THERMAL SPRAYING

What is Thermal spraying ? Thermal Spraying metal coatings are depositions of metal which has been melted immediately prior to projection onto the substrate. The metals used and the application systems used vary but most applications result in thin coatings applied to surfaces requiring improvement to their corrosion or abrasion resistance properties. Thermal Spraying covers a wide range of techniques in which material is heated rapidly an a hot gaseous medium and simultaneously projected at high velocity onto a surface, to produce a coating. In other words, this method in its most basic form is the propelling of a powdered metal alloy via a heat source onto a component to form a metallurgical bond with the components base material. The range of alloys that can be sprayed is immense based mainly on Nickel, Cobalt, Aluminum and Iron but containing elements as diverse as boron, molybdenum and tungsten in fact it would be true to say that an alloy can be provided for almost any application. Sprayed metal coatings have been used for a number of years and exposure tests have proved them to be superior to conventional paint coatings. Classfication The different processes for thermal spraying can be grouped into two categories: • There are lower energy processes often referred as metallising, or “cold” processes in which the alloy is sprayed onto the base material either directly or onto a pre-sprayed bondcoat of pure nickel. An exothermic reaction takes place bonding the alloy to the surface. In this category arc spraying and flame spraying processes are included. These are frequently used for spraying metals for corrosion resistance, such as zinc and aluminium. • The second category covers higher energy processes sush as plasma spraying, detonation gun and high velocity combustion spraying. A technique recently attracting considerable interest is the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) process. The processes of the second category are basically the same as the first but when the alloy has been deposited it is then fused either in a vacuum furnace or with the aid of a gas pre-heating torch to form a dense homogenous coating metallurgical bonded to the base material, this second process is used where a point loading on the component is expected. Unfortunately a great deal of heat is generated with this second process, therefore it is not recommended for finished or slender components that could be susceptible to distortion. In all cases the types of structures differ considerably from those produced by either gaseous or solution-state processes. How is the alloy sprayed ? The alloy is sprayed via a torch that is connected to a gas source such as oxygen and acetylene. The delivery system of the torch is dependant on its manufacturer, however two main methods are employed: • micro-pulverised alloy powder purchased in containers that fits onto the torch • alloy in wire form that is either ground by the torch and fed into the flame or simply atomised in the flame itself

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Created by Javier Garcia

What materials can be coated ? Almost all metals can be coated sometimes with a thickness' of as much as 25mm { ½ " ] although cost would prohibit thick coatings on large components. Here is a list of some of the materials that can be coated. •Carbon Steels including tool steels such as D3,D2,O1 etc. •Stainless Steels •Titanium •Cast Irons •Cast Steels •Certain Bronzes and Brasses •Certain Magnesium Alloys What alloys can be sprayed ? As mentioned above the range of alloys that can be sprayed is immense, alloy selection is based upon the application to which it is being put, for example it is possible to spray phosphor bronze onto an aluminium component to produce a bearing surface, Tungsten Carbide can be sprayed onto a mild steel base to give superb abrasion resistance, Stainless Steel can be spayed onto medium carbon steel for resistance to rust and a nickel chrome iron material may be used to repair a worn shaft, putting it back into service quickly and almost certainly making it last longer than the original. •Nickel Alloys - for corrosion resistance to acids and alkalis - provide good cutting edges on blades etc •Cobalt Alloys - good resistance to wear, abrasion and corrosion at elevated temperatures •Aluminum Alloys – for corrosion resistance •Iron based Alloys - Cutting edges, good self lubricating properties •Copper - gaskets, conductance etc •Phosphor Bronze - Excellent bearing material •Ceramics - Resistance to thermal shock and wear - High thermal and electrical resistance •Plastics – Resistance to corrosion from water and mild acid and alkali's Applications • Enhance wear and/or corrosion resistance • Provide specific frictional characteristics to the surface • Use for dimensional restoration • Uses as thermal barrier, thermal conductor, electrical conductor or resistor • Uses as electromagnetical shielding, enhance or retard of radiation Advantages • Extremely wide variety of materials that can be used to make a coating • Ability of most of the thermal spray processes to apply a coating substrate without significantly heating • Ability to strip or recoat worn or damaged coatings without changing the properties or dimensions of the part • Very cost effective especially on large components with small wear areas • Ideal in breakdown situations where spare parts are unavailable • Excellent for reclaiming obsolete parts - Classic cars/bikes etc • Inexpensive base materials can be used and coated in certain areas for a particular resistance • Specialised alloys for a specialised component - corrosion -RF shielding - thermal barriers etc • Coating where making a component from the alloy is unfeasible - Valve parts, offshore applications • Making moulds by spraying onto a component coated with release agent

