Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.

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South African Jews: A Group in Perpetual Exile A Jewish presence in South Africa long preceded even the beginning rumblings of apartheid in South Africa. Jewish involvement in South Africa, one of the ten largest sites of Diaspora Jews, dates back to the first European encounters in the region. The South African Jewish narrative truly began in the second half of the nineteenth century with worldwide mass emigration of Jews out of Central and Eastern Europe. During this wave of immigration, almost eighty percent of the South African Jewish immigrant population came from the Eastern provinces of Lithuania.1 Following the First Zionist Congress in 1897, the national liberation movement aimed at the self-determination of the Jewish people began to spread quickly throughout the European community. Among the Jewish traditions brought to the cape of Africa was the budding Jewish nationalism, or Zionism, movement at the turn of the twentieth century. This overwhelmingly Zionist character and ardor for a Jewish homeland would prove to be the most distinctive feature of the South African Jewry.2 Following the emigration of many of South Africa’s Jews in the 1990s, it was this group’s connection to Israel and Judaism that allowed them to reestablish communities in Israel, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The Jews were forced into exile as they left worsening conditions in Eastern Europe and continued to live as a group in exile in South Africa and abroad. The efforts of the Worldwide Zionist Organization would culminate in 1948, a watershed year for all Jews, but for South African Jews in particular. In the same year as the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, the National Party promoting a racial biased platform came into power in South Africa. Just months apart, two “new” nations were created out of existing boundaries, but with new
1 2

Aleck Goldberg, Profile of a Community: South African Jewry, (Johannesburg: The Rabbi Aloy Foundation Trust, 2002): 5. Jocely Hellig, “REVIEW: Hellig on Shimoni, Community & Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa,” H-NET BOOK REVIEW 31 Oct. 2007, 4 April 2005 http://h-net.msu.edu/.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

governments with nationalist goals. One aimed at promoting a white African State and the other a Jewish State. Both countries governed by a minority group in their region and were surrounded by hostile nations. Although, South Africa was one of the first nations to develop an open relationship with Israel, the relationship between the two has been quite turbulent. Peaking at 120,000 in the 1970s, about four percent of the total population, this minority group managed to live unaffected in a politically charged situation.3 Once the political situation changed, however, and South Africa’s relationship with Israel deteriorated, South Africa’s Jews, one of the Jewish communities most committed to a Jewish State, began to leave en masse. Finally, it was the South Africans long history of Zionism and a connection to the state of Israel that made Israel a viable option for emigration. In the end, in the 1990s over one-third of the South African Jews that decided to leave felt Zionism was their true identity and moved to Israel, once and for all ending their exile.4 The two-thirds that went elsewhere were able to maintain their sense of community and promote their most valued cultural ideals. In her book The Vision Amazing on South African Jewish Zionism, Marcia Gitlin states, “For the Eastern European Jews of South Africa, news of [Theodore] Herzl came like a flash light in a dark world.”5 Zionism would be the guiding light that would allow for significant advancements in the South African Jewish community. Zionism developed in South Africa at the same time as it did internationally, at the turn of the twentieth century. In 1897, the Transvaal Zionist Association was established, signifying the first Zionist society, as part of the international movement, in South Africa. The following year, an Association of Zionist Societies embracing all South African Zionist
3 4 5

Shula Marks, “Apartheid and the Jewish Question,” Journal of Southern African Studies 30 (2004): 888. Alice A. Dubb, Building Cocoons: South African Jewish Émigrés Abroad, (Cape Town: University of Cape Town, 1993): 1. Marcia Gitlin, The Vision Amazing: The Story of South African Zionism, (Johannesburg: Menorah Book Club, 1950): 18.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

organizations was formed.6

This Association was the precursor to the South African Zionist

Federation, the umbrella organization that would represent and look after the country’s Jewish population. According to Gitlin, by 1898, “Zionism had taken hold in South Africa from the Cape to the Zambesi.”7 This, however, is not intended to imply that the South African Jewish community was solely Zionist. Founded in 1900, the Yiddisher Arbeter Bund, a powerful anti-Zionist socialist

workers’ movement, was transplanted from East Europe to both Johannesburg and Cape Town. The group did little to distract the Jewish community, and in 1907 the group disbanded.8 In South Africa, as the Jewish population was booming so was the number of Zionist organizations. By 1905, the Federation recognized over sixty Zionist societies throughout the

country.9 It is at this point that the Zionist movement within South Africa began to set the it sights on paving the way for a Jewish State in the Holy Land. To help make the goal a reality, the Federation set up the Jewish Colonial Trust to purchase land and set up farms in Palestine.10 Around the same time, the Federation began to understand the importance of a Jewish education in fostering the Jewish cultural ideals the South African Jewish community valued. Above all, the community valued

