This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

FLUID FLOW

Mechanical Energy Balance

⎛V 2 ⎞ g∆z + vdp +∆ ⎜ ⎟ = Wo − ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

∫

∑F

(1-1)

potential energy change

expansion work

Kinetic energy Work added/ Sum of friction change subtracted by losses compressors or pumps/expanders

Note that the balance is per unit mass. In differential form

**gdz + vdp + VdV = δWo − δF
**

Rewrite as follows

(1-2)

dp = − ρ ( g ⋅ dz − V ⋅ dV − δF + δWo )

Divide by dL (L is the length of pipe)

(1-3)

dV δW dz δF dp = − ρg ⋅ + ρV ⋅ +ρ −ρ o dL δL dL δL dL Tot

or:

(1-4)

dp ⎞ dp ⎞ dp ⎞ dp ⎞ + = + ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ dL ⎠ Tot dL ⎠ elev dL ⎠ accel dL ⎠ frict (

(1-5)

δWo is usually ignored, as the equation applies to a section of pipe) δL

The above equation is an alternative way of writing the mechanical energy balance. It is not a different equation. The differential form of the potential energy change is

dL

dZ

φ

g dZ = g sin φ dL (1-6)

Friction losses: We use the Fanning or Darcy-Weisbach equation (Often called Darcy equation)

δF =

2V 2 f dL D

(1-7)

an equation that applies for single phase fluids, only (two phase fluids are treated separately). The friction factor, in turn, is obtained from the Moody Diagram below.

Figure 1-1: Moody Diagram

Friction factor equations. (Much needed in the era of computers and excel) Laminar Flow f = 16 Re (1-8)

Natural Gas Basic Engineering

2

**Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.
**

No reproduction allowed without consent

Turbulent Flow

smooth pipes: a=0. Iron or steel pipes a=0.16

f =

0.046 Re a

(1-9)

Turbulent Flow

⎛ ε 1 2.51 ⎞ ⎟ = −2 log10 ⎜ + f ⎝ 3.7 D Re f ⎠

(Colebrook eqn)

(1-10)

Equivalent length of valves and fittings: Pressure drop for valves and fittings is accounted for as equivalent length of pipe. Typical values can be obtained from the following Table.

Table 1-1: Equivalent lengths for various fittings.

Fitting 45O elbows 90O elbows, std radius 90O elbows, medium radius 90O elbows, long sweep 90O square elbows 180O close return bends 180O medium radius return bends Tee (used as elbow, entering run) Tee (used as elbow, entering branch) Gate Valve (open ) Globe Valve (open ) Angle Valve (open)

Le D 15 32 26 20 60 75 50 60 90 7 300 170

**Pressure Drop Calculations
**

Piping is known. Need pressure drop. (Pump or compressor is not present.)

**Incompressible Flow a) Isothermal (ρ is constant)
**

dp dV dF ⎞ ⎛ dZ = -ρ ⎜ g +V + ⎟ dL Tot dL dL ⎠ ⎝ dL

(1-11)

for a fixed φ

⇒

V constant ⇒

dV = 0

Natural Gas Basic Engineering

3

**Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.
**

No reproduction allowed without consent

Natural Gas Basic Engineering 4 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. with an elevation change of 5 m. No reproduction allowed without consent . v(Taverage) ∑ (1-13) Exercise 1-1: Consider the flow of liquid water (@ 20oC) through a 200 m.⎛δL⎞ δ F = 2V 2 ⋅ f ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ D ⎠ (1-12) ⎡ ⎤ L ∆p = − ρ ⎢ g ⋅ ∆Z + 2V 2 ⋅ f ⋅ + F⎥ D ⎣ ⎦ b) Nonisothermal It will not have a big error if you use ρ(Taverage). 3” pipe. What is the pressure drop? Can the Bernoulli equation assuming incompressible flow be used for gases? The next figure illustrates it.