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Created by Javier Garcia

along with oxygen. are commonly used flame spray gases. Major advantages of the Arc Spraying process are that the coatings are available for almost instant use with no drying or curing times and there is no risk of damaging the component. They can only coat what the torch or gun can “see” • Size limitations prohibiting the coating of small. methyl-acetylene-propadiene (MAPP) gas. rod or powder form. Flame spray process is characterized by: • low capital investment • high deposition rates and efficiencies • relative ease of operation and equipment maintenance In general. the plasma is created by an electric arc burning within the nozzle of a plasma gun and the arc gas is formed into a plasma jet as it emerges from the nozzle. In general. • higher porosity. anh hydrogen. as deposited its coatings exhibit: • lower bond strenght. The molten spray solidifies on the component surface to form a dense. deep cavities into which a torch or gun will not fit Processes Arc Spraying In this process. propane. wire sizes. the deposits possess a higher degree of bond strength than most other thermally sprayed deposits and the use of compressed air and electricity alone mean more economic coatings. comprising the spray material. Aetylene. Almost any material can be sprayed Page 3 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia . changing the nozzle and/or air cap is required to adapt the gun to different alloys. In the case of Plasma spraying. In addition. Plasma Spraying Plasma is the term used to describe gas which has been raised to such a high temperature that it ionises and becomes electrically conductive. Another advantages are: • high deposition rates • low substrate heating • less expensive to operate Flame Spraying In this process. This molten material is atomised by a cone of compressed air and propelled towards the workpiece. Most flame spray guns can be adapted to use several combination of gases to balance operating cost and coating poperties. Powder particles are injected into this jet where they melt and then strike the surface at high velocity to produce a strongly adherent coating. are fed together in such a manner that a controlled arc occurs at the intersection heating and melting them.Disadvantages • Line-of-sight nature of these processes. or gases. • and higher heat transmittal to the substrate than most other thermal spray processes. strongly adherent coating. the raw material is melted in an oxygen-fuel gas flame. Flame spray guns are available ton spray materials in either single wire. the raw material in the form of a pair of metallic wires (with electrically opposed charge). This process differs from the other thermal spray processes in that there is no external heat source such as a gas fleme or electrically induced plasma. This molten material is atomised by a cone of compressed air and propelled towards the workpiece.

The workpiece remains cool because the plasma is localised at the gun. depending on the process and the material sprayed. Surfaces must be clean. Therefore they are usually finished by methods such as grinding. ceramics and plastics. and usually substrates must be roughened after cleaning by grit blasting or some other means. if necessary. Sealant materials such as waxes. Finishing Treatment Sealing Thermal spray coatings usually have a structure with inherent porosity that ranges from less than 2 to more than 15 vol%. In many cases. abrasive brushing or vibratory finishing.including metals.Plasma coatings equivalent to Rc70 can be applied. Surface Finishing Although thermal spray coatings are used with their surfaces in the as-deposited condition for some applications. many applications require the coated to be sealed before finishing. Materials that are plasma-applied result in coatings that are very low in porosity. including tungsten carbides.As much as twice the strength of conventional metal spray processes. these surfaces are too rough for some severe conditions. plasma-sprayed surfaces are suitable as a replacement for chrome plating. epoxies. providing exceptional wear resistance even in extremely abrasive applications.Over 150 materials can be plasma sprayed. lapping. Surface Preparation To ensure adequate bonding of thermal spray coatings. thus extremely dense. Advantages: • Superior Bond Strength . • Extreme Density .Plasma coatings of all types can be finished ground and polished. Figure 1: Arc Spraying Figure 2: Flame Spraying Page 4 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia . chromium carbides and oxide ceramics. polishing. These can contribute to premature failure of the coating. machining. it is critical that a substrate be properly prepared. This enables Atlas to achieve exceptional finishing results. • Extreme Hardness . Finishing . phenolics and inorganics are used. For this reason.

Figure 2 Page 5 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia .

Metallisation aluminium and zinc spraying wires are of consistent quality and purity. 146 Pembroke Rd. Properly stored. NH 03301 tel 603/224-9585 fax 603/225-4342 METALLİSATİON’DAN PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION . NH 03301 tel 603/224-9585 fax 603/225-4342 MIL-M-6874: Metal Spraying. shelf life is indefinite. Concord. Page 6 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia . Concord. 1993) MIL-STD-1687A: Thermal Spray Process for Naval Ship Machinery Application TAFA Inc. Process for (Cancelled. 1993) MIL-STD-1687A: Thermal Spray Process for Naval Ship Machinery Application TAFA Inc. 146 Pembroke Rd. Process for (Cancelled. there are no settlement problems as may be experienced with powder spraying materials and no mixing as required with paints.From our papers: Has the advantage of also reducing exfoliation and weld toe cracking. MIL-M-6874: Metal Spraying.THE BENEFITS OF SPRAYED METALLIC LAYERS 1.

