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AAP20102015:Sectors

AfricanUnion

THEAU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN 20102015: AdvancingRegionalandContinental IntegrationinAfrica

Sectors

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015 20091017

AAP20102015:Sectors

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015 20091017

AAP20102015:Sectors

GlossarySectors

2ndDEA ACBF ACMAD ADF AEC AFFM AFREC AFrISPA AGRA AGRHYMET AICD AIDA AIDS AIR ALC AMCE AMCOST AMCOW AMESD AMIS AMISOM AMU APCI APF APF APR APSA ARAPKE ARI ARICEA ARIPO ARV ASF ASTII ATRN ATU AU AUC AUPA AWF AWID BecANet 20062015 AfricaCapacityBuildingFoundation AfricanCentreofMeteorologicalApplicationforDevelopment AfricanDevelopmentForum AfricanEconomicCommunity AfricanFertilizerFinancingFacility AfricanEnergyCommission AfricanInternetServiceproviders AllianceforaGreenRevolutioninAfrica RegionalCentreforAgriculture,HydrologyandMeteorology AfricaInfrastructureCountryDiagnosticstudy AcceleratedIndustrialDevelopmentofAfrica Acquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome AfricanRemittanceInstitute AfricanLaserCentre AfricaMinisterialConferenceofEnvironment AfricanMinisterialCouncilonScienceandTechnology AfricanMinistersCouncilofWater AfricanMonitoringoftheEnvironmentforSustainableDevelopment AfricanUnionMissioninSudan AfricanUnionMissioninSomalia ArabMaghrebUnion AfricanProductiveCapacityInitiative AfricanPeaceFacility AfricanPartnershipForum AfricanPeerReview AfricanPeaceandSecurityArchitecture AfricanRegionalActionPlanontheKnowledgeEconomy AfricanRehabilitationInstitute AssociationofRegulatorsforInformationandCommunicationServicesofEasternandSouthernAfrica AfricanRegionalIntellectualPropertyOrganization Antiretroviral(drugs) AfricanStandbyForce AfricanCommonScience,TechnologyandInnovationIndicators AfricanTelecommunicationsRegulatorsNetwork AfricanTelecommunicationUnion AfricanUnion AfricanUnionCommission AUPlanofActiononDrugControlandCrimePrevention AfricanWaterFacility AssociationforWomen'sRightsinDevelopment BioscienceseasternandcentralAfrica

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AAP20102015:Sectors
BIAWE BPFA CAADP CAB CABI CABRI CAMI CAPP CASSy CBF CDI CDM CDSF CEDAW CEEPA CENSAD CEPGL CEWS CGIAR ClimDevAfrica COMELEC COMESA COMIFAC CPA CRASA DBSA DEA DfID DMC DRC DSL EAC EAPP EARNP EARPTO EASBRIG EASSy ECA ECCAS ECOWAS EDF EIB EITI EMIS ETF FAO FARA FEMA BusinessIncubatorforAfricanWomenEntrepreneurs BeijingPlatformsforAction ComprehensiveAfricaAgricultureDevelopmentProgramme CentralAfricaBroadbandNetwork CentralAfricaBroadbandInfrastructureProgramme CollaborativeAfricaBudgetReformInitiative ConferenceofAfricanMinistersofIndustry CentralAfricanPowerPool CentralAfricaSubmarineSystem CongoBasinFund CapacityDevelopmentInitiative CleanDevelopmentMechanism CapacityDevelopmentStrategicFramework ConventionontheEliminationofallFormsofDiscriminationAgainstWomen CentreforEnvironmentalEconomicsandPolicyinAfrica CommunityofSahelSaharanStates EconomicCommunityoftheGreatLakes ContinentalEarlyWarningSystemforConflictPrevention ConsultativeGrouponInternationalAgriculturalResearch ClimateforDevelopmentinAfrica NorthernAfricaPowerPoolorComitMaghrbindel'Electricit CommonMarketforEasternandSouthernAfrica CentralAfricanForestCommission/CommissiondesFortsd'AfriqueCentrale ConsolidatedPlanofAction CommunicationsRegulatorsofSouthernAfrica DevelopmentBankofSouthernAfrica DecadeofEducationforAfrica DepartmentforInternationalDevelopment(UK) DroughtMonitoringCentre DemocraticRepublicoftheCongo Digitalsubscriberlineorloop EastAfricanCommunity EastAfricanPowerPool EastAfricaRoadNetworkProgramme EastAfricanRegulatoryPostandTelecommunicationsOrganization EastAfricanStandbyBrigade EasternAfricaSubmarineCableSystem EconomicCommissionforAfrica EconomicCommunityofCentralAfricanStates EconomicCommunityofWestAfricanStates EuropeanDevelopmentFund EuropeanInvestmentBank ExtractiveIndustryTransparencyInitiative EducationalManagementInformationSystems EnvironmentalTransformationFund FoodandAgricultureOrganization ForumforAgriculturalResearchinAfrica ForumofEnergyMinistersofAfrica

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AAP20102015:Sectors
FICA FRATEL GCOS GDP GE GEF GEWE GID GlobalFund GMS GPAD GSM GTZ HIV HR IANSA IBIN ICA ICAO ICF ICPAC ICT IDA IFAD IFC IGAD IITA ILO IPPF IRI IWRM JCC JICA L/RBOs LVBC M&E MACEPA MDG MIGA MOU MSC MW NARC NBI NBTF NEPAD NERICA NGOs FlandersInternationalCooperationAgency RseauFrancophonedelaRgulationdesTlcommunications GlobalClimateObservingSystem GrossDomesticProduct GenderEquality GlobalEnvironmentFacility GenderEqualityandWomen'sEmpowerment GenderinDevelopment TheGlobalFundtoFightAIDS,TuberculosisandMalaria GenderManagementSystem GovernanceandPublicAdministrationDivision GlobalSystemforMobilecommunications GermanAgencyforTechnicalCooperation Humanimmunodeficiencyvirus HumanResources InternationalActionNetworkonSmallArms NEPADICTBroadbandInfrastructureNetwork(IBIN) InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica InternationalCivilAviationOrganization InvestmentClimateFacility ClimatePredictionandApplicationCentre InformationandCommunicationsTechnology InternationalDevelopmentAssociation InternationalFundforAgriculturalDevelopment InternationalFinanceCorporation IntergovernmentalAuthorityonDevelopment InternationalInstituteofTropicalAgriculture InternationalLabourOrganization InfrastructureProjectPreparationFacility InternationalResearchInstituteforClimateandSociety IntegratedWaterResourceManagement JointCoordinatingCommission JapanInternationalCooperationAgency Lake/RiverBasinOrganizations LakeVictoriaBasinCommission MonitoringandEvaluation MalariaControlandEvaluationforPartnershipinAfrica MilleniumDevelopmentGoal MultilateralInvestmentGuaranteeAgency MemorandumofUnderstanding MilitaryStaffCommittee Megawatt NorthAfricaRegionalCapability NileBasinInitiative NileBasinTrustFund NewPartnershipforAfricanDevelopment NewRiceforAfrica Nongovernmentalorganizations

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AAP20102015:Sectors
NOUN NPACI NPoA NSAS OAU OECD OMVS OSS PAF PANSPSO PATH PCRD PDCTAC PIDA PMP PMU PPPs PSC R&D REC RM S&T SADC SALW SAPP SAPs SAT SATA SDGEA SDI SDP SEI SMEs SPD SPF SROs SSN SSR STAP STI TB TERI UHURUNET UMA UMOJANET UNAIDS UNAMID UNCBD TheNationalOpenUniversityofNigeria NEPADPanAfricaCassavaInitiative NationalProgrammeofAction NubianSandstoneAquiferSystem OrganizationofAfricanUnity OrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopment OrganisationpourlamiseenvaleurduFleuveSngal ObservatoireduSaharaetSahel PartnershipforAfricanFisheries ParticipationofAfricanNationsinSanitary&PhytosanitaryStandardSettingOrganizations International,nonprofitglobalhealthorganization PostConflictReconstructionandDevelopment PlanDirecteurConsensueldesTransportsenAfriqueCentrale ProgrammeforInfrastructureDevelopmentinAfrica PharmaceuticalManufacturingPlanforAfrica ProgrammeManagementUnit PublicPrivatePartnerships PeaceandSecurityCouncil ResearchandDevelopment RegionalEconomicCommunity RegionalMechanismforConflictPrevention,ManagementandResolution ScienceandTechnology SouthernAfricaDevelopmentCommunity SmallArmsandLightWeapons SouthernAfricanPowerPool StructuralAdjustmentProgrammes SouthernAfricaTrust SouthernAfricaTelecommunicationsAssociation SolemnDeclarationonGenderEqualityinAfrica SpatialDevelopmentInitiative SpatialDevelopmentProgramme StockholmEnvironmentInstitute SmallandmediumsizedEnterprises SpatialDevelopmentProgramme SocialPolicyFramework SubRegionalOrganizations SouthSouthNorth SecuritySectorReform ShortTermActionPlan Science,TechnologyandInnovation Tuberculosis TheEnergyandResourcesInstitute SubmarinecableofNEPADICTBroadbandInfrastructureNetwork UnionoftheArabMaghreb/UnionduMaghrebArabe TerrestrialnetworkofNEPADICTBroadbandInfrastructureNetwork TheUnitedNationsJointProgrammeonHIV/AIDS. AfricanUnionUnitedNationsMissioninDarfur UnitedNationsConventiononBiologicalDiversity

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AAP20102015:Sectors
UNCCD UNDP UNEP UNESCO UNFCCC UNFPA UNHCR UNISA UPDEA USAID WAPP WARDA WATRA WB WESTCOR WHO WMO WPO WRPM WTO UnitedNationsConsortiumtoCombatDesertification UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme UnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme UnitedNationsEducational,ScientificandCulturalOrganization UnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChange UnitedNationsPopulationFund UnitedNationsHighCommissionerforRefugees UniversityofSouthAfrica UnionofProducers,TransportersandDistributorsofElectricPowerinAfrica UnitedStatesAgencyforInternationalDevelopment WesternAfricanPowerPool AfricaRiceCentre WestAfricanTelecommunicationsRegulatorsAssociation WorldBank WesternCorridorelectricityproject WorldHealthOrganization WorldMeteorologicalOrganization WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganization WaterResourcesPlanning&Management WorldTradeOrganization

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AAP20102015:Sectors

TableofContents
GlossarySectors...........................................................................................................................................i INFRASTRUCTURE.........................................................................................................................................1 ENERGY.........................................................................................................................................................5 WATERANDSANITATION...........................................................................................................................11 TRANSPORT.................................................................................................................................................15 INFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONSTECHNOLOGY(ICT)...................................................................25 DEVELOPMENTCORRIDORS.......................................................................................................................31 AGRICULTURE&FOODSECURITY...............................................................................................................35 HEALTH .......................................................................................................................................................41 . EDUCATION,YOUTH&TRAINING...............................................................................................................47 SOCIALAFFAIRS...........................................................................................................................................53 SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY.......................................................................................................................59 TRADE,INDUSTRY,MARKETACCESS&PRIVATESECTORDEVELOPMENT.................................................65 ENVIRONMENTANDCLIMATECHANGE.....................................................................................................69 TOURISM.....................................................................................................................................................75 GOVERNANCEANDPUBLICADMINISTRATION ..........................................................................................77 . PEACEANDSECURITY.................................................................................................................................81 CAPACITYDEVELOPMENT...........................................................................................................................85 GENDERDEVELOPMENT.............................................................................................................................89

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

AAP20102015:Sectors

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

InfrastructureOverview

INFRASTRUCTURE
CriticalinvestmentsforAfricanDevelopmentandRegionalIntegration
Infrastructure plays a critical role in economic development and poverty reduction. Well developed and maintained Infrastructure services power, transport, ICT, water and sanitation reduce the barriers and transaction costs to economic growth, and contribute significantly to enhancing the lives of the poor through increasedaccesstopublicandsocialservices.Inadequateinfrastructureimposesmajorcostsonbusinessinterms oflostoutputandadditionalcostsincurred.Someestimatessuggestthatwithanimprovedinfrastructurestock, economicgrowthratescouldbeatleast1%higherthantheyaretoday. 1 Developingandcompletinginfrastructure networksisrecognizedasacriticalcomponentofadvancingregionalandcontinentalintegrationinAfrica. Africasuffersfromaseverelackofinfrastructure.Itiswidelyacknowledgedthattheinfrastructuredeficitisone ofthekeyfactorspreventingAfricafromrealizingitsfullpotentialforeconomicgrowth,competitivenessinglobal markets and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) including poverty reduction. Modern infrastructureservicesarelargelyinaccessibletothepoorest60%ofthepopulationinAfricancountries,including thevastmajorityoftheruralpopulation,furtherisolatingimpoverishedcommunitiesandpreventingtheiraccess tohealthcare,educationandjobs. Only 26% of households in Africa have access to electricity, 58% to water, and 31% to basic sanitation 2 . Road lengthspercapitahavebeendecliningsteadilyduetoincreasedpopulationgrowthinrecentyearsandalackof associated necessary investment in transport infrastructure. Although mobile telecommunications have experiencedenormousgrowthinthepasttenyears,accesstobroadbandservicesremainsverylimited.Current levelsofwaterwithdrawalarelow,withonly3.8%ofpotentialwaterresourcesdevelopedforwatersupplyand hydropoweruse,andabout18%ofirrigationpotentialbeingexploited 3 . ThelackofinfrastructureisparticularlystarkwhenAfricaiscomparedwithotherareasofthedevelopingworld. Forexample,whileaccesstoelectricityinAfricaisabout30%,inothermajorgeographicalzonesintheemerging worldthisaccessrangesfrom70%to90%.Forthesamezones,accesstowaterandsanitationservicesare80% and90%,respectively,comparedtothe58%and31%inAfrica.

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinINFRASTRUCTURE
TheAfricanUnionCommission(AUC)isresponsibleforcoordinating,harmonizingandprovidingleadershipinthe continents economic and social development and physical and political integration. The AU vision for infrastructureisforefficient,reliable,costeffective,environmentfriendlyinfrastructureandservicesforphysical integrationandrealizationoftheMDGs.Thisvisionisbasedontheelaborationofsectoralpolicies,strategiesand mediumtolongtermprogramsandmasterplansdevelopedtoaddresstheidentifiedneedsforprogress.These needs include strong political commitment, strong human and institutional capacity of countries and regional economiccommunities(RECs)toplanandimplementregionalandcontinentalintegratingprojects,andeffective resourcemobilization.WithintheAU/NEPADframework,severalinitiativeshavebeenestablishedtoaddressthese needsandpromotegreaterregionalandcontinentalintegration. The Short Term Action Plan (STAP) was adopted by the NEPAD Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC) in 2002. The STAP proposed a series of hard and soft programmes and projects to develop infrastructure at the regional level. The progress of STAP was reviewed in considerable detail in 2004, and more recently for the AU Summit in Addis in January 2009. At the level of both programmesandprojects,theSTAPhasbeenimplementedtoaconsiderableextent.AccordingtotheAfDB,

1 2

AfricaInfrastructureCountryDiagnosticStudy(PreliminaryFindings),WorldBank TheMutualReviewofDevelopmentEffectivenessinAfrica2009,OECDandUNECA(figuresexcludeNorthAfrica) 3 ProgrammeforInfrastructureDevelopmentinAfrica(PIDA)ConceptNote,2009,preparedbyAU,African DevelopmentBankandNEPAD.

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InfrastructureOverview
most of the projects that entered the project pipeline in 2002 are now at an advanced stage of implementationandsomehavebeencompleted.Between2002and2008,financingofregionalinfrastructure projectsbytheBankandotherdevelopmentpartnersstoodatapproximately$5.6billion,representingabout 69%oftheoriginaltotalestimatedcost. TheInfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA)wasestablishedin2005asamajornewplatformtoaccelerate progressofinfrastructuredevelopmentinAfrica,withanemphasisonovercomingregionalconstraints.Based out of the AfDB, membership is a tripartite relationship between African Institutions, bilateral donors and multilateral agencies. The Consortium is intended to make its members more effective at supporting infrastructureinAfricabypoolingeffortsinselectedareassuchasinformationsharing,projectdevelopment andgoodpractice.TheICApublishesanannualreportthatpresentsaconcisebutcomprehensiveoverviewof Africa'sinfrastructureinvestmentneeds,resourcesandactivity.ItfocusesontheMDGsandemergingsocial and economic trends, and thus provides a useful framework for analysis of future needs. It analyses and prioritizesinstitutionalreformandcapacitybuilding,aswellasphysicalinfrastructureinvestmentneeds. The Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic study (AICD), spearheaded by the World Bank, is multiyear, multicountry project to assess the needs and costs of infrastructure in Africa, particularly the subSaharan Africaregion.Theprogramwillcombinestudiesonmajortopicsofstrategicimportancetotheinfrastructure sector,withamajordatacollectionexercisetosetthebaselineagainstwhichtherenewedeffortstoaddress theinfrastructurechallengecaneventuallybeassessed. TheNEPADInfrastructureProjectPreparationFacility(IPPF)isanuntiedfundsetuptoassistproponentsto preparehighqualityinfrastructureproposals,andrelated project development activities. Managed by the AfDB, the 2007/08 IPPF pipeline had some thirty projects AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF valued at US$50 million, of which the energy and PIDAPROGRAMMEONINFRASTRUCTURE transport sectors account for 80%. Funding for project preparationcontinuestoberelativelyscarce,asthefund Objective 1 Establish a STRATEGIC nowhasabout$18milliontofinancenewcommitments. FRAMEWORK for the development of regional and continental infrastructure (Energy, In 2009, a new study has been planned and launched Transport, Information and Communication jointly by the AU, NEPAD and ADB, to complement and Technology (ICT) and Transboundary Water extend efforts undertaken to date. The Programme for Resources) based on a development vision, InfrastructureDevelopmentinAfrica(PIDA)willdevelop strategicobjectivesandsectorpolicies; regionalandcontinentalinfrastructurepolicies,establish prioritized development programmes and propose Objective 2 Establish an INFRASTRUCTURE implementationstrategies.Thestudyprocessisexpected INVESTMENTPROGRAMME(short,mediumand totakeeighteenmonthsandwillthereforebecompleted long term) around priorities established and towardstheendof2010.Wheninplace,itwillprovidea timehorizonsestablishedbytheRECs;and structured framework and thoroughly planned roadmap that will facilitate investment flows to the infrastructure Objective 3 Prepare an IMPLEMENTATION sector.TheobjectivesofthePIDAprogrammearesetout STRATEGYandprocessesincluding,inparticular, intheaccompanyingbox. apriorityactionplan.

While the PIDA process reviews and articulates a comprehensive set of infrastructure priorities for the continent, the projects in the following table are considered tobepriorityprogrammesandprojectsintheinfrastructuresectorfordevelopmentbetween2010and2015. AAP programmes in Infrastructure are divided into four subsectors: Energy; Water and Sanitation; Transport; and Information and Communications Technology (ICT). In addition, Development Corridors are included in Infrastructure as a potential future subsector. The priority programmes are summarised in the Table below. Additionalinformation,includingEmergingPriorities,isprovidedintheindividualSectordescriptionsthatfollow.

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InfrastructureOverview

AAPPriorityProgrammesinINFRASTRUCTURE,20102015
SubSector Energy Project/Programme KaribaNorthandItezhiTezhi HydropowerExpansionProjects KenyaEthiopiaInterconnection SambangalouKaletaHydropowerandOMVGInterconnection NigeriaAlgeriaGasNetworkConnection KenyaUgandaOilPipelineProject ZambiaTanzaniaKenyaInterconnectionProject WESTCOR(WesternCorridor) IngaIIIPowerStationandtransmissionInterconnections SenegalRiverBasinWaterandEnvironmentalManagementProject WaterResourcesPlanningandManagementintheNileRiverBasin NigerRiverBasinSharedVisionInvestmentProgramme UpgradingofDobiGalafiYakobiRoadSectionoftheDjibouti AddisAbaba(North)Highway MombasaNairobiAddisAbabaCorridorDevelopmentProject MissingLinksofDjiboutiLibrevilleTransportCorridor IsakaKigaliBujumburaRailway MaghrebHighwayProject MissingLinksoftheDakar Ndjamena DjiboutiHighwayCorridor GambiaRiverBridge AfricaRail BeiraPortDevelopment KazungalaBridgeProject RegionalInfrastructureDevelopmentinSupportofTradeFacilitationProgramme BridgeoverRovumaRiver BrazzavilleKinshasaRail/RoadBridge andRailwayExtensionKinshasaIlebo RegionalTransportNetworkImprovements ImprovementofMaritimePortsforAfricanIslandCountries ImplementationoftheYamoussoukroDecision NEPADICTBroadbandInfrastructure(UMOJATerrestrialNetwork),includingthefollowing regionalnetworkprojects:
i.EastAfricanCommunityBroadbandNetwork ii.CentralAfricaBroadbandInfrastructureProgramme(CABI) iii.WestAfricaWideAreaNetwork iv.SouthernAfricaRegionalBackhaulNetwork v.NorthernWesternAfricaBackboneProject

Waterand Sanitation Transport

ICT

NEPADICTBroadbandInfrastructureNetwork(UHURUNETSubmarineCable) MaritimeCommunicationforSafetyonLakeVictoria Development SpatialDevelopmentProgramme(SDP) Corridors

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InfrastructureOverview

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Energy

ENERGY
TowardsaSustainableEnergyFutureforAfrica
AReservoirofEnergyResourcesAfricaholdsanimmensereservoirofpotentialenergyresources.Itisestimated thatAfricahasmorethan7%oftheworldsoilreserveandAfricasshareinworldoilproductionisincreasing.In 2005itcontributed12.2%ofworldoilproduction.Africaholdsabout8%oftheworldsnaturalgasresourcesand accountsforabout6.2%ofnaturalgasproduced. 4 An Untapped Potential of Renewable Energy Africas potential for renewable energy is also immense. There is enormousexploitablehydropowercapacityinAfricancountries,estimatedtobe13%ofworldtotal.Butlessthan 7%ofAfricaspotentialhasbeenharnessedtodate.SolarenergyisalsowidespreadinAfrica.Alargenumberof Africancountrieshavedailysolarradiationrangingbetween56kWh/m.AboutfifteenAfricancoastalcountries have excellent wind energy potential. Using the prevailing technology, the region has the potential to generate 9,000 MW of electrical energy from geothermal sources. Moreover the potential of improvement of the energy efficiencyisappreciable. A Growing and Underserved Demand In spite of these assets, Africas energy consumption is the lowest in the world. Its consumption of energy per capita represents only one third of the world average. Theaveragerateofelectrificationisaround26%,whereasthisrateis60%onaworldwidescale. AChallengeandanOpportunityTheconstraintstothedevelopmentofAfricaspotentialaremany,includinga lack of infrastructure to facilitate energy exchange between countries; political instability and inadequate institutional and legal frameworks, which are unfavourable to investment; a shortage of specialized human resources, poor maintenance of existing energy facilities, vulnerability to the volatile world oil market, limited regional cooperation in energy development, obstacles to efficient energy pricing, inadequate demandside management,andinadequateinformationanddataontheAfricanenergysituation.

RegionalIntegrationinENERGY
To realize Africas great potential in energy, AU/NEPAD are working in partnership with national, regional, continentalandglobalorganizationstopromoteacomprehensiveprogramofregionalintegrationintheenergy sector. These initiatives include the development and operationalization of regional power pools and the developmentofopportunitiestoexportAfricasexcessenergyproductioncapacitytotherestoftheworld.The benefit of a regional integration approach to energy in Africa is expected to be a winwin situation for all stakeholdersinvolved.