2 − 0. pin Compressible Flow (Gases) a) Relatively small change in T (known) Natural Gas Basic Engineering 5 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .3 using the assumption of incompressibility is OK.Figure 1-2: Error in Bernoulli equation In conclusion. if pout − pin ≤ 0.

Pin )+ f(Tout .2 2 v v v v but V = v G . (1-15) (1-14) g 1 dF ⎛ G ⎞ dV ⎛ G ⎞ dL dz + dp + ⎜ ⎟ = . where A V = Velocity (m/sec) v = Specific volume (m3/Kg) G = Mass flow (Kg/sec) A = Cross sectional area (m2) Then.2 = -2f ⎜ ⎟ 2 v v v ⎝ A⎠ v ⎝ A⎠ D Now put in integral form dp ⎛ G ⎞ g 2+ +⎜ ⎟ v ⎝ A⎠ v 2 (1-16) ∫ dz ∫ 2 ∫ dV ⎛ G⎞ 1 = −2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ⋅ f dL ⎝ A⎠ D V 2 ∫ (1-17) Assume Tav = Tin +Tout 2 (1-18) p p ⎤ 2⎡ pav = ⎢ pin + pout − in out ⎥ which comes from pav = pin + pout ⎦ 3⎣ ∫ out in p p dp p dp ∫ out (1-19) in f av = f(Tin . No reproduction allowed without consent .For small pressure drop (something you can check after you are done) can use Bernoulli and fanning equation as flows ⎛V 2 ⎞ gdz + vdp + d ⎜ ⎟ = -dF ⎝ 2 ⎠ Then g 1 V dF dz + dp + 2 dV = .Pout ) 2 (1-20) The integral form will now be Natural Gas Basic Engineering 6 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

where M: Molecular weight.ρ 2 ⋅ g ⋅ ∆z + ∫ av out in dp ⎛ G ⎞ ⎛ Vout ⎞ L ⎛ G⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟ = −2 ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ f av ⋅ ⎝ A⎠ v ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ Vin ⎠ D 2 2 (1-21) Now use p⋅v = Z ⋅ R⋅T p M . .i . ρ g ⋅ ∆z + 2 av ρ av 2 pav (p 2 out L ⎛ G ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ ⎛G⎞ − p ) + ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜ out ⎟ = −2 ⎜ ⎟ f av D ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ Vin ⎠ ⎝ A⎠ 2 in 2 2 (1-23) but. This rule states that the reduced pressure and temperature of the gas is obtained using the average pressure and temperature (as above calculated) and a pseudo critical pressure and temperature. which leads to: Z av R Tav M ∫ dp M = v Z av RTav ∫ p ⋅ dp = 2 ⋅ Z M 2 2 2 2 ( pout − pin ) = 2ρpav ( pout − pin ) RTav av av (1-22) Therefore. pC T Tr = av (1-27) TC. C i i (1-29) With these values the Z factor comes from the following chart: Natural Gas Basic Engineering 7 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. p pr = av (1-26) . Then ρ av = av . No reproduction allowed without consent . pC = ∑ yi pC . Vout ⎛ Zout ⋅ Tout ⎞ pin =⎜ ⎟⋅ Vin ⎝ Zin ⋅ Tin ⎠ pout Then (1-24) ρ g ⋅ ∆z + 2 av ρ av 2 pav (p 2 out L ⎛ G ⎞ ⎛ Z ⋅T p ⎞ ⎛G⎞ − p ) + ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜ ⋅ out out in ⎟ = −2 ⎜ ⎟ f av D ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ Z in ⋅ Tin pout ⎠ ⎝ A⎠ 2 in 2 2 (1-25) To calculate Zav Kay’s rule is used.i (1-28) T = ∑ yiTC . In turn the critical pressure and temperatures are obtained as molar averages of the respective components critical values.

No reproduction allowed without consent . First neglect the acceleration term because it is usually small compared to the others. to obtain: Natural Gas Basic Engineering 8 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.Figure 1-3: Natural Gas Compressibility Chart Equation (1-25) can be further simplified.