There is almost no limitation on the size of component or structure which can be treated. Where large areas or large numbers of components are to be sprayed. It may also delay the onset of rusting of structures which have been neglected. 3. Sprayed aluminium or zinc coatings give long lives in most naturally occurring environments. 9. The nature of the equipment makes it ideal for either factory or site application and coatings can be deposited in ambient conditions totally unsuited to other methods of protective treatment. Even if a sprayed deposit is locally damaged. Properly applied sprayed metal coatings are more robust than paint systems and are consequently able to withstand rougher usage. the sacrificial action particularly of zinc prevents corrosion from edges and discontinuities. (See Application Data Sheet AC-AC-002 for more detail). 5. the Metallisation wire fed spraying equipment is easily mechanised or fully automated. 6. There is no distinct limit to the thickness of sprayed coatings. 7. 12.2. Zinc may be sprayed to over 3mm and unlike galvanising. The surface being sprayed remains cool. The sprayed metal surface maintains the efficiency of friction grip areas and ensures their effectiveness throughout the life of the structure 14. these need only be applied for decorative purposes. In most cases where the sprayed metal is properly sealed. Ten years to first maintenance is common and over twenty years may be readily achieved with the appropriate system. 11. 4. THE RANGE OF SPRAYED METAL COATINGS FOR THE Page 7 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia . 10. Thick anti-corrosive paint systems are generally unnecessary but the texture of "bare" sprayed coatings provides an excellent "key" for subsequent paint treatment. The process itself is simple involving only two or three stages. spraying is preceded by grit blasting and may be followed by sealing of the deposit. thickness may be varied from place to place to provide protection in critical areas. The materials are simple to apply using Metallisation combustion flame or electric arc spraying equipment. Although bare metal sprayed coatings give long lives they may be sealed to extend the life time or the enhance visual appearance. Consequently there is no risk of heat distortion or metallurgical degradation of load bearing steel structures. Sprayed metal coatings may be handled immediately after treatment. 13. 8. Operators can be trained in a relatively short time and with a small amount of practice are capable of producing consistently sound and even coatings on properly grit blasted surfaces. 15. There are no protracted drying times and factory floor space can be more efficiently utilised. Both the combustion gas and electric arc spraying systems have efficient stop/start devices for production economy. Sealed tubular or hollow sections can be coated externally without danger. This simplicity makes quality control relatively easy and offers fewer stages for errors to occur.

EXTERIOR SHELTERED As above. The information in this bulletin is abstracted from BS 5493. Page 8 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia . but not rain washed. with salt detectable but without salt spray 5. 7.PROTECTION OF IRON AND STEEL AGAINST CORROSION The selection of a coating system is dependent on the environment in which it is to operate. The environments are:-CHART REFERENCE CATEGORY DESCRIPTION 1. EXTERIOR EXPOSED Non-polluted inland Polluted inland Non-polluted coastal Polluted coastal RAIN WASHED SURFACES Areas with low levels of acid. 3. normally badly ventilated and subject to condensation. 2. 9. alkali salt or sulphur dioxide Areas with sulphur dioxide or other airborne pollution Areas as 1. The treatments recommended for longer lives will always protect for shorter periods and are frequently also economical for these shorter lives. INTERIOR Normally dry Frequently damp and wet INSIDE BUILDINGS (heated or unheated) Some condensation Substantial condensation 8. These environments are detailed below. 4. with salt detectable but without salt spray Areas as 2. 10. This is followed by the range of systems available and a chart to indicate the typical time to first maintenance. CHART REFERENCE CATEGORY DESCRIPTION 6.

Non saline water SEA WATER Immersed Splash zone Potable and non-potable water SEA AND OTHER SALINE WATERS Permanent immersion Wind and water exposed areas of floating and tidal structures. (b) Soil . (c) Encasement in Concrete .Warm Humid Conditions (Water present . (e) Chemicals Sealed metallic zinc is generally suitable for chemicals in the pH range 512. See Application Data Sheet LE-AC-002 The Systems are:-Reference No.g. provided the chemical does not specifically attack the coating. Specialist advice is advised as the performance of the coatings will vary accordingly to the nature of the soil.Additional consideration in some applications. The effect of the coating and sealer on the chemicals should be considered as well as the protection of the steel. sand. Where abrasion is critical. rough handling or impact by sprayed metals (sealed or unsealed) is acceptable. Areas subject to frequent salt spray OTHER ENVIRONMENTS (a) Mines . The coating polishes by friction. as BS 5493 Page 9 of 4 Created by Javier Garcia . For temperatures below . specialist advice should be sought. SC1A.Earth. Coating lives may be shortened by soluble sulphates and unburnt coke contained in clinker and ashes. SC1Z. Coatings are preferably sealed. (d) Refrigerated Surfaces . (f) Abrasion and Impact . rock etc. SC5A or SC5Z). Guidance can be sought from Environments 8.sometimes saline) Specialist advice should be sought as conditions in different mines vary considerably. Aluminium coatings are not recommended for direct contact with alkaline clays. Zinc coatings (not aluminium or paint in coal mines) should be considered provided that the water pH is greater than 5. A sealed coating is preferred. depending on particular conditions. This barrier is not required with zinc. Zinc coatings are beneficial in areas where carbonation of the concrete may occur.Alkaline concrete away from atmosphere Aluminium is unsuitable for direct contact with concrete due to its alkalinity and an inert barrier should be provided. For details of High Temperature Environments. sealed aluminium in the pH range 4-9.30°C advice should be sought.Subject to ice formation and condensation Sealed or unsealed coatings are generally suitable (e. The resistance to abrasion. 9 and 10 but time to first maintenance may vary widely.

(150 microns) Sealed Metal Coatings SC 5 A SC 5 Z SC 6 A SC 6 Z SC 7 A SC 7 Z SC 8 Z Aluminium Zinc Aluminium Zinc Aluminium Zinc Zinc Page 10 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier .Metal Nominal Thickness inch (microns) Remarks Bare Metal Coatings SC 1 A SC 1 Z SC 2 A SC 2 Z SC 3 A SC 3 Z SC 4 Z Aluminium Zinc Aluminium Zinc Aluminium Zinc Zinc 0. There is rarely any advantage in applying aluminium to thicknesses greater than 0.004 (100) 0.006 (150) 0.014 (350) SC 2 A may be used up to 550°C.006 in.010 (250) 0.010 (250) 0.006 (150) 0.004 (100) 0.

