2 + 1) + i(y + 2xy) which tends to 3 as x → 1 and y → 0. y) should be continuous.2 we can evaluate Example 1. y) + iv(x.4.
y) = 0 Discuss the continuity of f (x. Another example!! Example 1. it follows that the function is not continuous at (0.4.0).0) x3 + y 3 lim = = and x3 − y 3 x→0 x3 + y 3 lim y→0 . HIT223 .2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .(i) f (xo . yo ) in whatever way x → xo and y → yo . y) at (0. yo ) is ﬁnite (ii) x→x = f (xo .4.y)→(0.4. when y = mx x3 − y 3 x→0 x3 + y 3 lim y→0 = = x3 − m3 x3 x→0 x3 + m3 x3 lim 1 − m3 1 + m3 Since the limit is not unique.1 Given that 3 x − y3 3 x + y3 f (x. lim o y→yo Example 1. z=0 2 x + y2 x + y2 f (z) = 0. 3 x3 + y 3 x − y3 +i 2 . x. z=0 We proceed as follows in investigating the continuity of f (z) at (0.0).1 x3 − y 3 (x. y = 0 . x=y=0 x3 − y 3 x→0 x3 + y 3 lim y→0 y→0 lim − lim y3 y3 = −1 = x3 =1 x→0 x3 Further. Solution 1.2 Discuss the continuity of f (z) at z = 0.0).
x→0 y→0 y→0 x→0 x3 − y 3 x2 + y 2 x3 + y 3 x2 + y 2 lim (−y) = 0 lim (x) = 0 lim u(x.y)→0 lim v(x. y) = x→0 Similarly. the concept of diﬀerentiation of a function of a complex variable is deﬁned in the same way as the real variable case.0).1 Find the derivative of z 2 at z = zo .1 The derivative of the function f (z) at zo is f ′ (z) and is given by f ′ (z) = f (z) − f (zo ) z − zo f (zo + h) − f (zo ) = lim .5 Diﬀerentiability As in the case of limits and continuity.2 Show that the derivative of f (z) = z does not exist anywhere. y) = N ow. Deﬁnition 1. Hence u(x. It follows that f (z) is continuous at z = 0. (x.4. 1. y) = 0 in whatever way x and y → 0. y) = v(x. y) = y→0 lim u(x.5. y) are continuous at (0.2 From f (z) we deduce that u(x. Solution 1.1 We proceed as follows: Let f (z) = z 2 f ′ (zo ) = 2 (zo + h)2 − zo h→0 h 2hzo + h2 = lim h→0 h = 2zo lim Example 1. where h = z − zo h→0 h z→zo lim Example 1.5.Solution 1. y) and v(x.5.5. ¯ vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .
Theorem 1. φ(z) = 0.1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Rules for diﬀerentiation d [c1 f (z) + c2 φ(z)] = c1 f ′ (z) + c2 φ′ (z). lim [f (z) − f (zo )] = f (z) − f (zo ) (z − zo ) z→0 z − zo f (z) − f (zo ) = lim · lim (z − zo ) z→0 z→0 z − zo = 0 lim z→0 Hence.6 CauchyRiemann equations Let f (z) = u(x. y) be diﬀerentiable at zo = xo + iyo .1 If f (z) is diﬀerentiable at zo . lim f (z) = f (zo ).Solution 1. dz d [f (z)φ(z)] = f ′ (z)φ(z) + f (z)φ′ (z). f (z + ∆z) − f (z) ∆z ∆x − i∆y ∆x→0 ∆x + i∆y lim ∆y→0 = = and ∆x→0 ∆x − i∆y ∆y→0 ∆x + i∆y lim = Since the limit is not unique.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .5. which shows that f (z) is continuous at z = zo .5. yo ) and must HIT223 . We have. Then the ﬁrst order partial derivatives of u and v with respect to x and y must exist at (xo .2 f (z) = z = x − iy ¯ ∆x − i∆y ∆x + i∆y −i∆y = −1 ∆y→0 i∆y lim ∆x =1 ∆x→0 ∆x lim f (z + ∆z) = x + ∆x − i(y + ∆y) hence N ow.5. where c1 and c2 are complex constants. Let us show a little proof of the above theorem. dz φ(z) d f (φ(z)) = f ′ (φ(z)) · φ′ (z) dz 1. y) + iv(x. f ′ (z) does not exist anywhere. z→0 1. dz d f (z) f ′ (z)φ(z) − f (z)φ′ = [φ(z)]2 . then f (z) is continuous at z = zo .