AfricanDevelopmentBank,2009

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Energy

Partners
Objective 1 PROMOTE INTRAAFRICAN TRADE IN ENERGY at the regional and ContinentalPartners continental levels, with special attention to using regional power pools to leverage AfricanEnergyCommission(AFREC) economic and social development of the regionsandtheAfricancontinent,andtheir ForumofEnergyMinistersofAfrica(FEMA) economicintegration. The Union of the Producers, Transporters and DistributorsofElectricPowerinAfrica(UPDEA) Objective 2 PROMOTE USE OF CLEAN UNEnergy ENERGY by developing access to the different forms of modern energy, in RegionalPartners particular, by promoting the use of clean, modernenergyinlieuofbiomasstoimprove CentralAfricanPowerPool(CAPP) living conditions in households and protect WestAfricanPowerPool(WAPP) theenvironment. SouthernAfricanPowerPool(SAPP) EasternAfricanPowerPool(EAPP) Objective 3 PROMOTE REGIONAL The Northern Africa Power Pool or Comit COOPERATION IN ENERGY by seeking to MaghrbindelElectricit(COMELEC) ensure security of regional and continental energy through trade and regional integration,poolingofenergyresourcesand AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinENERGY developingthemjointly; The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in the Objective 4 PROMOTE GLOBAL EXPORTS energy sector will be the Program on Infrastructure IN ENERGY by developing energy resources Development in Africa (PIDA), a multisectoral set of (water, oil and gas, in particular) and their exports for intra African trade and to the infrastructure development plans now under rest of the world(electricity and gas development by leading African institutions. PIDA is interconnections with Europe and the intendedtoprovideacomprehensiveandscientificreview Middle East, exports of methane gas, of Africas energy needs and energy assets and will exportsoilandcoal); becomethemasterplanforregionalintegrationinenergy infrastructure for Africa. The objectives of the PIDA Objective5PROMOTEEFFICIENCYIN ENERGYINFRASTRUCTUREbyincreasing program in the Energy sector are outlined in the theeffectivenessandcompetitivenessof accompanyingbox. nationaleconomies,bymakinguseof comparativeadvantagesthroughtrade,and The AU Summit in February 2009 endorsed PIDA and inparticular,bypromotingefficientuseof identified the following priority projects for development physicalenergyinfrastructureandrelated and implementation in the Energy sector, between 2010 services. and2015. AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specialized continental and regional organizations to promoteregionalintegrationinEnergyinAfrica,including:

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN THEENERGYSECTOR

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Energy

AAPPriorityProgrammesinEnergy,20102015
Title Region EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 334million (combinedcost) DevelopmentStage Description Contact

KaribaNorthandItezhi TezhiHydropower Expansion

Southern Eastern

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

KenyaEthiopia Interconnection

Eastern

845millioneuro *US$500,000 IPPF(completed)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

SambangalouKaleta HydropowerandOMVG Interconnection

Western

857millioneuro

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

The project in Zambia will expand the existing KaribaNorth power station by installing 360 MW units, and develop 120 MW of power at ItezhiTezhi,tohelpmeetincreasingdemandin the Southern Africa Power Pool. It will also strengthen the planned interconnection between the Southern and Eastern Regions. Feasibility studies are completed but financing hasnotyetbeensecured. The project involves interconnecting power systems in Ethiopia and Kenya with a 400 kV transmission network over a distance of 1,200 km. It will supply power to the Eastern Region (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi), and eventually will support the integration of the EasternNorthernSouthernRegions. The project involves development of hydropower at Sambangalou (Senegal) with generation capacity of 128 MW, and at Kaleta (Guinea)withgenerationcapacityof240MW.It also involves construction of 225 kV interconnection networks over a distance of 1,677 km in the OMVG countries. The project will initially improve the reliable supply in the OMVG countries (Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, GuineaConakry), and subsequently will help the interconnection of other countries in the Western Region. Feasibility studies are completebutfundinghasnotyetbeensecured.

ZambianElectricity SupplyCompany Ltd

KenyaPowerand LightingCompany Ltd, EthiopianElectric PowerCorporation

WestAfricaPower Pool

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

Energy
Title Region EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 20billion DevelopmentStage Description Contact

NigeriaAlgeriaGas NetworkConnection

Western Northern

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

Theprojectinvolvesconstructionofa4,300km gas pipeline from Nigeria to Algeria to interconnect the gas networks of the two countries,andtoexport20billioncubicmetres of gas to Europe, starting in 2016. Export of Nigerian natural gas, which would otherwise have been flared, will enhance NorthSouth partnerships. The project will serve as a backbone network to eventually supply gas to Africancountries. The project will connect Kenya and Uganda, overadistanceof320km,andwillleadtomore stableenergysupplyandlowercostsinUganda. IthasbeenstructuredasaPPPconcessionwith Tamoil of Libya. Final conditions remain to be resolvedbeforeconstructionbegins. TheprojectwillinterconnectZambiawithKenya via Tanzania, via a 330 kV (double circuit) line, over a distance of 1,600 km, and will enhance energy security. Tripartite Cooperation, power purchaseandprojectdevelopmentagreements arerequiredforimplementation. The project consists of development of 4,320 MWoftheenormoushydropowerresourcesof the Congo River, and interconnection to DRC, Angola, Namibia, South Africa and Botswana power systems. The project will add power to increase the reliability of Central and Southern powersystems.

NigeriaNational Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Sonatrach(Algeria)

KenyaUgandaOil PipelineProject

Eastern

US$ 97million

Stage4: Implementationand Operations

GovtsofUganda andKenya

ZambiaTanzaniaKenya InterconnectionProject

Southand East

US$ 860million

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

GovtsofZambia, Tanzaniaand Kenya

WESTCOR(Western Corridor)IngaIIIPower Stationand transmission Interconnections

Centraland South

US$ 10million (feasibilitystudy)

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

SouthernAfrica PowerPool(SAPP)

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

Energy
OtherRegionalintegrationprojectscurrentlyunderdevelopmentinEnergyincludethefollowing:

EmergingPrioritiesinEnergy
Energysubsector ElectricalInterconnections Project/Programme
EthiopiaSudanEgyptInterconnection,tolinkEasternAfricatotheNorthAfricangrid.EthiopiaDjiboutiandEthiopiaSudan230kV connectionsareunderwayorplanned,asareSudanEritreaandSudanUgandaprojects.AdditionalhigherkVInterconnectionprojects basedonhydrodevelopmentinEthiopia(eg,EthiopiaSudan500kV)havebeenidentifiedintheHornofAfricacountries. KenyaUganda,UgandaRwanda,BurundiRwanda,BurundiDRCRwandaandNairobiArushainterconnectionsarealsoplannedinthe EastAfricaPowerPoolregion. EngineeringandplanningstudiestointerconnectcountriesintheECCASregion(PEACpowerpool)areunderway,asisanIPPFstudyof crossborderelectrificationintheregion.

PowerGeneration

GilgelGibeIIIPowerPlantisacatalyticprojectlocatedinEthiopia,thesourceofpowertobetradedviatheKenyaEthiopia InterconnectionProject(aPriorityproject). KafueGorgeLowerHydropowerProjectinZambia.Thiscatalyticprojectwilladdstoragetoanexistinggeneratingscheme,enabling reductionofZambianpowerdeficitsandpowerexportstoESKOMandSAPP.ItisnowbeingstructuredasanIPPorPPP,atanexpected costofUS$11.25billion. RefurbishmentofInga1and2intheshortterm,developmentofaneffectiveregionalenergynetworkandultimatelyexploitationof GrandIngatoexportpoweracrossthecontinent,arestrategicobjectivesandplansoftheCentralAfricanPowerPool,aspecializedbody ofECCAS.

Various

EnergyProjectsinWestAfricaPowerPool,WestAfricaGasPipelineextensiontoCotedIvoire,RegionalEnergyAccessProgrammeand RenewableEnergyEfficiencyProgrammehavebeenidentifiedasECOWASenergypriorities.TheSouthernAfricaPowerPool(SAPP) hasnumerousrehabilitation,generationandtransmissionprojectsunderwayandplanned,withearlycostestimates. UMAhasidentifiedtheMaghrebRenewableEnergyProgrammeamongitspriorities,andsixrenewableenergyprojectsareprioritiesin theHornofAfricacountries,includinggeothermal,wind,solarandbiogasprojects.TheseprojectswouldharnessAfricaslarge untappedrenewableenergypotential,especiallyinareaswhereotheralternativesarecostly.

RenewableEnergy

AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

Energy

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Water&Sanitation

WATERANDSANITATION
AdvancingRegionalCooperationinWaterResourceManagement
Wateriscentraltolifesustenance,povertyalleviationandsustainablegrowthanddevelopmentinAfrica. 5 Water is the almost universal input into all areas of human activity, from individual needs to massive energy projects. Its availability is affected by climate change, and through droughts and floods causes major environmentalimpactsandmigrationsofpeople.Agrowing population is increasing the demand on already limited watersupplies.Itisestimatedthatover300millionpeople inAfricafacewaterscarcityconditions. Water presents a complex, long term set of issues that challenge leadership and require vision, action and resources. Africans are dependent on transboundary water sources Africa has 59 international transboundary river basins, 15 principal lakes, 38 transboundary aquifer systems, and 24 main watersheds that cross the manmade political TransboundaryWaterBasinsinAfrica boundaries of two or more countries in Africa. These Source:AfricaAtlas,UNEP resources cover about 64% of the continents land area 6 and contain 93% of its total surface water resources. These water basins are also home to 77 % of the African population.

WATERandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
The combination of environmental forces and the political issues of managing a resource owned by multiple nationsprovideconsiderablechallengestoprovidingadequatequantitiesandqualityofwateronthecontinent. Transboundarywaterresourcemanagementiscriticaltosucceedinginthesechallenges,andrequirespartnerships that encourage sustained cooperation on a continental and regional scale. (Sanitation projects are almost all nationalinscope.) TheAfricaWaterVision2025,writtenin2000,providesthelongtermframeworkforwaterdevelopmentinAfrica. UndertheleadershipofAMCOW(AfricanMinistersCouncilonWater),ministerialdeclarationshaveaddressed keywaterissues,leadingtotheAUSummitdeclarationatSharmElSheikh(2008).Majormultilateralandbilateral commitmentshavebeenmadetosupportintegratedwatermanagementinthesevenbasins.TheAfricanWater Fund(AWF)hasbeensetupandhousedintheAfricanDevelopmentBank,andinfrastructureinvestmentshave

5 6

NEPADShortTermActionPlanforTransboundaryWaterResources,2005 AfricaAtlasforourChangingEnvironment,UNEP

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increased to $2.9 billion in 2007 (ICA). Huge requirements remain, however, to meet the targets of Africa Water Vision2025. NEPAD has chosen seven transboundary water basins, holding80%ofthecontinentswaterresources,asthefocus ofitsShortTermActionPlan(STAP).Theultimateobjective istocreatefullyfunctioning,integratedbasinmanagement systems.Progressamongthebasinsvariesacrosstherange ofmeasuresneededtoachievethisgoal. AU/NEPADSTRATEGICOBJECTIVESINTHE WATERANDSANITATIONSECTOR Objective 1 ENSURE WATER SECURITY to meet future increases in demand for water and enable the socioeconomic development of the regions of the African continent Objective 2 ENABLE EQUITABLE ALLOCATION of water resources among competing water uses for sustainable development Objective 3 PROMOTE EQUITABLE SHARING of benefits arising from the sharedbasinresources Objective 4 MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS by adapting to and mitigating climate change impacts and variability in weatherpatterns Objective 5 ENHANCE REGIONAL COOPERATIONbydeployingtheprinciples of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) particularly for shared water resources through the Lake/River Basin Organizations (L/RBOs) andregionalwaterprotocols Objective 6 ENSURE GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT by ensuring African Ministers Council of Water (AMCOW) fully supports theoutputs Objective7PROMOTEENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION by ensuring environmental protectionandmanagement Objective 8 ACHIEVE AFRICA WATER VISION by achieving the Africa Water Vision2025inthelongterm

Regional Integration Partners in Water andSanitation


AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specialized continental and regional organizations to promote regional integration in the water and sanitation sectorinAfrica,including: ContinentalPartners AfricanMinistersCouncilofWater(AMCOW) UNWater AfricanNetworkofBasinOrganizations African Civil Society Network on Water and Sanitation RegionalPartners TheLakeVictoriaBasinCommission(LVBC) TheNileBasinInitiative(NBI) The Economic Community of the Great Lakes (CEPGL) Organisation pour la mise en valeur du Fleuve Senegal(OMVS)

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinWaterand Sanitation

The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in the Water and Sanitation sector will be the Program on Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) which will provide a comprehensive, scientific and verifiable study on Africas transboundary water needs and will become the master plan for management of transboundary water for Africa.TheobjectivesofthePIDAprogramintheWaterandSanitationsectoraresetoutintheaccompanyingbox. WhilethePIDAprocessreviewsandarticulatesacomprehensivesetofinfrastructureprioritiesforthecontinent, theprojectsinthefollowingtableareconsideredtobepriorityprogrammesfordevelopmentandinvestmentin theWaterandSanitationsector,between2009and2012.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinWATER&SANITATION,20102015
Title SenegalRiverBasin Waterand Environmental ManagementProject Region West EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 21.20million *US$20million (AfDB,France,GEF, IDA,Netherlands, UNDP) DevelopmentStage Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Stage4: Implementationand Operations (sharedvisionprocess, infrastructure development, operation, maintenanceand management) Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment (sharedvisionprocess, institutionalandlegal framework development, informationcollection anddissemination) Description Thisprojectwillprovideaframeworkforthe environmentally sustainable development of the Senegal River Basin and launch a basin widecooperativeprogramfortransboundary landwater management. The outcomes include tools for strengthened decision making capacity in transboundary land and water management issues; improved data collection, exchange mechanisms and cooperation protocols; and training and workshops to strengthen national and local institutionalcapacity. Contact Organisationpour laMiseenValeur duFleuveSngal (OMVS)

WaterResources Planningand ManagementintheNile RiverBasin

Eastand North

US$ 32.86million *NileBasinTrust Fund(WorldBank) *Global Environment Facility *Nile Transboundary Environmental ActionProgram *Bilateraldonors

This programme will build a common NileBasinInitiative technical foundation to facilitate integrated Secretariat water resources planning and management. The outcomes of the programme are expected to be improved national water policies and implementation strategies, project planning and management skills, and communication and decisionmaking tools. A proposed study of Multipurpose Water Resources Development in the BaroAkobo River Basin in the Eastern Nile Region, is an exampleofsuchaplanningprojectunderthe NileBasinInitiative(NBI).

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Title Region EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 66million (Capacity, stakeholder development) US$1.1billion (Infrastructure) US$150million (Conservation) DevelopmentStatus Stage2:Feasibility/Needs Assessment Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion (sharedvisionprocess, institutionalandlegal frameworkdevelopment, development planning/project preparation) Description Contact

NigerRiverBasinShared West VisionInvestment Programme

Thisisaprogrammeofinvestmenttorealize NigerBasin the shared vision for the sustainable Authority development of the Niger River Basin, through capacity building and stakeholder investment, conservation of the ecosystem and protection of specific resources, and development of infrastructure for socio economic purposes, including three transboundarydams.

OtherRegionalintegrationprogrammescurrentlyunderdevelopmentinWaterandSanitationincludethefollowing:

EmergingPrioritiesinWater&Sanitation
WaterandSanitationProgrammes/Projects LakeChadWaterBasin,CongoRiverWaterBasin,OkavangaRiverWaterBasinandZambeziRiverWaterBasin.NEPADhaschosen7 transboundarywater basins,holding80%ofthecontinentswaterresources,asthefocusofitsShortTermActionPlan(STAP).Majormultilateralandbilateralcommitmentshave beenmadetosupportintegratedwatermanagementinthe7basins.Investmentprojectshavebeeninitiatedinthe3basinslistedasAAPpriorities.The4 basinsconsideredemergingprioritiesareprimarilythefocusofcapacitybuildingefforts.Forexample,facingaseverelydecliningresource,PRODEBALT,the LakeChadBasinSustainableDevelopmentProgramme,isdesignedtoinitiatesharedmanagementofwaterresources,establishsustainabledatacollection networks,carryoutsectoractionstocontrolwaterdemandandfightagainstdesertificationandbiodiversityloss,ensurepreventionandcontrolof contaminants,improvewaterecosystemsexploitationmethods,andlaunchtechnicalstudiesoninterbasinwatertransfer.FinancingrequirementsofUS$90 millionover5yearswillbesupportedbyagroupofmajordevelopmentpartnersledbytheAfDB. RegionalwatermanagementintheHornofAfrica.ExpertsintheECHornofAfricaInitiativehaveidentified6 keyprojects tostrengthenwatermanagement andincreasewatersupplyinthisaridandsemiaridregion.Theseincludewaterharvesting,regionaldialogueforums,groundwaterassessment,capacity buildingforwaterplanninginstitutions,aregionalwatertrustfund,andruralwatersupplyinKaramojapastoralareas. SharedAquifermanagement.TheNubianSandstoneAquiferSystem(NSAS)istheworldslargestundergroundfossilwaterreservoir.Itissharedby4states: Chad,Egypt,Libya,andSudan,andoccupiesover2millionsquarekilometres.Withanestimatedtotalvolumeofover542,000cubickilometres,ithasthe potential,iftappedonalargescale,toturnanostensiblywaterscarceregionintoanoasis.RationalandequitablemanagementoftheNSASforsustainable socioeconomicdevelopmentandtheprotectionofbiodiversityandlandresourcesistheobjectiveofmanagementofthiskeyresource.

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TRANSPORT
EnhancingMobilityforAfricans
ForAfricancountriestobenefitfromtheincreasinglyglobaleconomy,anadequatetransportnetworkmustbein place to provide essential and efficient physical access. The lack or poor state of transport networks in Africa is among the most serious impediments to the economic and social development of African countries, preventing manycountriesfrombecomingcompetitiveintheglobalmarketsandslowing/preventingtheprocessofregional integration. TransportInfrastructureImpedingAfricasPotentialCompetitivenessTogetherwithenergysupply,transportation infrastructureisamongthemainbottleneckstoproductivitygrowthandcompetitivenessinAfrica 7 .Theimpactof thepoortransportinfrastructureandassociatedlogisticsisparticularlysevereforlandlockedcountries.Whilethe estimatedcostsoftransportvary,itisreportedthatlandlockeddevelopingcountriespayalmostfourtimesmore for transport services than developed countries, and the transport costs in Africa are among the highest in the worldthetransportcostsforlandlockedAfricancountriescanbeashighas77percentofthevalueofexports 8,9 . RoadsTheMostImportantModeofTransportinAfricaNearly90percentofAfricaspassengersandfreightis onroad,andforruralcommunities,roadistheonlyformofaccessthatconnectspeoplewithcentresofeconomic activities and with basic social infrastructure. It is reported that most African countries have a good rural road network,butimprovementandmaintenanceareproblems.Inurbanareas,whereoneintwoAfricansisexpected toliveby2030 10 ,meetingthedemandforurbantransportincludingthepublictransportserviceshasbeen, andwillbe,achallenge.MissingregionallinksisalsoacriticalissueforintraAfricanandinternationaltradeand regionalintegration,withtotalfundingrequirementsestimatedatUSD4.3billion 11 . Ports&MarineTransportLinkingAfricawiththeGlobalMarketsSeaportsarethegatewayforAfricastrade withtherestoftheworldintheglobalmarketplace.Theinternationalshippingbusinessisincreasing,butAfricas ports, with some exceptions, are largely inefficient. The inefficiencies contribute to the delays and high transportation costs of goods. Some countries have effectively improved their ports efficiency through restructuring of the sector such as Nigeria, where the internationally favoured landlord port model has been adoptedandothersareundertakingsomemasterplanning,butnotallofthemaddressthecriticalinstitutional reforms.Itisessentialthatportsthemselvesarecapableofandefficientinprovidingservicesrequiredbyshippers and that they are well connected with the rest of the transport network (as ports can only add value as nodes within a transport network) to increase Africas competitiveness in the international trading place. Inland waterway transport, for which Africa has natural waterways and lakes to utilize, can significantly contribute to providingasolutionforAfricastransportnetworkatrelativelylowcost,howeverrelativelylittleefforthasbeen putintothattransportsubsectortodate. RailwayImportantPartoftheTransportLogisticsChainofAfricanContinentTherailsectorinAfricahasseen its traffic declining over the years due to poor management, inability to provide reliable services to users, and

TheAfricaCompetitivenessReport2007,AfricanDevelopmentBank,WorldBank,WorldEconomicForum. StatementonTransportforAfrica,madebyUnitedNationsSpecialAdviseronAfricaandHighRepresentativefortheLeastDeveloped Countries,LandlockedDevelopingCountriesandSmallIslandDevelopingStates,CheickSidiDiarra,attheWorldBank'sAnnualSustainable DevelopmentNetworkWeekinWashingtonon21February2008. 9 InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA):AnnualReport2007,InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA). 10 StateofWorldPopulation2007:UnleashingthePotentialofUrbanGrowth,UnitedNationsPopulationFund(UNFPA). 11 InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA):AnnualReport2007,InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA).


8 7

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severecompetitionfromthetruckingsector.TherailwaycoverageofAfricaisamongthelowestintheworldat aboutmeandensityof2.9kilometresper1,000squarekilometres 12,13 .However,aspartoftheoveralllogistics chainofAfrica,therailwaysectorandassociatedserviceshavethepotentialtoplayanimportantroleinthefuture developmentofthecontinent.Thisappliesparticularlytolongdistancefreightandbulktransport,giventhesizeof the continent and the advantages that railway provides over road transport in terms of cost and fuel needs, if efficiently managed and providing reliable services. Railway can also have potential roles for urban mass passengertransportinmajorcitiesandformediumdistanceintercitypassengertransport. AfricasAirTransportSeriousSafetyConcernsandInadequateConnectionsThesituationsandneedsoftheair transport sector in African countries vary to a large extent, but one common concern across the board is their safetyrecords.WhiletheshareofAfricasairtrafficintheworldisonly4.5percent,itsshareofaccidentis25 percent (2005) 14,15 . Many African airlines are banned from European airports for safety reasons. Another importantissuetonoteistheprotectionismofcountriesthatpreventsAfricancountriesmajorcitiesfrombeing adequately connected with each other. The African Unions Yamaoussoukro Declaration, which pursues liberalization of intraAfrican air transport, is far from adequately implemented. This contributes to impeding regional integration and economic and social exchangesbycreating the situation where major Africancities are notdirectlyconnectedbyairtransport.

TRANSPORTandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
Given Africas geography and the nature of transport infrastructure (i.e. it is there to connect), the transport sector development for Africa must be approached from a regional perspective. As stated by the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA): Africas geography and its fragmented markets make regional integration a developmentimperative;andakeyprerequisitefortradeandincreasedcompetitiveness. 16 Landlockedcountriesareparticularlydisadvantagedwhentheyarenotconnectedbyeffectivetransportlinks.The 2003 Almaty Programme of Action outlined specific measures to help landlocked countries and their transit countryneighboursbolsterdevelopmentandcooperation.AtaHighLevelMidtermReviewinOctober2008,the UN General Assembly urged development partners and international organizations to support efforts by the countriesinaspiritofsharedresponsibility. BettertransportnetworksandregionalintegrationofAfricawouldbemutuallyenhancingforces.Betterphysical linksamongAfricancountrieswillfacilitatetradeandsocialandculturalexchangesamongthem,movingfurther towards regional integration. At the same time, ongoing regional integration efforts that involve efforts for institutional,regulatoryandlegalframeworkharmonizationwillsignificantlycontributetoenablingthecountries totakefulladvantageofthephysicaltransportlinksbyremovingnonphysicalbarrierstotradeandtransport.

12 13

Ibid. AfricanDevelopmentBank. 14 InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA):AnnualReport2007,InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA). 15 AfricanDevelopmentBank. 16 InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA):AnnualReport2007,InfrastructureConsortiumforAfrica(ICA).

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Partners
AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of partners to promote regional integration in transport, particularlytheRECs. RegionalPartners CommunityofSahelSaharanStates(CENSAD) Common Market for eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) EastAfricanCommunity(EAC) Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) SouthernAfricanDevelopmentCommunity(SADC) UnionoftheArabMaghreb(UMA)

AU/NEPADSTRATEGICOBJECTIVESIN THETRANSPORTSECTOR
Objective1STRENGTHENTHEECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN REGIONS AND CONTINENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC INTEGRATION through trade and movement of people within the continent. Objective 2 ENHANCE AFRICA'S COMPETITIVENESSatthegloballevel. Objective3PURSUEEFFORTSTOOPENUP REGIONS AND THE CONTINENT and implementationoftheAlmatyActionPlan. Objective 4 ENHANCE THE EFFICIENCY OF PHYSICAL TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURES andassociatedservices. Objective5PROTECTTHEENVIRONMENT. Objective 6 PROVIDE EFFICIENT MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT LOGISTICS SERVICE with interoperability of transport networksandmodalinterchanges. Objective 7 HARMONIZE TECHNICAL AND SAFETYSTANDARDS. Objective 8 LIBERALIZE TRANSPORT MARKET AND PROVIDE SEAMLESS TRANSPORTalongkeytransportcorridors. Objective 9 PROVIDE MISSING LINKS for regionalintegration.