010 (250) 0.004 (100) Metal + 0.010 (250) 0.006 (150) 0. Systems SC 10 A and SC 10 Z include two coats. Painting of sprayed metal coatings is only done when: (see overpage) Painting of sprayed metal coatings is only done when:-( i) The environment pH value is outside the range 5-12 for zinc or 4.100) Paint Inert paint coatings are preferred.004 (100) 0. Sealing with the appropriate sealer type Range (See TB 251) should be applied immediately after spraying and continue until absorption is complete. Page 11 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier .9 for aluminium (ii) The metal is subject to direct chemical attack (iii) The desired finish can only be obtained by paint (iv) Additional abrasion resistance is required.0.0.004 (30 .007 (175) For use up to 550°C Painted Metal Coatings SC 9 A SC 9 Z SC 10 A SC 10 Z Aluminium} Zinc } Aluminium} Zinc } 0. SC 6 AH Aluminium 0.004 (100) 0.001 . (Sealed metal spray is normally preferable) Systems SC 9 A and SC 9 Z include one pre-treatment coat.016 (400) Pre-treatment after metal spraying with Sealer Type 'B' is optional. Generally one or two coats of paint are sufficient. except in abnormally aggressive environments.006 (150) 0.

in certain individuals. but to minimise entrapment of re-frozen particles in the sprayed coatings. Ideally. However. HEAT Combustion spraying pistols use oxygen and fuel gases. Where this is impracticable operators and others in the vicinity should wear protective goggles containing BS grade 6 green glass. and. • Certain materials e. This may occur some time after spraying and usually subsides rapidly. there are a number of hazards of which the operator should be aware and against which specific precautions should be taken. Certain materials offer specific known hazards. Proper extraction facilities are vital. or low production levels require manual operation. aluminium. reduce noise levels and present direct viewing of the spraying head. may cause a fever-type reaction. if equipment is treated with care and correct spraying practices are followed. notably zinc and copper alloys are unpleasant to smell. Typical sound pressure levels taken 1 metre behind the arc spray or flame spray nozzle are 102-104 db(A). DUST AND FUMES The atomisation of molten materials produces a certain amount of dust and fumes. Such techniques will also produce more consistent deposits. Specially designed enclosures should be used to attenuate these levels. the material being sprayed and the operating parameters. If it does not. The fuel gases are Page 12 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . zinc and other base metals may react with water to evolve hydrogen.g. Spray booths and enclosures should be fitted with ultra-violet absorbent dark glass. Electric arc spraying produces ultra-violet light which may damage delicate body tissues. Where this is not possible. operators and passers-by should wear good quality ear defenders. medical advice must be sought. equipment should be operated automatically in enclosures specially designed to extract fumes. However.100°C and is very bright. NOISE Metal spraying equipment uses compressed gases which create noise. not only for personal safety. • Fumes of certain materials. The nozzle of an arc pistol should never be viewed directly unless it is certain that no power is available to the equipment. Under these conditions a number of hazards peculiar to thermal spraying are experienced in addition to those commonly encountered in production or processing industries. as with any industrial process.SAFETY IN METAL SPRAYING Metal Spraying is not a dangerous process. Sound levels vary with the type of spraying equipment. there are occasions when the type of components being treated. This is potentially explosive and special precautions are necessary in fume extraction equipment. The use of breathing masks fitted with suitable filters is strongly recommended where equipment cannot be isolated. LIGHT Combustion spraying equipment produces an intense flame which may have a peak temperature in excess of 3. Opaque screens should be placed around spraying areas. • All finely divided metal particles are potentially pyrophorric and none should be allowed to accumulate.

COMPRESSED AIR The air supply to spraying pistols is at high pressure. ELECTRICITY Electric arc pistols operate at low voltages (below 45 dc) but are relatively high currents. It should not be directed towards people. two or three primary protective coats and a decorative top coat. experience shows Page 13 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . They may be applied by dipping. Most paints are organic (polymer) bases with added metal particles. particularly of zinc. No mixing is required before application. Sprayed zinc or aluminium are often specified as base layers for paint systems for this reason. prevents corrosion from edges and discontinuities • Sprayed metal coatings maintain the efficiency of friction grip areas throughout the life of the structure • Adhesion to steelwork is better. will sustain combustion and many materials will spontaneously ignite if excessive oxygen levels are present.potentially explosive. while not explosive. brushing or spraying to suitably prepared (grit blasted) surfaces. Any breathing equipment used with the thermal spraying process must be supplied with air of breathing quality. However. Oxygen. Care must be taken to avoid leakage and to isolate oxygen and fuel gas supplies when not in use. Further information on safety aspects may be gained from the Metallisation Health and Safety Brochure. The motor air supply is lubricated and on no account should it be fitted to breathing apparatus. This allows simpler quality control and fewer opportunities for error • Sprayed articles require no protracted curing or drying times giving superior utilisation to floor space • Metals may be sprayed in a wider range of climatic conditions (temperature and humidity) than paints • Sprayed zinc and aluminium give effective corrosion protection immediately • Sprayed metals are more robust than paints and can withstand rougher usage • Even if the sprayed layer is damaged the sacrificial action. • Materials have an infinite shelf life if properly stored • Fewer process steps are required. They may be safely hand held. METAL SPRAYING OFFERS THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES OVER PAINTING: • Materials are of consistent quality and purity. In particular. the Area Sales Managers or from Metallisation Limited. The power supply units are connected to 440 volts AC sources and must be treated with the normal caution afforded to such equipment. Protective paint systems are multi-layer comprising a priming coat. corrosion inhibiting compounds or inert filler materials. acetylene may only be used under conditions approved by the Health and Safety Authorities. COMPARISON OF METAL SPRAYING WITH PAINTING Painting is a widely used method of protecting steelwork (and other materials) from corrosion. Extensive practical long term evaluation has shown that paint systems have shorter effective lives than sprayed zinc or aluminium coatings.

PREPARATION FOR SPRAYING Sprayed coatings adhere to surfaces mainly by mechanical and physical means. It increases the surface area and provides a profile which will resist shearing between coating and substrate. that welds are properly dressed and that no cracks or other defects exist.4). grit and tools will become contaminated and the oil will spread over the surface. e. Sharp abrasive grit is projected towards the surface.that properly sprayed metal coatings are adequate if sealed and that the paint overlay offers no further advantage. They must not be Page 14 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . in a few instances. Surfaces should be re-gritblasted immediately after heating to remove the thin oxide film which will form. see Technical Bulletin 5. Preheating: Preheating is rarely needed. Without this. it is vital that the surface to be sprayed is clean and adequately roughened. Vapour degreasing is preferable. Combined Techniques: The above methods may be combined to give superior adhesion. Rough Machining: This method is commonly applied to surfaces which are required to bear a thick deposit. Over 80% of coating failures are due to poor or incorrect surface preparation.2. Gritblasting: This is the most commonly used method of preparation. where this is not practicable.usually no further preparation is needed in these cases. (For further information see Technical Bulletin 5. glass. Preheating is advisable when spraying bores or internal diameters with high shrink materials or thick deposits. care must be taken to ensure that solvents do not simply re-distribute the contaminant thinly over the entire surface Porous materials such as castings may require baking to ensure removal of oils.g. either mechanically or by compressed air. Laboratory tests indicate that bond coats not only increase bond strength. but will also give more consistent adhesion. but is essential for certain substrates. CARE OF THE PREPARED SURFACE Prepared surfaces are chemically and physically very active. It is also recommended when environmental conditions are such that water (from burning gases or the atmosphere) may condense onto the workpiece during spraying. is not contaminated and does not contaminate the surface. Whatever the mechanism of adhesion. see Technical Bulletin 5.2. to prevent thermal shock . INITIAL INSPECTION Surfaces to be sprayed should be examined to ensure that previous coatings have been removed. It is important that the grit is of the correct type and size. METHODS OF PREPARATION Degreasing: Oil and grease must be removed before preparation begins. increases the surface area and provides a profile into which the surface will key. (For further information.4). bond coats are now extensively used to enhance adhesion on mechanical and gritblasted surfaces. metallurgical or chemical bonding may occur to a small degree. Care must be taken to avoid excessive temperatures (175°C maximum). (For further information.2. Blasting cleans the surface. Bond Coating: Originally developed to provide a rough keying profile on ground steel surfaces which were too hard to grit blast.2).

BS 4232 and Svensk Standard SIS 05 59 00) Page 15 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . It is much more specialised equipment and is highly efficient for low cost blasting of large volume repetitive production. It is an excellent general purpose abrasive. They can be used at lower than normal blasting pressures and are effective when "Syphon Blasting". the surface must be re-prepared unless special storage facilities are available. lint-free cotton gloves or sheets should be used to protect prepared surfaces during handling. millscale and other surface contaminants and produces a suitably roughened surface by projecting a highly concentrated stream of relatively small abrasive particles at high velocity against the surface to be cleaned. EQUIPMENT "Suction or Syphon Blasting": . either in hand cabinets. If longer delays occur.allowed to deteriorate or become contaminated. Spraying must begin as soon as possible after preparation. STANDARD OF PREPARATION (See British Standard 2569 Parts 1 and 2. Clean. Crushed Slags (Expendable Abrasive) An alternative to chilled iron grit when reclamation is not possible. This is the most widely used form of blasting. "High Pressure Blasting": . (b) its slow rate of breakdown and (c) the retention of sharp cutting edges on the particles. While quite effective for "once only" use. SURFACE PREPARATION BY GRIT BLASTING Grit blasting is the most commonly used method of preparing surfaces for metal spraying. It removes rust. blast rooms or in portable form. Non-metallic grits must not be used to prepare surfaces for coatings which are to be fused. due to their rapid breakdown to dust. BS 5493. It has also been shown to be effective in reducing the loss of fatigue strength. Ceramic Grits (Aluminium Oxide and Silicon Carbides Used where the base material has a hardness greater than 360HV which cannot be effectively blasted by chilled iron grit.Involves the abrasive being centrifugally propelled from rapidly rotating impellers. "Centrifugal Blasting": . The allowable time interval depends on the material and on ambient conditions.The particles of abrasive are directly fed from a pressurised container into a high pressure air stream. which gives high particle energies. It is mainly employed in the preparation of small components in hand cabinets. They must be handled with care and not touched with naked hands. It should not exceed four hours: in hot or humid conditions the maximum allowable delay may be very much less. on site work.Here the particles of abrasive are projected by suction or by a venturi type nozzle into an air blast. TYPES OF ABRASIVES Chilled Iron Grit This is by far the most widely used abrasive (ref: BS 2451) for metal spraying. They are therefore well suited to the preparation of thin metal surfaces which may distort if blasted with chilled iron at conventional pressures. as is the case on many site jobs. ropes or slings. they are not suitable for reclamation and re-use. due to (a) its relatively high density.

Particular care is required with most non-ferrous alloys. grit breakdown will be rapid. Accordingly. Blunt particles. deterioration (and impairment of adhesion) may occur in less than four hours. Special Regulations 1949 Part II. filters etc.005" (100 . where special precautions must be taken to protect personnel. or other substance containing free silica in any blasting Page 16 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . NOTE Under The Blasting (Castings and other Articles) .Grit blasting standards for metal spraying should not be confused with blast cleaning as used to prepare surfaces for painting. moisture traps. oil and other contaminants. In temperate climates. helmet. grit may be embedded in the surface and mechanical distortion of the component may occur. to ensure protection from flying abrasive. aprons and leggings. vii) Spraying must commence as soon as possible after surfaces have been blasted. clean cotton gloves should be used. The blast profile (defined as "height from trough to adjacent peak") should not exceed 0. iv) Always wear full protective clothing. for example. ii) Never start up a blasting unit until the hose is firmly held pointing in a safe direction. plastics and fragile or highly stressed parts. humid conditions. iv) Excessive blasting should be avoided. should be fitted to the air lines. In hot. v) Blasting debris must be removed from the surface before spraying. suitable after coolers. blasting should always be done in a blast room or cabinet. PRECAUTIONS RELATING TO GRIT BLASTING i) Except in open site work. fines and contaminants are deleterious and should be removed. If pressures are too high. blowing with compressed air may not remove debris but move it from one place to another. gloves. only BS 4232 "White Metal Finish" or SIS 05 59 00 "SA 3" are comparable in surface cleanness with grit blasting quality for metal spraying.004"-0. It is expensive and can be detrimental to the metal spraying process. ii) Grit must be inspected regularly.125µ) experience has shown that chilled iron grit to BS 2451 Grade G24 provides a surface of appropriate amplitude. vi) Grit blasted surfaces must not be contaminated before spraying. deterioration will be more rapid. If handling is unavoidable. hood. iii) Blasting air must be free of water. certainly before any visible deterioration occurs. Vacuum cleaning or brushing is preferable. Of the various standards of surface finish. it is forbidden to use sand. iii) The blast hose should be of an approved anti-static type and must be inspected regularly for wear and security of fittings. Comparable surface amplitudes are similarly achieved with expendable non-metallic abrasives of around N° 16 mesh. v) The provision of an inspection window in a blast room is advised. BLASTING TECHNIQUES i) Blasting pressures must not be excessive.

Viscosity . anaerobics) Usually stronger than non-curing types.Many organic materials deteriorate rapidly at moderately high temperatures (>120°C). Good penetration May be flushed out by solvents or hydraulic action of fluids CURING-TYPES (Vinyls. The sealant must be effective at the expected operating temperatures of the coating. Page 17 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . If thinned.To be effective the sealant must not react chemically with the environment unless the reaction promotes sealing without harming the coating or any products. wax) Easy to apply.Sealants must be strong enough to resist abrasive or cavitation erosion and hydraulic washing by the environment. epoxies. preventing interconnecting pore networks with thicker coatings (in some cases only). the coating function and the operator environment. Choice of method and material depends on the type of coating. polyesters.apparatus. Usually relatively inert when cured Penetration often poor with high viscosity materials. SEALED SPRAYED COATINGS Porosity inherent in 'as-sprayed' coatings will allow the ingress of fluids which may give rise to:-• Corrosion of the coating or the base material • Contamination of the coating or of products handled by the coated articles • Pressure loss in hydraulic systems due to seepage beneath seals • Premature coating failure due to sudden or fluctuating pressure changes These problems may be overcome by applying a suitable sealant deforming the coating to seal porosity (only for some materials). Thermal Stability . grease. PROPERTIES REQUIRED OF SEALANTS Sealability .The sealant must fill the pores sufficiently to prevent fluid penetration.Sealants must be sufficiently fluid to penetrate the deposit yet sufficiently viscous to prevent drainage from the coating. Chemical Stability . lower solids concentration may not always fill pores. SEALANT TYPE ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS NON-CURING (Oils. its thickness. Mechanical Stability .

METHODS OF SEALING Sealants may be applied by painting (brushing or spraying). 30E Sealed with Metallisation Sprayseal M Food Processing Machinery Al Sealed with Vinyl (Metallisation Protectomet Range) Chemical Vessels Al. 'Self Sealing' coatings may be sealed by machining using high pressures and blunt tools. 80E Self sealed PROPERTIES OF SPRAYED MATERIAL Page 18 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier .5. Lower added cost Coating may be damaged during compression. However.5.1. These methods may be used to control surface finish and. epoxies. dimensional tolerances. For instance. vacuum impregnation may not be appropriate for fast curing anaerobics or very large components. by rolling or by peening. dipping or vacuum impregnation depending on which method is appropriate to the sealant and the component. polyesters (Metallisation Protectomet Range) High Temperature Protection Zn or NiCr sealed with silicones or silicates. 18/8 stainless steel) Higher temperature capability. in some cases.2.SELF SEALING METALS (Tin. TYPICAL USES OF SEALING Atmospheric Corrosion Protection Zn or Al sealed with vinyls. Depth of sealing usually shallow and may be removed by wear. alkyds. copper. aluminium.1 and 2. see Technical Bulletin Numbers 2. care must be taken since excessive tool pressures may detach the coating from its substrate. (Metallisation Protectomet Range) Hydraulic Rams 60E Sealed with Metallisation Sprayseal M Bearings 10E & 15E Sealed with Metallisation Sprayseal M Journals 30E & 60E Sealed with Metallisation Sprayseal M Printing Cylinders Cu. For further details of sealing materials.

coating thickness. If adhesion is critical. the degree of penetration into porous sprayed deposit (depending on porosity. HARDNESS Hardness is of interest to engineers because it relates to the tensile strength of wrought or cast metals.) axiality may not be achieved during testing (which may give rise to sheer and peel stresses as well as tensile stresses at the interface). However. may be influenced by the hardness of the basis material. etc. Hardnesses of sprayed deposits must be treated with considerable caution. bond failures are rare. Hardness of sprayed deposits cannot be converted into other scale or into tensile strength values.ADHESION The adhesion of sprayed coatings to substrates is a matter of great concern to Engineers. The hardnesses given below are based on laboratory tests made at Metallisation Page 19 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . The tests. Values measured on a single specimen may vary depending on whether the area under the indenter contains porosity. the test is generally restricted to test pieces which bear little resemblance to engineering components. it is necessary to attach a pulling device to the coating with a suitable adhesive. Unfortunately. Coatings which become detached during machining must be re-applied whereas those which fail during service will not only cause failure of the coated part but may seriously damage other components and could lead to injuries. These factors combine to produce considerable scatter and test results and quoted bond strengths should be treated with considerable caution. which measure the resistance to penetration of a hardened ball. However. Sprayed coatings differ in that they consist of many individual particles. Although the test is simple. cone or diamond under known loads are simple. knowing the area under test. a failure of bond strength can be calculated. provided that the basic rules for using sprayed metal coatings are applied and that materials are correctly sprayed on to properly prepared surfaces. In general for unfused coating. With homogenous wrought or cast materials. In order to do so. Brinell hardnesses made with a large diameter ball will give the most consistent results.125 in (3mm) thick. Complete detachment of the deposit rarely occurs and the fracture is a mixture of bond and cohesive failure. it is strongly recommended that a practical evaluation of a sprayed component be made before specifying a particular sprayed deposit. or because it gives an indication of resistance to abrasive wear. Many techniques have been used to assess the adhesion of coatings. The adhesion test may then be used as a quality control tool rather than a design aid. oxide or uncontaminated coating. such impressions may penetrate deeply into the coating and particularly with thin deposits. rapid and require a minimum of skill. are un-homogenous and may contain appreciable levels of porosity and oxides. The most commonly employed involve pulling in tension a known area of coating from a suitably prepared substrate. it is subject to many variables: the strength and curing state of the adhesive. hardness can be converted from one scale to another with reasonable accuracy by using appropriate conversion charts. Coating macrohardness tests are not recommended on deposits less than 0. adhesive viscosity. This method has the advantage of giving a load failure and..

They are for guidance purposes only.24 2500 15E Phosphor Bronze Blasted 10.13 3000 3500 70E Monel Blasted 17.00 1450 05E Copper Blasted 10. they should be treated with caution. except under abrasive wear conditions.09 4200 4800 10E Aluminium Bronze Cleaned Blasted 20.00 1450 Page 20 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . HARDNESS MATERIAL REF HB Rc Rb HV Knoop 100 Nickel Manganese 76E 200 Monel 70E 110-120 80-84 Aluminium Bronze 10E 118-128 144 Phosphor Bronze 15E 95-105 Copper 05E 58 Molybdenum 99E 250-800 Zinc 02E 12-15 Aluminium 01E 25-30 55 18/8 Stainless Steel 80E 275 240-260 Chrome Manganese Steel 65E 435 38-44 Chrome Steel 60E/6 1E 420-460 35-40 18/5 Stainless Steel 55E 340 220-240 360 Low Carbon Steel 30E 210-230 336 MATERIAL SURFACE PREPARATION BOND MN/M² STRENGTH PSI 75E Nickel Aluminium Cleaned Blasted 28.Limited.96 33.68 24. certain Customers and Universities. they should not be used for design purposes and even where abrasive wear is experienced.