1 Let f (z) = u + iv = z = Thus. and v = 0 x2 + y 2 ∂u ∂v = − ∂y ∂x Similarly. Solution 1. 0) − u(0. u = Now. it follows that f (z) = z is not diﬀerentiable at the origin though its continuous everywhere. ∂x ∂u = 0. Example 1. Since the CauchyRiemann equations are also not satisﬁed at the origin. ∂x When x = 0. ∂v ∂u = ∂x ∂y CauchyRiemann Equations Since the CauchyRiemann equations are only a necessary condition. 0) = lim = = ±1 h→0 ∂x h h which shows that the limit is not unique.satisfy the following equations. and y = 0 we have ∂u ∂v = 0. and y = 0 we have ∂u ∂v =0= ∂x ∂y and ∂v = 0. when x = 0. ∂ u(h. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology ∂u ∂v = =0 ∂y ∂x . when x = y = 0.6. ∂u = ∂y ∂v =0 ∂y y x2 + y2 x2 + y 2 . 0) h u(0. ∂y x x2 + y2 . ∂u = ∂x ∂v = 0.6.1 Show that the function deﬁned by f (z) = z is not diﬀerentiable at the origin but is continuous everywhere. they can be used to locate points at which f ′ (z) does not exist. =0 ∂x ∂y and Finally.
7. then the component functions u and v are both harmonic functions. then f (z) is an entire function. f (z) = z−1 z+1 2. f (z) = 1 z 3.1 Harmonic Functions Any function f which possesses continuous partial derivatives of the ﬁrst order and second order and satisﬁes the Laplace equation is called a harmonic function.6. f (z) = z2 1. f (z) = z 4. the z − o is called a singular point or singualrity oﬀ.7 Analytic Functions A function f (z) is said to be analytic in the domain D if it is diﬀerentiable at every point in the domain D.2 Determine whether or not the CR equations are satisﬁed by the function f (z0 = z 2 − 3z. Such a function is also called regular. Since f is analytic.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . That is. (a) If two functions are analytic in a domain D. their sum and their product are both analytic in D (b) The quotient of two analytic functions is also analytic provided the function in the denominator does not vanish at any point in D. u(x.2 We ﬁrst express f (z) in terms of u and v. y) = −3x + x2 − y 2 and v(x. ∂2f ∂2f + 2 =0 ∂x2 ∂y Laplace’s equation If f (z) = u + iv is an analytic function. y) = −3xy + 2xy ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v Now you can verify that = . and =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x Practice Questions Verify whether the CauchyRieman equations are satisﬁed in each of the following. f (z) = 3z 2 − 3z + 1 5. the ﬁrst order partial derivatives of u and v satisfy the CR equations. If a function f (z is analytic at each point in the entire ﬁnite plane. ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v = and =− ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x HIT223 . f (z) = −3x + x2 − y 2 + i(3y + 2xy) Thus. holomorphic or monogenic.Example 1. If f(z) is not analytic at z = zo but is analytic at some point in the neighbourhood of zo . 1.6. Solution 1. 1.
1.If we diﬀerentiate both sides of the equations with respect to x we obtain ∂2v ∂2u ∂2u ∂2v = and = − 2 ..1.(2) ∂y∂x ∂ y ∂y 2 ∂y∂x Since partial derivatives are continuous. Let z1 ... zn−1 be any arbitrary number of intermediate points which subdivide the curve C into n arcs zo z1 . .. the the unique limit Sn is called the line integral (or deﬁnite integral) of the complex function f (z) taken along the curve C between the points z − o and zn and is denoted by zn n→∞ lim Sn = zo f (z) dz Here are some basic deﬁnitions you must be familiar with in dealing with complex integrals: vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .. If two given functions are harmonic in the domain D and their ﬁrst order partial derivatives satisfy CR equations at every point of D. .. then v is a harmonic conjugate of u. . that is..... . . . zn−1 zn as shown in Figure 1.. . independent of the choice of the intermediate points and the manner in which the subdivision is performed... .. Let Sn = r=1 n f (ξr )∆zr . ∆r → 0 and is the summation tends to a unique limit.. . z2 . . z1 z2 . ξ2 lies on z1 z2 . ξr . . ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v ∂2u = and = ∂x∂y ∂y∂x ∂x∂y ∂y∂x Equating (1) and (2) gives us ∂2u ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v + 2 = 0 and + 2 =0 ∂x2 ∂y ∂x2 ∂y which shows that u and v are harmonic........ . If the curve is divided into smaller and smaller parts so that n → ∞.. where ∆zr = zr − zr−1 ..... ξ2 .. ... .... .....8 Complex Integration Let C be a smooth curve in the complex zplane having end points zo and zn . .. z2 z3 . z3 .. .. .(1) ∂x2 ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂x Diﬀerentiating with respect to y gives ∂2u ∂2v ∂2v ∂2u = 2 and =− . ξn be the points chosen on the curve C such that ξ1 lies on arc zo z1 . Let ξ1 . . . ξr lies on zr−1 zr and so on.