AU/NEPADStrategicFocusinTRANSPORT
The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in the transport sector will be the Programme on Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), a multisectoral set of infrastructuredevelopmentplansnowbeingassembledby leading African institutions. PIDA is intended to provide a comprehensive and scientific review of Africas transport needs and transport assets and it will become the master planforregionalintegrationintransportinfrastructurefor Africa. The objectives of the PIDA programme in the transportsectorareintheaccompanyingbox. The AU Summit in February 2009 endorsed PIDA and identified priority projects for development and implementationintheTransportsector,between2010and 2015.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinTRANSPORT,20102015
Title UpgradingofDobi GalafiYakobiRoad SectionoftheDjibouti AddisAbaba(North) Highway Region East EstimatedCost *Commitments US$ 30million DevelopmentStage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Description Theprojectwill upgradetobitumenstandarda72 km section of road between Dobi (Ethiopia) and Yakobi (Djibouti). This section of road is part of the DakarNdjamenaDjibouti highway (Trans African Highway 6). The road link has high nationalaswellasregionalpriorityfortradeand development, and will strengthen interstate trade and integration. It will permit: reduced vehicleoperating,maintenanceandrehabilitation costs; faster turnaround for transport vehicles; and time savings for trade activities. Feasibility anddesignstudiesarestillrequired. Regional Contact IGAD

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Title MombasaNairobiAddis AbabaCorridor DevelopmentProject Region East EstimatedCost *Commitments US$ 440.5 million (PhaseIII) *US$300million (PhaseI) *US$329million (PhaseII) DevelopmentStage Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion (anddetaileddesign studies) Regional Contact TheCorridorisanimportantsectionoftheTrans EAC African Highway from Cairo to Cape Town. The IGAD Project relates to Phase III, which includes (i) Rehabilitation of 300 km AwasaYabelo and construction of an Inland Container Depot in Ethiopia;(ii)Constructiontobitumenstandardof 125 km TurbiMoyale in Kenya; (iii) Construction ofonestopborderfacilitiesinMoyale;and(iv)a Transport facilitation programme to operationalizethebilateraltransitagreement. Construction is underway on Phase I (upgrading the road from Isiolo to Merille River Road to bitumenstandard(136km),andexpansionofport facilities in Mombasa, to be completed in 2010). Phase II, from Merille to Turbi in Kenya and Mayale to Yabelo in Ethiopia, is being financed andundertaken.Theprojectwillenhancetradein the East Africa region, and improve economic performance and delivery of social services in Kenya,EthiopiaandCOMESAcountries.Itwillalso openupKenyasnortheasternprovince(aridand semiaridregion). Prefeasibilitystudiesarerequiredforthemissing IGAD links of the Djibouti to Libreville highway. This ECCAS highway will contribute to trade promotion and povertyreduction. A feasibility study is underway for the extension EAC of the railway line from Isaka (Tanzania) to Kigali (Rwanda)andBujumbura(Burundi).Thisprojectis part of the Dar es SalaamKigaliBujumbura Central Transport Corridor. The new railway line wouldprovideanalternativeroutetotheseaport ofDaresSalaamforlandlockedcountriesRwanda and Burundi, promoting interstate trade and integration. Description

MissingLinksof DjiboutiLibreville TransportCorridor IsakaKigaliBujumbura Railway

Eastand Central

US$1million (study only) US$4billion *US$1.5million (feasibilitystudy) IPPF

Stage1:Programme Identification

East

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

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Title MaghrebHighway Project (Nouakchott Nouadhibou, NouakchottZouerate andNouakchottPont Rosso) Region North EstimatedCost *Commitments US$ 90million (Nouakchott Nouadhibou)and US$63million (NouakchottPont Rosso),basedon recentcontractsin Mauritania *MaghrebCountries US$0.582 million (studyonly) US$75million *US$300,000(study) IPPF US$11.5billion (Phase1Cotonou ParakouDosso Niamey) US$4million (detailedstudies) DevelopmentStage Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Stage4: Implementationand Operations Regional Contact Theprojectinvolvestheupgradingofthemissing UMA links of the Mauritanian network covering NouakchottNouadhibou, NouakchottZouerate and NouakchottPont Rosso (at the Senegal border). It is part of the substantially complete CairoDakarCorridorHighway1(8,636km),which involves modernization of the whole Maghreb network,includingtheconstructionofafourlane highway from Tripoli to Casablanca (3,400 km). Themissinglinksareofhighnationalandregional priorityfortradeanddevelopment. Thisinvolvespreparationofafeasibilitystudyfor ECOWAS the missing road links of the DakarNdjamena Djibouti Highway corridor (TransSahelian Highway). The project is to construct a bridge across the ECOWAS Gambia River. The bridge is part of the Dakar NdjamenaDjibouti Highway Corridor, which will increaseregionaltradeandeconomicintegration. AfricaRailisaprojecttorehabilitateandconstruct ECOWAS 2,000 km of new railway to link the railway systemsofIvoryCoast,BurkinaFaso,Niger,Benin andTogo(all1,000mmnarrowgauge),including a train service linking the ports of Lom and Cotonou. Specifically, the project involves the following sections: Benin to Niger from Parakou MalanvilleGayaDossoNiamey (334 km); Burkina to Niger from KayaDoriTerraNiamey (430 km); DoriTambao (90 km); Togo to Benin from Lom AnechoSegbohue (90 km); and Burkina to Togo from OuagadougouBlittaw (746 km). A future stage of the project would link Mali (1,000 mm), Nigeria (1,067mm gauge changing to1,435 mm) andGhana(1,067mmgauge). Description

MissingLinksofthe DakarNdjamena DjiboutiHighway Corridor GambiaRiverBridge

West

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

West

AfricaRail

West

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Stage3:Programme/ ProjectStructuring andPromotion

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Title BeiraPortDevelopment Region South EstimatedCost *Commitments US$70million (Dredging) *EIB Netherlands Mozambique DevelopmentStage Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Regional Contact The project involves upgrading the infrastructure SADC of Beira Port in Mozambique, including further dredging. The Beira Port upgrading is integral to the success of the BeiraLobito Highway Corridor project (3,523 km), an important road corridor linkingAngola,theDRCandZambia(substantially completeexceptintheeasternhalf).Theportwill alsohelptoimproveeconomicopportunitiesand regional trade among the neighbouringcountries ofMalawiandZimbabwe. Thisprojectinvolvespreparationoffeasibilityand SADC detaileddesignstudies,andtenderdocumentsfor thebridgeovertheZambeziRiver.Thebridgeis an important link in the NorthSouth corridor linking the countries of Botswana, DRC, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, with interlinks to other corridors includingtheTransKalahari,Beira,Lobito,Dares Salaam and Nacala Corridors. In particular, the bridge will facilitate transport services along the northsouth corridor within Botswana and Zambia. The programme involves a range of subprojects COMESA toupgradeinfrastructureandremovebottlenecks EAC to trade flows, including regulatory and SADC administrativeconstraintstotransportandtransit systems as a whole. The project covers East and SouthernAfrica,involvingCOMESA,EACandSADC countries. The project is related to the regional NorthSouth corridor linking the countries of Botswana, DRC, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe with interlinks to other corridors includingtheTransKalahari,Beira,Lobito,Dares SalaamandNacalaCorridors. Description

KazungalaBridgeProject South

US$102 million *US$3.28million (studies) *US$500,000(IPPF)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

NorthSouthCorridor: RegionalInfrastructure DevelopmentinSupport ofTradeFacilitation Programme

Southand East

US$ 20million (facilitation,admin projects, Infrastructure projectsunderstudy)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

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Title BridgeoverRovuma River Region South EstimatedCost *Commitments (80%complete) *Tanzania, Mozambique DevelopmentStage Stage4: Implementationand Operations Regional Contact The project involves construction of the Unity SADC Bridge over the Rovuma River at the border betweenMozambiqueandTanzania.Thebridgeis 720metreslongand13.5metreswide,with5km roadapproachesoneachside.Constructionworks are ongoing. The project is part of the North South corridor and will contribute to enhancing interstateandregionaltrade. This rail and road bridge will link the two capital ECCAS cities of Brazzaville (Republic of Congo) and Kinshasa(DRC),acrosstheCongoriver.Thebridge will complete a missing road link of the Trans African Highway 3 from TripoliWindhoek Cape Town, and with the railway extension will fill a major gap (700 km) in the Point NoireSouth Eastern Africa railway network. The bridge and extension will promote regional integration and economic development in both countries, and also serve as an interstate and subregional TransAfricanlink.Afeasibilitystudyisunderway. Description

BrazzavilleKinshasa Rail/RoadBridgeand RailwayExtension KinshasaIlebo

Central

US$7.7million (FeasibilityStudy) *ABD/ADF

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

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Title RegionalTransport NetworkImprovements Region AllRECs ECOWAS ECCAS EstimatedCost *Commitments US$55million US$8million US$390million(for paving) US$3.5million(for studies) DevelopmentStage Description Regional transport links. In addition to priorities identified above, many links of great regional importance are being planned and developed by the RECs and Member Countries. Among others theyinclude: ImprovementoftheBlolequinToulepleuFrontier Liberiaroute,rehabilitationoftheKambaNigeria frontier road, and construction of Pont Rosso acrosstheSenegalRiver(sitesunderstudy),which areprioritiesforECOWAS. IntheECCASregion,prioritiesincludepavingthe highwaysbetween: Ouesso and Sangmlima, a major link in the routebetweenCamerounandCongo,and Doussala and Dolisie, a key link between GabonandCongo. Also, Upgrading of the KribiCampoBata highway and construction of a bridge over the Ntem River between Cameroun and Equatorial Guinea Study of a bridge on the Oubangi between Bangui(RCA)andZongo(RDC) Navigation study of the BanguiBrazzaville Kinhasa river route linking RCA, Congo and theDRC are important catalysts to the success of the regionalintegrationinitiativeingeneralandtothe beneficiarycountrieseconomiesinparticular. Regional Contact ECOWAS ECCAS

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment (updating) Stage1:Programme Identification Stage1:Programme Identification

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Transport
Title RegionalTransport NetworkImprovements (continued) Region Hornof Africa EstimatedCost *Commitments US$500,000 (forIdentification studies) DevelopmentStage Stage1:Programme Identification Regional Contact RingCorridorandConnections.Constructionofa IGAD ring road and connections to seaports are envisioned to link the countries of the Horn of Africa, including SudanKenya, KenyaEthiopia, SudanUganda, and Berbera Corridor Somalia Ethiopia. Two rail connections have been proposed (UgandaSudan and DjiboutiEthiopia), andatradeandtransportfacilitationprogramme isproposedtoencourageintegration. These and projects in other regions will be broughtforwardforreprioritizationandinclusion intheProgrammeforInfrastructureDevelopment inAfrica(PIDA),overthenexttwoyears. The programme involves the upgrading of port AUC infrastructure in six African island countries: Madagascar, Mauritius, Comoros, Seychelles, Cape Verde, and So Tome & Principe. The port upgrading is expected to foster and enhance interstatetradeandintegrationwithcontinental states. TheYamoussoukroDecisionwasadoptedin1999 AUC aspartofaninstrumentfortheestablishmentof the African Economic Community Treaty, and entered into force in 2000. It is the single most important air transport reform policy initiative in Africa,andinvolvesacontinentwideprogramme to promote the gradual liberalisation of air transportservicesinAfrica.Itcovers:thegranting of traffic rights on scheduled and nonscheduled flights; the elimination of restrictions on frequencies and capacities; the liberalisation of tariffs; and conformity to conventions on air safety and security in line with provisions of the InternationalCivilAviationOrganization(ICAO). Description

Improvementof MaritimePortsfor AfricanIslandCountries

African Maritime Countries

US$250,000 (forIdentification studies)

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

Implementationofthe YamoussoukroDecision

Continental US$ 600,000 (Operationalizationof ExecutingAgency)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

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ICT

INFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY(ICT)
BridgingAfricasDigitalDivide
AccesstoadvancedICTiscriticaltothelongtermeconomicandsocialdevelopmentofAfrica.Ithasincreasingly become essential that appropriate ICT infrastructure, applications and skills are in place and accessible to the populationtoclosethedevelopmentgapbetweenAfricaandtherestoftheworld. ImprovementinAccesstoBasicVoiceCommunicationsAfricahas succeeded in rapidly increasing access to basic voice communications. It is estimated that the GSM mobile phone population coverage increased from virtually zero for the vast majority of the countries in the region (with major exceptions of SouthAfricaandSenegal)toover50%(toashighasalmost100%) formanybetween1999and2006 17 ,andthecoverageexpansionis expectedtocontinue. BridgingtheDigitalDivideInspiteofthissignificantachievement in the area of voice communications, the provision of broadband connectivityhasbeenslow.Itisestimatedthatonlyfivecountries have a broadband penetration rate higher than 1% as of 2008 18 , andthegapbetweenAfricaandtherestoftheworldisbecoming wider.Twofactorsareconsideredkeytothelowpenetrationrate of broadband in Africa: high prices and limited availability. According to local estimates, a basic E1 circuit is US$5,000 per month,ascomparedto,e.g.,US$1020(developedcountries)and US$200350(India).Muchoftheinfrastructure,whereitexists,is ofpoorquality. 19

GMSMobilePhoneExpansioninAfrica, 19992006Source:WorldBank

SignificantOpportunityandUnderservedDemandEffortstoclosethedigitaldividebetweenAfricaandtherest oftheworldwillgreatlycontributetothecontinentspovertyreductionandsocialandeconomicdevelopmentby enhancingefficiencyandproductivity,improvingpublicservices,creatingjobs,generatingknowledge,facilitating tradeandregionalintegration.ItisexpectedthatasignificantdemandforbroadbandexistsinAfricaastherapid increase of the usage of the mobile voice communication service to date (despite its relatively high price and limited availability in many parts of the region) indicates the value that people place on communications technology. BottlenecksandChallengesThemajorconstraintstoaffordableandreliableICT(particularly,broadband)services are:thelackofbackboneinfrastructureandofappropriatepolicyandregulatoryenvironment.Wherebackbone

DeterminantsofaDigitalDivideinSubSaharanAfrica:ASpatialEconometricAnalysisofCellPhoneCoverage,WorldBank(PolicyResearch WorkingPaper4516),February2008. 18 BankGroupsInformation&CommunicationTechnologies(ICT)OperationsStrategy,AfricanDevelopmentBankGroup,October2008. 19 Williams,Mark,BroadbandforAfrica:PolicyforPromotingtheDevelopmentofBackboneNetworks,WorldBank.


17

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ICT
infrastructureisavailable,thenetworkhasbeenconcentratedinurbanareas,leavingtherestoutofreach,and the unliberalized (or only partially liberalized) market with limited competition prevents further network development,limitingtheserviceavailabilityandkeepingthepricehigh.Aninadequateskillbasefurtherlimitsthe capacitytoutilizeandsupporttheinfrastructureanddevelopapplications,contentandrelatedeconomicbenefits.

RegionalIntegrationinICTinAfrica
Africa is currently undertaking a number of major ICT initiatives, many of which are regional in nature such as regionalbroadbandnetworks.Theregionalnatureoftheseinitiativesrequiressignificanteffortsforcountriesto cooperate with each other and synchronize/coordinate policies and regulatory frameworks. As such, further regionalintegrationwillhelpadvancevariousregionalinitiativesinthissector.AnadvancedICTsectorinAfrica,in turn,willlikelyleadtofasterintegrationoftheregionbyfacilitatingtradeandsocialexchangesbetweenAfrican countriesasevidencedelsewhereintheworld. ThischallengeisbeingaddressedthroughthepolicyandregulatoryframeworkthatisintheKigaliProtocol.The KigaliProtocolhasbeensignedbytwelve(12)countriesinEasternandSouthernAfrica,andratifiedbyeight(8)of these countries. Legal experts of the African Union Commission have confirmed that any country in Africa can accedetotheprotocol,whichisbeingamendedtoincorporateallAfricancountries. TheConnectAfricaSummitheldinKigali,Rwandain2007establishedthefollowingcontinentalgoalsinICT: Goal1InterconnectallAfricancapitalsandmajorcitiesandstrengthenconnectivitytotherestofthe worldby2012 Goal 2 Connect African villages to broadband ICT services by 2015 and implement shared access initiativessuchascommunitytelecentresandvillagephones Goal 3 Adopt key regulatory measures that promote affordable, widespread access to a full range of broadbandICTservices Goal 4 Capacity building support the development of a critical mass of ICT skills required by the knowledgeeconomy Goal5Adoptanationalestrategyincludingacybersecurityframework,deployatleastoneflagshipe governmentservice,eeducation,ecommerce,andehealthserviceusingaccessibletechnologiesineach countryinAfricaby2015

Programmesarebeingdevelopedbyvariouspartnerstomeetthesegoals.

OpticalFibreNetwork (Existing,UnderConstruction,Planned) Source:AfricanDevelopmentBank

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ICT

RegionalIntegrationPartnersinICT
AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specialized continental and regional organizations promotingregionalintegrationintheICTsectorinAfrica, including: ContinentalPartners AfricanTelecommunicationUnion(ATU) Rseau Francophone de la Rgulation des Tlcommunications(FRATEL) African Telecommunications Regulators Network (ATRN) UNECA

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN THEICTSECTOR


Objective 1 ESTABLISH HARMONIZED POLICY, LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS at the regional and continental levels to create an enabling environmentthatwillattractinvestmentand foster the sustainable development of competitive African Telecommunication/ICT regional markets, infrastructure, and to increaseaffordableaccesstoTelecom/ICTs. Objective 2 ACCELERATE DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED INFRASTRUCTURE that will help bridge the digital divide, i.e. foster access to reliable and quality Telecommunication/ICTservicesthatwillbe affordable for the greatest number of populationsinAfrica. Objective 3 PROMOTE EAPPLICATIONS AND SERVICES aimed at improving government services (egovernment), education (eeducation), trade and business (ecommerce)andothersocialservices. Objective 4 INCREASE GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS OF AFRICA by reducing the costs of services and enabling Africa to integrateintotheglobaleconomy. Objective 5 REDUCE OR ELIMINATE TRANSIT OF INTRA AND INTERREGIONAL TRAFFICoutofthecontinent. Source: Program on Infrastructure DevelopmentinAfrica(PIDA)

RegionalPartners

West African Telecommunications Regulators Association(WATRA) Communications Regulators Association of SouthernAfrica(CRASA) Association of Regulators for Information and CommunicationServicesofEasternandSouthern Africa(ARICEA) East African Regulatory Post and TelecommunicationsOrganization(EARPTO)

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinICT AU/NEPAD are working in cooperation with the eAfrica Commission,whosemandateistodevelopabroadNEPAD ICT strategy and comprehensive action plan with the objectiveof: Accelerating the development of African inter country, intracountry and global connectivity, and Promoting conditions for Africa to be an equal and active participant in the Global Information Society.

TheProgrammeonInfrastructureDevelopmentinAfrica(PIDA)willdevelopacomprehensive,scientificstudyon infrastructureintheICTsectorandwillguidesuchactivitiesinthefuture.TheobjectivesofthePIDAstudyinICT are listed in the box on the right. While the PIDA process reviews and articulates a comprehensive set of infrastructureprioritiesforthecontinent,theprojectsinthefollowingtableareconsideredtobepriorityprojects fordevelopmentintheICTsector,between2010and2015.

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ICT

AAPPriorityProgrammesinICT,20102015
Title NEPADICTBroadband Infrastructure(UMOJA TerrestrialNetwork), includingthefollowing regionalnetwork projects: i)EastAfrican Communitybroadband network Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$1.53billion (subjecttothe outcomeofthe regionalstudies) Development Stage Seeindividual projectsbelow Description Contact

This programme will build UMOJANET, a NEPADeAfrica terrestrialnetworktolink54Africancountries, Commission and will connect with a submarine cable network, UHURUNET. Regional networks are being studied to identify missing links and developbankableprojectsasfollows. This network will establish a backbone for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda and links with Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Sudan covering 4,367 km. It includes the Eastern Africa Submarine System (EASSy) cable. This programme, involving approximately 26,000 km of fibre optic cable, includes the followingcomponentprojects: 1) The Central Africa Broadband Network (CAB) will interconnect 3 member states and connect Chad and the Central African Republic with the SAT3system. 2) The Central Africa Submarine System (CASSy), together with CAB, will interconnect all 9 coastal and landlockedECCASmemberstates. ThenetworkwilllinkthecountriesofECOWAS togetherover14,285km. EAC

East

*US$400,000 (Investment preparation) IPPF

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

ii)CentralAfrica Broadband Infrastructure Programme(CABI), including: 1) CentralAfrica Broadband Network(CAB) and 2) CentralAfrica Submarine System(CASSy) iii)WestAfricaWide AreaNetwork

Central

*US$600,000 (Investment facilitation) IPPF US$100million

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion (negotiations underway) Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

ECCAS CEMAC/ECCAS ECCAS

West

*US$ 500,000 (feasibilitystudy, IPPF)

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

ECOWAS

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ICT
Title iv)SouthernAfrica regionalbackhaul network v)NorthernWestern Africabackboneproject NEPADICTBroadband InfrastructureNetwork (UHURUNETSubmarine Cable) Region South EstimatedCost, *Commitments *US$ 500,000 (Feasibilitystudy, IPPF) US$250,000 Forstudies US$1.4billion *US$1.05billion Development Stage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Description Thenetworkwillconnectcountries oftheSADC region(14,757km). This project involves a transSahara link between AlgiersZinderAbuja, which would connectNorthernandWestAfrica(3,277km). Theprogrammeultimatelyaimstoencirclethe entire continent with an undersea cable, UHURUNET. The network, together with the UMOJANET, will link 54 African countries. The programme is expected to decrease communication costs, provide integrated communication systems, and help to integrate the continent by facilitating trade, social and culturalexchanges. The project will include the following components: (i) a wireless communication system based upon GSM technology allowing twowaycontactbetweenboatsindistressand rescue centres; (ii) a Regional Maritime Communications Centre (RMCC), with capacity toprocessdistressradiotrafficfromthepublic in the region; and (iii) a maritime communications system that would facilitate SearchandRescueoperations. Contact SATA

North

UMA

Continental

NEPADeAfrica Commission

Maritime Communicationfor SafetyonLakeVictoria

East

*US$ 450,000 (Feasibilitystudy, IPPF)

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

LakeVictoria Basin Commission (LVBC)

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ICT

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DevelopmentCorridors

DEVELOPMENTCORRIDORS
AnIntegratedSpatialApproachforAfricasDevelopment

The Spatial Development Programme (SDP) is a NEPAD programme that focuses on promoting trade and investmentfacilitationinmulticountrydevelopmentcorridors,basedonanintegratedspatialanalysisapproach. 20 ThedevelopmentobjectiveofSDPistwopronged,targetingeconomicgrowthandsustainabledevelopmentatthe locallevel: 1. Capitalizing on Existing Infrastructure for Economic Growth. By focusing on defined geographic areas, usuallyalongexistingtransportorenergycorridors,theSDPallowsforthecreationofacriticalmassof integratedprivatesectorandinfrastructuredevelopmentnecessarytokickstartasustainableeconomic developmentprocess.AlthoughaninitialimpetusfornewandrehabilitatedinfrastructureinAfricamay beformineralandoil/gasextraction,thefocusofSDPistofindwaystodointegrateddevelopmentthat seekstoleverageadditionaleconomicusesofspacessurroundingthisnewandimprovedinfrastructure includingcreationofnewindustries,SMEs,agribusiness,andtourism.Aimedatimprovingtheinvestment climatealongthecorridor,SDPalsoaddressesregulatory,administrativeandinstitutionalimpedimentsto tradeandinvestmentalongthecorridor. 2. Kickstarting a Sustainable Development Process. To improve the investment climate along the corridor, AU/NEPADSTRATEGIC investment in secondary infrastructure and accompanying measures are installed to reinforce the OBJECTIVESINDEVELOPMENT links to the local level. Territorial cohesion between CORRIDORS pocketsofeconomicactivityinevitablycreateseconomic and social synergies within the corridor and enhances Objective1FacilitateTRADE localmarketdevelopment.Corridorshavethepotential includingintraAfricantrade to link local industries to the global market through gateways,usuallyharboursormajorbusinesshubs. Objective2PromoteREGIONAL ECONOMICCOOPERATION& Integration; DEVELOPMENT CORRIDORS and Regional IntegrationinAfrica Objective30ptimisetheutilisation ofINFRASTRUCTURE AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with continental and Objective4Encouragebeneficiation regional organizations promoting regional integration via andECONOMICDIVERSIFICATION development corridors, primarily through the eight RECs. The SDPapproachwillbeownedanddrivenbythecountriesandRECs Objective5Enhancethe involvedinthesepotentialdevelopmentcorridors.Thefirststage COMPETITIVENESSofAfrican involves developing the concept and raising awareness. During economies. the past two years, presentations were made to the RECs in Objective6Stimulate NEPAD workshops on how the SDP can be used to complement EMPLOYMENTandwealthcreation. currentinfrastructuredevelopmentprogrammes,byusingAfricas abundant natural resources to provide sustainable integrated transportandotherinfrastructuresystemsforenergyandwater. To date presentations on SDP have been made to ECCAS in

20

TheinformationandmapsinthischapterwerederivedprimarilyfromAssessmenttoDetermineProspectsfora NEPADSpatialDevelopmentProgrammeNEPAD,March2006.