π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 D5 To calculate pressure drop we recognize that average pressures are a function of pout . No reproduction allowed without consent . With this.2 ρ av g ⋅ ∆z + ρ av 2 pav (p 2 out L ⎛G⎞ 2 − pin + 2 ⎜ ⎟ f av = 0 D ⎝ A⎠ ) 2 (1-30) Form this equation we can get G. we get Q2 = 2 2 π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 ⎡ ( pin − pout ) ⎤ D 5 ⎢ ⎥ 32 Mps2 ⎢ 2Z avTav L ⎥ f av ⎣ ⎦ (1-33) which can be rearranged as follows: 2 2 pin − pout = K Q 2 (1-34) where K = 64 Mps2 Z avTav f av L and is known to be W× L. Then we propose the following algorithm: (1) (1) a) Assume pout and calculate pav b) Calculate K (i ) = (i ( ( 64 Mps2 Z av)Tavi ) f avi ) π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 D5 2 pin − K (i ) Q 2 (i + b) Use formula to get a new value pout1 ) = Natural Gas Basic Engineering 9 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. if ∆z =0. as follows: 2 ⎡ ⎤ M 2 pav ⎢ M ( p 2 − p 2 ) Z RT g ⋅ ∆z ⎥ π D ⎢ in out ⎥ − av av G2 = 32 f av L ⎢ 2 Z av RTav Z av RTav ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 5 (1-31) But the volumetric flow at standard conditions is given by ps Q = subscript s stands for standard conditions. which is unknown. Therefore: G Z s RTs where the M 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ M pav 2 pin − pout − 2 g ⋅ ∆z ⎥ 5 2 2 ⎢ 2 Z av RTav π R Z s Ts ⎢ ⎥D Q2 = 2 32 Mps ⎢ 2 Z avTav L ⎥ f av ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (1-32) Now. a product of a resistant factor W π 2 R Z s2 Ts2 D 5 times the length L. we have W = 64 Mps2 Z avTav f av .

several formulas have been reported for equation (1-34).pout ≤ε (i) pout Depending on the choice of friction term expression. Table 1-2: Different forms of compressible flow equations Natural Gas Basic Engineering 10 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. They are summarized in the following table. No reproduction allowed without consent .d) Continue until (i+1) (i) pout .

where s is the gas gravity (=Mgas/Mair)=0. T. The distance is 170 Km. R. The gas to have the following molar fractions: Methane: 98%. Institute of Gas Technology Education Program.75%. and water: 0.586 (Wilson G.65 for natural gas).. 1991. Ellington and J. We also assume Re~5 106 and ε/D =0. Farwalther.05%. Gas distribution Home Study Course) .01. 2 2 As a first approximation. we recommend using the Panhandle A equation: pin − pout = K Q1.2%. propane: 0. (5 oC). ethane: 1.000 std m3/hr at 49 atm and 38oC) is sent from a gas refinery to a city. Tin is in oR and D in inches) What is the pressure drop? Natural Gas Basic Engineering 11 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.552 × 10-4Tin×s0. No reproduction allowed without consent .855/D4.855 W= 2.Table 1-2 (continued): Different forms of compressible flow equations Exercise 1-2: Natural gas (84. The gas reaches the other end at ground temperature.G. through a 16” pipeline.