If x(t) = (β) and y(α) = y(β) and if there is no other multiple point on the continuous arc deﬁned by z. Simply Connected and multiply Connected domains A domain is simply connected if the interior of every closed contour in the domain consists only the points of the domain. Jordan Curve or Simple closed curve: Given the continuous arc z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β. • Jordan arc : a continuous arc having no multiple points. • Contour : a curve composed of a chain of ﬁnite number of regular Jordan arcs. p zr−1 qr ξr pq zr q p p zn−2 p qpp z n−1  Figure 1. y) satisfying z = x(t) + iy(t) α ≤ t ≤ β where x(t) and y(t) are continuous functions of the real variable t..6 pqp zn ξn pq ξ1 zo p pp ξ2 z1 qp ξ3 z2 z3 pq . In general.1 • Continuous arc : a set of points z = (x. y = a sin t (0 ≤ t ≤ 2π) is a simple closed curve. a domain is said to be mfold connected if its boundaries consist of m distinct parts without common points. • Multiple points : a point z1 is a multiple point of the arc if the equation z1 = x(t) + iy(t) is satisﬁed by two or more values of t in the given range. The circle x = a cos t.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . HIT223 . then this continuous arc is a Jordan curve or a simple closed curve..
Such an integral is called a line integral.@ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @ @ @@ @@ @@ @ @@ @ @@ @ @ @@ @ @ @ @@ @ @ AA AAA# A A '$ &% "! doubly connected simply connected triply connected 1.1 Find the integral of z 2 along the contour C where C is given by z(s) = s + is2 . z(s) = s + is2 and ⇒ dz = 1 + 2is ds 1 0 1 z 2 dz = C (s + is2 )2 (1 + 2is)ds (s2 − s4 + 2is3 )(1 + 2is)ds (s2 − 5s4 )ds + i 1 1 0 = 0 1 = 0 (4s3 − 2s5 )ds 1 0 s6 s3 − s5 + i s4 − = 3 3 0 2 2 = − +i 3 3 Exercise 1. a and b.8.1 (a) Integrate C z 2 dz where C is the contour given by 2s . Solution 1.8. z 2 dz = C C f (z) dz ds ds Now. 0≤s≤1 2 + i(s − 1) . its value depending upon the choice of C as well as upon f. The the integral of f (z) from z = a to z = b is deﬁned in terms of the values of f (z) at points along the contour C extended from z = a to z = b.8. 0 ≤ s ≤ 1. b f (z) dz = C a f (z) dz ds ds Example 1.1 From the deﬁnition of contour integration we have.8.1 Contour Integration Let f (z) be deﬁned from z = a to z = b. 1 ≤ s ≤ 2 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology z(s) = .