Often the pores in coatings will act as lubricant reservoirs and provide fluid under potentially disastrous conditions. This is partly because the wear performance will depend on the counterface material. For composite (or pseudo-alloy) coatings formed by arc spraying with dissimilar wires. give excellent wear properties. During spraying. indenters may penetrate sufficiently for the result to be influenced by the substrate material. Frequently. the oxides present within sprayed coatings will give wear resistances much higher than might be expected from hardness tests. excessive currents and/or voltages may result in the preferential burn-off of elements such as carbon and chromium during atomisation.27 1200 99E Molybdenum Blasted 37. on thick coatings the results may be affected by oxides or porosity in the material beneath the indentation. Under normal conditions.30 5700 55E 18/5 Stainless Steel Blasted 28. The metallurgical structures of sprayed deposits are different from wrought or cast materials since the extremely rapid cooling on impact followed by short term re-heating of subsequent particles gives rise to unusual metallurgical phenomena.02E Zinc Blasted 4. However. combined with the oxides present in the coating. There have been occasional instances where Page 21 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . In addition the sprayed particles quench at very high rates when they impact upon metallic basis components.77 4100 60E Chrome Steel Blasted 20. Even when carefully measured the coatings hardness often gives little indication of wear resistance (an application for which sprayed coatings are frequently specified). the chemical change will not be deleterious. Each wire produces discrete particles and the coating will be a true composite containing approximately equal volumes of material of each composition. pressure and temperature and on lubrication. the operating speed. As a result the mechanical properties cannot be compared with other materials of similar composition and the chemical properties may differ. Several of the steels containing high chromium contents show work hardening properties which. Hardness tests on sprayed coatings are unreliable since. most coatings behave much as their wrought or cast counterparts. However.37 3100 80E 18/8 Stainless Steel Blasted 28. on thin coatings.82 700 01E Aluminium Blasted 13.34 4100 80/20 Tin Zinc Blasted 8.68 3000 65E Chrome Manganese Steel Blasted 21. In order to avoid problems coatings used in such applications should be sealed.92 5500 WEAR RESISTANCE Thermally sprayed coating materials differ in many ways from their wrought or cast counterparts. sprayed coatings are always porous and they usually contain appreciable levels of oxides. the porosity will allow fluid penetration in corrosive situations or in pneumatic or hydraulic equipment.78 2000 30E Low Carbon Steel Blasted 39. it is important to recognise that alloying does not occur during spraying. Chemically.

To obtain consistent results both slides and bars were lightly polished immediately before testing using a very fine.sprayed stainless steels have performed better than wrought materials in corrosive situations.6 Km/Hr. DY2 OXH : Tel: 01384 252464.1% 370 300 Gas sprayed aluminium bronze 645 778 Arc sprayed aluminium bronze 840 500 Wrought mild steel 0. care should be taken when selecting materials for sprayed coatings. giving a mean velocity of 0. It can only be assumed that the oxide present within the coating has contributed to the improvement by retarding corrosion of the particles. At this speed.EFFICIENCY AND COVERAGE Page 22 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . Metallisation Limited. the spraying process confers properties that are beneficial under conditions which result in metal-to-metal wear.5% C steel composite 20 19 Arc sprayed chrome steel 60E 25 76 Gas sprayed chrome steel 60E 44 24 Wroughthardened steel 60Rc 50 142 Arc sprayed low carbon steel 30E 50 450 Arc sprayed (+) 30E/copper mix 80 119 Wrought hardened steel 40 Rc 100 133 Arc sprayed 18/8/2 Mo stainless 115 128 Arc sprayed 55E 18/5/8 Mn stainless 120 155 Arc sprayed phosphor bronze 146 840 Arc spray (+) copper/30E mix 148 98 Arc spray 80/20 nickel chrome 205 85 Wrought 18/8 stainless 235 790 Gas sprayed 18/8 stainless 264 525 Arc sprayed 18/8 stainless 355 362 Gas sprayed 30E low carbon steel 0. dry abrasive paper. wrought metals and contact surfaces. advice may be sought from the Technical Department. The tests reported are an incomplete selection of sprayed coatings. the specimens suffered no measurable rise in bulk temperature. WEAR RATING i. PROPERTIES OF SPRAYED COATINGS .e. In view of the above. In case of difficulties. West Midlands.1% Steel Hardened Steel 60 Rc Gas sprayed molybdenum (hard) 20 20 Arc sprayed 1.1% C 1040 975 Gas sprayed phosphor bronze 1070 940 Wrought phosphor bronze 1880 1295 A maximum velocity of 1 Km/Hr was adopted as standard. Pear Tree Lane. depth of wear in microns Contact Surface Wear Specimen (slider) 0. This loading required to produce a measurable depth of wear on wrought metals and sprayed coatings was proved by experiment to be 4Kg. but the results provide a clear indication that. Dudley.

Efficiency is used as a test to assist in establishing the optimum economic and technical deposition parameters. when the deposit volatilises easily or forms a volatile oxide. In combustion gas spraying particularly. Deviation from the recommended spraying parameters will r educe efficiencies. Spraying at angles other than normal to the surface will reduce efficiency. The quoted results were measured using a flat mild steel plate 18" x 18" gritblasted to Swedish Standard SA3. Page 23 of 4 Garcia Created by Javier . By increasing the fuel consumption. Factors Affecting Efficiency Efficiency will be affected by: i) The shape and size of the component ii) The basis material and its preparation iii) The spraying parameters Measured efficiency will be reduced when spraying onto small components which are not completely within the spray stream. In general. round bar or tube of such a size that no part of the spray pattern will extend beyond the sample. 3. The pistol was moved over the surface in a pattern which prevented local hot spots whilst ensuring no overspray. efficiencies will be higher when spraying onto similar materials and onto properly gritblasted surfaces. They are also close to those for maximum integrity. The efficiency is calculated as the weight gain of the sample per 100gm of material sprayed. it is possible to spray slightly faster with most materials. 2. Even with large components. conditions giving high deposition efficiencies are close to those for optimum fuel utilisation. Efficiencies quoted are those obtained under the normally recommended spraying parameters. This will be particularly noticeable if atomising pressures and spraying rates are increased.1. the resultant reduction in an efficiency together with increased fuel consumption renders the practice extremely uneconomic. Measurement of Efficiency A known weight of material is sprayed under closely controlled conditions on to a suitably prepared flat plate. Normally. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT DEPOSITION RATE AND FEED RATE ARE NOT CONFUSED. overspray at edges will reduce efficiencies.

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