this term is usually set to zero for pipes.Rate of work done on the fluid element by pressure forces: d(vp) . This is given per unit mass flowing (Kcal/h)/(m3/h) .Work added: δ wo .Heat transfer: δ q .Kinetic energy change: VdV . Since we will treat these separately.Potential energy change: g dz .T ) DdL ⎟= G ⎠ (1-37) Integrate and solve for hout (use Tav in the heat transfer equation) hout = hin + U (To − Tav ) π DL G ⎡V 2 − V 2 ⎤ − ⎢ out in ⎥ − g ( z2 − z1 ) 2 ⎣ ⎦ (1-38) But Vout = v out ⋅ RTav G G = Z av ⋅ p out M A A (1-39) Natural Gas Basic Engineering 12 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. (ignoring δwo because there are no pumps) to get: ⎛V 2 gdz + dh+ d ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎞ U (To .Internal energy changes: du . π DdL = dA (see next figure) and G is the flowrate.Heat Transfer Effects To account for temperature changes due to heat transfer. Figure 1-4: Area element Then. But the heat δ q is given by interactions with the ambient surroundings: πD dL δ q = U (To − T ) G (1-36) where U is the heat transfer coefficient. we use total energy balance gdz + d (vp) +VdV + du = δ q + δ wo (1-35) where the following is identified: . No reproduction allowed without consent . To is the outside pipe temperature. This term is due to pumps and compressors.

For pumps. Indeed. for gases. pout (1) b) Use mechanical energy balance to obtain pout (1) c) Use total energy balance to obtain hout (1) d) get temperature Tout e) Go to b) and continue until convergence SCENARIO II One has a turbine or Compressor/pump and needs Wo. However. ∆h is much harder to obtain. there isn’t much temperature change in pumps). the Bernoulli equation gives ⎡ ⎛ V 2 ⎞⎤ W = G ⎢ ∫ vdp + ∆ ⎜ (1-44) ⎟ ⎥ ≈ G ∫ vdp ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ where the acceleration term has been neglected. ∆h is known for liquids because enthalpy does not vary much with pressure. In addition. we have wo given in Joules/Kg. We use total energy with δq = 0 and dz =0 dh = δ wo dV 2 2 (1-41) Integrating. W in Joules/sec and h in Joules/Kg. Thus.hout ) (1-40) The procedure suggested is then: a) Assume Tout. one obtains: wo = ⎛V 2 ⎞ W = ∆h + ∆ ⎜ ⎟ G ⎝ 2 ⎠ (1-42) In this expression. W is positive. one would need to obtain it form the enthalpy and pressure in the outlet Tout = Tout ( pout . Therefore we go back to the Mechanical Energy equation for pumps/compressors. However. the work of the compressor/pump is given by: ⎡ ⎛ V 2 ⎞⎤ W = G ⎢ ∆h + ∆ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎣ (1-43) For compressors. so one obtains: Natural Gas Basic Engineering 13 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. while for turbines. it is negative. No reproduction allowed without consent .Finally. to obtain the outlet temperature. the density is constant.

One expression for such factor is: n −1 ⎡ ⎤ n ⎢⎛ pout ⎞ − 1⎥ Tin ⎜ ⎢⎝ pin ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ηa = Tout − Tin (1-48) Finally. A better expression. one needs to obtain an expression of volume knowing that the evolution is isentropic (or nearly isentropic).W= G ∆p ρ (1-45) For compressors. manufacturers recommend not exceeding 300 oF at the outlet. on e obtains: Tout ⎡ pout ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ Tin ⎣ pin ⎦ n −1 n = [CR ] n −1 n (1-50) where CR is the compression ratio. Substituting v = p s n 1 ⎛ 1⎞ ⋅ vs ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ρ⎠ 1 n integrate to get n −1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ pout ⎞ n ⎡ n ⎤ W =G⎢ pin vin ⎢⎜ − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢⎝ pin ⎟ ⎥ ⎣ n + 1⎦ ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1-46) The above expression does not include the compressibility factor. which includes the efficiency. Normally. Thus. substituting and rearranging. is n −1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ pout ⎞ n ⎡ n ⎤ Z in + Z out 1 ⎢ ⎥ W =G⎢ RT ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎥ n + 1⎦ 2 η a in ⎢⎝ pin ⎠ ⎣ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1-47) The efficiency factor is usually between 60 to 80% and normally given by the manufacturer. pvn = constant (n=Cp/Cv for ideal gases n>Cp/Cv for real gases). the outlet temperature is obtained from n n pin vin = pout vout (1-49) Using the gas law to obtain vin / vout in terms of temperatures and pressures. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 14 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .

that is. Extra compressors should be added if the CR >6.2 to 6. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 15 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. . This is limited in compressors to the range 1. limiting the temperature and using the right CR. Calculate the compression work needed to reach delivery pressure (49 atm) using one compressor. and after-coolers need to be added to control the temperature.Add both expressions to obtain the total work as a function of the intermediate pressure (the rest should not be a variable) . Calculate the outlet temperature and determine the duty needed to cool the gas down to the corresponding inlet conditions. Is it acceptable to use one compressor? We now discuss the compression ratio. No reproduction allowed without consent .Take first derivative and obtain the desired result that CR1=CR2 Exercise 1-5: Obtain the set of compressors needed to compress the gas of exercise 1-2 properly. the practice is to use the same CR for all.Write the power expression for each one assuming the gas is cooled down to its inlet temperature after compression.Exercise 1-3: The natural gas of exercise 1-2. . is available originally at 2 atm. Exercise 1-4: Consider two compressors. If more than one compressor is to be used.

The latter is common in gas pipelines. No reproduction allowed without consent . the former is common in crude pipelines. Toluene 60%) Dispersed: Liquid and gas (air and benzene). especially light crudes. which are depicted in the next figure: Dispersed Annular Stratified Froth Wavy Slug Plug Bubble Figure 1-5: Two phase flow regimes The two extreme cases are: Bubble: Vapor and Liquid in Equilibrium (Benzene 40%.Two Phase Flow Two phase flow has several regimes. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 16 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

463 ρ L ρ g (with densities given in lb/ft3) ψ = (with the surface tension 2/3 σ ρL given in dyn/cm and the viscosity in cp) We note that: λ and ψ depend on the fluid property only 1) 2) Gl depends on the ratio of flows (Known beforehand.5 <0. Typical velocities are shown in the next table: Table 1-3: Typical velocities of two phase flows REGIME Dispersed Annular Stratified Slug Plug Bubble LIQUID VEL(ft/sec) VAPOR VEL.5-2 Close to vapor <0.(ft/sec) > 200 > 20 0. Gl = ⎜ L ⎟ λ . In turn. Not a design parameter) Natural Gas Basic Engineering 17 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.) 2 5-15 To predict the flow patterns. we have Gg = ⎜ g ⎟ . the phases travel at different velocities. No reproduction allowed without consent . respectively. A in in2) which are the ⎜ Wg ⎟ ⎝ A ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ superficial velocity of the vapor and the liquid.5 15 (But less than vapor vel.One important thing to recognize is that except for the extreme cases. (W in lb/h.5-10 3-50 <4 0. Figure 1-6: Two phase flow regimes transitions ⎛W ⎞ ⎛W ⎞ In this diagram. one needs to use the Baker Plot (next Figure) for horizontal pipes (there is a similar one for vertical pipes). the parameters are given 1147 µ 1/ 3 L by λ = 0.