1) on the complex plane. let f (z) = u(x. the proof is as follows. the CR equations must be satisﬁed. Proof: Let R be a closed region consisting of all points inside and on a closed contour C and let C be described in the counter clockwise sense. Q(x. ∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y ⇒ C and ∂u ∂v =− ∂y ∂x f (z) dz = 0 Example 1.2 Cauchy’s Integral Theorem Theorem 1.1 If a function f (z) is analytic at all points inside and on a closed contour C.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . Thus. f (z) dz = R R Since f (z) is analytic. 1. − ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y dxdy + i R ∂u ∂v − ∂x ∂y dxdy Since f (z) is analytic. y). y and their partial derivatives ∂y ∂x continuous singlevalued functions over a closed region R bounded by the curve C. then f (z) dz = 0 C We need to prove Theorem 1.1) Applying Green’s Theorem on the rightside of equation 1. Then dz = dx + idy.8.2 Verify Cauchy’s theorem for the function f (z) = z where C is the circle z = 2.8. y) be analytic throughout R in the z plane.1 inorder to appreciate its usefulness in evaluating certain types of complex integrals. then (P dx + Qdy) = C R ∂Q ∂P − ∂x ∂y dxdy Now. ∂Q ∂P and are From Green’s theorem.1.8. f (z) dz = R C (u + iv)(dx + idy) (udx − vdy) + i (vdx + udy) C C = (1. HIT223 . if P (x.8.(b) Evaluate C z 2 dz where C is the straight line joining the origin O to the point P (2. f ′ (z) exists in R and then u and v and their ﬁrst partial derivatives are continuous in R.
8. for z = 2 we can write this function as z = 2eiθ . So. 1 f (z) dz f (zo ) = 2πi z − zo C vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . Now. If f (z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and zo is any point interior to C. dz = iReiθ dθ. 2π ∴ I = 0 2π 1 · iReiθ dθ a + Reiθ − a i dθ = 0 ⇒ I = 2πi This is true for any simple closed path which encircles z = a. then Cauchy’s theorem holds and I = 0. If the point z = a is outside the curve. I = 0. if C is a circle of radius R centered at z = a. 2π f (z) dz = C 0 2eiθ · 2ieiθ dθ 2π = 4i = 4i 2eiθ dθ 0 2π e2iθ 2i 4πi 0 = 2(e = 0 = 2(cos 4π + i sin 4π − 1) − 1) 1. we evaluate the integral by setting z = a + Reiθ . f (z) = Let C involved in this deﬁnition be a simple closed curve.3 Cauchy Integral Formula 1 dz z−a Consider the integral I= C (a = constant) 1 is not analytic at z = a.2 We know that we can express z in polar form as z = reiθ . Thus.8. then. if z = 2eiθ . This function is not deﬁned at this point and z−a thus cannot posses a derivative. Thus. 1 dz = 0 z−a C If z = a is inside C.Solution 1. then dz = 2ieiθ dθ. That is.
(z − 2)3 C : z = 3 (iii) C C : z = 2 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology HIT223 . zo = 2 and n = 3.1 Evaluate C 2z 2 − z − 2 dz. z 2 − 4z + 4 z 2 (z dz . z−2 (ii) Show that C 1 z dz = − πi.1 We begin by letting f (z) = 2z 2 − z − 2.9.9.Exercise 1.2 (i) Evaluate C z2 dz. Theorem 1. f ′ (z) = 4z − 1 ′′ ′′′ 6 2πi C f (z) dz (z − 2)4 f (z) = 4 f (z) = 0 2z 2 − z − 2 dz = (z − 2)4 ∴ C πi (3) f (2) 3 = 0 Exercise 1.1 Evaluate (i) C 2z 2 − z − 2 dz. − 3) C : z = 3 (ii) C 2z 2 − z − 2 dz. 2 − z3 9 + 9z − z 4 1. C being the circle z = 3. then n! f (z) f (n) (zo ) = dz 2πi (z − zo )(n+1) C Example 1.8.9. where C is the circle z = 3.1 with our integral.9.9 Derivatives of an Analytic Function If f (z) is holomorphic in a region D bounded by a simple closed curve C.9.2009 . C being the circle z = 2.1 If f (z) is analytic inside and on a closed contour C and zo is a point inside C. (z − 2)4 Solution 1. Thus we can write the integral as f (3) (2) = Thus. Comparing Theorem 1. then its derivatives of all orders exist and are analytic at each point of the domain D.