Zionism, so the Federation invited various Jewish organizations to discuss the significance of a Jewish education. The conference resulted in the creation of Boards of Jewish Education in the Transvaal and Cape Town.11 The boards were intended to be independent from the Federation, but it would prove to be impossible to be independent from Zionism in South Africa. According to historian Gideon

6 7

Aleck Goldberg, (2002): 20. Marcia Gitlin (1950): 30. 8 Gideon Shimoni, Jews and Zionism: The South African Experience, (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1998): 53. 9 Aleck Goldberg, (2002): 21. 10 Aleck Goldberg, (2002): 20. 11 Gideon Shimoni (1998): 30.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

Shimoni, one of the foremost experts on South African Jewry, the Boards were highly influenced by the Zionist fervor: “Although these Boards became independent communal institutions, the influence of the Zionist representatives [from the Federation] remained paramount and the ideological premises of Jewish Education which they fostered were distinctly Zionist. Hence Jewish education was not conceived purely as a function of the synagogue, but aimed rather at an integrated Zionist and traditional mode of Jewish identity; a reflection in fact of the normative mode which characterized South African Jewry as a whole.”12 From an early age, South African Jews would now attend Jewish days schools that continually ingrained in them the importance of Judaism, but more importantly a Jewish State. The Jewish day schools would prove to be greatly successful in fostering a sense of Zionism in the youth. By 1911 there were eleven Young Israel Societies affiliated with the Federation, and by 1920 the number rose to thirty-three. Jewish communities around the world have always stressed the importance of

education, but the emphasis the South African Jewish community put on the youth to value Zionism is unique to this community. Despite the advances of the movement in South Africa and internationally, Zionism had yet to crossover into mainstream world politics, but that would all change with the signing of the Balfour Declaration in 1917. In 1916, members of the World Zionist Organization, WZO, the umbrella organization for the international Zionist movement, contacted the Prime Minister of South Africa, PM Jan Christiaan Smuts, for support. Following this meeting, Prime Minister Smuts lobbied for and was an author of the Balfour Declaration in 1917, the document that paved the way for an eventual Jewish State in Palestine. The Jewish people were given a way out of exile, like all other nations they were finally given the right to self-determination.
12

Gideon Shimoni (1998): 45.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

The bond between Smuts and Zionism was so strong that during the First World War he proudly stated, “Great as are the changes wrought by this war, the great world war of justice and freedom, I doubt whether any of these changes surpass in interest the liberation of Palestine and its recognition as the Home of Israel.”13 Referred to by the President of the WZO as one of three men who could bring about a Jewish homeland, Smuts was an open supporter of Zionism.14 Publicly, Smuts proclaimed that his steadfast support for a Jewish Homeland stemmed from his Christian and Boer background. Thus, for example he declared: “As for me, a Boer with vivid memories of the recent past. The Jewish case appealed with peculiar force. I believed with all my heart in historic justice however long delayed. I also had the strong feeling that something was due from the Christians to the Jews, not only as compensation for unspeakable persecutions but as the people who produced the divine leader to whom we Christians of the highest allegiance.”15 In this quote, Smuts discusses that part of his connection to Zionism stems from the similarities between the Dutch Boer experience and Zionist Jews. Coming from their Calvinists outlook, the Dutch Boers respected the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible, and in turn held Jews in high esteem. The Boers’ respect for Jews also came out of them identifying themselves with the Israelites from biblical times. Like the ancient Israelites, who were in exile after liberating themselves from oppression, the Boers went into exile in the wilderness to liberate themselves from British oppression.16 This

connection between these nations of people based on mutual respect allowed for a prosperous Jewish community to grow. The “gentile Zionist”, however, was not driven solely by altruistic motives. As would happen
13 14