where X = gives some typical values of the corresponding constants: ∆pLiquidPhase ∆pVaporPhase Table 1-4: Constants for Lockart and Martinelli’s correlation a b Bubble Slug Stratified (horizontal) Plug Annular 14. The following table In turn. and so on. which will be explored later. we notice that following change of regimes in a pipe. From this diagram.75 0.2 1190 15400 27.3) 4) Gg depends on the vapor/gas superficial velocity.343-0. PRESSURE DROP Lockart and Martinelli (1949) developed one of the first correlations. It can be modified changing the diameter Transition boundaries are not at all that sharp. No reproduction allowed without consent . We omit the pressure drop due to acceleration. plug. depending on the starting position in the plot. then the density of the vapor is lower. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 18 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. In turn.86 0. the pressure drop due to gravity. by a factor ∆pTwoPhase = φ 2 ∆pVaporPhase (1-51) .3125 D(in) 0. slug or annular. the correction factor is given by φ = aX b .3 4.8 -0. is given by dp ⎞ = ⎡ε g ρ g + (1 − ε g ) ρl ⎤ g sin θ ⎟ ⎦ dL ⎠ gravity ⎣ (1-52) where ε g is the (void) fraction of gas.021 D(in) We notice that there are several more modern correlations. an annular may become wavy or dispersed.82 1 0. As the pressure drop is large. It is based on multiplying the pressure drop obtained by considering the vapor phase occupying the whole pipe. Thus a bubbly flow may become. 1) λψ 2) 1 ρg 1 λ ρg ⇒ ⇒ Gl λψ Gg 1 ρg ρg λ ⇒ Abscissa decreases ⇒ Ordinate increases Thus trajectories are always "up" and "to the left".

No reproduction allowed without consent . One typical example is given in the figure below: Cage of water molecules CH4 molecule in the center Figure 1-7: Methane Hydrate The next figure shows the Pressure-Temperature diagram of water-hydrocarbon systems.Hydrate Formation Hydrates are crystalline structures between water and hydrocarbons. Curve 1-1 represents the curve for vapor pressure of the hydrocarbon. Figure 1-8: Generic Hydrate P-T diagram Natural Gas Basic Engineering 19 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

Figure 1-10: Hydrate temperature formation depression Natural Gas Basic Engineering 20 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. It is therefore important to keep in mind that these conditions need to be avoided. alcohols. favorable thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation can be encountered. The most widely used is methanol. ammonia and MEA. The next figure shows the depression of hydrate formation temperature observed for various hydrates.The next figure shows some specific cases of hydrocarbons: Figure 1-9: Hydrate P-T diagram for various hydrocarbons Clearly. in high pressure pipelines. These inhibitors are salts. These hydrates can be prevented from forming through heating. No reproduction allowed without consent . pressure change (not a choice in pipelines) and the introduction of inhibitors. glycols.

No reproduction allowed without consent .65x 60000 40000 20000 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 Figure 1-12: Compressor cost (k$) vs. horsepower Fixed Capital Investment were calculated by adding the installed cost of a pipe length (assumed 5000 miles) and the cost of all required recompression stations. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 21 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.2x + 100 Figure 1-11: Pipe average cost (k$/mile) vs. All cost figures are updated to 2005 dollars using Marshal & Swift cost indexes. ID 100000 80000 y = 1. 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 y = 43.Pipeline Costs Historical pipeline and compressors installed cost data were obtained from the Oil & Gas Journal special report on Pipeline Economics. The Fixed Capital Investments obtained are then divided by the pipe length to obtain a per mile cost profile for different flow rates. September 3. Pipeline per mile cost distribution for different pipe diameters and compressor installed cost for different horsepower requirement are plotted in the following figure. The curve in the next figure shows that this cost profile takes a logarithmic shape. 2001.

B$ 0.2 0. Compressor fuel requirement is estimated at 8.005 B$ 0. Maintenance cost is assumed to be 7% of the FCI for compressors and 3% for pipes while insurance is 1% for compressors and 0. an average of 5 operators is assumed to be the requirement for each compression station.005 B$ 0. Similar linear approximation to that of the FCI is assumed.5 per million Btu.001 B$ 0. capacity (BSCFD) A linear correlation gives the following form: FCI ( B$ / mile) = 0.000 Btu / BHP-HR.004 B$ 0.6 0. No reproduction allowed without consent . Direct supervisory and clerical labor is assumed to be 20% of operating labor.004 B$ 0.001659x + 0.000050 B$0.4 1.003 B$ 0.5 Figure 1-14: Pipeline per mile annual operating cost vs. capacity This estimate should be reasonable with about 40% accuracy.001 B$ 0.6 y = 0.2 1. with an hourly wage of $21.002 B$ 0.5 1 1. Operating cost per pipeline mile versus capacity is plotted in the next figure: B$0.001108 Operating costs for pipelines were estimated as follows. and fuel cost at $2.4 0.000100 B$0.001659 * Capacity ( BSCFD) + 0.001108 BSCFD Figure 1-13: Pipeline fixed cost (b$/mile) vs.000000 0 0. Linear regression was used to estimate the operating cost Natural Gas Basic Engineering 22 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.002 B$ 0.000200 y = 7E-05x + 4E-05 B$0.000 0 0.4% for pipes.003 B$ 0.8 1 1.000250 B$0.000150 B$0.