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DevelopmentCorridors
Libreville,UMAandCENSADinTunis,COMESA,SADC,EACandIGADinArusha,andECOWASinAbuja.Afterthese initial consultations there will be more detailed consultations with the countries and RECs involved that will include strategies for mobilizing resources for SDP implementation. The overall objectives of the Spatial DevelopmentProgrammeareshownintheaccompanyingboxabove.

AAPDevelopmentCorridorsProgramme,20102015
Title Region EstimatedCost Development Description *Commitments Stage
Stage1: Programme/ Project Identification (Concept underreview)

Contact

Spatial Continental US$250,000 Development forstudies Programme (SDP)

This programme focuses on NEPAD promoting trade and investmentfacilitationinmulti countrydevelopmentcorridors, targetingeconomicgrowthand sustainabledevelopmentatthe local level. Based on an integrated spatial analysis approach, it is being examined and developed for application acrossthecontinent.

POTENTIALDEVELOPMENTCORRIDORS
North Africa. The North Africa region connects the countries of the Mediterranean coast, Nile River Valley and DeltaandtheRedSeacoastofEgyptandSudan.InfrastructuremainlyservicesthecoastalzoneoftheMaghreb, the Nile River valley and links between Khartoum and Port Sudan. Transport infrastructure is relatively well developed (with the exception of Sudan) compared to the rest of the African continent. Typically, economic developmenthasbeenlimitedtocoastalzonesandareasproximatetotheNileRiver.Theregionsmaineconomic driversarehydrocarbons,industrialminerals(predominantlyphosphates),tourismandarelativelywelldeveloped manufacturing sector. The region has high potential in all these sectors, but there needs to be better understanding of how spatial development via infrastructure investments can enhance economic viability and regionalcompetitivenessacrosstheNorthAfricanRegion.TwopossibleSpatialDevelopmentInitiatives(SDIs)were identifiedinNorthAfrica: TheMaghrebCoastalSDI TheRedSeaNileSDI West Africa.West Africa is well endowed in terms of minerals, particularly ferrous metals, gemstones, precious metalsandhydrocarbon.YetinfrastructurelinkagesbetweencountriesofWestAfricaareoftenpoor.Transport infrastructureishighlynecessaryforlinkingdeephinterlandstothecoastforcommodityextraction.Moreover,the region contains three populous landlocked states (Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger) also in need of transport infrastructuretoconnectthemtothecoastalports.EnergyreliabilityisanotherproblemthroughoutWestAfrica, whichreliesinlargepartonhydropower,andissubjecttodroughts.Forthisreason,theWestAfricaPowerPool was established to link countries together along a number of defined corridors. Infrastructure along roads, railways,waterways,andpowercorridorswillbecomeadrivingforceforregionalintegrationinWestAfricainthe 1. 2.

32 AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

DevelopmentCorridors
future and must be planned appropriately to ensure maximum economic benefits. Four possible SDIs for West Africahavebeenidentifiedtodate. TheNiger(DakarPortHarcourt)SDI TheSekondi/TakoradiOuagadougouSDI TheConakryBuchananSDI TheGulfofGuineaSDI As currently configured the proposed SDIs could achieve two main objectives, namely, enhancing regional economic integration and improving access to and development of the regions rich natural resource base. The maininfrastructureprojectsemergingfromthesecorridorsschemesare: TransGuineanRailways KumasiOuagadougouRailways ModernizationofthePortatSekondiTakoradi AbidjanOuagadougouRailwayLine WestAfricanGasPipeline GulfofGuineaCoastalHighway CentralAfrica.CentralAfricaissituatedinthetwomillionsquarekilometreCongoRiverBasin,theworldssecond largestrainforest.Theregionissparselypopulatedandpoorlyservedbyroadandrailtransportandsomeareas relyheavilyonrivertransport.Theprimaryeconomicdriversintheregionarehydrocarbons,ferrousmetals,base metals, precious metals, gemstones and logging. Central Africa is home to the worlds largest untapped hydro electricpotential(atIngaintheDRC)whichifproperlyharnessed,couldbethecatalystforbroadbasedeconomic developmentinCentralAfricainthefuture.ThreepossibleSDIshavebeenidentifiedinCentralAfricatodate: TheDoualaNdjamenaSDI TheLibrevilleLomieSDI TheBasCongoSDI Themaininfrastructureprojectsemergingfromthesecorridorsschemesidentifiedthusfarare: East Africa. East Africa is emerging as an important regional economy comprising countries with diversified economieswitharelativelywelldevelopedindustrialbaseandwelldevelopedtourismandservicesectors.East AfricahasaninfrastructurebackbonewithKenyaasanimportantpointofentryalongtheraillinethroughNairobi toKampalainUganda.Itisbecomingincreasinglyapparentthattheexistinginfrastructurebackbonecouldbethe basis for future integration with northeastern DRC (ironore), Rwanda, Burundi, southern Sudan and possibly Ethiopia. Most East African countries are members of COMESA, EAC and some members states also belong to other RECs, positioning the nations of East Africa for strong regional cooperation. Two possible SDIs were identifiedinEastAfricatodate: 1. 2. TheDjiboutiSDI TheMombasaSDI RehabilitationoftheSedigiNdjamenaPipeline GrandIngaandIngaIIIHydropowerProject NewDeepwaterPortatBananaintheDRC NorthSouthRoadfromLuandatoKinshasa. BridgeacrosstheCongoRiverinKinshasaBrazzaville 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4.

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DevelopmentCorridors
Southern Africa. Southern Africa is advanced in its development of regional cooperation and preparation of DevelopmentCorridors.SouthernAfricanstatesareusuallymembersofSADCand/orCOMESAandanestablished customs union (SACU) exists between some member states. One possible new SDI has been identified: The MadagascarSDIwhichiscontainedentirelywithintheislandnationofMadagascar.SouthernAfricahasseveral existingSDIs.SincetheinceptionoftheRegionalSDIProgrammein2000,anumberofSDIshavebeenundertaken aroundSouthernAfricawhileothersareexpectedtobelaunchedinthenearfuture.Currently,theRegionalSDI Programme is actively supporting two corridors: Mtwara Corridor (southern Tanzania, Northern Mozambique, southern Malawi and Eastern Zambia) and Central Development Corridor (Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and DRC) SDIs. Discussions are at an advanced stage with regard to the launchof the Regional SDI Programme in Angola, possiblyontheNamibe,Lobito,MalangeandNorthernCorridorSDIs.

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Agriculture

AGRICULTURE&FOODSECURITY GettingAgricultureBacktotheCentre
The potential for economic development in a rural continent such as Africa hinges on improved agricultural productivityandprofitability.TheagriculturalsectorinAfricaaccountsformorethan60%ofemployment,20%of totalexportsand17%ofGrossDomesticProduct.Morethan90%ofthecontinentsfoodsupplyisproducedby smallholderfarmersinruralareas.Yet,morethan50%ofthefoodinsecurepopulationsaresmallholderfarmers, inadditiontothelandlesspoorandtheurbanpoor. 21 Toaddresspovertyandreducehungeracrossthecontinent,sustainedagriculturalgrowthmustbeahighpriority ofeveryAfricannationalandlocalgovernment.Hungerundermineshealthandpeoplesabilitytostudyandwork. Itleachesawayenterprise,intelligenceandenergy.Hungerandmalnourishmentdevastatechildren,stuntingtheir potentialasadultsandmakingitmorelikelythattheirownoffspringwillhavetoendurethesamelifelongcycleof deprivationandhunger. 22 Thechallengesofimprovedproductivityandprofitabilityarenoteasilyaddressed,however.Theunderdeveloped agriculturalsectorischaracterizedbypoorfarmerswhoareriskaverseanddonothaveresourcestoinvestinnew technologies.Thereisanoverrelianceonprimaryagricultureoftenpracticedonsoilswithlowfertilityandsubject to environmental degradation. About 95% of African agriculture is rain fed, thus making food production vulnerabletoadverseweatherpatterns. 23 Barriers to market access and penetration, such as poor market infrastructure and roads, lack of information, inadequatepolicies,insufficientextensionservicesandalackofconsistentmarketandphytosanitarystandards increasethelevelsofproducerrisk.Withfewresourcestocountertherisk,producersgenerallyrelyontraditional methodsofproductionandriskmitigationstrategies,suchassmallscalediversification,lowcostinputs,lowinput agriculture and marketing products at the farmgate. Programmes such as Participation of African Nations in SanitaryandPhytosanitaryStandardSettingOrganizations(PANSPSO)andBecANetassistonacontinentalbasis. AgricultureministriesandsomeRECsneedfurthercapacityenhancement,toaccelerateprogress. Despite the challenges facing Africans and African agriculture, the news is not all bad. During the past decade, Africas agrarian economies have been growing. GDP has averaged an increase of 6% per year and agricultural productivityhasgrownby45%peryear.Averagepovertylevelshavedroppedbyabout6%andtheproportion ofundernourishedAfricanshasdeclinedfrom36%to32%. 24

AGRICULTURE&FOODSECURITYandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
Improving food security, nutrition, and incomes of Africas largely agrarian economies are the goals of the ComprehensiveAfricaAgricultureDevelopmentProgramme(CAADP).EstablishedaspartoftheNewPartnership for Africas Development (NEPAD), CAADP was endorsed by the African Union Assembly through the Maputo DeclarationonAgricultureandFoodSecurityinAfricain2003.TheAbujaDeclarationonFertilizerfortheAfrican

21

PinstrupAderesen,P.FoodandAgriculturalPolicyforaGlobalizingWorld:PreparingfortheFuture.AmericanJournalof AgriculturalEconomists84:12011214.AmericanAgriculturalEconomistsAssociation2002 22 AgricultureandCAADP:ANewVisionforAfrica.NEPAD2005 23 Rosegrantetal.LookingAhead:LongTermProspectsforAfricasAgricultureandFoodSecurity.WashingtonD.C.:IFPRI.2005. 24 AgricultureandCAADP:ANewVisionforAfrica.NEPAD2005.

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Agriculture

GreenRevolution(2006)furtherreinforcedthiscomponentofCAADP.CAADPrecognizesandbuildsontheroleof thepublicandprivatesectors,andencouragespublicprivatepartnerships.ItisamadeinAfricasolutionthrough whichAfricangovernmentsarecommittedtoraisingagriculturalproductivitybyatleast6%peryear;elevenhave achievedthisgoal 25 .Inordertoachievethis,thesegovernmentshavealsoagreedtoincreasepublicinvestmentin agriculture by a minimum of 10% of their national budgets, and six have done so. By September 2008 approximately 60% of African countries had started to implement CAADP activities at the Engagement and PartnershipDevelopmentstage.Almost40%ofthemembercountrieshadadvancedtoEvidenceBasedPlanning, and20%startedBuildingAlliancesforInvestment.NocountrieshaveyetinitiatedProgrammeDesign,M&Eand thePeerReviewSystem. 26

NEPAD/CAADPsStrategicFocusin AGRICULTURE&FOODSECURITY
CAADP is a framework for economic growth and poverty reduction, and for improving trade and other core issues relatedtoagriculturaldevelopmentoftheAfricancontinent. In2003,underCAADPsaegis,Africangovernments,theRECs, agriculturists and other stakeholders established four continentwidepriorities(orpillars)forinvestmentandaction in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and livestock management. Withineachofthefourpillars,anumberofregionalprojects havebeenidentified,andinsomecasesinitiated. Bytheyear2015,thefollowingtargetshavebeenset: Establishment of dynamic agricultural markets within countriesandbetweenregions; Integration of farmers into the market economy and improved access to markets so that African becomes a netexporterofagricultureproducts; Achievementofamoreequitabledistributionofwealth especially for rural populations, as evidenced through access to land, physical and financial resources, knowledge,informationandtechnology; Africa as a strategic player in agricultural science and technologydevelopment; Practice of environmentally sound agricultural productionmethods.

NEPAD/CAADPSTRATEGIC OBJECTIVESINTHEAGRICULTURE& FOODSECURITYSECTOR


Pillar1Extendingtheareaunder sustainablelandmanagementandreliable watercontrolsystemsforexampleby increasingaccesstoirrigation; Pillar2Increasingmarketaccessthrough improvedruralinfrastructureandother traderelatedinterventions; Pillar3Increasingfoodsupplyand reducinghungeracrosstheregionby increasingsmallholderproductivityand improvingresponsestofoodemergencies; Pillar4Improvingagriculturalresearch andsystemstodisseminateappropriate newtechnologies,andincreasingthe supportgiventohelpfarmersadoptthem.

Partners
There is growing bilateral and multilateral financing available for African agricultural programmes aligned with CAADP.InternationalpartnersincludetheEuropeanCommission,Sweden,Japan,theUnitedKingdom,theUnited States, other bilateral donors and the World Bank. Other important agencies and partners include African governments, the United Nations Consortium to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), IFAD, FAO, UNDP and UNEP. Numerous partners are associated with the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).

25 26

StrategicPlanoftheNEPADSecretariatAgricultureUnit:20082013. BimonthlyInformationNoteonCountryCAADPImplementation.CAADPRoundtableProcess:Summaryof ProgressonCAADPRoundtablesandImplementation.September2008.

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Agriculture

AAPPriorityProgrammesinAGRICULTURE&FOODSECURITY,20102015 27
Title
CAADPMultiDonor TrustFund

Region
Continental

EstimatedCost, *Commitments
*$50million, HostedatWorld Bank

Stageof Development
Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

Description

Contact

Launched in 2008 and based in the World NEPAD,World Bank, the Fund will serve as a comprehensive Bank financing mechanism to harmonise development partner support, target gaps in financing, capacity and technology, facilitate partnerships and coalition building and so complementotherresourcesmobilisedaround CAADPPillars.

Pillar1Landand WaterManagement TerrAfricaSustainable LandandWater ManagementInitiative Pillar2MarketAccess AfricanFertilizer FinancingMechanism (AFFM)

Continental

*US$150million (GEF),US$900 millionleveraged (2008)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

This initiative is a mechanism to promote NEPAD investment in country and transboundary Secretariat programmes for sustainable land and water management, in order to implement CAADP Pillar I and key objectives of NEPADs EnvironmentalActionProgramme.

Continental US$ 35million (target) *US$8million Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

Following the Abuja Declaration (2006), AfDB NEPAD has worked closely with the AUC and the AfDB to establish the AFFM as a Special Fund to support production, distribution, procurement, and use of fertilizer in Africa. Funds will be allocated to projects through countryroundtableprocesses.


27

NEPAD:ImplementingCAADPforAfricasFoodSecurityNeeds:AProgressReport(Summary).January2009.

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Agriculture Title
Pillar3FoodSupply andHunger AU/NEPADTaskForce onRisingFoodPrices

Region

EstimatedCost, StageofDevelopment *Commitments


Description

Contact

Continental *US$477million (GlobalFood CrisisResponse Programme, WorldBank) Bilateraldonors

Stage4:Implementation andOperations

NEPADPanAfrica CassavaInitiative (NPACI)

Continental * MorethanUS$ 1.2million(for promotion)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

US$75million *US$500million (AGRAandJICA, todoublerice productionin Africain10years) FishforAll Continental * 7.46million PartnershipforAfrican forprogramme Fisheries(PAF) development Programme (DFID) PromotingNERICARice Disseminationto ImproveFoodSecurity inEast,Centraland SouthernAfrica ECOWAS, COMESA, SADC, ECCAS

TheTaskForceiscoordinatingthealignment of financing for responses to high food prices, including humanitarian assistance for the most vulnerable, increasing arable land under irrigation, regional food security programmes and increased support to the promotion of regional markets and small scalefarming. This initiative is a strategic institutional arrangement aimed at linking national agricultural research and extension systems toregionalinitiativesoncassava,inorderto ensurefoodsecurityandincomegeneration. This is a 5year, US$ 75 million project to promote expanded production of NERICA (NewRiceforAfrica)ricevarieties.Research is focused through WARDA, the Africa Rice Centre.

AU/NEPAD

International Instituteof Tropical Agriculture(IITA), Ibadan,Nigeria Forumfor Agricultural ResearchinAfrica (FARA)

Stage1: Programme/Project Identification

Fish for All encompasses plans for inland NEPAD fisheries, coastal and marine fisheries and aquaculture. For each sector, action plans are being prepared to address Improved Productivity, Environmental Sustainability, Market Development and Trade, and Food Security and Nutrition, as well as challenges such as illegal fishing and womens empowerment.

38 AU/NEPADAFRICANACTIONPLAN20102015

Agriculture Title Region EstimatedCost, StageofDevelopment *Commitments

Description

Contact

Pillar4Agricultural Research FrameworkforAfrican Continental US$500million AgriculturalProductivity (forregionaland continental agricultural productivity programmes) *US$25million (est.)

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment (dataintensiveanalysisof programmealignment)

Adoption of the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (2006) is designed to scale up integrated support for science and technology programmes, including research, technology development, dissemination and adoption, together with enabling policies, improved markets and infrastructure.

Forumfor Agricultural ResearchinAfrica


(FARA)

OtherRegionalintegrationprojectscurrentlyunderdevelopmentinAgricultureandFoodSecurityincludethefollowing:

EmergingPrioritiesinAgriculture
AgricultureProgrammesandProjects
ManyprogrammesandprojectsarebeingdevelopedacrossthecontinentwithintheCAADPframework,torespondtoopportunities andchallengesinAfricas varyingregions.Forexample,aWestAfricanSeedProgrammeisbeingdevelopedtoextendtheuseanddistributionofimprovedseedvarieties,atan expectedcostofUS$25million.AseriesofstudiesandpilotprojectsisplannedtoincreaseproductionandconsumptionofDrylandVegetablesinWest Africa,focusinginitiallyoncowpeas.Combattingwidespreadinfestationsoffruitflies,whichrenderfruitsandvegetablesunexportable,isalsoapriority concernforthatregion.

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Agriculture

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Health

HEALTH
StrengtheningHealthSystemsforEquityandDevelopment

AfricaHealthWorkforceObservatory

Health and its challenges are of critical importance to Africas progress. The capacity of the population to participate in economic activity and enjoy a better quality of life is highly determined by its health status. The internationalcommunityhasacceptedspecificMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(MDGs)onhealthandisstrivingto achievethemby2015.MeetingtheMDGsonhealthreducingchildmortality,improvingmaternalhealth,and combatingHIV/AIDS,malariaandotherdiseaseswillfacilitatesocialandeconomicdevelopmentandgrowthin Africa. AfricahasenormouschallengestoovercomeifitistomeettheMDGsrelatingtohealthby2015.Twointhree Africanshavenoaccesstoessentialservicessuchasfamilyplanning,maternalhealthcare,andHIVpreventionand treatment.Asaresult,deathratesamongAfricanwomenfromcomplicationsofpregnancyandchildbirtharevery high.Communitylevelhealthclinicsandhospitalsneedtobeabletoprovidequalitycareandshouldbeequipped withsuppliesandessentialdrugs.However,therealityisacriticalshortageofhealthworkersinAfrica,andweak healthsystemsseverelyunderfundedduetoalackofnationalandinternationalbudgetarycommitments. MillenniumDevelopmentGoals(MDGs)onHealth MillenniumDevelopmentGoal4:ReduceChildMortality Indicators

Targets

4.A:Reducebytwothirds,between 1990and2015,theunderfivemortalityrate

4.1Underfivemortalityrate 4.2Infantmortalityrate 4.3Proportionof1yearoldchildrenimmunizedagainst measles MillenniumDevelopmentGoal5:Improvematernalhealth* 5.A:Reducebythreequarters,between 5.1Maternalmortalityratio 1990and2015,thematernal 5.2Proportionofbirthsattendedby mortalityratio skilledhealthpersonnel 5.B:Achieve,by2015,universal 5.3Contraceptiveprevalencerate accesstoreproductivehealth 5.4Adolescentbirthrate 5.5Antenatalcarecoverage(atleastonevisit andatleastfourvisits) 5.6Unmetneedforfamilyplanning MillenniumDevelopmentGoal6:CombatHIV/AIDS,malariaandotherdiseases Target6.A:Havehaltedby2015andbeguntoreverse 6.1HIVprevalenceamongpopulationaged1524years thespreadofHIV/AIDS 6.2Condomuseatlasthighrisksex 6.3Proportionofpopulationaged1524yearswith

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comprehensivecorrectknowledgeofHIV/AIDS 6.4Ratioofschoolattendanceoforphanstoschool attendanceofnonorphansaged1014years Target6.B:Achieve,by2010,universalaccessto 6.5ProportionofpopulationwithadvancedHIV treatmentforHIV/AIDSforallthosewhoneedit infectionwithaccesstoantiretroviral(ARV)drugs Target6.C:Havehaltedby2015andbeguntoreverse 6.6Incidenceanddeathratesassociatedwithmalaria theincidenceofmalariaandothermajordiseases 6.7Proportionofchildrenunder5sleepingunder insecticidetreatedbednets 6.8Proportionofchildrenunder5withfeverwhoare treatedwithappropriateantimalarialdrugs 6.9Incidence,prevalenceanddeathratesassociated withtuberculosis 6.10Proportionoftuberculosiscasesdetectedand curedunderdirectlyobservedtreatmentshortcourse Source: United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Indicators: The official United Nations site for the MDG indicatorsis<http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Host.aspx?Content=Indicators/OfficialList.htm> Responses and significant accomplishments A number of the critical health programmes under the AAP have promoted achievement of the healthrelated MDGs. The Roll Back Malaria Campaign has taken on new life. NEPADhasplayedafacilitatingandcoordinatingrolewithrespectto,forexample,mainstreamingprogrammesfor AIDS.Withthegreateruseofantiretroviral(ARV)drugs,anestimatedonequarterofthe4.6millionAfricansliving withthevirusandrequiringARVsareundergoingtreatment.SeveralAfricancountrieshavesignificantlyreduced theirAIDSprevalencerate.(Source:The2009MutualReviewofDevelopmentEffectivenessinAfrica,ECA/OECD). Preliminary estimates of the costs of progressive advancement towards universal access to reproductive health servicesby2015havebeenmade.

HEALTHandContinentalIntegrationinAfrica
Many health problems are common to all or most regions of the continent. It is therefore logical to develop continentwide strategies for health promotion and awareness, disease prevention and other best practices. Effortstodevelopthesestrategieshavebeeneffectiveintermsoffocusingincreasedattentionontheissues,and raisingresourcesbothinAfricaandinternationally.Regionalprogrammeswillplayanincreasingrolethroughthe RECs. ImplementingAfricashealthstrategiesandmeetingtheMDGsonhealthnecessitatescollaborationamongmany partners.SomepartnerssuchasWHO,UNICEFandUNFPAhavebeensupportinghealthprojectsfordecades.A new set of key partners has also emerged in Africa. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Bill Clinton Foundationandothersareprovidingvaluabletechnicalassistance,essentialdrugsandimmunization.

Partners
AU/NEPADisworkingincooperationwithpartnerspromotingcontinentalandregionalintegrationinthehealth sectorinAfrica.Theseinclude: ContinentalPartners AfricanUnionCommission(AUC) WHO UNAIDS DFID ECA

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RegionalPartners RegionalEconomicCommissions(RECs) UN Agencies Regional Bureaux for Africa for UNICEF,UNFPA,WHO Foundations CivilSocietyOrganizations HealthNGOs

AU/NEPADSTRATEGICOBJECTIVESINTHE HEALTHSECTOR
The overall objective of the strategy is to strengthen health systems in order to reduce illhealth and accelerate progress towards attainment of the Millennium Development GoalsinAfrica. Objective 1. To facilitate the development of initiatives to strengthen national health systemsinmemberstatesby2009

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocus
TheAU/NEPADstrategyissetoutintherecentAUHealth Strategy, 20072015. It is a health systems approach, through which improvements in health care and health status are expected to be delivered largely at the country level.Itsobjectivesarelistedintheadjacentbox. InMay,2008,AfricanHealthMinistersformalizedanother milestone document the Africa Health Strategy ImplementationPlan,whichhasthirteenpriorities. Otherstatementsandplansinthehealthsectorincludethe AbujaDeclarationandFrameworkforActiononHIV/AIDS, theMalariaActionPlan,andtheMaputoPlanofActionon SexualandReproductiveHealthandRights.

Objective2.Tofacilitatestrongercollaboration between the health and other sectors to improve the socioeconomic and political environmentforimprovinghealth Objective 3. To facilitate the scaling up of health interventions in member states including through regional and intergovernmentalbodies Source:AU,AfricaHealthStrategy,20072015

NEPAD has developed a set of programmes and initiatives that constitute a balanced framework for improving health care on the continent. These are listed below. Examples of other NEPAD programmes include harmonization of medicine regulations, and regional training for district health managers.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinHEALTH,20102015
Title Effectivehealth systemsfollowinga primaryhealthcare approach EstimatedCost, *Commitments Continental US$ 40percapita perannum (Countrytarget) US$250,000for Identification studies Region DevelopmentStage Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification Description Theapproachfocusesonprovidingequitable accesstoqualityessentialcare,backedupby essentialmedicinesandsupplies,valued humanresources,healthtechnologies, informationandresearch,andpublichealth capacity.Itrequiresincreasedallocationof fundsbyAfricangovernmentstohealthcare systems. Thisprogrammeenvisagesinternational supportforprojectstostrengthenthe elementsoffullyfunctionalhealthsystems, whichareoperational,worksynchronously andguaranteeaccessibility.Theseincludethe componentslistedabove. AIDS,TBandMalariaposethegreatest challengesofthemanycommunicable diseasesthatimposesevereburdensonthe population,includingpneumonia,diarrheaand measlesinchildrenandotherillnesses. Continuingthescalingupofeffortstoprevent andtreatthesediseasesisakeypriorityfor Africa. ThisinitiativeutilizestheRECsregional presencetoincreaseawarenessofhealth programmesandprojects,andharmonize standards,withacurrentpriorityonAIDS. Contact AU/NEPAD

AU/NEPAD Programmefor FoundationBuilding Projectsfor FunctionalHealth Systems FundingtofightAIDS, TB,Malaria,in particulartheGlobal Fund(ongoing)

Continental US$3billion over5 Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification years US$250,000for Identification studies

AU/NEPAD

Continental US$8billionest. (20082010) (excludedfrom Plancosts) *US$5.6billion (GlobalFund)

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Stage4:Implementation andOperation

UNAIDS,WHO,Bill andMelindaGates Foundation,Bill Clinton Foundation,Roll BackMalaria,Stop TB,RECS,UNICEF

RECsHealthandAIDS Continental US$ 50million per Projects annum US$250,000for Identification studies

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

RECS

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Title Programmeto addressnicheaspects ofAfricanhuman resourcesforhealth crisis EstimatedCost, *Commitments Continental US$1billionper annum US$250,000for Identification studies Region DevelopmentStage Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification Description Contact

Pharmaceutical ManufacturingPlan (PMP)forAfrica

Continental US$3.1million (US$1.5millionfor studies, framework) Continental 2%ofhealth expenditureto research(Country target) US$250,000for Identification studies

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment

Challengesintraining,deployment,motivation AU/NEPAD andretention,severeurbanruralimbalances, poorincentives,difficultworkconditionsand alternativeemploymentopportunitieshave createdacrisisinhumanresourcesinhealth care.Thisprogrammeseekstoidentifyand increasethesupplyofkeyresources,andto encourageadoptionofpracticestoreducethe crisis. AfricanUnion TheaimistoestablishanAfricaPMPwhich Commission willprovidetheframeworkforlocal productionofessentialmedicinesbyAU MemberStatesandRECs.

Supportresearchto enhanceevidence baseddecision making

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

Healthresearch,especiallyhealthsystems WHO research,providestheevidenceforpolicyand decisionmakersatalllevelstomakeefficient andeffectivedecisions.Evidenceofwhat worksandwhatdoesnotcanprovidedirection oncosteffective,highimpactandsustainable interventionsandthusimprovehealthsystem performance.

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Education

EDUCATION,YOUTH&TRAINING
UnleashingthepotentialforgrowthinAfricasgreatestasset:itsyouth DanishAfricaCommission
Educationisthekeyforunleashingthispotential.EducationdirectlyaffectsthequalityandmagnitudeofAfricas socialdevelopment,amongstitsyouthandolderpopulationsalike.Ithasalsobeenregardedasthemostpotent weaponavailableforAfricanstoexpandeconomicgrowth,raiselivingstandards,havegreaterfreedomofchoices andcompeteinaglobaleconomy.Goodprogresshasbeenmadeinsomeareasinthepastfewyears.Onnet primaryenrolment,percentagefiguresfortotalenrolmentinsubSaharanAfricahaveimprovedfrom62%in2000 to 71% in 2007; and most African countries are very likely to reach gender parity at primary level by 2015. 28 However,Africastillhasalowratingonseveralindicatorsofbasicandhighereducation. Africasscienceandtechnologyeducationandtraininginfrastructure,particularlyinfieldssuchasagricultureand engineering, has been over the decades undervalued and underresourced. Armed conflicts have seriously affectedyoungpeopleschancesofacquiringliteracy,numeracy,readingandwritingskills.Asubstantiveportion of the population in Africa is under 24 years of age. 29 SubSaharan Africa also has the 2nd highest youth unemploymentrateintheworld.Over102millionyoungpeopleinthisarealiveonlessthanUS$2aday. 30 Failure to respond tothe education, health and employmentneeds of such alarge share ofthe population will further entrenchnextgenerationsintopoverty. Strong concerns in education sector have translated into various plans of AU and NEPAD Education has been identifiedasaprioritytobeaddressedandstrengthenedatalllevelsinthecontinent:earlychildhood,primary, secondary,technicalandvocationaleducationandtrainingandhighereducation.The1stDecadeofEducationfor Africa(DEA)respondedtothesechallengeswithfocusedactivitiesonfourpriorityareas:equityandaccesstobasic education; quality, relevance and effectiveness of education; complementary learning modalities; and capacity building.InspiteofvalianteffortsbyMemberStates,theimplementationofthe1stDEAhasconfrontedvarious challenges,includingthelackofownershipbystakeholders,littlesupportfromdevelopmentpartners,andpoor integrationintonationaleducationplans.

The2ndDecadeofEducationforAfrica(20062015)setsnewstrategyandguidingprinciplestotacklethe multiple scourges in the education sector. Building upon the capacities of the existing institutions,the 2nd DEAidentifiessevenareasoffocus,namelyGenderandculture,Educationmanagementinformationsystems, Teacher development, Tertiary education, Technical and vocational education and training, including educationindifficultsituations,Curriculumandteachingandlearningmaterials,andQualitymanagement.To enhancethechanceofsuccess,implementationofthe2ndDEAwillembracethefollowingNEPADprinciples: Africanownershipandleadership,aswellasbroadanddeepparticipationbyallsectorsofsociety;anchoring the development of Africa on its resources and the resourcefulness of its people; partnership between and amongAfricanpeoples;accelerationofregionalandcontinentalintegration.Theseprinciplesimplyrelianceon largely selffunded, domestic resources. Mobilization and intracontinental support will be challenges to be addressedinimplementingthe2ndDEA.

28 29

SeeTheMutualReviewofDevelopmentEffectivenessinAfrica(2009),FocalIssue6:Education. SeeTheCaseforInvestinginYoungPeople,PaperCommissionedbytheUnitedNationsPopulationFund (UNFPA),NewYork,2005. 30 SeeWorldYouthReport2005:YoungPeopleTodayandin2015,UnitedNationsDepartmentofEconomicand SocialAffairs.

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EDUCATION, YOUTH & TRAINING and RegionalIntegrationinAfrica


TorealizeAfricasgreatpotentialineducation,AU/NEPAD are working in partnership with national, regional, continental and global organizations to promote a comprehensiveprogrammeofregionalintegrationinthe education sector. These initiatives include the development of continent wide open and distance training programmes for teachers, science, mathematics, technology programmes and establishment of networks ofcentresofexcellence. In particular, the 2nd DEA is envisaged as a collective African framework solution to African challenges in the area of education. It stresses the importance of reinforcing the role of education for the promotion of regional and continental integration via the bilateral and regionalnetworks.RECsholdakeypositioninthechainof actors as they will be responsible for facilitating, coordinating and monitoring implementation of the 2nd DEA, especially in the articulation between the continentalandthenationallevel.

AU/NEPADSTRATEGICOBJECTIVESINTHE EDUCATION, YOUTH & TRAINING SECTOR


Objective1Developfunctionalnational EducationalManagementInformationSystems (EMIS),interconnectedtoregionaland continentalEMISnetworks,thusreversingthe currentphenomenonofdatablank; Objective2Mainstreameducationfullyinto thepolicies,programmeactivities,and organizationalstructuresoftheAUCommission andtheRECs; Objective3Raiseeducationachievement (access,quality,efficiency,relevance),while addressingteachereducationandhigher educationfordevelopmentconcerns; Objective4Attainfullgenderequalityin primaryandsecondaryeducation; Objective5Significantlybridgethegendergap inparticipationinmathematics,scienceand technologyatthetertiarylevel; Objective6Fullyinstitutionalizesystematic exchangeofexperiencesandmutualassistance foreducationaldevelopment; Objective7Developfunctioningmechanisms for ensuring that education contributes to regionalintegration.

Partners
AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specialized continental and regional organizations to promote regional integration in the education sector in Africa.Theseinclude: ContinentalPartners The United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization(UNESCO) RegionalPartners Africanuniversities

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinEDUCATION,YOUTH&TRAINING
TheguidingdocumentforAU/NEPADsactivitiesintheeducationsectoristhePlanofActionforSecondDecadeof Education for Africa (2006 2015). The 2nd DEA is intended to guide education sector development on the continent and will become the master plan for regional integration in the education sector for Africa.

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Education

AAPPriorityProgrammesinEDUCATION,YOUTH&TRAINING,20102015
Title NEPADeSchools andeSchoolsSatellite Network Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 4million for feasibilitystudy *US$17million(for pilotprojects) (US$15billionest. fortotalschools programme) DevelopmentStage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment (including Demonstration Projects) Description Contact

NEPADeLaboratories(a Continental NEPADFlagshipProject)

US$1million forpilot Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment projects (PilotProject)

The project will harness ICT technology for NEPADeAfrica improvingthequalityofteachingandlearning Commission in primary and secondary schools. Demonstration Projects have taken place in 16 countries; ten of these countries have already officially launched the NEPAD e Schoolsproject. The satellite network is a key component of the complete eSchools programme, providinganoverlaysatellitenetworktooffer broadband connectivity to rural areas ultimately for some 600,000 NEPAD e Schools. Theprojectwill helpreducethedigitaldivide NEPAD by improving the quality of primary and secondaryeducationinICTthroughoutAfrica.

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Title TeacherDevelopment ThroughOpenand DistanceLearningin Africa Region Southand West EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$1millionfor feasibilitystudies DevelopmentStage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment (PilotProjects) Description Contact

HumanResource DevelopmentFor NursesandMidwivesin Africa

Continental

US$1million for Stage2:Feasibility/ feasibilitystudiesand NeedsAssessment pilotprojects (Initialrollout)

RegionalCentresof ExcellenceInEducation

Continental

US$250,000for Identificationstudies

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

This programme will consolidate capacity NEPAD building in lead teacher training institutions, and develop largescale teacher training and teacher development programmes and curricula, in partnership with lead teacher training institutions in pilot countries. These include Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Benin, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. The University of South Africa and the National Open University of Nigeria have been identified as the ImplementingPartners.Baselinestudieshave been completed and implementation has startedinAngola. Atwoyearuniversityprogrammeofteaching NEPAD andresearchwillstrengthentheeducationof nurses and midwives, to advance health relatedgoalsandtargets.Undergraduateand postgraduate institutions have been identified, a central project management office has been established, curricula have been approved and students have registered inKenyaandTanzania. Theobjectiveoftheprojectistodevelopand NEPAD expand regional centres of excellence in education across Africa. A concept paper has been produced, and a conceptual framework and criteria are being developed, together with research, case studies and bench markingforexistingCentres.

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Title ARegionalCentrefor Mathematics,Science andTechnology Education(aNEPAD FlagshipProject) Region Central Africa EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$4millionfor structuring, establishmentcosts DevelopmentStage Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Description Contact

EducationandCulture

Continental

US$250,000for Identificationstudies

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

Theprojectwillestablisharegionalcentre for NEPAD mathematics, science and technology education in the ECCAS region. Gabon has been identified as the host country of the project. Plans have been prepared for the establishment of a Steering Committee, a Technical Committee and a Scientific Committee to drive the process, and to engageothercountriesintheregion. The objective of the project is to integrate NEPAD cultureintoeducationsystemsasameansof promoting and reinforcing African cultural identities and values, and for preserving African cultural heritage. Initial steps taken includeaconceptdocument,operationalplan and budget and appointment of project management staff, leading to a national conference in South Africa. A continental conference is planned, to engage other regionsintheprogramme.

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SocialAffairs

SOCIALAFFAIRS
TowardsAHumanCenteredModelofDevelopment
Theparadigmshiftfromanarrowquantitativeconcernforeconomicgrowthtoaninclusivesocialdevelopment policyregimeinAfrica.Pastdevelopmentpolicies,alsoenshrinedintheStructuralAdjustmentProgrammes(SAPs) ofthe1980s,accordeddisproportionatepreoccupationwithmacroeconomicsandtendedtoreducesocialpolicy to poverty reduction; merely palliative, to reduce the adverse effects of economic stabilization. It also created tendencies to ignore the synergies and complementarities between social and economic development. In most African countries, both at the policy formulation and implementation stages, there has been little intersectoral coordination and cooperation among the various social sector institutions and the economic ministries. Despite thegrowingrecognitionbyscholarsanddevelopmentagenciesthatthegreatestwealthofanationisitspeople, the human capabilities of the African people have not been sufficiently harnessed and mobilized for the continents development. Social development policies in the continent were often oriented towards the urban centres and lacked bottomup concern, without emphasis on decentralization, selfreliance and community or grassrootinvolvement. ThislackofinclusivedevelopmenthaspertainedtomostofAfricashistory,andnecessitatedthatthecontinent develop a social policy framework combining economic dynamism (including propoor growth policies), social integration (societies that are inclusive, stable, just and based on the promotion and protection of all human rights,nondiscrimination,respectfordiversityandparticipationofallpeople)andanactiveroleforgovernment intheprovisionofbasicsocialandotherservicesatlocalandnationallevels. Facingdevelopmentalcrisis,Africaneedssocialpolicythatisdevelopmental,democraticandsociallyinclusive. In the last decade, Africa has made significant strides in certain areas of social and economic development. For example, in addition to increasing literacy rates, the continent has witnessed increasing democratisation and reductionofcivilstrife.Furthermore,whiletheHIVprevalencerateremainshighrelativetootherregionsofthe world, African countries are making progress in reducing or slowing the spread of the epidemic, and access to treatment for people living with the virus and the disease, is improving. Overall, countries are intensifying their interventionstoimprovesocialdevelopmentindicatorsacrossthecontinent,withanumberhavingdemonstrated theircommitmentinthisdirectionbycreatingministriesspeciallydedicatedtosocialdevelopment.Economically, there has been recovery in the rates of economic growth and African economies have continued to sustain the growthmomentum,recordinganoverallrealGDPgrowthrateof5.7percentin2006comparedto5.3percentin 2005 and 5.2 percent in 2004. This growth performance was underpinned, among others, by improvements in macroeconomicmanagementinmanycountriesofthecontinent. However,thegeneraldevelopmentcrisishasnotbeenfundamentallyaltered.Africancountriesstillranklowon any list measuring social development and economic activity despite the wealth of natural resources in the continent.In2006,forexample,34ofthe50nationsontheUnitedNations(UN)listofleastdevelopedcountries (LDCs)wereinAfrica,andthebottom25spotsontheUNqualityoflifeindexareregularlyfilledbyAfricannations. Indeed,itisnowuniversalknowledgethatathirdofAfricansareunderfedandthatmorethan40percentlivein absolute poverty as measured by the poverty threshold of less than US$1 per day. This tragic waste of human potentialinAfricaiscausedbymanyfactors,includingahighdiseaseburden(mostofwhichispreventable);alack ofbasicinfrastructureandsocialservicessuchasroads,potablewaterandsanitation;inadequatehealthcareand services;pooraccesstobasiceducationandtraining;highilliteracyrates;genderinequality;youthmarginalization; andpoliticalinstabilityinanumberofcountries.Inaddition,ruralurbanmigrationinmanycountrieshasledto

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SocialAffairs
rapid urbanization which, in turn, has created unplanned, congested urban centres and slums. These slums are typically characterized by, inter alia, high levels of unemployment, drug and alcohol abuse, and crime. The prevailing population dynamics that include high infant and child morbidity and mortality rates, high maternal mortality,highprevalenceofHIV/AIDS,andlowlifeexpectancyalsohaveseriousimplicationsforsocioeconomic development in Africa. An overwhelming majority of Africans are caught in a vicious circle of poverty, unemployment and social exclusion. Development in Africa would be meaningless if it is not centered on the empowerment and wellbeing of the people of Africa, especially the marginalized and vulnerable groups and communities.Africashouldinvestinitshumanresourcesandensureequitableaccessofthemostdisadvantaged andmarginalizedgroupstosocialservices,especiallyinruralareas. Social policies are investments in development and nationbuilding. Social policy could fulfill several main functionsinachievingdevelopment.Itsproductiverolegoesbeyondwealthredistributionandsocialprotection, and beyond the residual role of addressing market failure. Experience from other continents has demonstrated thatsocialpolicycanbeapowerfulinstrumentfordemocraticprogressandeconomicdevelopment.Inthissense, socialpolicyplaysadistinctlytransformativeroleineconomicandsocialdevelopment.AddressingAfricassocial developmentisanurgentpriorityforitsimpactoneconomicdevelopmentandpoliticalstability.Ensuringaccess to basic health care, education, nutrition, productive employment and sustainable livelihoods has become a seriouschallengeintheAfricandevelopmentagenda. TheAUCommission(AUC)programmeonsocialdevelopmentisbasedonahumancenteredapproachthatseeks to promote human rights and dignity. The First AU Conference of Ministers in Charge of Social Development, convenedby the Department ofSocialAffairs, AUC, adoptedthe Social PolicyFramework (SPF) for Africa inOct 2008.TheSPFsetsoutavisionforAfricansocietybasedonsocialsolidarity,equityofchoice,andfreedomfrom discriminationandpoverty.Itfocuseson18keythematicsocialissues,frompopulationanddevelopment,social protection to gender equality and good governance. The adoption of the SPF would infuse a strong social dimensioninNEPAD,andspecificprogrammesneedtobeimplementedusingvariousfundingoptions.Itiscritical to ensure that these instruments are implemented at the national level in order to have real impact on socio economicdevelopmentandthelivesofthepeople.Effectivemonitoringandevaluationmechanismsareessential inthisregard,howeverthisisparticularlychallenginggiventhattheSPFisnotintendedtolegallybind,dictate,or imposeanyobligationsemanatingfromtreatiesorconventionsnotratifiedbyMemberStates.

SOCIALDEVELOPMENTandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
Inthesocialdevelopmentsector,regionalandsubregionalsocialpoliciesrepresentanextensionofnationalsocial policies,andshouldbeconsistentwithnationalsocialpolicyobjectives.Regionalsocialpoliciesaddressissuesthat requireintergovernmentalcrossbordercooperationonissuesofrights,regulationandredistributionintheareas of(a)socialsectorinvestments,(b)socialissuesatacrossnationalleveland(c)humanrightsandempowerment. Moreover,commonpositionsarealsoimportanttostrengthenAfricasvoiceinworldaffairsandreinforceAfricas roleininternationaldecisionmaking.


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Regional Integration Partners in Social Development


AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specializedcontinentalandregionalorganizationspromoting SocialDevelopmentinAfrica,including: ContinentalPartners ILO WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganization(WPO) UNOfficeonDrugsandCrime

AU/NEPAD GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN THESOCIALDEVELOPMENTSECTOR


Social policies must encapsulate the principles of human rights and development imperatives, and be embedded in the African culture of solidarity; They must be intimately linked to economicandpoliticalpoliciesaiming atadvancingsocietyswellbeing; Policy for social development as a broader goal should be coordinated with, but not subordinated to, economic growth and political development; Socialpolicyformulationmustinclude bottomup approaches to allow the participation of beneficiaries and recipientsindecisionmaking; Social policy should have a longterm developmentperspective; The different stakeholders should work together in wellcoordinated partnerships that enable them to complement and not compete with oneanother.

RegionalPartners

Secretariat of African Decade African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO)

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

TheguidingdocumentforAU/NEPADsactivitiesinthesocial developmentsectoristheSocialPolicyFramework(SPF)for Africa. The SPF focuses on 18 key thematic social issues: populationanddevelopment;laborandemployment;social protection,health;HIV/AIDS,TB,malariaandotherinfectiousdiseases;migration;education;agriculture,foodand nutrition; the family; children, adolescents and youth; ageing; disability; gender equality and womens employment; culture; urban development, environmental sustainability, the impact of globalization and trade liberalizationinAfricaandgoodgovernance,anticorruptionandruleoflaw.Italsofocusesattentionondrugand substanceabuseandcrimeprevention,sport,civilstrifeandconflictsituations,andforeigndebt. TheexpressedpurposeoftheSPFistoprovideanoverarchingpolicystructuretoassistAUMemberStatesinthe developmentoftheirnationalsocialpoliciestopromotehumanempowermentanddevelopmentintheirongoing questtoaddressthemultiplesocialissuesfacingtheirsocieties.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinSOCIALAFFAIRS,20102015
Title Revitalizationofthe AfricanRehabilitation Institute(ARI) Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$3.5million (US$1millionfor study) Development Stage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Description Contact

AfricanUnion TheAfricanRehabilitationInstitute(ARI)was Commission establishedbyAfricanHeadsofStateand Governmenttoaddressthechallengesfacedby peoplewithdisabilities,catertotheirneeds, andcoordinatealldisabilityprogrammesonthe continent.Theprogrammeisintendedto enhancethecapacityoftheInstituteto coordinatealldisabilityissuesonthecontinent, coordinatetheimplementationofthePlanof ActiononDisabledPersons,andpromotethe rightsofpeoplewithdisabilitiesonthe continent.

AfricanRemittance Institute(AIR)

Continental

US$4million (US$1.75millionto establishinstitute)

Stage1:Programme/ Establishment of the African Remittance AfricanUnion ProjectIdentification Institute is intended to forge institutional Commission relationships and partnerships among the African Union, RECs and other stakeholders, to put in place mechanisms for better leveraging remittances and other Diaspora resources for thedevelopmentofAfrica.

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Title Supporttothe Implementationofthe AUPlanofActionon DrugControlandCrime Prevention(20072012) (AUPA) Region FiveRECs (SADC, IGAD, ECCAS, ECOWAS, CENSAD) EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 3,573,000over3 years (US$372,000for Preparatory AssistanceProject) Development Stage Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification Description TheprojectwillsupporttheAUCandfiveRECs withpolicyandtechnicalsupport,including supportforregionalworkshops,forthe effectiveimplementationoftheAUPlanof Actionanditsmainstreaminginto continental/regional/nationaldevelopment plansandMDGbasedcountrystrategies,to integratecrimeprevention,anticorruption, criminaljusticereformanddrugcontrolintheir respectivedevelopmentagendasand strategies. Contact AfricanUnion Commission

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Science&Technology

SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY DevelopingTechnologyLedGrowthforAfrica
TheimportanceofS&TinAfrica.Scienceandtechnology(S&T)isoneofthekeyfactorsthatcouldadvancethe development of the African continent. It is well understood that countries with strong abilities to create, distribute, and utilize scientific and technological knowledge are better able to compete in a competitive global market. 31 As a result, these countries may also use these S&T advantages to improve their citizens quality of life 32 .AfricancountrieswillbebetterabletoharnessthepotentialoftheirnaturalresourceswithincreasedS&T researchanddevelopment. Science and technology applies to a diverse range of economic and social projects. From agriculture to energy, water and the environment, S&T is a major driver in capacity building, knowledge production and technical innovation. At the same time, these advances must be made in an African context, as many problems and challengesareunique.Gainsintheseareasshouldbesharedregionally,nationally,andcontinentallytospeedthe growth andfoster furtherdevelopment. Basic research, also known as fundamental research, typically precedes technological innovation, and it is important to remember that results will not occur overnight, but rather over manyyears.BasicresearchwillplayanimportantroleinAfricanS&T,especiallywhenpreviousresearchhasnot addressedissuesofspecialconcerntoAfrica. Challenges.In2003ataworkshopentitledDevelopingaSharedPlatformforScienceandTechnology,eightissues wereidentifiedascriticalfactorsconstrainingAfricasS&Tdevelopment.Theywere: Weaklinksexistbetweenscientificenterpriseandpoliticalinstitutions S&Tpoliciesareoutdated FundingasapercentageofGDPislow,andfurtherdecreasing Decliningqualityofscienceandengineeringeducationatalllevelsofeducation BraindrainAfricaislosingitsbestscientificandtechnicalexpertisetootherregionsoftheworld Lackofinstitutionsdedicatedtoscientificandtechnologicalinnovation WeaklinksbetweenpublicR&Dinstitutionsandindustry OtherpoliciesrelatedtoS&Tthatimpedefurtherscientificandtechnologicaldevelopment

Domesticinvestmentinresearchanddevelopmentisstilllessthan1%ofGDPinalmostallAfricancountries,with theexceptionofTunisiaandSouthAfrica. Responses.Historically,S&Thasbeenneglectedasadriverforlongtermdevelopment.Africaslowinvestmentin S&Tismanifestedindecliningqualityofscienceandengineeringeducation.Asaresultofthe2003workshop,a recommendationwasmadethatNEPADshouldformulateastrategicandlongtermframeworkandactionplan. Subsequently,theroleofScienceandTechnologyasadrivingforceforAfricassocioeconomicdevelopmentwas recognizedbytheHeadsofStateandGovernmentoftheAfricanUnion,throughtheAddisAbabaDeclarationon ScienceandTechnologyin2007.TheAUSummitinits10thsessionauthorizedtheestablishmentofanEducation, Science and Technology Fund, and requested the African Union Commission and AfDB to work on the establishmentoftheFund.

31 32

ScienceandTechnologyforAfricasDevelopment.UnitedNationsEconomicCommissionforAfrica,2000 DevelopingaScienceandTechnologyStrategicFramework.AsynthesisReportoftheFirstWorkshop.NEPAD, 2003.

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SCIENCE&TECHNOLOGYandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
Integration will be necessary for the success of the continent, because of the dependence of many sectors on strongS&Tdevelopment. Creating regional knowledgebases will aid in the sharingof best practices and foster development and innovation across those regions. Integration will provide a basis for better research through betterandlesscostlyaccesstobestpracticesanddata. Articles 51 and 52 of the Africa Economic Community (AEC) Treaty of 1991 outline expectations towards co operationbetweenstates.Theseexpectationsincludedevelopingjointresearchprogrammes,knowledgesharing betweenstates,creatingjointtrainingprogrammes,andpromotingtheexchangesofresearchersandspecialists between states. 33 Further development in S&T will also require extensive coordination at the national level. Development of intergovernmental and professional institutions will assist in regional integration. Policy and politicalleadershipisprovidedbyAMCOST,theAfricanMinisterialCouncilonScienceandTechnology.

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGY
The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in Science and Technology is Africas Science & Technology Consolidated Plan of Action, endorsed by the AU Summit in Khartoum in 2006. The plan consolidates S&T programmesoftheAUandNEPAD.TheprogrammesintheCPAbelongtothefollowingclusters:(i)biosciences and environment, (ii) natural sciences and engineering, (iii) health, and (iv) improving policy conditions for research, development and technology transfer. They are implemented through regional networks of centres of excellence and expertise, consisting of hubs and nodes whereby existing institutions are networked in order to pool available human and technical resources. The objectives of these networks are: to improve quality of and accesstoinfrastructureandfacilities;developfurtherinstitutional and political regulations and improve the applicability of science AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC and technology towards the Millennium Development Goals and OBJECTIVES IN THE SCIENCE & SustainableDevelopment.Theestablishednetworksarecurrently TECHNOLOGYSECTOR in the areas of biosciences, mathematical sciences, laser technology, water sciences and technology, science, technology Objective 1 Enable Africa to harness and apply science, and innovation indicators. Additional networks are being technology and related establishedintheresearchanddevelopmentareasofenergyand innovations to eradicate poverty health. The science and technology sector has as its objective to and achieve sustainable produce knowledge that should contribute to efficiency development production and delivery of goods and services in such sectors as infrastructure, public health, agriculture, environment and trade Objective 2 Ensure that Africa andindustry,amongothers. contributes to the global pool of scientific knowledge and TheConsolidationPlanofActionidentifiedthreepillarsofS&T: technologicalinnovations 1. 2. 3. CapacityBuilding:Developmentofhumanskillsinscience andtechnologytosolveAfricanproblems KnowledgeProduction:GenerationofscientificandtechnicalknowledgeofAfricanproblemsandhowto solvethem TechnologicalInnovation:Innovationofspecificproducts,processes,andservicesinanAfricancontext.

33

TreatyEstablishingtheAfricanEconomicCommunity.http://www.africanunion.org.2008.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinSCIENCE&TECHNOLOGY,20102015
Title Establishmentofan AfricanEducation, ScienceandTechnology Fund Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$100million over sixyears *US$22million(EU, AfDB,AUC, EquatorialGuinea) DevelopmentStage Description Contact AUC

AfricanBiosciences Initiative (Biodiversity, Biotechnologyand IndigenousKnowledge)

Continental

SupporttotheAfrican Unioninthemattersof Biosafety, Biotechnology,Bioethics andBiodiversity

Continental

Stage3:Programme/ The African Union seeks to establish a Fund ProjectStructuringand earmarked for higher education, science and Promotion technology development in Africa, to attract financial resources for the sustainable implementation of Africas Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action and its Book of Lighthouse Projects and for the Plan of Action for the Second Decade of EducationinAfrica. ThreeprogrammesinthisNEPADFlagship US$ 100million Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Initiativeinclude: Stage3: Conservationandsustainableuseof Programme/Project biodiversity Structuringand Safedevelopmentandapplicationof Promotion biotechnology (indicativeprojects SecuringandusingAfrica's identified) indigenousknowledgebase Technologieswillbedevelopedfor environment,agricultureandhealth. Conservationscientistsandtechnicianswill betrainedandregionalnetworksofcentres ofexcellencesustained. The programme will support the AU in the US$12.8million over Stage3: Programme/Project matters of biosafety and other interrelated 4years Structuringand aspects such as biotechnology, bioethics and Promotion biological diversity. It will build the requisite *US$400,000GTZ capacities and instruments to ensure (2009) Member States implement the Cartagena US$75,000EC(2009) Protocol on Biosafety, through the harmonized adoption of the African Model Law,alsotakingintoaccountbioethicsissues.

AU/NEPAD Bureauof AMCOST

AUC

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Science&Technology
Title Environmentalcluster (Energy,Waterand Desertification) Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$68million (US$15millionfor Energy US$45millionfor Water US$8millionfor Droughtand Desertification) NaturalSciencesand Engineeringcluster (MaterialSciences, Manufacturing,Laser andPostHarvest) Continental US$30million (US$15millionfor MaterialSciences US$10millionfor EngineeringCapacity forManufacturing US$5millionfor PostHarvestFood Loss) US$ 4million *PMUcosts(AU) Regionalhubs (RegionalInternet Carriersand ContinentalCarriers) 25%(min)Hosting Operator DevelopmentStage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion (indicativeprojects identified) Description Programmesunderthisclusterinclude: Buildingasustainableenergybase Securingandsustainingwater Combatting drought and desertification The programme seeks to have a range of renewableenergytechnologiesproducedand used by Africans, and active networks of centres of excellence for energy, water and desertificationestablishedandsustained. Theclusterseeksto: Build Africa's capacity for material sciences and engineering capacity formanufacturing Strengthen the African Laser Centre (ALC) and technologies to reduce postharvestfoodloss Add value to Africas infrastructure development programme through production of relevant technologies formoreefficientinfrastructure Contact AU/NEPAD Bureauof AMCOST

Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion (indicativeprojects identified)

AU/NEPAD Bureauof AMCOST

AfricanInternet ExchangeSystem

Continental

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

This project aims to support the work of the AUC AfricanInternetServiceProvidersAssociation (AfrISPA)infacilitatingtheestablishmentofa truly African internet infrastructure, through providing policy and regulatory reform, capacitybuilding,andtechnicalassistancefor ISPAssociationsandInternetExchangePoints in Africa. Thisprogram is one of the ARAPKE (African Regional Action Plan on the KnowledgeEconomy)flagshipprojectswhich wereendorsedbytheAUsummitin2006.

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Title Improvingpolicy conditionsforresearch, developmentand technologytransfer Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$50million DevelopmentStage Stage2:Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment (indicativeprojects identified) Description Contact

AfricanScience, Technologyand InnovationIncubators Network

Continental

US$25million over sixyears *AUcoveringthe costofthePMU,host countrieswillcover atleast25%

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

Thisclusterfocuseson: AU/NEPAD Development and adoption of African Common Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators(ASTII) Establishing an African STI Observatory It foresees Member States with governance structures, policies and priorities for science and technology, and technology parks to facilitatetechnologytransfertoendusers. This involves the establishment of a fully AUC functional Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Incubators Network, comprising one programme management unit and five regional Incubators centres (in each of the African Union regions), to support the commercialization of STI results andindustrializationofAfrica.

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Trade,Industry,MarketDevelopment

TRADE,INDUSTRY,MARKETACCESS& PRIVATESECTORDEVELOPMENT
AdvancingAfricasCompetitivenessintheGlobalMarketplace
Eradicationofextremehungerandpovertycanonlybeachievedthroughfastereconomicgrowthandenhanced competitivenessU.N.DeputySecretaryGeneralAshaRoseMigiro Trade,IndustrializationandInvestment.Exportsin2007totalledalmostUS$425billionandaccountedfor3%of world exports. Exports are concentrated in fuel and mining (70%) and agriculture. Exports to Asia have grown significantly. Within Africa, intraregional trade accounts for about 7% of total export exports, compared with about50%inAsia.Manufacturingcontributeslessthan15%ofgrossdomesticproductinmanyAfricancountries, andisconcentratedinfood,textiles,clothingandfootwear.ForeigndirectinvestmentinflowstoAfricarosefrom aboutfromUS$13billionin2002toUS$45billionin2007,largelyintheextractiveindustriesandinvariousservice industries.TotalnetprivatecapitalflowstoAfricaroseto$81billionin2007. Challenges.Withalmosthalfofthepopulationunder25yearsofage,creatingjobsandcareerprospectsiscritical toAfricasprosperityandstability.Africaisabundantlyendowedwithnaturalresources,includingmanyindustrial mineralsandagriculturalresources,butthecontinentremainsrelativelypoor,withlittleornolocalvalueaddition and processing as well as minimum local inputs. Dependence on Aid for Trade refers to assistance by the primaryproductshasexposedresourcerichAfricancountriestothe internationalcommunitytohelpcountriesaddress vagaries of global markets and commodity cycles. Supplyside supplyside constraints to their participation in internationalmarkets,andtocopewithtransitional constraints act as limiting factors in many countries, both in adjustment costs from liberalization of trade. It manufacturingandinagriculture. coversassistancewithtradepolicyandregulations Responses. NEPAD recognized the critical role of the private sector, both domestic and foreign owned, as the continents engine of economic growth. It encouraged governments to establish an environment conducive to business and investment activities, and partnerstofacilitategreaterworldmarketaccess.Measuresincluded legal and regulatory reforms, harmonization of standards and trade facilitation, reduction of internal tariffs, deepening of financial markets, technology acquisition and knowledge sharing, industrial diversification and strategic participation in international trade negotiations. In addition, fundamental economic policies such as investment in infrastructure (energy, communications, transport and water, etc.) are critical to the promotion and sustenance of industrial development in Africa. Similarly, building human capacity through health, education and training and technology development is also necessary to enable the continent to compete in the increasingly knowledgedrivenglobaleconomy.AidforTradeisamechanismthat canaddresstheseimperatives(seeBox).
and trade development, but also trade related infrastructure, capacity development, and trade relatedgovernmentbudgetadjustments.TheWTO Hong Kong ministerial meeting launched the initiativein2005. The European Union is a major supporter of the approach and committed EUR2.73 billion to Africa in 2007. Support to regional integration is a priority.TheEuropeanDevelopmentFundallocated EUR645 million for eastern and southern Africa (EACCOMESASADC), notably to a jointlyplanned NorthSouthCorridorprogramme.Anotherregional reviewofAidforTradetakesplaceintheECOWAS region in June 2009, and a global review is scheduledforJuly2009. In this context, Aid for Trade may be seen as an important funding modality, providing technical supporttotradeliberalizationandalsosupportfor theinfrastructurebasethatiscriticaltoexpanding trade.

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Trade,Industry,MarketDevelopment

TRADE, INDUSTRY, MARKET ACCESS & PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT and RegionalIntegrationinAfrica
Opening up African markets through infrastructure development and trade facilitation are important elements of Regional Integration in Africa. The eight Regional EconomicCommunities(RECs)acrossthecontinentarekey actorsinexpandingFreeTradeAreasandCustomsUnions, aswellasotherformsoftradefacilitation.

AU/NEPAD OBJECTIVES IN THE TRADE, INDUSTRY/MARKET ACCESS & PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT SECTOR ARE BASEDONTHEFOLLOWINGMEASURES:
Objective1Buildingproductivecapacityand capabilitiesforconvertingcomparative advantageintoindustrialcompetitiveness. Objective2Promotingactionsthatfacilitate exportofvalueaddedproductsthroughthe conversionofcommoditiesintoproducts. Objective 3 Enhancing trade linkages and marketpenetrationforexpandingtheextent ofthemarketforproducts. Objective 4 Promoting value chains by thinking globally and acting locally for job creationandpovertyreduction. Objective5 Developingsmallandmedium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their linkages to largescale enterprises for seizing opportunitiesforindustrialexpansion. Objective 6 Promulgating standardization, accreditation, quality and metrology for effectiveglobalmarketintegration. Objective 7 Fostering publicprivate partnerships (PPPs) for industrial development. Objective 8 Removing bureaucratic and administrative impediments to trade and investment.

Partners
AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specialized continental and regional organizations to promote regional integration in Trade, Industry, Market AccessandPrivateSectorDevelopmentinAfrica,including: InternationalPartners UNIDO ContinentalPartners ConferenceofAfricanMinistersofIndustry(CAMI) InvestmentClimateFacility(ICF) RegionalPartners RegionalEconomicCommunities

AU/NEPADs Strategic Focus in TRADE, INDUSTRY, MARKET ACCESS & PRIVATE SECTORDEVELOPMENT
In2004TheAfricanUnionSummitinAddisAbabaadopted the African Productive Capacity Initiative (APCI) as the policyframeworkforAfricasindustrializationeffortthrough NEPAD.TheAPCIwasdesignedtofacilitateashifttowardsa handson approach for tackling, through a sectoral approach, industrial performance and productivity, sustainable employment creation, and the contribution of industrytopovertyreduction.

In January 2008, the African Union Assembly endorsed the Action Plan for Accelerated Industrial Development of Africa (AIDA). The Conference of African Ministers of Industry (CAMI) subsequently adopted a Strategy for the ImplementationofAIDA,to: Promote economic diversification through industrial valueaddedactivities; Createanenablingenvironmentandinstitutionalframeworkthatpromotesprivatesectorsensitiveindustrial development,regionaleconomiccooperationandinternationalcompetitiveness;and Enhancesupplysideanddemandsidecapacityforindustrialproductionandtrade. Programmespecific objectives of this Strategy are based on the measures described in the accompanying box.

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Trade,Industry,MarketDevelopment

AAPPriorityProgrammesinTRADE,INDUSTRY,MARKETACCESS&PRIVATESECTORDEVELOPMENT,20102015
Title InvestmentClimate Facility Region EstimatedCost, *Commitments Additionaldemands identified *US$175million (International partners, Governments, Corporations) Stageof Development Stage4: Implementationand Operation Description The ICF is a privatepublic partnership, focused on improving the continent's investment climate by removing obstacles to domestic and foreign investment and by promoting Africa as an attractive investment destination.Itprovidesamechanismthrough which the private sector, the G8 countries, other donors, and African governments and institutions can support Africa's vision for sustainablegrowthanddevelopment. The Initiative aims to support African countries to improve their capacity to strengthen the investment environment for growthanddevelopment,inaccordancewith theUNMonterreyConsensus,assistingAPRM processandinvestmentclimatereforms. AIDAs Implementation Strategy sets out seven clusters of actions to be taken in the short, medium and long term to promote Africas industrial development. These include: industrial policy and institutional direction; upgrading productive and trade capacities; promoting infrastructure and energydevelopmentforindustrialprocesses; industrial and technical skills; industrial innovation and technology systems and research and development; financing and resource mobilization; and sustainable development for responsible industrialization. Contact Investment Climate Facility, Arusha, Tanzania

Continental

NEPADOECDAfrica InvestmentInitiative

Continental

2millioneuro per annum *1.7millioneuroper annum(EU,Member States) US$250,000 forIdentification studiesof programmesand projects

Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

NEPAD,OECD

Strategyforthe Implementationofthe ActionPlanfor AcceleratedIndustrial DevelopmentofAfrica (AIDA)

Continental

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

CAMI

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Trade,Industry,MarketDevelopment

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Environment&ClimateChange

ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE


PromotingSustainabilityandStewardshipforAfricasEcosystems
Africa contains some of the richest environmental resourcesintheworld.Africansdependonahealthy and vibrant ecosystem and for their livelihoods for everything from forest products, water, food from agricultural products to tourism. Yet unless Africa is abletofostersustainableuseandstewardshipofits resources, the continent will face many threats to thesetreasuresinthefuture. A Rich Biodiversity Africa contains over 3,000 protected areas including 198 Marine Protected Areas, 50 Biosphere Reserves, and 80 Wetlands of International Importance. Eight of the worlds 34 34 international biodiversity hotspots are in Africa . Despite their recognized status, these areas remain under threat by poaching, encroachment and the introductionofalienspecies. The Threat of Land Degradation Due to the lack of strong environmental management, land in Africa is becomingincreasinglydegraded.Themostprevalent forms of degradation include desertification, deforestation, dust storms, rising pollution and loss of ecosystems from rapid urbanisation. Thirtyone percentoftheregionspasturelandsand19percent of its forests are classified as degraded. Forests accountforover20percentofAfricaslandarea,butare being destroyed by logging and conversion of forests to agriculture and urban settlements. Africa is currently TransboundaryProtectedAreas losing more than four million hectares of forest every = Source:AfricaAtlasofourChangingEnvironmnet,UNEP yeartwicetheworldsaveragedeforestationrate. TheThreatofClimateChangeAlthoughAfricaproducesonly4percentoftotalglobalcarbondioxideemissions, itsinhabitantssufferhighlyfromtheconsequencesofglobalclimatechange.InmanypartsofAfrica,evensmall changesinprecipitationandwateravailabilityarehavingadevastatingeffectonagriculturaloutputandtherefore on food security. As climate change intensifies and its impacts deepen, adaptation amongst the communities in Africawillbecomeincreasinglychallenging.

RegionalIntegrationinENVIRONMENTANDCLIMATECHANGEinAfrica
Manyenvironmentalissuestranscendnationalboundaries.Thesustainableuseofnaturalresourcessuchasthose derivedfromforestecosystemsandmonitoring,management,andclimatechangecontrol,areproblemsofmajor concern to all nations of Africa. Since these resources and issues span more than one nation, they are often addressed according to different levels of political priority and employ different management approaches, laws

34

AfricaAtlasofourChangingEnvironment,UNEP

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Environment&ClimateChange
and regulations. Some efforts have been made to introduce management mechanisms that involve some internationalcooperation,buttherearestillmanychallengestobeovercomeforaunifiedframework.Tothisend, AU/NEPAD has established a focus in six programme areas and three crosscutting issues via the NEPAD Action Plan for the Environment Initiative that concentrate on fostering regional cooperation on transboundary environmentalissues: ProgrammeArea1CombatingLandDegradation,Drought,andDesertification ProgrammeArea2ConservingAfricasWetlands ProgrammeArea3Prevention,ControlandManagementofInvasiveAlienSpecies ProgrammeArea4ConservationandSustainableUseofMarine,CoastalandFreshwaterResources ProgrammeArea5CombatingClimateChangeinAfrica ProgrammeArea6TransboundaryConservationorManagementofNaturalResources CrossCuttingIssue1HealthandEnvironment CrossCuttingIssue2TradeandEnvironment CrossCuttingIssue3TechnologyandEnvironment

InstitutionsinENVIRONMENTANDCLIMATECHANGE
AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with number of specialized continental and regional organizations to promoteregionalintegrationinEnvironmentandClimateChangeinAfricaincluding: GlobalPartners TheGlobalClimateObservingSystem(GCOS) UnitedNationsEnvironmentalProgram(UNEP) WorldMeteorologicalOrganization(WMO) TheGlobalEnvironmentFacility(GEF) The European Commissions African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development (AMESD) TheInternationalResearchInstituteforClimateandSociety(IRI) TheEnergyandResourcesInstitute(TERI) TheStockholmEnvironmentInstitute(SEI)

ContinentalPartners

AfricaMinisterialConferenceofEnvironment(AMCE) TheAfricanCentreofMeteorologicalApplicationforDevelopment(ACMAD) CentreforEnvironmentalEconomicsandPolicyinAfrica(CEEPA)

RegionalPartners TheClimatePredictionandApplicationCentre(IGADICPAC) TheRegionalCentreforAgriculture,HydrologyandMeteorology(AGRHYMET) SADCDroughtMonitoringCentre(SADCDMC) ObservatoireduSaharaetSahel(OSS) TheLakeVictoriaBasinCommission(LVBC) TheNileBasinInitiative(NBI)

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The Economic Community of theGreatLakes(CEPGL) The Central African Forest Commission(COMIFAC) SouthSouthNorth(SSN)

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATECHANGE


Objective1CONTRIBUTETOTHEIMPLEMENTATIONOFNEPADthrough theeffectiveimplementationofitsEnvironmentInitiative Objective 2 PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE of Africas natural resources and strengthen public and political support to regional and subregional environmentalinitiatives Objective 3 SUPPORT IMPLEMENTATION BY AFRICAN COUNTRIES of their commitments under the global and regional environmental conventionsandotherlegalinstrumentstowhichtheyareparty Objective4ENHANCETHEHUMANANDINSTITUTIONALCAPACITIESof African countries to effectively address the environmental challenges facingthecontinent Objective 5 PROMOTE INTEGRATION of environmental issues into povertyreductionstrategies Objective 6 FOSTER REGIONAL AND SUBREGIONAL COOPERATION to addressenvironmentalchallenges Objective7BUILDANETWORKOFREGIONALCENTRESOFEXCELLENCE inenvironmentalscienceandmanagement Objective 8 MOTIVATE AND DIRECT AFRICAN AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COMMUNITIES to solve Africas pressing environmentalproblems Objective 9 ENHANCE EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION of major African groups and their important contribution to informing intergovernmental decisionmaking Objective10IMPROVETHEINSTITUTIONALFRAMEWORKforregional environmentalgovernance Objective 11 MOBILIZE INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES for the implementationoftheEnvironmentInitiativeofNEPAD Objective 12 PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR PARTNERSHIP between African countries themselves and with their bilateral and multilateral partners, including multilateral financial institutions such as GEF, in accordance with the spirit and the letter of the United Nations MillenniumDeclaration Source:NEPADActionPlanfortheEnvironmentInitiative

AU/NEPADs Strategic Focus in ENVIRONMENT ANDCLIMATECHANGE


The NEPAD Action Plan for the Environment Initiative is the guiding documentforAU/NEPADsactivitiesin thesectorofEnvironmentandClimate Change. SubRegional Environmental Action Plans (SREAPs) have been developed and adopted by many of the subregions as well (eg, IGADs SREAP, which covers each of the programme areas of the Action Plan, including monitoring). The overall objectives of AU/NEPADs activities in Environment and Climate Change are listedintheaccompanyingbox. CarbonFinancehasnotplayedalarge roleinAfricandevelopmentfinanceto date, for specific reasons. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is focused primarily on the emission reductioncomponentsofprojects,and provides postinvestment cash flow only. Since Africas emissions are relatively low, and since African financial markets are less developed than in some parts of the world, such financing has not generated large amounts of investment capital. With further development of the mechanism and domestic capital markets, carbon finance could play a larger role in African project investment.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinENVIRONMENTANDCLIMATECHANGE,20102015
Title
CongoBasin ConvergencePlan onForests(Congo BasinFund)

Region
Central

EstimatedCosts, *Commitments

DevelopmentStage

Description
The purpose of theCongo Basin Fund (CBF) istoestablishapoolofresourcesmobilized from donors to support innovative and transformational approaches geared to alleviate poverty and address climate change through reducing, slowing and eventually reversing the rate of deforestation in the Congo Basin. La Commission des Forts dAfrique Centrale (COMIFAC) prepared a 10year ActionPlan called Plan de Convergence with ten strategic areas that form the basis of activities eligible for funds from CBF: (1) policy harmonization; (2) resource knowledge; (3) management and reforestation; (4) biodiversity conservation; (5)sustainablevalorisation;(6)development of alternatives and poverty reduction; (7) capacity building, participation and information; (8) research/development; (9) funding mechanisms; and (10) cooperation andpartnership.

Contact
Commissiondes FortsdAfrique Centrale (COMIFAC),ECCAS CongoBasinForest Fund,AfDB

*50millionDFID and Stage4: Implementationand theEnvironmental Operations TransformationFund (ETF)foroperatingcosts *US$125millionper yeartopreserveforestry andenvironmentinthe CongoBasincountries (variousdonors) *US$15million(NGOs) *US$50million(ADF,for PACEBCo,2009)

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Title
Climatefor Developmentin Africa

Region
Continental

EstimatedCosts, *Commitments
US$ 134million over4 years (FinancialManagement oftheClimDevTrust FundbytheAfDB, fundingthroughablend ofprogrammaticand TrustFundmodalities)

DevelopmentStage
Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion

Description
The Climate for Development in Africa Programme (ClimDev Africa) supports Africas response to climate variability and change by building regional, subregional andnationalpolicycapacity.Itwillimprove the quality and availability of information and analysis to decisionmakers. Its immediatebeneficiarieswillbetheregional, subregional and national institutions that seek to manage the response to climate change in Africa. Through these bodies, the programme seeks to increase the resilience of Africas population to climate change, enablingeffectiveadaptationactivities. The Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel consists of a set of integrated interventions addressing multisectoral issues that affect the lives of the people in the Sahel and Sahara areas of Africa. These interventions, which are multisectoral and multi dimensional, cut across a wide range of aspects including: land, water and forest resource management; soil conservation; pastoral development; sustainable agricultural production; and gender and youthmainstreamingintodevelopment.

Contact
Joint AUC/ECA/AfDB Secretariat

GreenWallforthe SaharaandSahel Initiative

North,West, East

US$ 639million over10 years (PreFeasibilityEstimate) US$250,000for Identificationstudies

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

Promoters: AUC andCENSAD TechnicalPartners: UNCCD,UNCBD, UNFCCC,TerrAfrica Initiative,NEPAD Environment Initiativeandthe Global Environment FacilityOperational Program;Country Governments

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OtherRegionalintegrationprojectscurrentlyunderdevelopmentinEnvironmentandClimateChangeincludethefollowing:

EmergingPrioritiesinEnvironmentandClimateChange

EnvironmentandClimateChangeProgrammes/Projects
GeneticResourcesandNontimberForestProducts andAfricawideHumanandResourceCapacityBuildingProgramforAdaptationandMitigation.These projectshavebeenadvancedforconsiderationaspanAfricanprioritiesbutnorelevantdocumentationhasbeenreceived. DisasterRiskMitigationProgramme.ThegoaloftheProgrammeistoreducesocial,economicandenvironmentalimpactsofdisastersonAfricanpeopleand economies.Theobjectivesareto:increasepoliticalcommitmenttodisasterriskreduction;improveidentificationandassessmentofdisasterrisks;enhance knowledgemanagementandpublicawarenessofdisasterriskreduction;improvegovernanceofdisasterriskreductioninstitutions;integratedisasterrisk reductioninemergencyresponsemanagement;buildresilienceatnationallevelstorespondtodisastersadequately,andenhancemitigationandadaptation mechanisms,especiallyatlocallevels. TransboundaryForestResourceManagement.ThisprojectaimsatpromotingbiodiversityconservationintheHighGuineaForestsofWestAfrica(Liberia, Guinea,SierraLeoneandIvoryCoast)throughthecreationoftransboundaryforestparkswiththeactiveinvolvementofthelocalcommunities.Theproject aimstostrengthencollaborativerelationshipsbetweenthenationalforestryinstitutionstominimizeillegalcrossbordertradeinforestandanimalproducts. FoutaDjallonIntegratedManagementproject. Thisproject willsupporttheupkeepandmaintenanceofforestandwaterresourcesoftheFoutaDjallon highlandsinGuinea.ThisareaisbeingdescribedasthewatertowerofWestAfrica,asmostofthemajorriversintheregionoriginatefromthishighland.The projectsupportsnationalauthoritiesin8membercountriestomonitorandevaluatetheconditionsofnaturalresources,especiallydownstream.Theproject willsoonbenefitfromGEFfundingtoestablishanobservatoryfortheoverallmonitoringofresourcesandalsobuildcapacitiesatthenationallevels. AtlanticCoastalerosionisamajorenvironmentalissuefornumerouscountriesinWestAfrica, aswasrecognizedintheAbidjanand NairobiConventionsandin theArusharesolutionin1993.TheecologicallysignificantAtlanticCoastaldesertisthreatenedinthisprocess,asaremorepopulatedareas.Effortstocombat erosionwillrequirecoordinatedapproachesandsignificantfunding.

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Tourism

TOURISM
BringingtheWorldtoAfrica

The expansion of tourism is one of the principal engines for growth in Africa. Tourism is a recognized global industry, which can have great impact on local development trends. Tourism generates increased wealth and employment,andcanstimulatetheprotectionandenhancementofenvironmentalandculturalresources.Trans boundary tourism initiatives also have the potential to promote regional integration. Africa offers considerable, albeitlargelyuntapped,potentialfortourism.Inthepast30years,tourismdevelopmentinAfricaasawholehas beenquitepositive.TheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)namedAfricaasthefastestgrowingtouristdestination in 2005 and 2006. Africas tourism development prospects to 2020 are promising. That year, it will receive an estimated 77 million tourists, and tourism will be among the economys most dynamic sectors owing to its contribution of foreign currency earnings to the balance of payments, its creation of direct and indirect employment and its influence on other sectors such as agriculture, fishing and handicrafts. 35 Realizing the potentialbenefitstourismcouldofferAfrica,manyAfricancountrieshaveidentifiedtourismasaprioritysectorfor economicgrowth. TourismsectorinAfricaisstillatanearlystageofdevelopment.ThetourismindustrythroughoutAfricaoperates belowinternationalcompetitivestandards.Africastourismindustryprovidestypicallyseasonal,lowwagework, inadequate service, and there is significant leakage of tourismgenerated revenues. Heads of States and governments, financial institutions and the general public are still insufficiently aware of tourisms economic importancefortheircountries.Awiderangeofconstraintscurrentlyimpingesonthesuccessfuldevelopmentofa vibrant tourism sector in Africa. The African Steering Committee of Ministers of Tourism has identified and categorizedtheseintofourclasses,namely:generic,structural,tourismsupplyassetsandtourismssustainability. Many of these constraints are related to the special situation of Africa, such as HIV/AIDS, international debt burden, regional wars and conflicts. As a destination, Africa suffers from a poor security and quality image. InterventionsarerequiredtooptimizetourismspotentialinachievingMDGsandAfricamustlookatwaysinwhich thesectorcanbepromotedthroughtheregions. Africa needs a strategic framework that not only encourages profitable investment but also promotes social inclusion and poverty alleviation. Realizing the challenges and opportunities the tourism industry presents to Africa,anumberofAfricancountrieshavedevelopedTourismMasterPlanswiththeassistanceoftheWTOand developmentpartners. In 2004, the Tourism Action Plan for AU/NEPAD was adopted under the guidance of the AfricanMinistersofTourism.ThemissionoftheActionPlanistooptimizetheroleoftourismasanengineanda catalystforeconomicdevelopmentandgrowthinAfricathroughtheestablishmentofaconduciveenvironment, regional cooperation, advocacy and stakeholder participation. Recognizing that different RECs, and different countries,areatdifferentstagesofdevelopingtheirtourismsector,theActionPlanismeanttogalvanisenational andsubregionalaction.ThisActionPlanfocusesontheissuesthatarebestimplementedatthesubregionaland continental level, with clear linkages to ongoing national activities. The challenge facing African countries is ensuringeffectiveimplementationoftheActionPlanbybuildingonexistinginitiatives.Itisimportanttonotethat the successful implementation of the Action Plan will largely depend on the extent to which tourism activities, beingmultifacetedeconomicactivities,arelinkedtoothersectorsofNEPAD,suchasinfrastructure.

35

Seewww.unwto.org/regional/africa/programme/specific_programme.html

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Tourism and Regional Integration in Africa


As a development catalyst, tourism development can generate a positive spillover effect on other sectors, as well as sharing the development cost. Transboundary tourism initiatives have the great potential to bring economy of scale and promote regional integration. NEPADhasrecognizedthatAfricaprovidesprospectsfor creative partnership between the public sectors in beneficiation, agroindustries, tourism and human resources development in addressing the challenges of urban renewal and rural development. Early steps are beingtakentopromotetourismonaregionalbasisinthe Horn of Africa countries, for example. Consequently, AU/NEPAD has been actively promoting strategic interventions in the tourism sector at the regional and continentallevelbyfocusingonthefollowingareas: Identifykeyanchorprojectsatthenationaland subregionallevels,whichwillgeneratesignificant spinoffs and assist in promoting economic integration; Developaregionalmarketingstrategy;and Promote partnerships such as those formed throughRECs.

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN TOURISMSECTOR


Objective 1 Create an enabling regulatory environment; Objective 2 Strengthen institutional capacity; Objective3Promotetourismmarketing; Objective 4 Promote research and development Objective5Promoteinvestmentintourism infrastructureandproducts; Objective 6 Reinforce human resources andqualityassurance; Objective 7 Establish and adopt a code of conductandethicsfortourism;and Objective8Mobilizefinancialresources.

To realize Africas great potential in tourism, AU/NEPAD are also working in partnership with national, regional, continental and global organizations to promote a comprehensive programme of regional integration in the tourismsector.

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinTOURISM
The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in the tourism sector is the Tourism Action Plan for the Africa Union (AU)/New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD). According to the Action Plan, tourism will be established as a key instrument in Africas transformation and development. The tourism sector is expected to contributesuccessfullytopovertyeradication,economicgrowthanddiversificationby2020. NospecificpriorityprojectsorprogrammeswereidentifiedtobeincludedinthecurrentActionPlan.Earlystage programmeandprojectIdentificationstudiescouldusefullybeundertakentoelaboratetheTourismActionPlan.

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GOVERNANCEANDPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TowardsaDemocraticFutureforAfrica


Governance underlines the basis for sustainable development. Governance is interlinked with institutionalized values such as democracy, observance of human rights, accountability, transparency and greater efficiency and effectiveness of the public sector. Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are based on broad consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most vulnerable are heard in decisionmakingovertheallocationofdevelopmentresources. 36 ImprovinggoodgovernanceinAfricaisofcentral importance.Governanceisseenasaneffectivemeansofenablingandguaranteeingdevelopment,buildingand/or restoringstabilityasopposedtoconflictincountries,regionsandsubregions. Africa has made good progress in improving governance; it also faces serious challenges. Calls for good governance in Africa have led to some progress, particularly in improving the regulatory environment for businesses.Improvementsingovernancearecorrelatedwithadvancementsinotherareas.Morethanhalfofthe continentfollowsthedemocraticprocessandthelevelofresourcesbeingcommittedbyAfricangovernmentsto tackling poverty and other problems is rising, along with the revenue base. However, as Africa proceeds to addressproblemsofgovernanceindevelopment,itfacessomefundamentalchallenges,includinga)theneedto buildthecapacityofStatestoexecutetheirresponsibilitiesbymeansofmechanismsforpoliticaloversightandthe management of statesociety relations; b) the need to institute appropriate structures and mechanisms that consideractivecitizensparticipation,fosteringgenderequality,womensempowerment,humanrightsandmore active and meaningful participation of civil society in the development process; and c) the need to reduce the costs of doing business by improving the quality of regulatory frameworks, reducing administrative barriers, improvingphysicalinfrastructurefacilitiesandstampingoutcorruption. The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is regarded as Africas innovative thinking on governance. The various bodies of the AU play an important role in the evolution of governance mechanisms in Africa. In March2003,NEPADadoptedtheAPRMprocess.APRMisamutuallyagreedinstrumentvoluntarilyaccededtoby memberstatesoftheAUasaselfmonitoringmechanism.TheoverarchinggoalofAPRMisforallparticipating countriestoacceleratetheirprogresstowardsadoptingandimplementingtheprioritiesandprogramsofNEPAD throughachievingmutuallyagreedobjectivesandcompliancewithbestpracticeswithregardtoeachAPRMarea ofgovernanceanddevelopment,namely:themainpillarsoftheDeclarationonDemocracy,Political,Economic and Corporate Governance. The implementation of APRM to date has not proceeded without issues. It has encounteredanumberofchallenges,rangingfromfinancial,capacity,proceduralandoperationaltopolitical,both at the national and continental levels. There are now 29 countries that have voluntarily acceded to the Mechanism.Ofthese29,14haveestablishedtheirnationalstructuresandareatvariousstagesofimplementing theAPRMprocess.Theprocesshasthreephases,startingwithaselfassessment,followedbypeercountryreview missions,andfinallyimplementationofaNationalProgrammeofAction.

36

GovernanceforSustainableHumanDevelopment,AUNDPPolicyPaper,UNDP1997,pp.23.

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GOVERNANCEANDPUBLICADMINISTRATIONandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
Africas integration should be based on a set of core values held in common, including good governance, anti corruptionandruleoflaw.Improvedgovernancewillfurtherstrengthenregionalintegrationandharmonization. In order to address the governance challenges, AU/NEPAD are working in partnership with national, regional, continental and global organizations to promote a comprehensive programme in support of accountability, transparency,participation,combatingcorruptionandpromotionofanenablinglegalandjudicialframework.The mainregionalfocusisthecontinuousoperationoftheAPRManditsincreasedmembership.Othersubstantialand importantinitiativesencompassthedevelopmentandimplementationofprogrammesforefficientadministration of public resources, including the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, the Construction Transparency Initiative, the African Agenda for Good Financial Governance and the Collaborative Africa Budget Reform Initiative(CABRI).

Partners
AU/NEPAD is working in cooperation with a number of specialized continental and regional organizations to promoteregionalintegrationingovernanceinAfrica,including: Regional/ContinentalPartners UnitedNationsEconomicCommissionforAfrica(UNECA) AfricanDevelopmentBank(AfDB) InternationalPartners UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme(UNDP) TheWorldBankGroup EuropeanUnion The Economic Commission for Africa coordinates United Nations support to NEPAD at the regional level. Its Governance and Public Administration Division (GPAD) aims to enhance the national capacity of ECA member statesingovernanceandmanagementofdevelopmentprocesses,aswellassupportingtheAPRMprocess. TheAfricanDevelopmentBanksupportsregionalgovernanceinitiativesthroughtheAPRMprocess,byfurthering adoption of international standards and regional harmonization of auditing and payment systems, public procurement,businesslawandantimoneylaundering,andbysupportingtheintegrityreformslistedabove. UNDP contributes to and administers the APRM Trust Fund, which provides support to the APRM Panel and Secretariatoperations,basedonaThreeYearStrategicPlan(20082012). The World Banks strategy for assisting Africa, through accelerating shared growth, building capable states, sharpening the focus on results and strengthening development partnerships, has had positive impacts on governanceascountrieshaveimprovedtheirrankingsamongcountriesreformingtheclimatefordoingbusiness. TheAfricanUnionandtheEUhaveestablishedaPartnershiponDemocraticGovernanceandHumanRights,to bring their respective views together and consolidate a common approach. This will include promotion of the APRM, encouraging ratification and implementation of the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governanceandrelatedactivities.Participationofwomenindemocraticprocesses,governanceandthestruggle againstcorruptionwillbemainstreamedthroughalltheactivitiesunderthisprogramme.

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GTZandotherbilateralpartnershaveconsistentlyprovidedtechnicalandfinancialsupportfortheAPRM,beyond costsfundedbytheTrustFund.

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusin GOVERNANCEANDPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION


The principal guiding document for AU/NEPADs activitiesinthegovernanceandpublicadministration sector is the Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance approved at the 6th Summit of the NEPAD Heads of State and GovernmentheldinMarch2003inAbuja,Nigeria. TheparticipatingHeadsofStateandGovernmentof the member states of the AU have agreed to work together in policy and action in pursuit of the following objectives: Democracy and Good Political Governance, Economic and Corporate Governance, SocioEconomicDevelopmentandAfricaPeerReview Mechanism. These objectives are elaborated in the accompanyingbox. The APRM was reviewed at the 11th African Partnership Forum in November, 2008. The efforts made by African countries to achieve good governancewerecommended.Careshouldbetaken to continue the momentum of this ongoing process andtoimplementnationalprogrammes,recognizing that governance issues call for a long term perspective and tenacious efforts. Development partners declared their readiness to continue to supporttheAPRM. The APRM postreview National Programme of Action (NPoA) Implementation Support programme has been established by the NEPAD Steering Committee, to assist countries to follow up on commitments made through the APRM process.

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN THE GOVERNANCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONSECTOR


Objective 1 Supporting democracy and the democratic process by (i) ensuring that national constitutions reflect the democratic ethos and provide for demonstrably accountable governance; (ii) promoting political representation; (iii) strengthening and/or establishing appropriate electoral administration and oversight for free, fair and credible elections; (v) heightening public awareness of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights, especially in educational institutions. Objective 2 Supporting Good Governance by (i)adoptingclearcodes,standardsandindicatorsof good governance; (ii) supporting an accountable, efficientandeffectivecivilservice;(iii)ensuringthe effective functioning of parliaments and other accountability institutions including parliamentary committees and anticorruption bodies; and (iv) ensuringtheindependenceofthejudicialsystem. Objective 3 Promoting and protecting human rightsby(i)facilitatingdevelopmentofvibrantcivil society organizations, including strengthening human rights institutions (ii) supporting the UN Charter on Human Rights and the African Commission and Court on Human and Peoples Rightsand(iii)ensuringresponsiblefreeexpression andfreedomofthepress. Objective 4 Furthering Economic and Corporate Governance by adopting and enforcing codes on good practices on transparency in monetary and financial policies; fiscal and budget transparency; public debt management; accounting and auditing standards; banking supervision and antimoney laundering;standardsintransparencyandfinancial management and core principles for securities and insurancesupervisionandregulation.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinGOVERNANCEANDPUBLICADMINISTRATION,20102015
Title Region EstimatedCost, *Commitments Development Stage Stage4: Implementation andOperations Description Contact

AfricanPeer Review Mechanism (APRM),and PostReview National Programmeof Action(NPoA) Implementation Support Programme

Continental US$7.1million (2007)

APRM is a mutually agreed instrument voluntarily APRMSecretariat acceded to by Member States of the AU as a self NEPADSecretariat monitoringmechanism.Itsoverarchinggoalisforall participating countries to adopt and implement the pillarsofthe2003AbujaDeclarationonDemocracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance. The process has three phases, starting with a self assessment, followed by peer country review missions, and finally implementation of a national ProgrammeofAction(NPoA).TheNEPADSecretariat provides a programme of support to countries to implementvariousdimensionsoftheNPoA.

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PEACEANDSECURITY
PromotingGrowthandDevelopmentthroughPoliticalStability
Overthepasttwodecades,theAfricancontinenthascontinuedtobeplaguedbylongtermand,insomecases, interrelated crises and violent conflicts that have had a negative impact on the continents development and caused immense human suffering. Indeed, today there is some form of armed conflict raging in each region of Africa.ArmedconflictsresultinlossofGDPandconcomitantpoverty.ItisestimatedthatconflictscostAfricaan averageofUS$18bnperannum 37andthatinordertomeetMillenniumDevelopmentGoal(MDG)1ofhalvingthe percentageofpeoplelivinginpovertyby2015,AfricamustsustainacombinedGDPgrowthrateof7percentper annum (effective from 2002). Conflicts and civil strife have and continue to impede GDP growth across the continent.Ifthissituationpersists,itispracticaltoassumethatthecriticalMDGgoalofhalvingpovertyby2015 willnotbeachieved. InlightoftheseriousimplicationsofconflictonseveralaspectsofthedevelopmentofAfrica,initiativeshavebeen launched on a continentwide and regional level to address conflict issues. These initiatives range from peace buildingtopostconflictreconstructionanddevelopment.Onecriticismoftheinitiativesimplementedtodateis thatmostseemadhocresponsestospecificpressingissueswithoutanoverarchingharmonizationframework. 38 Nevertheless,alltheinitiativesimplementedcontainablueprintonhowtomoveAfricafromitscurrentstateof prevalent armed conflict to a condition of prevailing peace and security. A central theme in the African Union/NEPADagendaisthebringingtogetheroftheissuesofpeaceandsecurity,governanceconstitutionalism, economicdevelopmentandinternationalpartnerships. A recent mutual accountability report indicates that the number of interstate armed conflicts in subSaharan Africafellfromsixteenin1999tosevenin2006.Althoughconflictshavecontinuedtobreakout,thishasbeenat around half the rate of the 1990s. Conflicts are ending at more than twice the rate of previous decades. Post conflict peacebuilding missions have expanded and played a positive role in helping prevent negotiated settlementsfrombreakingdown.Reporteddeathsfrominterstatearmedconflictsfellfrom100,000in1999to less than 2000 in 2006. The number of coups has decreased, and other security indicators are also positive refugeenumbershavedeclinedbyover60%since1994. TheillicitproliferationofSmallArmsandLightWeapons(SALW)isstillhavinganimpact:outoftheestimated500 million SALWs in circulation worldwide, 100 million are found in Africa. Efforts should focus on (i) increased funding for African peacesupport efforts and accelerated implementation of capacitybuilding programmes; (ii) implementation of action on SALW underUN and African instruments; (iii) development and implementation of continentalandregionalinstrumentsagainsttheillegalexploitationofnaturalresources,and(iv)SecuritySector Reform(SSR).DevelopmentpartnersshouldworkwithAfricatoensure(i)moresecure,predictable,flexibleand coordinatedfundingarrangementsinsupportofthepeacebuildingandpeacekeepingeffortsofboththeAUand RECs; (ii) full implementation ofcommitments under UN and where relevant other (e.g. EU) instruments on the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons; and (iii) strengthened mechanisms to stop illicit trade in natural

37

PeaceandSecurityDimensionsoftheAfricanUnion;BackgroundPaperforADFIII;InterAfricaGroupandJustice Africa;AbdulMohammed,PaulosTesfagiorgisandAlexdeWaal;March2002 38 ibid.

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resources linked to conflict, through such mechanisms as the Kimberley Process and the Extractive Industry TransparencyInitiative(EITI).

PEACE&SECURITYandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
TheProtocolRelatingtotheEstablishmentofthePeaceandSecurityCounciloftheAfricanUnion,adoptedin Durban on 9 July 2002 by the first Ordinary Session of the AU Assembly, established the African Peace and SecurityArchitecture(APSA).TheArchitecturerevolvesaroundthePeaceandSecurityCouncilasitskeypillar.The Peace and Security Council is supported by the Continental Early Warning System (CEWS), the African Standby Force(ASF),PaneloftheWise,PeaceFundandRelationswiththeRegionalMechanismsforConflictPrevention, Management and Resolution. In addition to these, the APSA is also continually being developed, to address the preventionofconflictthroughthedevelopmentoftoolsforstructuralconflictprevention,aswellaspostconflict developmentandreconstruction(PCRD).InthisrespecttheAUPCRDframeworkwasadoptedin2006inBanjul, The Gambia and the Declaration on African Union Border Programme was adopted in 2007. The role of the Architectureistofacilitateprevention,managementandresolutionofconflictsinAfrica.Peaceandsecurityisa majorfocusofanumberofRegionalEconomicCommunities(RECs),particularlythoselocatedinconflictzones. GlobalPartners To further its efforts in the promotion of peace, security and stability in Africa, AU/NEPAD are working in partnership with global institutions including the G8, The European Union and the United Nations through the SecurityCouncil. TheG8.TheG8havesupportedthecreationoftheAfricanStandbyForce(ASF)andfocusedondefiningstrategies andguidelinesfortheASFinareassuchaslogistics,communicationandtheciviliancomponentsofpeacesupport operations.Currently,AUledpeacesupportoperationsareunderwayinSomalia(AMISOM).TheAfricanMissionin Darfur/Sudan(AMIS),hastransformedintoahybridAUUNMission(UNAMID).Assistingindevelopinglongterm strategiesandreliablefundingmechanismsisanimportantnextstep.G8membershavemadepledgestotheUN Peace Building Fund launched in October 2006. The G8 have also strongly supported efforts by several African countriestotoughenlawswithregardtotheillicitproliferationandtraffickingofSmallArmsandLightWeapons (SALW). The European Union. The EU and the AU have a wellestablished partnership and the EU is fully committed to developingitfurther.AcornerstoneoftheEUAUpartnershipistheJointAfricaEUStrategy,agreeduponin 2007, which is accompanied by an ambitious and concrete threeyear action plan for the period until 2010. It focuses on important objectives that range from security to democratic governance, human rights, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), energy, infrastructure, science and technology, ICT and space, climate change, migration,mobility,andemployment,tradeandregionalintegration.Thefirstoftheeightstrategicpartnerships undertheStrategyisthePartnershipforPeaceandSecurity,whichhasthreemainelements;politicaldialogue, operationalization of the African Peace and Security Architecture and predictable funding of Africanled peace supportoperations. UnitedNations.CollaborationbetweentheUnitedNationsandtheAfricanUnionisbeingaddressedinteraliaby theAUUNtenyearCapacityBuildingProgrammeaswellastherecentlyreleasedProdiReport.TheProdireport exploredhowtheUnitedNationsandtheAfricanUnioncanenhancethepredictability,sustainabilityandflexibility of financing of United Nationsmandated peace operations undertaken by the African Union. The panel has recommended the establishment of a multidonor trust fund for the purposes of supporting African Union peacekeepingcapacitywhichshouldbepremisedonAfricanownership.Theobjectiveofthefundistoconsolidate various current sources of support for the African Union and secure additional resources from current and new donors,buildingonthecurrentEuropeanUnionfundedAfricanPeaceFacility(APF).Collaborationbetweenthe AU and UN is active in the areas of conflict management, peace support operations and mediation. At the moment,theUNissupportingAMISOMbasedonwhatasimilarUNmissionofthesamesizecosts.Thissupport

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came through UN Security Council Resolution 1863(2009) and for the first time draws on resources from UN assessedcontributions.

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusinPEACE&SECURITY
The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in the peace and security sector is the Solemn Declaration on Defence and Security signed by the Heads of State and Government of Member States of the African Union, meetinginitsSecondExtraordinarySession,inSirte,Great LibyanArabJamahiriya,on28February,2004. The African Action Plan of the African Union/NEPAD proposes a policy framework for the development of an AfricanPeaceandSecurityArchitecture(APSA)withinthe Africancontinent.Thisarchitectureisessentiallyasetof African Union structures working in conjunction with the RECs and Regional Mechanisms for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (RMs), as directed by the Peace and Security Council of the African Union. Key elements of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) include postconflict reconstruction, peace monitoring, grass roots peace building efforts and other similar initiatives. The Peace and Security Council of the African Union relies on the following elements to coordinateeffortsintheAPSA. Peace and Security Council (PSC): The PSC was established as a standing decisionmaking organ for the prevention,managementandresolutionofconflictsinthe Continentandtofacilitatetimelyandefficientresponseto conflict and crisis situations in Africa. Since its inauguration,thePSChasplayedaneverincreasingrolein the promotion of peace, security and stability on the continent. PaneloftheWise:Anadvisoryorgan,thePanelismade up of eminent African personalities and is charged with theresponsibilityofcarryingoutdiplomaticinterventions attheearlystageofaconflict,withaviewtopreventing its escalation. The Panel also advises the AU on conflict preventioninitiatives. Continental Early Warning System (CEWS): A conflict early warning mechanism that supports the Peace and Security Council in anticipating and preventing conflicts. The CEWS is composed of the Situation Room and the observation and monitoring centres of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs). The CEWS monitors and analysessituationsinAfricabasedonaspecificindicators moduleforonwardtransmissiontoConflictManagement

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES INTHEPEACE&SECURITYSECTOR


Objective 1 Promote mutual trust and confidence and cooperation in defence matters, through training of military personnel; exchange of military intelligence and information; development of military doctrine; and the building of collective capacity. Objective 2 Enhance capacity for and coordination of, early action for conflict prevention containment, management, resolution and elimination of conflicts, includingthedeploymentandsustenanceof peacekeeping missions and thus promote initiatives that will preserve and strengthen peaceanddevelopmentinAfrica. Objective3Furtherhumanitarianactionsto ensure that international humanitarian law is applied during conflicts between and among African States to include addressing the problems of refugees and internally displaced persons at the continental, regionalandnationallevels. Objective 4 Assist in postconflict peace building and reconstruction efforts and ensuring that international environmental standards are maintained including during periodsofconflict. Objective 5 Promote and encourage democratic practices, good governance and the rule of law, protect human rights and fundamental freedoms, respect for the sanctity of human life and international humanitarian law, as part of efforts for preventingconflicts.

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DirectorateattheAUCommission. African Standby Force (ASF): The African Standby Force is a continental multidimensional intervention force designed primarily to intervene in conflict situations and assist in the maintenance of peace and security. The forceiscomposedofbrigadesprovidedbyeachofthefiveregions(ECOWAS,SADC,ECCAS,EASBRIGandNARC). Funding.TheSpecialFundisacontinentalfinancialmechanismcreatedtosupporttheAfricanUnionsactivitiesin thearenasofpeaceandsecurity.SixpercentoftheAfricanUnionsannualbudgetisallocatedtotheFundwith othercontributionsbydonors.Sinceitscreationin2004underthe9thEuropeanDevelopmentFund,theAfrican PeaceFacility(APF)hasprovided440milliontofosterpeaceandsecurityinAfrica,thusprovidingasteadybase offinancingfortheseimportantprogrammes.

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CAPACITYDEVELOPMENT BuildingaCapableandResponsiveLeadershipforAfricasFuture
Capacity development is a fundamental issue to enable Africa to attain MDG goals. Africa is pursuing its development agenda in a challenging, complex and ever changing environment. Capacity on the soft side, namelythecapacitytocarryoutconsistentdesign,implementation,monitoringandevaluationactivities,iscritical to leverage outcomes from existing investments and to attract more financing from both public and private sectors. Low capacity has an adverse effect on the conceptualization, management, execution and impact of development initiatives. Capacity development is a prerequisite for the implementation of African development strategies,andmustbeundertakenatnational,regionalandcontinentallevels.NEPADrepresentsanexpressionof the will and determination of the AU leadership to steer Africa to higher levels of sustainable development through adoption of policies and strategies to create an enabling institutional, technical, administrative and politicalenvironment. LimitedcapacityinAfricancountrieshasbeenabottleneckforAfricasdevelopment.Generalissuesofcapacity buildinginAfricaincludetheimpactsofHIV/AIDS,theneedtohavehighlyeffectiveleadershipandwelltrained civil servants, and the lack of efficient administrative and delivery systems. These deficiencies arise from a combination of factors ranging from individual, institutional and systemic constraints, ranging from weak harmonizationandintegrationtoskillandknowledgegaps.Traditionalcapacitybuildingisverymuchdetermined by a somewhat limited approach of building up capacity through training measures for individuals, provision of material and financial support as well as organizational restructuring, which fail to address the deeply systemic capacityconstraints.AfricaneedsacapacitydevelopmentstrategythattakesintoaccountAfricasuniqueneeds, priorities,challengesandcontext. Capacity building is a longterm process requiring a systemic approach. The NEPAD Secretariat has launched a Capacity Development Initiative (CDI) to take on the challenge of conceptualizing, developing, adopting and implementingaCapacityDevelopmentStrategicFramework(CDSF).Basedoncontinentwideconsultation,CDSF createsacommonunderstandingofcapacitygapsandchallenges,identifieskeyelementsofastrategyforcapacity and skill development at all levels. It advocates transformation, the mindset change as well as dealing with the structuralandsystemicchallengeshamperingeffectiveandefficientservicedelivery.TheCDIisnotframedasa standaloneagendaandneedstobebuiltonasolidnationalfoundationtofacilitateintegrationormainstreaming intonationalplanningandbudgetaryframeworksincludingsectorplans.Moreover,CDSFneedstobechampioned at all levels by a range of stakeholders, not only governments. NEPAD is playing an important role in capacity developmentinitiativesinthecontinentasithasastrategicadvantagetobeachangeagentthroughfacilitationby RECs.

CAPACITYDEVELOPMENTandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
CapacitydevelopmentisacentralstrategytotransformtheperformanceofAfricansystemsofservicedeliveryand economic/socialdevelopment.Theneedforregionalintegrationincapacitydevelopmenthasbeenacceleratedby the fact that more and more high quality and viable African projects and programmes have adopted a regional/continentaloutlook,andaimtoensuresustainableregionaleconomicdevelopmentintegrationthrough cooperationamongAfricancountries.Lowcapacitylevelsinsomecountries,inabilitybyotherstofinanceprojects ontheirown,andpoliticaldifferenceshindertheintegrationprocess.Asregionalpublicinstitutions,RECsandtheir subsidiariescouldeffectivelycreateunifiedpoliticalspacefornationalpoliciestobealignedandharmonized.

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Capacity development in the RECs is the focus of enhanced capacity development being planned in 2009 by a consortium of partners, in order to enhance and acceleratetheregionaldevelopmentprocess.

Partners
AU/NEPADisworkingincooperationwithanumberof continentalandregionalorganizationspromoting regionalintegrationincapacitybuildinginAfrica including: ContinentalandInternationalPartners AfricaCapacityBuildingFoundation(ACBF) UNECA SouthernAfricaTrust(SAT) Germany(GTZ) FlandersInternationalCooperationAgency(FICA)

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN THECAPACITYDEVELOPMENTSECTOR


Objective 1 Address Africas real capacity challengesinasustainablemannerthrougha strategic perspective focusing on organizationalsystemscapacities. Objective2Worktowardsthefulfillmentof thevisionofAfricanrenewalespousedinthe NEPAD framework through fundamental transformation, reorientation, realignment and strengthening of the African institutional framework. Objective 3 Promote the adoption and application of the CDSF by countries and institutions to enable them to comprehensivelyidentifyandapplysolutions to capacity challenges in order to achieve transform action and change of mindsets. Engagement with countries and RECs on NEPAD lays the foundation for meeting this transformativeobjective.

AU/NEPADsStrategicFocusin CAPACITYDEVELOPMENT
The guiding document for AU/NEPADs activities in capacity development sector is the Capacity DevelopmentStrategicFramework(CDSF).Itsaimsare:

(a) to address Africas real capacity challenges in a sustainable manner through a strategic perspective focusingonorganizationalsystemscapacities; (b) to work toward the fulfillment of the vision of African renewal espoused in the NEPAD framework throughfundamentaltransformation,reorientation, realignment and strengthening of the African institutionalframework;and (c) to promote the adoption and application of the CDSF by countries and institutions, to enable them to comprehensivelyidentifyandapplysolutionstocapacitychallengesinordertoachievetransformationand changeofmindsets. EngagementwithcountriesandRECsonNEPADlaysthefoundationformeetingthistransformativeobjective.Its objectivesarelistedintheaccompanyingbox.Asafundamentalinstrument,CDSFoffersacommonstructure,a holistic and integrated approachbased on performanceand competencies. The CDSF consists of 6cornerstones identified as the most critical success factors for capacity building in Africa: Leadership Transformation, Citizen Transformation, Knowledgebased and Innovationdriven Decision and Development Processes, Utilizing African Potentials, Skills and Resources for Development, Capacity of Capacity Builders, Integrated Planning and ImplementationApproachesandContinuousImprovementProcesses.

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinCAPACITYDEVELOPMENT,20102015
Title IntegrationofNEPAD intonationalstructures (5pilotprojectsin5 regions) EstimatedCost, *Commitments Continental 1,440,000 euro (overfiveyears) Region Development Stage Stage2: Feasibility/ NeedsAssessment(Pilot Projects) Description Contact

RevitalizationofAfrican Continental US$ 250,000 for UniversitiesandTertiary Identification Institutionsusing studies NEPADCapacity DevelopmentStrategic Framework(CDSF) CapacitySupportto AfricanParliamentsand Parliamentarians(5 pilotprojects) Continental US$ 250,000 for Identification studies

Stage1:Programme/ ProjectIdentification

Stage1: Programme/ ProjectIdentification

Theobjectiveofthisinitiativeisto NEPAD increasestakeholderunderstanding ofNEPAD,withaviewtoincreasing nationalownershipoftheprogramme andacceleratingitsimplementation, includingregionalengagementswith MinistriesinchargeofEconomic PlanningfortheintegrationofNEPAD principlesandpriorities,andthe CDSF. Thepurposeofthisinitiativeisto NEPAD encouragetheapplicationofCDSFs cornerstoneprinciplesintertiary educationinstitutions,sothat graduateswillhaveappropriatesoft aswellastechnicalskills,to encourageresearchtosupportpolicy decisionmakingandtomainstream climatechangeintocurricula. ThisprogrammewillsupportNEPAD NEPAD implementationinAgricultureby equippingandlinking parliamentarianswithagricultural sciencecommunities,usingtheCDSF frameworkinselectedcountries.

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GenderDevelopment

GENDERDEVELOPMENT AdvancingGenderEqualityinAfrica
Women constitute over 52 % of the African population and contribute significantly to the development of the continent. They remain the backbone of the agricultural sector, key players in the service industry, undisputed drivers of the informal sector and home economy. However, they rarely enjoy accesstobasicservices,equalopportunitiesandare often excluded from major decision making processes. Inrecognitionoftheirroleandtheconstraintsfacing women, African leaders have, through Articles 4(1) of the Constitutive Act of the African Union (2000), adopted a gender parity principle. Further, through InequalitiesinSocialInstitutionsWorldwide theadoptionoftheProtocoltotheAfricanCharteron Source:OECD,GID HumanandPeoplesRightsontheRightsofWomen inAfricaandthesigningoftheSolemnDeclarationonGenderEquality,theHeadsofStatehavedemonstrated political commitment to gender equality at the highest level. The Statute of the AUC and NEPADs foundation documentmakeaclearcallforcentrallyanchoringgenderwithintheAU/NEPADpolicyframework.Indeed,oneof thetwogoalsofNEPADisspecificallydevotedtotheempowermentofwomen.Inthisregard,alloftheorgansof theAU,includingtheAfricanUnionCommission(AUC)andNEPAD,arecommittedtoensuringthatgenderequality ismainstreamedinstitutionally. In order for AU/NEPAD to close the existing gender gaps and address widespread gender disparities, it needs additional financial resources to use towards institutional capacity building, technical expertise and funding of special interventions addressing existing barriers to gender equality. Additional resources will support gender mainstreaming and the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action at the national level as well as build capacitieslinkedtoprojectimplementationandinterventionsthataddressgenderbasedmarginalizationthrough socialexclusion,vulnerabilityandfororphanedchildren.

GENDERDEVELOPMENTandRegionalIntegrationinAfrica
TheProtocoltotheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoplesRightsontheRightsofWomeninAfricaexpandedits definitionintheDeclarationontheEliminationofViolenceagainstWomenbyincludingwithinitsambiteconomic violence or harm. 39 Certainly, one of the issues for the AUs Gender Policy is to not only ensure that the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is ratified by each country, but also implemented by each member state. The RECs and AU structure will be important in achieving MDG 3 and implementationofCEDAWoverthenextfiveyears.

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Prior to the finalization of the AUs Gender Policy, the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples RightsontheRightsofWomeninAfricawasadoptedand theSolemnDeclarationonGenderEqualitywassigned. 40

AU/NEPAD STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN THEGENDERDEVELOPMENTSECTOR


Objective1Toadvocateforthepromotion of a gender responsive environment and practices as well as the enforcement of humanrights,genderequalityandwomens empowerment commitments made at international, continental, regional and Memberstateslevel; Objective 2 To initiate and accelerate gender mainstreaming in institutions, legal frameworks, policies, programmes, strategic frameworks and plans, Human Resources (HR) and performance management systems, resource allocation and decision makingprocessesatalllevels; Objective 3 To promote the development of guidelines and enforcement of standards against sexual and genderbased violence, gender insensitive language and actions in the workplace (this includes the AU Commissionandotherorgans,theRECsand MemberStates); Objective 4 To develop a Gender Management System (GMS) within the AU and promote its adoption within other AU organs,theRECsandmemberstates; Objective 5 To address genderbased barriers to the free movement of persons and goods across borders throughout the continent; Objective 6 To promote equitable access for both women and men to/control over resources,knowledge,information,landand business ownership, and services such as education and training, healthcare, credit andlegalrights;and Objective7Tofacilitateimplementationof remedial measures to address existing in qualitiesinaccesstoandcontroloverfactors ofproductionincludingland. Source:AfricanUnionGenderPolicy

AU/NEPADs Strategic Focus in GENDER DEVELOPMENT


TheguidingdocumentforAU/NEPADsactivitiesingender istheAfricanUnionGenderPolicyadoptedin2009.The objectivesoutlinedinthegenderanddevelopmentarea fromtheAUPolicyaresetoutintheadjacentbox. PolicyCommitments The policy commitments of the AU Gender Policy are based on AU and international gender equality instruments including: the Constitutive Act of the African Union, MDGs, SDGEA, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights related to the Rights of Women in Africa, BPFA, UN Resolution 1325 (2000) on PeaceandSecurityemphasizinggendermainstreamingas core in the promotion of culture of peace, promotion of democracy,economicandsocialdevelopmentandhuman rights. The policy commitments are overarching and anchored on the pillars of AU Organs, RECs and Member States institutional policy statements, strategic plans, roadmaps and action plans for achieving gender equality and womens empowerment targets in eight areas as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Creating an enabling and stable political environment LegalProtectionActionsagainstDiscriminationfor ensuringgenderequality Mobilisation of different players for Gender EqualityinAfrican Rationalisation and harmonisation of Regional Economic Communities Gender Policies and Programmes ResourceMobilisation CapacityBuildingforGenderMainstreaming GenderMainstreaminginallsectors Maintaining peace, security, settlement of conflictsandreconstruction.

5. 6. 7. 8.

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AAP,GenderandDevelopmentPreamble,March2008

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The African Union Gender Policy Plan of Action will outline a series of steps towards achieving gender mainstreamingacrossallofthesectorswheretheAUworks.Theexpectedoutcomesofthisgendermainstreaming planwilltargetmostoftheAAPsectors,assetoutinthetablebelow. Sector CrossCuttingpriorities ExpectedOutcomes Infrastructure Developgendersensitivityinoperationsofinfrastructure Improvegenderbalanceinhiringininfrastructure Buildawarenessofdifferentinfrastructureneedsofbothmenandwomen Increasewomensparticipationininfrastructuredecisionmakinginstitutions atalllevels Incorporategender,healthandnutritioncomponentsintreatmentandcare ofPeopleLivingwithHIVandAIDS Incorporateagenderperspectiveinhealthcarepolicyandengageinbroad consultationwomensgroups Eliminatediscriminationagainstwomeninthefieldofhealthcaretoensure equalaccesstohealthcareservicesincludingfamilyplanningandsafe motherhood. DisseminateinformationtoincreaseawarenessoftheriskofHIV/AIDS amongwomenandchildren DesignandimplementgenderorientationsinLabour,employmentpolicies, SocialandMigrationprogrammes ImplementtheAUGenderPolicy,existingmemberstatesandRECsGender Policiesacrosssectorsandprograms Adoptaffirmativeactionpoliciesinrecruitment,training,career progressionandpromotion Developantisexualharassmentpolicy Eliminateviolenceattheworkplacesuchassexualharassmentand intimidation Gendermainstreamingtoolsandguidelinesforallsectors Guaranteeequalaccesstoopportunities,servicesandfactorsof production Developindicatorstoidentifyandmeasureprogresstowardsgender equalityinallprogrammesandsectors

Health

SocialAffairs

ScienceandTechnology

Anadvocacyprogrammeonwomen,scienceandtechnologyimplemented Scholarshipschemesforwomeninscienceandtechnology Encourageandsupporttheeducationofgirlsinscienceandmathematics, newtechnologiesincludinginformationtechnologiesandtechnicalsubjects Developprogrammesthatsupportwomensabilitytocreateaccessand promotenetworkingthroughuseofnewinformationandcommunication technology Capitalizeonnewinformationincludinginternettoimproveinformationand research.

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GenderDevelopment
Trade,MarketAccessand PrivateSector Development GovernanceandPublic Administration PeaceandSecurity Womenshouldformpartofthedecisionmakingprocessintradeand industryissues Developmentofgendersensitivetradeagreements EstablishAfricanlearningcontextforwomenentrepreneurship IncreaseWomenEnterprisesinAfricaincludingmicrocreditfacilities Educationforwomentopromoteeconomicliteracy,generateawareness andeducatingwomentoorganiseintocooperativestoattractinvestments Developmentofaframeworkforengenderingtraderelatedcapacityfor tradeprogrammes Gendersensitivemeasuresintroducedtodealwithnegativeoutcomesof tradereforms Genderequalityinterventionstoovercomeconstraintsonmarketentryin SmallandMediumEnterprisesandotherwomenownedbusiness Trainingandadvocacyprogrammesforwomeningovernance Specificgenderresponsivepoliticalandgovernancepolicieswherenecessary AdoptionofaffirmativeactionandQuotashareandRepresentationto increasewomensparticipationindecisionmaking Buildequitable,gendersensitivedemocraticandaccountablegovernance Putinplaceaccountablemechanismstoensuregovernanceinstitutions honourandpromotegenderequalitycommitments Buildcapacityforwomentobecomeeffectivepoliticalactorstotransform politicalspaceforgenderequality Advocacy,awarenessraisingandeducationtochangemindsetsabout womensinvolvementdecisionmaking,politicsandpubliclife.

Education

WithinthecontextofArticle2oftheSolemnDeclarationonGenderEqualityin Africa,whichisUNResolution1325: TrainandsensitizeAUPeaceKeepers,PolicyMakersandDecisionMakersin ordertoreduceviolenceagainstwomeninconflictsituations Reducecasesofchildsoldiers Understandandadvancewomensroleinpostconflictreconstructionand development Advocateandraiseawarenessofattitudes,stereotypesandprejudicesthat perpetuateviolenceagainstwomen Integratemeasuresthatsupportwomenspeaceinitiativesandprocesses forconflictresolutionintopeace Increaserepresentationofwomenindecisionmakinginstitutionsand mechanismsforconflictresolution Promotewomensparticipationinpeace,negotiationandconsolidationas wellastheirrepresentationindecisionmakingatalllevelsofinstitutions thatpromotesecurity Advocacyandawarenesscampaignstohighlighttheimportanceof intergenerationalsocialandeconomicimpactsofgirlseducation Eliminategenderbaseddiscrimination,socialandculturalpatternsof conductthatdisadvantagegirlsandwomen,toensureequalrightsbetween genders Ensuregenderconcernsareidentifiedandaddressedatthehighestlevelof politicsandpublicpolicy Incorporategenderconsiderationsintoactivitiestodevelopcurriculaand learningmaterial

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GenderDevelopment
Environmentandclimate Change Recognizewomensroleascustodiansandmanagersoftheenvironment andprotecttheirrighttoaccessandbenefitfromthenaturalhabitat Reducevulnerabilityofwomenandnegativeimpactsofclimatechange Increasewomensparticipationindecisionmakingonclimatechangeatall levels Recognizewomenasagentsofchangeinmitigationandadaptationto climatechangeatalllevels Genderanalysisofbudgetlinesandfinancialinstrumentsregardingclimate change Promotegendersensitiveinvestmentsinprogrammesforadaptation, mitigation,technologytransferandcapacitybuilding Ensurewomensaccesstonewtechnologies,training,creditandsupport developmentofadoptionofnewtechnologiesandskills Integrategenderawarenesscomponentsinteachertraininginstitutions Makeinterventionsforgirlsmoreeffectivebyintegratingthemintoa coherentoverallstrategyineducationreform DevelopGendersensitivepsychosocialandhumanrightseducation Promoteandimprovenutritionalstatusforwomen Promotegenderequalityinrightsandaccesstoland,credit,water,seeds andotherproductiveresources Takemeasurestoeliminatesocialandculturalpatternsofconductthat disadvantagewomen Providebetteremploymentandincomeearningopportunities Facilitatewomensaccesstoagriculturalserviceswhichsuittheirneeds Establishstructuresatalllevelstoensurethatwomensvoicesareheardin designandimplementationoffoodandagriculturepoliciesandprogrammes Providemassmediasupporttoagricultureextensionforinformation disseminationonnewknowledgeonfarming Transferofinformationandtechnologytoareasofwomensinvolvement Promoteadoptionofappropriateinputsandtechnologytofreeupwomens timeforincomeproduction Givepreferencestowomenfarmersindistributionofagriculturalinputs, traininganddemonstrationtoincreaseproduction

AgricultureandFood Security

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AAPPriorityProgrammesinGENDER,20102015
Title GenderMainstreaming Programmeof AU/NEPAD Region Continental EstimatedCost, *Commitments US$ 30million requiredannually DevelopmentStage Stage3: Programme/Project Structuringand Promotion Description Contact

AfricanWomen Empowerment Programme

Continental 46projects in23 countries funded

*20millioneuro (Spain);inJune 2009,Spain pledgedan additional10 millioneurosper yearfornext5 years

Stage4: Implementationand Operations

ThegoaloftheGenderMainstreamingProgramof African AU/NEPAD is to build and strengthen the Union capabilitiesofstaffanddecisionmakersinorderto advance gender mainstreaming and womens empowerment in the AU, its organs, NEPAD, the RECs, and Member States. Commitments of the Programmeinclude:(i)CreationofaTrustFundfor Women; (ii) Declaration of the 20102020 African WomensDecade;(iii)AdoptionofGenderPolicyto accelerate GEWE; and (iv) Adoption of previous commitments,ParityPrinciple,SolemnDeclaration (SDGEA)andtheProtocol. ThisprogrammeseekstoempowerAfricanwomen NEPAD with financial resources to unlock their economic potential, fight poverty, create wealth and contribute to the MDG of addressing the gender gap and attaining sustainable development by mobilizing financial resources and developing networks and communities for women entrepreneurs involved in handicrafts, textile production,agrobusiness/agroprocessing,mining, tradeandcommerceandtheserviceindustry. The Business Incubator for African Women Entrepreneurs(BIAWE)isalargesubprojectunder the fund that is being implemented by the RECs. Its aim is to support women entrepreneurs of Africa. The business incubators will lead to increased capacities of SMEs run by women in Africancountries.Thebusinessincubatorswillalso provide a model for rolling out business support servicestowomeninAfrica.

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