Aaron Klieman, The Rise of Israel, (London: Garland, 1987): 16. The other two were Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt. 15 Gideon Shimoni (1998): 45. 16 Aleck Goldberg, (2002): 27.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

throughout this turbulent relationship, there were political gains for South Africa to support a Jewish State. Smuts strongly believed that support for a Jewish State in the Middle East was a matter of significant interest for the British Commonwealth. In order to guarantee security surrounding the Suez Canal, the South African PM contended that there needed to be a British-sponsored Jewish Homeland along the Canal. Smuts also viewed this situation as an opportunity to win over support from the international Jewish community; a group, which he viewed, was integral to the success of British foreign policy.17 Besides being a major player on the international stage, Smuts was a major factor in the development of the Zionist movement in South Africa. Far from Europe and America, the South African Jewish community needed a bridge to the Worldwide Zionist movement. As a close friend of Chaim Weizmann, the President of the WZO, Smuts not only acted as the facilitator between the local and international movement, but also personally fundraised for South African Zionist organizations.18 Smuts emphasized that his support of Zionism did not mean the he “wished the Jews out of South Africa.”19 Unlike later South African administrations, Smuts never used South African Jews’ ardor for Zionism to accuse them of disloyalty to the South African State. Smuts’ support for Israel was so great that the day after the establishment of the State of Israel Weizmann, now the first President of Israel, wrote, “I bethought myself of one surviving author of the Balfour Declaration and addressed a cable to General Smuts and it was closely followed by South African recognition of Israel.”20 As Weizmann correctly recalled, just days after Israel’s establishment

17 18

Gideon Shimoni (1980): 47. Jane Hunter, Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America, (New York: South End Press, 1987): 21-22. 19 Gideon Shimoni, Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa, (Cape Town: Brandeis University Press, 2003): 11. 20 Fred Skolnick, Encyclopedia Judaica, 2nd ed., (New York: MacMillan, 2006): 53.

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Smuts, in accordance with his Zionist sympathies, granted Israel de facto recognition.

21

Unfortunately, in this same month the man the South African Zionist Record identified as the “veritable pillar of strength to the movement throughout the country” was replaced by D.F. Malan and the Nationalist Party, ushering in the a new era of a South African history.22 Unlike Smuts, the Nationalists were not involved in the Zionist movement, and based on their anti-Semitic platform during World War II one would assume that South Africa’s support for Israel would cease. The National Party, however, continued Smuts’s long history of support of Israel and Zionism by voting for the admission of Israel to the United Nations in 1949. South Africa’s immediate support for Israel was, however, highly suspect considering the National Party promoted anti-Semitic immigration laws throughout World War II. To combat accusations of anti-Semitism in the late 1940s, future South African PM Dr. Malan consistently maintained that his party would not discriminate against Jewish citizens of South Africa; that his only objection was to any further Jewish immigration and that he wished to stem anti-Semitism. Malan claimed he “harbored nothing against the Jewish

race and that it was his conviction that in this country we cannot discriminate against the Jewish race or any other race. All who are white in this country deserve to stand on an equal footing politically and otherwise.”23 From the beginning of their regime, the Nationalist Party recognized that for apartheid to work they needed to win over all sectors of the white population.24 The National Party was only concerned with creating firm links with Israel in order to keep their Jewish population content with the status quo. As a sign of goodwill following the establishment of Israel, PM Malan renewed the special permission
21 22