This allows the gas to cool down faster and therefore increase the delivery pressure. then the location of a loop has an influence.Vary the pipeline maximum pressure (1200 psia) to some lower and higher value.Calculate the cost. Consider the following example: A 100 Km length (20” OD) pipeline is used to send 289 MMSFD at an inlet pressure of 1. If temperature is close to ambient temperature. This gave a general correlation of the following form: Oper. The results of a simulation are shown in the next figure: Figure 1-15: Results from Looping 23 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. Thus.200 psia and a temperature of 45 oC. ignoring capacities less than 100 MMSCFD.00007 * Capacity ( BSCFD) + 0. for example. and a soil temperature of 10 oC. The pipe roughness is 750 µ inches. it is recommended to loop in the upstream region. in these cases. . where the gas is hotter. However. No reproduction allowed without consent Natural Gas Basic Engineering . Three alternatives were studied for this pipeline. a) No looping.dependence of the capacity. This practice increases the pipeline flow capacity without altering the final pressure.00004 Exercise 1-9: Consider the pipeline of Exercise 1-8: . when temperature changes substantially. the location of a loop does not change the final delivery pressure. Adjust the diameter accordingly and calculate the number of recompression stations. b) Looping the first 25 Km. and c) Looping the last 25 Km.Cost ( B$ / mile / year ) = 0. Can you say that 1200 psia is the right pressure? Pipeline Looping Pipeline looping is the practice of designing pipelines with segments run in parallel.

09%. n-butane: 0.01%.Exercise 1-10: Verify the results of figure 1-15 using the simulator. CO2: 0.11%. if the pressure at the other end is low enough. nonane: 0. i-butane: 0. Assume a 15”. octane: 0. heptane: 0. hexane: 0. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 24 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.055%. then it is clear that there will be liquid formation in this pipeline. Propane: 0.585%. No reproduction allowed without consent . This means that the pressure drop regime inside the pipe might change and one has to be careful in performing the simulations.52%. even if the operation is isothermal.0545. pentane: 0. Consider the P-T plot of the next figure. Change the pipe diameter and the length to verify the statements. Retrograde condensation One very common phenomenon in pipelines is retrograde condensation. Ethane: 3. N2: 1. ipentane 0. It corresponds to a gas with the following composition: Methane: 93. 200 Km pipeline starts at 60 atm and 15 oC.05%.47 %. Exercise 1-11: Generate the answers for the above example using the simulator. If the external temperature is 5 oC (U=1 BTU/hr-ft2oF). then the liquid might vaporize again.16%.03%. Figure 1-16: P-T diagram of example gas and retrograde condensation Interestingly.34%.04%.

Figure 1-17 shows one such exercise performed for three different diameters and parametric at different maximum operating pressures (MOP) and compression ratios. Typical assumptions are that there is no volume buildup in the pipe. No reproduction allowed without consent . Efficient operating ranges that are flat are preferred Figure 1-17: J-Curves for various diameters Exercise 1-12: Explain why J-curves go through a minimum.Pipeline Optimization Process J-Curve Analysis Conventional Pipeline design methods. the time value of money is neglected and that the facilities are designed to sustain the flows. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 25 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. For example. which rely mostly on hand calculations or at best on simple spreadsheet suggest that the compressor size and the pipe diameter be varied and the cost of service ($/(m3*Km) for the first year be plotted as a function of flowrate.