. .1 Taylor’s Theorem Let f (z) be analytic inside a circle C with center at zo and radius ro . . . f (z) can be expanded in ascending powers of (z − zo and may be written as (z − zo ) ′ (z − zo )2 ′′ (z − zo )n (n) f (zo ) + f (zo ) + . . we can write the series as f (z) = f (zo ) + (z − zo ) ′ (z − zo )2 ′′ f (zo ) + f (zo ) + . . f (z) = f (zo ) + 1! 2! n! ∞ (z − zo )n (n) f (zo ) = n! n=0 This is Taylor’s series for f (z) with center at zo . .1 f (z) = 1 about the point z = 0. 1 z−1 1 (1 − z)2 2 (1 − z)3 6 (1 − z)4 24 (1 − z)5 n! (1 − z)n+1 f (n) (z) = ⇒ f (n) (zo ) = n! Finally. we obtain the Maclaurin series for f (z).1. . . + f (zo ) + . 2! 3! = 1 + z + z2 + z3 + . f (z) = f ′ (z) = f ′′ (z) = f ′′′ (z) = f iv (z) = . 1! 2! z2 z3 = 1+z+ · 2! + · 3! + . 1−z (z − zo ) ′ (z − zo )2 ′′ f (z) = f (zo ) + f (zo ) + f (zo ) + .10.1 Find the Taylor series expansion of Solution 1. . Then at each point inside C. . . 1−z 1 . . Now. .10.10. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology ⇒ 1 1−z . . 1! 2! ⇒ f (zo ) = f (0) = 1 ⇒ f ′ (zo ) = 1! ⇒ f ′′ (zo ) = 2! ⇒ f ′′ (zo ) = 3! ⇒ f ′′ (zo ) = 4! . zo = 0. Example 1.10 Taylor’s series Theorem 1. . . The series converges to f (z). In particular case when zo = 0.
1 Expand by Taylor’s series: (i) (ii) 1 about the point z = 1. . n = 0.10. .+an (z−zo )n + where an = 1 2πi c1 b1 b2 bn + +. . 1 + z2 You can also verify the following important power series: z z2 z3 zn + + + . . . f (z) must be analytic at zo . z < 1 1+z zn z2 z3 + − . . . . 2. . (−1)n+1 + . namely. . . Theorem 1.Exercise 1.10. + (−1)n+1 + . . (z ′ − zo )n+1 and bn = 1 2πi c2 f (z ′ ) dz ′ . + + . z < ∞ 1! 3! 5! (2n − 1)! z2 z4 z 2n + − .10. . z < ∞ cos z = 1 − 2! 4! (2n)! 1 = 1 − z + z 2 − z 3 + .1 Laurent’s Series In expanding a function f (z) by means of Taylor’s series at a point zo . . . . 1. . r2 (r1 > r2 ). ... . 3. z < ∞ 1! 2! 3! n! z3 z5 z 2n−1 z sin z = − + + . . . . (−1)n + . . . (z ′ − zo )n+1 with the integrals taken in the counter clockwise sense. n = 1. z − zo (z − zo )2 (z − zo )n f (z ′ ) dz ′ . + (−1)nz n + . f (z) can be expanded by a convergent series of positive and negative powers of (z − zo ). Example 1.2 If f (z) is analytic between and on two circles C1 and C2 having common radii r1 . . .2 Expand f (z) = z in Laurent series valid for (z − 1)(2 − z) vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology HIT223 .+ +.2009 . Laurent’s series gives an expansion of f (z) at a point zo even if f (z) is not analytic at zo . then at each point z between them. 2.10. . . . f (z) = ao +a1 (z−zo )+a2 (z−zo )2 +. 3. . . . . . z < 1 ln(1 + z) = z − 2 3 n ez = 1 + 1. . z 1 about z = 0.
.. z z z ...... f (z) = 1 z z −1 z z2 z3 2 = 1− = 1+ + + +. . If f (z) = 0..10. + 1 + + + + ..... 2 4 8 z z2 z3 + + + . .) .. . .(i) z−1 1−z 2 2 1 z −1 z z2 z3 = = 1− and = = 1+ + + +. z − z0  < r0 ...11 Zeros of a Function Let f (z) be an analytic function. z−1 2−z Now.(i) z < 1 (ii) 1 < z < 2 (iii) 0 < z − 2 < 1 Solution 1.. .. 2 + 1 − (z − 2) + (z − 2)2 − ..... z−2 when u < 1 Thus. ..... vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . . Since f (z) is analytic at z0 . there exists a neighborhood of z0 at which f (z) can be expanded in Taylor’s series f (z) = a0 + a1 (z − z0 ) + a2 (z − z0 )2 + . .. .. First when z > 1 we have 1 = z−1 1 1 z 1− z 1 = z 1 1− z −1 = 1 1 1 1 + + 2 + . .. . .. f (z) = − 1...(ii) z z 2−z 2 2 4 8 1− 2 1− 2 2 Combining (i) and (ii) we have f (z) = −(1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + .. .) 2 4 8 (b) 0 < z < 1 We split the series into two parts.. +an (z − z0 )n + ........ Thus. z z 2 4 8 .... .2 f (z) = z can be expressed in terms of its component (z − 1)(2 − z) 1 2 fractions as f (z) = + .... 2−z 2 2 4 8 2 3 1 1 z z z 1 + + 2 + . for (a) z < 1 we have 1 1 =− = −(1−z)−1 = −(1+z+z 2 +z 3 +..) + (1 + = − z 3 2 7 3 + z + z + . . .(iii) and when z < 2 . the z0 is a zero of f (z). . .... . . ..(iv) (c) 0 < z − 2 < 1 First let u = z − 2 ∴ f (z) = ⇒ 0 < u < 1 z u+2 2 1 =− =− + (z − 1)(2 − z) (u + 1)u u u+1 (1 + u)−1 = 1 − u + u2 + .
There is a neighbourhood of f0 throughout which f (z) has no other zeros.11. .1 Let z0 be a zero of an analytic function f (z).1 Isolated Singularity 1 For f (z) = . Find the zeros of f (z) = z−1 z2 + 1 2 Solution 1.12 Singularities of a Function If a function f (z) is analytic at every point in the neighbourhood of a point z0 except at z0 itself.1 f (z) = 0 when (z − 1)2 = 0. then z0 is a simple zero.1 Locate and name all singularities of f (z) = Solution 1.11. Example 1. . 2 2 3. if an analytic function is not identically zero. unless f is identically zero. Theorem 1. π 3π 2. z0 is called a singularity or singular point of the function. z = ±i z 6 + 2z 3 + 3 (z + 1)2 (z 2 + 1) 1. we can deﬁne a zero of order m by the condition f (z0 ) = f ′ (z0 ) = . f (z) = (z + 1)4 has a zero of order 4 at z = −1. z = 0 is an isolated singularity since f (z) is analytic everywhere except z at z = 0. . . n! If z0 is a zero of f (z). . Thus. where a0 = f (z0 ) and an = If a0 = 0 and a1 = 0. HIT223 .f (n) (z0 ) . f (z) = cos z has simple zeros at z = ± . = am−1 = 0 but am = 0. So we can write f (z) = (z − z0 )m g(z) where g(z) is analytic and g(z0 ) = am = 0. 1.11. then f (z0 ) = 0 and a0 = 0. the z0 is a zero of order m. If a0 = a1 = a2 = .1 1. ± .1 (z + 1)2 (z 2 + 1) = 0 z = −1. Thus.12.12.12. then its zeros are isolated. Thus. = f (m−1) (z0 ) = 0 and f (m) = 0. Example 1. z = 1 is a zero of order 2. .. .2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .
Example 1. Thus. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .. Thus.12. Then z0 is an isolated singularity of f (z) and we can draw two concentric circles with center at z0 such that f (z) can be expanded in a Laurent’s series in the annular region between the two circles. or if limz→z0 f (z) exists.13.1 Determine the order of the pole of the function f (z0 ) = z 3 (z 1 . 1.. . Solution 1.2) regular part of f(z) principal part in the neighbourhood of z0 z0 is a removable singularity if bn = 0.12. + A pole of order 1 is called a simple pole. + 4) b1 bm + . A pole of order 2 is called a double pole.13.12.1. at n = m (say). then z = z0 is an isolated essential singularity of f (z). ∀n.3 Essential Singularity If bn in (1.2 Removable Singularity The singularity point z = z0 is called removable if z→z0 lim f (z) exists f (z) = z 2 − a2 .13 Poles of a Function ∞ ∞ Consider again f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 )n + n=1 bn (z − z0 )n principal part If the principal part terminates. then f (z) becomes f (z) = a0 + a1 (z − z0 ) + .1 f (z0 ) has a pole of order 3 at z = 0 and a simple pole at z = −4.2) contains an inﬁnite number of terms.1 Let f (z) be analytic in the domain D except at z = z0 . z = a is a removable singular point. z−a Theorem 1. 1. . + z − z0 (z − z0 )m The isolated singular point z = z0 is called a pole of order m. ∞ ∞ f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 )n + n=1 bn (z − z0 )n (1. there exists no ﬁnite n such that z→z0 lim (z − z0 )f (z) = a ﬁnite constant.
. z(z − 4) Solution 1. where f (z) is analytic everywhere on and C If f (z) has a simple pole at z = z0 . except at z = z0 .1 f (z) has simple poles at z = 0 and z = 4. 2. . Thus. . .2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . Resz=z0 f (z) = b1 From (1. and in which it can be represented by the Laurent’s series ∞ ∞ f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 ) + n n=1 bn (z − z0 )n where an = and bn = 1 2πi 1 2πi 1 2πi C f (z ′ ) dz ′ . such that f (z) is analytic at each point of the region 0z − z0  < r.3). Thus.1. Then there exists a positive number r. when z = 0 Resz=0 f (z) = z→0 lim z · 1 4 1 z(z − 4) = − and when z = 4 Resz=4 f (z) = = z→4 lim (z − 4) · 1 4 1 z(z − 4) HIT223 . (z ′ − z0 )n+1 f (z ′ )dz ′ = 1 2πi f (z)dz C C b1 = (1. . . (z ′ − z0 )n+1 f (z ′ ) dz ′ . 1 b1 is the coeﬃcient of and is called the residue of f (z) at the isolated singular z − z0 point z0 . 1 2πi f (z)dz. 1.3) C where C is any closed contour around z0 (counterclockwise) such that f (z) is analytic on C and interior to C. Resz=z0 f (z) = within C except at z0 . the residue of f (z) is given by Resz=z0 f (z) = lim (z − z0 ) · f (z) z→z0 Example 1. n = 0.1 Find the residue of f (z) = 1 at each of its poles.14 Residues Let z0 be an isolated singularity of f (z). . . n = 1.14.14.
1 Find the residues of z2 + 5 z(z + 3)2 z 2. . . (n + z)(z − z0 )n+1 + b1 (m − 1)! 1 dm−1 lim [(z − z0 )m f (z)] (m − 1)! z→z0 dz m−1 1 dm−1 lim [(z − z0 )m f (z)] (m − 1)! z→z0 dz m−1 z 2 ez . then f (z) dz = 2πi(R1 + R2 . 1 d2 z 2 ez lim 2 (z − a)3 2! z→a dz (z − a)3 1 d2 lim 2 z 2 ez 2 z→a dz 1 lim (z 2 ez + 4zez + 2ez ) 2 z→a 1 a 2 [e (a + 4a + 2)] 2 ea 2 (a + 4a + 2) 2 1. . ∞ f (z) = n=0 ∞ an (z − z0 )n + b1 b2 bm + + .14. .14. + Rn ) C where Rj is the residue of f (z) at z = zj .4) (z − z0 )m f (z) = n=0 an (z − z0 )m+n + b1 (z − z0 )m−1 + . .Suppose f (z) has a pole of order m. dm−1 [(z − z0 )m f (z)] = dz m−1 thus. .. (z−a)3 Example 1. z2 . b1 = ⇒ Resz=z0 f (z) = ∞ n=0 an (m + n)(m + n + 1) . ∴ Resz=af (z) = = = = = Exercise 1. (z − 1)(z − 2)2 1..2 z = a is a pole of order 3. .2 Calculate the residue of Solution 1. vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology . + bm Diﬀerentiating (1.1 Cauchy’s Residue Theorem If C is a closed contour within and on which a function f (z) is analytic except for a ﬁnite number of singular points z1 . at the poles.14. .4) (m − 1) times. . + 2 z − z0 (z − z0 ) (z − z0 )m (1.14. . zn interior to C. .
where C is the circle z = 2. z 2 − 2z e−z dz . C sin πz dz where C is a unit circle at the origin.3 z = −1 is a simple pole. (z − 1)3 ez dz z2 − 1 C : z = 2 C : z = 3 C : z = 3 2. z+1 Solution 1. z 3 (z − 1) z+1 dz . C (a) given that C is the circle z − 1 = 1 (b) given that C is the circle z − i = 1 HIT223 . C 4. C 5.14.14. z6 dz .2 Evaluate 1.2009 vchikwasha Harare Institute of Technology .3 Find C z dz . C 3. Resz=−1 f (z) = z→−1 lim (z + 1) z z+1 = −1 ⇒ z dz = 2πi(−1) z+1 = −2πi C Exercise 1.14.Example 1.