Aleck Goldberg (2002): 28. Gideon Shimoni (1980): 52. 23 Gideon Shimoni (1980): 119. 24 Gideon Shimoni (2003): 5.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

for the Zionist Federation to send money, food and clothing to Israel.25 A betterment of relations continued with the establishment of an Israel consulate-general in Johannesburg and an Israel embassy in Pretoria. Good relations continued with PM Malan’s visit to Israel in 1952, making him the first

head of state to do so.26 A relationship that began with such great optimism was soured in the 1950s as Israel joined the Afro-Asian bloc in taking a stand against apartheid in South Africa. Until now the South African government and the Afrikaans press were in full public support of Israel. In July 1961, however, the amicable relationship was shattered when Israel voted and made statements against South Africa’s racial policies on the floor of the United Nations. At the UN, the Israel representative called apartheid “disadvantageous to the interests of the non-white majority of the land…being reprehensible and repugnant to the dignity and rights of peoples and individuals.”27 At this time, as relations worsened, the Nationalists tried to force South African Zionist organizations to exert pressure on the Israeli government, a move PM Smuts would have never attempted. Interestingly, the government attempted to attack Israel by punishing local Zionist organizations. The special permissions awarded to the Zionist Federation by Malan just a decade ago were repealed.28 The Zionist organizations refused to threaten Israel’s sovereignty by pressuring their decisions. This in turn resulted in the South African government and media questioning the loyalty of its Jewish citizens, an accusation that has troubled Jews throughout history.29 Tensions cooled and relations improved between the nations following Israel’s colossal victory
25 26

Shula Marks (2004): 890. Fred Skolnick (2006): 53. 27 Richard P. Stevens, “ Zionism, South Africa and Apartheid: The Paradoxical Triangle,” Phylon, Vol. 32 (1971): 133-134. 28 Shula Marks (2004): 897. 29 Aleck Goldberg (2002): 21.

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in the Six-Day war in 1967. In South Africa, public support for Israel poured out as Israel was attacked by and defeated four of its Arab neighbors. Following the war, the Arab bloc and most African nations completely severed all ties with Israel. This desertion by most of the Afro-Asian continent forced Israel into the by then all-too-willing arms of South Africa because of South African increasing isolation from the international community of nation.30 Relations further improved

following the 1973 Yom Kippur War as South Africa and Israel began military cooperation. Beginning in the 1970s, South Africa and Israel started sharing military personnel and technology, possibly including nuclear weapons technology.31 Warm relations continued in 1976 with South African PM Vorester’s visit to Israel and upgrading diplomatic relations with Israel to ambassadorial level.32 During the 1980s, as relations improved between the right wing governments of both nations, relations with Israel and the future black government continued to deteriorate. Sympathetic to the similar circumstances of the Palestinians in Israel, the black population of South Africa identified with them. Sympathies for the Palestinian population in combination with the increasing military and diplomatic ties between the countries, however, had a negative impact on the relationship between the South Africa’s black majority and Israel.33 The political alliance between the nations caused distrust for both governments by many black South Africans, which contributed to South Africa’s radical change in attitude towards Israel following the first free democratic elections in 1994. Although the relationship between Israel and South Africa under apartheid was turbulent, the constant concern by each state not to upset one of their few allies afforded the Jews of South Africa the opportunity to live in relatively comfortable and unnoticed on the periphery. It was not until the national mood towards

30 31

Gideon Shimoni (2003): 126. Fred Skolnick (2006): 53. 32 Goldberg (2002): 28. 33 Skolnick (2006): 53.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

Israel shifted that the Jewish population questioned their future on the African continent. Nelson Mandela is credited with many great achievements, but one thing he had a negative impact on was his country’s relationship with Israel. In 1990, following his release from prison after 27 years, Mandela undertook a tour of a number of African countries. During a stopover in Zambia, he met with Palestinian Liberation Organization leader Yassar Arafat. Mandela greeted the known

terrorist warmly and embraced Arafat in front of the international media. Photographs and articles of this monumental event made its way to the South African press causing great concern throughout its Jewish community. The Jewish population was shocked that the foremost leader of the African National Congress was not only sympathetic to the Palestinian cause, but was willing to work with a deadly enemy of Israel, a man responsible for countless murders of Jews.
34

Jewish fear grew even

more when Mandela expressed no regret and publicly stated the alliance between the liberation movements of Black South Africans and Palestinians. This resulted in concerns that the freedom to practice a full Jewish life, the right to pursue Zionist activities and the continuation of relations between South Africa and Israel would cease. It was at this point that the root cause of Jewish migration from South Africa ceased to be violence between the Nationalist government and the Black majority, but due to the failing relationship between the government and the Jewish population. Also, at this point the goal of local South African Zionist groups shifted their support of Israel from fundraising to promoting aliyah35. For most of the Jewish population in South Africa there were only two options for emigration; either move to an Anglo-Saxon country or make aliyah to the State of Israel. About two-thirds of the
34 35

Goldberg (2002): 30. Aliyah is a Jewish concept that refers to Jewish immigration to the State of Israel; under Israel's Law of Return, not only do all Jews automatically receive Israeli citizenship, but they also receive immigration and settlement assistance.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

emigrating population made the “natural choice” and went to the United States, Canada, England or Australia.36 For many it was the natural choice because these countries provided an option that was unquestionably secular and democratic that would present no language barriers or require a difficult acculturation process. Israel on the other hand, was a mix of a developed and undeveloped nation and was a completely different culture with a new language and mounting terrorist violence. Nevertheless, one-third of South African Jewish émigrés still wanted to move immediately to Israel. The reason why many chose to battle to obstacles stemmed back to the community’s ardent support for Zionism and eventually the State of Israel. In a 1993 study, the overwhelming reason for emigration to Israel was to live in a Jewish State. These people shared the common belief that only in Israel could a Jew be a free and complete person. The other, albeit, more practical reasons to chose Israel were that it was the only option for those who could not meet immigration criteria for other countries and Israel provided financial and other assistance for integration and absorption.37 The South African Jews that decided to leave had the option to live in countries that would have given them more opportunities, but still tens of thousands chose Israel because of a connection to their homeland that had been embedded in them by ancestors and had been long supported by both South Africa and Israel. Still, tens of thousands of South African Jews made the natural choice by choosing to come to the United States and other Anglo-nations. Included in this group of South African Jewish émigrés to the United States are two Jewish South African Americans, Kimberly Sarembock and Tyrone Schiff. Both Kim and Tyrone immigrated to the United States in the 1990s from South Africa. Although both were relatively young at the time of the emigration, their insight provides on emigration and South African Jewish communities abroad, a group that continues to live in exile.
36 37

Alice A. Dubb (1993): 2. Alice A. Dubb (1993): 4.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

Born outside of Johannesburg in 1986, Kim’s family left South Africa for Orange County, California in 1991. Kim was young too young to remember the political situation at the time of her departure, but she has shed some light on what it means to be a South African émigré and what remains important to the South African Jewish communities no matter where they are located. When asked about her transition to living in the United States, Kim stated, “The transition was flawless, we walked into an existing South African Jewish social scene.” Kim went on to say that not only were there “tons” of South African Jews in her new community, but also family members that left South Africa a few years before. Moreover, Kim explains that her transition to the United States was “flawless” because they did not have to reestablish themselves as a part of a new community; the Sarembock family was able to find a replanted South African Jewish community in Orange County. When asked about she continues her connection to her birthplace, Kim said, “I only knew Jewish South Africans, so my only connection to South Africa was through the Jewish community.” Being so young when she left South Africa, one would assume that her connection to Zionism and Judaism would have developed in the US. Kim, however, says her connection to her religion was brought with her from South Africa. “South Africa has much stronger Jewish values, the only people we mixed with were Jews so being Jewish was the socially acceptable thing.” Interestingly, Kim believes her connection to Israel and Zionism developed in Jewish day school once in the US, but credits this because she emigrated before attending South Africa’s elite Jewish day schools. Kim, however, went on to say that her passion for Zionism was reinforced during her first visit back to South Africa in 1997. Reflecting on her visit Kim stated, “When I went back, everyone there was so much more religious and connected to Israel…it made being Jewish look cool and Israel an attractive

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

destination.” Since her visit to South Africa in 1997, Kim has been to Israel four times, including a semester abroad as an undergraduate, and plans to spend some significant time there after graduation.38 Unlike the Sarembocks, Tyrone and his family immigrated to the United States after the end of apartheid and the first free democratic elections. Tyrone says he has vivid memories of Nelson Mandela and the ANC’s victory in the first free elections in 1994, but does not remember Mandela’s release or his meeting with Yassar Arafat. Along with his mother and sister, Tyrone left Morning

Hill, a suburb outside of Johannesburg where he was born in 1987, and immigrated to Chicago, Illinois in October of 1998. Like Kim, Tyrone said the transition to the US was made extremely easy because of well-established South African Jewish community in the Chicago suburbs. When asked about his new community, Tyrone stated: “We found each other because of South Africa, but our Jewish culture is what sustained us. Our absolute foundation, when we got here [Chicago] was our South African Jewish connection, our initial social network were South African Jews émigrés, and remains to be to this day. We get together for Passover Seders, go to the same synagogues and meet regularly” When asked how this differed from community life in South Africa, Tyrone responded, “Not at all…it’s the same as it was there, I didn’t really know any South African Christians.” While on the topic of life in South Africa, Tyrone claimed that the Jewish community in South Africa’s emphasis on education was the only major difference between from life in the US. In South Africa, Tyrone attended the prestigious King David Jewish Day School, one of the schools created by the Boards of Jewish Education. When Tyrone came to the US he also attended a Jewish day school, but was disappointed by what his new school emphasized. In the US, Tyrone said the emphasis was on learning the Hebrew language and mastering prayers, whereas in South Africa there was much more of
38

Kimberly Sarembock (2007).

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

an emphasis on Jewish culture, particularly Zionism. It is from his days in the King David School that Tyrone traces back his connection to Zionism; however, he says his zeal for Zionism was cemented on his first trip to Israel this past summer. When asked how his visit to Israel changed how he identifies himself, Tyrone proudly stated, “My trip to Israel really made me reassess my priorities. As a result, I have recently began to identify myself as a Jewish South African, rather than a South African Jew. I feel like I am half South African and half American, but the only thing consistent throughout my life is my religion and the importance of Israel.”39 After living prosperously in South Africa for over a century, the Jewish population is currently half of what it was at its peak in the 1970s, with 1,800 Jews continuing to leave South Africa annually.40 Despite the fact that Jews lived much more comfortably in South Africa than in other Jewish communities worldwide, the country’s Jewish community felt less connected to their home due to the increasingly anti-Israel and anti-Zionist stance of the ANC government.41 Following growing ties between the ANC and the PLO, many Jews felt there was nothing holding them to South Africa anymore and decided to continue their exile. As one can see through conversations with young members of the international South African Jewish community, no matter where the communities reside they remain intact and exhibit issues that continue to be important to South African Jews. South African Jewry has suffered many sudden changes in location and lifestyles, but as Tyrone Schiff stated the only thing consistent for this group was the importance of Judaism and a steadfast commitment to Zionism.

39 40

Tyrone Schiff (2007). Aleck Goldberg, (2002): 27. 41 Gideon Shimoni (2003): 251.

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Marty Gandelman December 14, 2007 Professor Ellen Poteet History 396.003

Works Cited Dubb, Alice A. Building Cocoons: South African Jewish Émigrés Abroad. Cape Town: University of Cape Town, 1993. Gitlin, Marcia. The Vision Amazing: The Story of South African Zionism. Johannesburg: Menorah Book Club, 1950). Goldberg, Aleck. Profile of a Community: South African Jewry. Johannesburg: The Rabbi Aloy Foundation Trust, 2002. Hellig, Jocely. “REVIEW: Hellig on Shimoni, Community & Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa.” H-NET BOOK REVIEW. (4 April 2005). 31 Oct. 2007 <http://h-net.msu.edu/>. Hunter, Jane. Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America. New York: South End Press, 1987. Klieman, Aaron. The Rise of Israel. London: Garland, 1987. Marks, Shula. “Apartheid and the Jewish Question.” Journal of Southern African Studies 30.4 (2004): 888-907. Sarembock, Kimberly. Personal Interview. 12 Dec. 2007. Schiff, Tyrone. Personal Interview. 12 Dec. 2007. Shimoni, Gideon. Jews and Zionism: The South African Experience. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1998. Shimoni, Gideon. Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa. Cape Town: Brandeis University Press, 2003. Skolnick, Fred. Encyclopedia Judaica, 2nd edition. New York: MacMillan, 2006. Stevens, Richard P. “Zionism, South Africa and Apartheid: The Paradoxical Triangle.” Phylon 32.2 (1971): 123-142.

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