cooling leads to significant savings because pressure drop is reduced. the question remains where these holding sites should be located. Compressor Station Spacing: While an earlier exercise suggests that when multiple compressors are used it is best to keep the compression ratio equal. money needs to be spent to install and run the coolers. Pipe Size: This choice has already been considered in the J-Curve selection but needs to be revisited anyway in view of the influence of the other factors. - - Exercise 1-13: Consider the pipeline of Exercise 1-8: . Thus the trade-off needs to be resolved. Expansions: If capacity expansions are considered. However.Determine (by inspection and using a simulator what is the best compression ratio for each compressor. but its timing and capacity be selected. Load Factor: This factor is the ratio between the average daily volume delivered divided by the peak volume.35 and smaller than 1.5 for reciprocating compressors.500 Kw. Pipeline Initial Capacity: Most pipelines are constructed taking into account the fact that demand at the receiving end(s) will increase through time. However. Compression ratios recommended for centrifugal compressors are generally in the range of 1. If this ratio is too small.25 to 1.Assume two compression stations will be used. etc if available. Reciprocating compressors are chosen when the power requirement is smaller than 5. or large LNG or high pressure. abandoned reservoirs. - Heating and Cooling: Clearly. Natural Gas Basic Engineering 26 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. In addition. storage tanks) are more convenient than more powerful compressors and larger diameters. Thus. underground caverns. this hypothesis needs verification. one is faced with the decision of designing for future capacity and underutilize the pipeline for some time or design for current or more short term capacity and use loops to expand later. . Thus one needs to establish Route: In most cases this is defined by a variety of other factors and given to the designer. one is faced with multiple delivery points with different delivery pressures. No reproduction allowed without consent .Optimization Parameters J-Curves are a simplistic first approach but one that can provide a first approximation to the right diameter and compressors. The issue to resolve is when these are substituted by inventory holding sites. then they need to take place through looping. in more complex situations. Aim at minimizing total work only. etc. then storage facilities for inventory holding (salt caverns. Not only the new loop has to be designed. CNG. Maximum operating pressure: This choice has already been considered in constructing the J-Curves.

No reproduction allowed without consent .240 m3/d 336. Assume a ground temperature of 25oC and a ground conductivity of 0.The gas ((1. . b) Compressors at the supply station. Use cost data provided above.Determine using simulations a) Piping diameter. .617.400 m3/d 6. 2% propane.600 Kpa. 1% n-butane and 0.000 m3/d Km 0 Supply: 10.000 m3/d 18. and 1520 kPa and 30oC in the second (Km 143). c) cooling required.722.Will new compressors be needed/beneficial? Natural Gas Basic Engineering 27 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.400 m3/d m3/d .000 m3/d 3.7 W/(m oC).1% npentane) is supplied at the two points indicated in the diagram at 1.367 kPa and 35oC in the first station (Km 0)..600 m3/d 384. The gas elevation profiles are provided in the following table: Km Elevation (m) 0 42 115 7 143 14.Exercise 1-14: Consider the shown in the following figure Supply: 5.200 m3/d 2. Do not use a pressure above 5.595.840 m3/d 2. 5% Ethane.832.9% methane.200 134.148.407.The piping is in the ground and is not insulated.93 323 60 550 10 609 120 613 122 630 235 638 470 650 890 .000 m3/d 115 143 638 550 609 613 630 Km 650 323 64.

No reproduction allowed without consent .OPTIMAL DESIGN Natural Gas Basic Engineering 28 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

No reproduction allowed without consent .Natural Gas Basic Engineering 29 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

Natural Gas Basic Engineering 30 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .

Natural Gas Basic Engineering 31 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz. No reproduction allowed without consent .

No reproduction allowed without consent .Natural Gas Basic Engineering 32 Copyright: Miguel Bagajewicz.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd