You are on page 1of 192

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization i

MINDFULNESS AND BULLYING
Do Bullies and Victims Reside in the “Here and Now”?

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization ii

DO BULLIES AND VICTIMS RESIDE IN THE “HERE AND NOW”? A CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MINDFULNESS AND BULLYING By Zachary Garofolo

A thesis submitted to the Faculty of D‟Youville College Division of Academic Affairs in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Education Buffalo, NY April 20, 2012

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization iii Copyright © 2012 by Zachary Garofolo. All rights reserved. No part of this thesis may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission of Zachary Garofolo.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization iv

THESIS APPROVAL

Thesis Committee Chairperson

Name: _________________________________________________

Discipline: ______________________________________________

Committee Members

Name: _________________________________________________

Discipline: ______________________________________________

Name: _________________________________________________

Discipline: ______________________________________________

Thesis Defended on April 20, 2012

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization v Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences in a sample of high school students. The participants were 66 students from a high school in northern Ontario. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Spearman rank order correlation coefficients (rho). Nine significant negative associations were found between the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ and the APRI, with r values ranging from -.245 to -.314, indicating that a negative relationship does exist between certain facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization vi Acknowledgment The time and energy I invested in this work is wholeheartedly devoted to all those who suffer from bullying and victimization. I continue to strive to relieve you of that suffering. I would like to express my gratitude to my committee for their support. I was honored to have access to the wisdom and knowledge of Dr. Paul Hageman and Dr. David Gorlewski. Over the past two years, Dr. Helen Kress has been my guru. Her guidance, wisdom, and compassion helped shape my thesis and my philosophy of education. She may very well be a bodhisattva. I must also express my deepest gratitude to my family. Sandra, Mark, and Chloe have always supported me through their love, and belief in me. And to my Nan, Rita, who convinced me to be a teacher, I am forever grateful. Finally, it was because of my wife Lisa, who nourished me with her smiles, succor, and unconditional love, that I had the energy to complete this work. She is truly a bodhisattva who embodies the spirit of compassion.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization vii

Table of Contents
List of Tables .............................................................................................................................................. ix List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................. x List of Appendices.................................................................................................................................... xi

Chapter I. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................1 Statement of Purpose ...................................................................................3
Conceptual Framework .......................................................................................................... 4 The Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM) ................................ 4

Self-Regulation of Attention (Component 1) ..................................8
Orientation Towards Experience (Component 2) ....................................... 9 Orientation Towards Experience, Affect Intolerance, Cognitive/Behavioral Avoidance, and Psychopathology .......................... 9

Self-Observation ............................................................................11
Self-Observation, Rumination, and Psychopathology ............................. 12 Relevance of the TCMM to the Present Study ............................................. 13

Significance and Justification ....................................................................18
Assumptions ............................................................................................................................. 18 Research Questions ............................................................................................................... 19 Definitions of Terms ............................................................................................................. 19 Variables .................................................................................................................................... 22 Limitations ................................................................................................................................ 23 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 24

II.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ...........................................................26
Mindfulness VS. Bullying and Victimization ............................................................... 27 Mindfulness and Health ....................................................................................................... 30 Mindfulness, Education, and Character Strengths ................................................... 32 Bullying, Health, and Education ....................................................................................... 37 What is Mindfulness?............................................................................................................ 43 Mindfulness and Buddhism................................................................................ 43 An Analysis of the Anapanasatti and Sattipatthana Sutta’s .................. 45 The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program ................................. 49 Defining Mindfulness ............................................................................................ 51 The Neurobiology of Mindfulness ................................................................... 52 Measuring Mindfulness: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) ........................................................................................................................................................ 56 Relevance of the FFMQ to the Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM)....................................................................................................................... 59

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization viii
What are Bullying and Victimization? ........................................................................... 62 Measuring the Frequency of Bullying Behaviors and Victimization Experiences: The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) ...................... 64 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 68

III.

PROCEDURES..........................................................................................70
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 70 Setting ......................................................................................................................................... 71 Population and Sample ........................................................................................................ 71 Protection of Human Rights............................................................................................... 72 Data Collection Methods ..................................................................................................... 74 Tools ............................................................................................................................................ 78 The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire ................................................. 78 The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument ................................................. 81 Treatment of Data .................................................................................................................. 84 Summary .................................................................................................................................... 86

IV.

ANALYSIS OF DATA..............................................................................89
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 89 Description of the Population and Sample .................................................................. 90 Research Questions ............................................................................................................... 90 Tools ............................................................................................................................................ 91 Descriptive Statistics ............................................................................................................ 93 Results of the Spearman Rank Order Correlations (rho) ................................... 100 Correlations Between Mindfulness and Frequency of Bullying Behaviors ................................................................................................................ 101 Correlations Between Mindfulness and Frequency of Victimization Experiences............................................................................................................ 102 Serendipitous Findings ..................................................................................................... 104 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 106

V.

DISCUSSION ..........................................................................................108
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 108 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................ 110 Relationship of the Results to the Conceptual Framework ............................... 110 Relationship of the Victimization Scores to the Conceptual Framework............................................................................................................. 111 Relationship of the Bullying Scores to the Conceptual Framework ..................................................................................................................................... 117 Relationship of the Results of the Literature ................................................................ 118 Mindfulness, Bullying, Victimization, and Psychosocial Health ...... 118 Mindfulness, Bullying, Victimization and Physical Health ................. 120

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization ix
Mindfulness, Bullying, Victimization, and Education ........................... 121 Relationship of the Results to the Research Questions ............................................ 123 Relationship of the Results to the Variables.................................................................. 125 Relationship of the Results to the Mindfulness Variables .................. 125 Relationship of the Results to the Bullying Variables .......................... 127 Relationship of the Results to the Victimization Variables ................ 128 Relationship of the Results to the Study Design and Data Collection Methods .......................................................................................................................................................... 129 Relationship of the Results to the Tools Used .............................................................. 131 Relationship of the Results to the Statistical and Data Analysis Methods ........ 134 Recommendations for Future Research ......................................................................... 136 Implications for Practice and Education......................................................................... 140 References.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Appendix................................................................................................................................................. 150

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization x List of Tables Table 1. 2. Descriptive Statistics ……………………………………………………… 95 Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficients Among FFMQ and APRI Variables .…………………………………………………………………. 96

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization xi List of Figures Figure 1. Diagram depicting Bishop et al.‟s (2004) Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM), as developed by the present author ………………. 6 The relationship between mindfulness, bullying, and victimization as described in the conceptual framework, and depicted here by the present author …………………………………………………………………….. 14 Structure of the present study…………………………………………….. 17

2.

3.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization xii List of Appendices Appendix A Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire ………………………………….. 150 B Scoring the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire……………………… 154 C Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument…………………………………… 156 D Scoring the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument………………………. 159 E IRB Application…………………………………………………………... 161 F Letter to Principal………………………………………………………… 165 G Parental Consent Form………………………………………………....... H Subject Assent Form…………………………………………………….. I J K Instructions for Students…………………………………………………. Alternative Activity ……………………………………………………... D‟Youville College IRB Letter of Full Approval ……………………… 167 170 172 174 179

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 1

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

It is estimated that 3.6 million youth in the United States are involved in bullying behaviors, while an additional 3.2 million identify as being victims of bullying (Nansel et al., 2001). Furthermore, it is estimated that 5.7 million U.S. youth identify as being both a bully and a victim (i.e. bully-victim). Other studies estimate worldwide prevalence of bullying and victimization at 30% of the total student population (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). The consequences of bullying and victimization on physical health include headaches, stomachaches, backaches, difficulty sleeping, and dizziness (Due et al., 2005). Bullying and victimization can also affect an individual‟s psychosocial health. For instance, bullying and victimization are associated with low self-esteem, low self-worth, poor social skills, feelings of loneliness, depression, anxiety, academic problems, behavioral problems, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). As a result of these findings, many researchers and health experts are urging the international community to consider bullying a significant international public health issue (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). Although many diverse bullying interventions exist, few have looked at the role that mindfulness can play in reducing the negative effects of bullying and victimization.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 2 Mindfulness is a concept that has been studied and practiced over thousands of years within Buddhist meditation practices. Only recently, with the development of mindfulness-based therapies such as the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, has the concept of mindfulness become familiar to Western medicine, psychology, and education. Mindfulness is defined as a way of paying attention – a moment-tomoment non-judgmental awareness of one‟s conscious experience (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Buddhist traditions believe that mindfulness can be cultivated through regular meditation practice. However, mindfulness is also found within the general population, including in those with little or no experience with meditation (Roberts & Danoff-Burg, 2010). The benefits of mindfulness on physical and mental health include alleviation from chronic pain, improvement in anxiety disorders and symptoms of depression, a reduction in stresses of context, as well as improved immune function, and increased positive affect (Davidson et al., 2003; Grossman, Niemann, Schmidt, Walach, 2004). Within an educational context, mindfulness has been shown to increase academic performance, increase self-esteem, enhance mood, improve emotional coping, increase concentration, and reduce behavioral problems (Napoli, Krech, Holley, 2005; Wisner, Jones, & Gwin, 2010). In the present thesis, a comparison of the effects of bullying and victimization on physical and psychosocial health with the physical and

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 3 psychosocial health benefits that can be derived from mindfulness, suggests that mindfulness skills may act as protective factors against the negative effects of bullying and victimization. In other words, mindfulness-based skills training may be considered a viable intervention for bullying in schools. However, before conducting large scale studies testing the efficacy of a mindfulness-based program on reducing the frequency and negative effects of bullying in schools, the literature could benefit from an exploratory correlational study aimed at examining the relationship between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences; and such is the purpose of the present study. Statement of Purpose The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, this study aims to examine relations between mindfulness as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, 2006) and frequency of bullying behaviors as measured by Section A of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) (Parada, 2000). Second, this study aims to examine relations between mindfulness as measured by the FFMQ and frequency of victimization experiences as measured by Section B of the APRI. Therefore, a correlational study will be performed on a sample of high school students in order to examine relations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of the APRI.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 4 Conceptual Framework For the present study, the conceptual framework utilized to support this research is the Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM). In 2003, a panel of experts involved in mindfulness research convened for a series of meetings to establish a consensus on defining mindfulness, and to develop a testable operational definition; the results of which were published by Bishop and others (2004). The following description of the TCMM is based on a paper published by Bishop and others (2004). The Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM) In a state of mindfulness the subject is attempting to be alert and vigilant in the here and now, fully present on a moment-to-moment basis. This state of mind is usually difficult to attain because our minds are constantly in a narrative state of rumination and/or cognitive elaboration. In order to break free from this narrative state of mind and to participate fully in the present moment, a simple technique can be employed, focusing one‟s attention on the somatic sensations of their breath. Whenever one inevitably notices that their attention has wavered from their breath and into a narrative state of mind, they are instructed to: (a) notice the distraction; (b) observe it arise and depart with non-judgment, without elaboration or reactivity; (c) but also with an attitude of curiosity, acceptance, and openness; and, (d) bring one‟s attention back to the somatic sensations of the breath. According to Bishop and others (2004), “this dispassionate state of selfobservation is thought to introduce a „space‟ between one‟s perception and

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 5 response. Thus, mindfulness is thought to enable one to respond to situations more reflectively as opposed to reflexively” (p.9). This technique can be practiced in sitting meditation, or in everyday life. The breath merely represents an object of desired attention, and can be substituted with a conversation, a book, a lecture, homework, or whatever one believes should require their full attention. The entire process of: (a) focusing one‟s attention on an object; (b) inevitably losing attention to the narration of the mind; (c) observing the transient nature of the distraction with non-judgment, non-reactivity, without elaboration or absorption, and with an attitude of curiosity, openness, and acceptance; (d) and bringing one‟s attention back to the desired object of attention; is considered a state of mindfulness. The Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (figure 1) is summarized by Bishop and others (2004) as: The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one‟s experience in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness and acceptance (p.9). Self-regulation of attention is the capacity to selectively choose what to become attentive to, monitor one‟s focus of attention, and maintain sustained attention on that object. When this process of self-regulation of attention occurs,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 6

Mindfulness

Component 1

Component 2

Self-regulation of attention

Orientation towards experience

 Sustained attention skills  Attention switching skills  Inhibition of secondary elaborative processing skills

 Curiosity  Acceptance  Openness

Selfobservation skills

Figure 1: Diagram depicting Bishop et al.‟s (2004) Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM), as developed by the present author.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 7 one becomes more aware and sensitive to the information in their environment, thus consequently the quality of their conscious experience is thought to be enhanced. The TCMM describes three skills that must be cultivated in order to self-regulate attention in this manner: (a) skills in sustained attention; (b) skills in attention switching; and (c) skills in inhibiting secondary elaborative processing. Bishop and others (2004) describe sustained attention as the ability to maintain a state of vigilance over a prolonged period of time, and switching as the ability to recognize when one‟s focus of attention has wavered and the returning of attention back to the original object of focus. However, before one can switch their attention back to the original object of focus, one must develop skills in inhibiting secondary elaborative processing. When one recognizes that their focus of attention has wavered from the object of interest to a random thought, feeling, or sensation, rather than trying to suppress or ignore these invasions of the mind, one is taught to stop the train of thoughts from elaborating any further, observe them objectively for what they are, and then return the focus of attention back to the original object of interest. This skill is referred to by Bishop and others (2004) as, “the inhibition of secondary elaborative processing” or “cognitive inhibition at the level of stimulus selection”. Secondary elaborative processing is described by Bishop and others (2004) as, “getting caught-up in ruminations about one‟s experience, its origins, implications and associations”, whereas “mindfulness involves a direct experience of events in the mind and body” (p10).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 8 Self-Regulation of Attention (Component 1) When one learns skills related to inhibiting secondary elaborative processing, it is thought that one can begin to experience reality one-mindedly, and more objectively, instead of through the subjective lens of one‟s preconceptions, prejudgments, beliefs, aversions and desires (Bishop et al., 2004). Zen Buddhists refer to this state of mind as „beginner‟s mind‟ because one is viewing the object (physical or mental) as though it is the first time they‟ve seen it, and thus they have no preconceived beliefs or judgments about the object. Bishop and others (2004) hypothesize that such self-regulation of attention skills may help reduce ruminative tendencies of the mind, which ultimately may help in protecting individuals from anxiety and depression. Furthermore, Bishop and others (2004) believe that such reductions in ruminative tendencies may explain why mindfulness-based meditation programs such as the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program (MBSR) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) have had such great success with reducing anxiety and depression-related episodes in patients. In the context of a mindfulness-based intervention against bullying in schools, a reduction in ruminative tendencies may also reduce susceptibility of bullies and victims to the anxiety and depression that is often associated with bullying behavior and victimization experiences. The self-regulation of attention helps foster two elements of component two of the two-component model of mindfulness: (a) an orientation towards experience and (b) self-observation skills.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 9 Orientation Towards Experience (Component 2) The second component of the two-component model of mindfulness is the orientation to experience the world with an attitude/effort of curiosity, acceptance, and openness. During a state of mindfulness, the subject is not trying to accomplish any particular goal such as concentration, relaxation, or mood change. Instead, a state of mindfulness requires the open canvassing of thoughts, emotions, and sensations, without any particular objective or agenda. Thus, one is encouraged to observe that which arises in the mind with an effort of curiosity, and not to suppress or ignore it. By allowing whatever arises in the mind to be observed with curiosity, and to not be reactive or judgmental of one‟s thoughts, emotions, perceptions, and sensations, one has taken a stance of acceptance. It is with acceptance that one can begin to experience and participate in their reality without being quick to label or judge an experience. The result of this behavior may be considered cognitive flexibility, or, an openness to multiple perspectives or possibilities. Orientation Towards Experience, Affect Intolerance, Cognitive/Behavioral Avoidance, and Psychopathology Bishop and others (2004) make three predictions based on adopting a stance of curiosity, acceptance, and openness: (1) This orientation should lead to reductions in episodes of cognitive and behavioral avoidance (see figure 2). (2) This orientation should lead to the development of dispositional openness.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 10 (3) This orientation should lead to improved affect tolerance. For instance, if one can adopt a stance of acceptance toward painful or unpleasant thoughts or feelings, this might change the psychological context in which those objects are experienced. Therefore, one might be able to change the meaning of painful thoughts and sensations, or dissociate the accompanying anxiety or distress from the actual physical or psychological source (see figure 2). Therefore, Bishop and others (2004) believe that adopting an orientation of curiosity, openness, and acceptance towards experience will reduce episodes of cognitive and behavioral avoidance, as well as improve affect tolerance. Bishop and others (2004) further argue that the improvement in affect tolerance and the reduction in episodes of cognitive and behavioral avoidance will ultimately result in reduced psychopathology. This argument is based on the findings of Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, and Strosahl (1996), which suggest that most forms of psychopathology involve aspects of affect intolerance and experiential avoidance. It can therefore be deduced that the psychopathology associated with bullying and victimization – such as depression, anxiety, antisocial behavior, behavioral problems, etc., – may be caused or associated with affect intolerance and cognitive/behavioral avoidance. It has been shown that mindfulness training can reduce or eliminate panic attacks, binge eating episodes, the avoidance of activity in chronic pain, as well as self-mutilation and suicidal behavior associated with

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 11 personality disorder; all of which are associated with affect intolerance and/or cognitive/behavioral avoidance (Bishop et al., 2004). Therefore, in the context of a mindfulness-based prevention or intervention strategy against bullying in schools, an increase in affect tolerance and a decrease in episodes of cognitive/behavioral avoidance may also reduce the susceptibility of bullies and victims to the psychopathology that is often associated with bullying behavior and victimization experiences. Self-Observation In the TCMM, acceptance, openness and curiosity, are catalysts for selfobservation or investigative awareness skills. In other words, mindfulness skills compel the subject to become a student of their own mind, to study the true nature of their thoughts, emotions, and perceptions, and to learn how to most effectively and efficiently react to them. According to Bishop and others (2004), mindfulness skills “focus on the impact of, and response to, thoughts, feelings and sensations” (p.20). In other words, adopting a stance of curiosity, acceptance, and openness in one‟s experience is believed to catalyze a natural state of self-observation. Thus, one‟s awareness of their experience, thoughts, emotions, sensations, is thought to become investigative in nature. For example, as the subject learns to canvass their mind with curiosity, openness, and acceptance, they gain the ability to categorize or classify more appropriately the nature of the experience, tease apart the various elements of the experience (i.e.: between thoughts, emotions, sensations), and also make connections about how and why the various elements of the experience

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 12 arise. Bishop and others (2004) predict that such self-observation can result in increased cognitive complexity and could be positively correlated with measurements of emotional awareness and psychological mindedness; and negatively correlated with measures of alexithymia. Furthermore, the authors point out that such self-observation in the context of mindfulness can result in increased cognitive complexity of one‟s mental processes because they could more appropriately describe one‟s thoughts as contextual, relativistic, transient and subjective in nature. Self-Observation, Rumination, and Psychopathology Bishop and others (2004) believe that mindfulness skills such as selfobservation can protect individuals against the tendency to ruminate, and therefore as a consequence reduce psychopathology. Consider the following explanation Bishop and others (2004) hypothesize that mindfulness may play in protecting individuals from ruminative tendencies: Mindfulness approaches teach the subject to become more aware of thoughts and feelings and to relate to them in a wider, decentered perspective, as transient mental events rather than a reflection of the self or necessarily accurate reflection on reality…if obsessive, self-defeating thoughts are viewed simply for what they are – a transient thought – the subject, will be better able to disengage from them since no actions will be required (i.e.,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 13 since the thoughts are not „real‟ there is no goal to obtain and thus no need to ruminate to find a solution) (p.19). Therefore, Bishop and others (2004) believe that such self-observation skills can lead to reductions in ruminative tendencies, and may explain why mindfulnessbased meditation programs such as MBSR and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) have had such great success with reducing anxiety and depression-related episodes. Based on this model, self-observation skills may act as protective factors against ruminative tendencies, and ultimately result in reduced psychopathology. In the context of a mindfulness-based intervention against bullying in schools, a reduction in ruminative tendencies may also reduce susceptibility of bullies and victims to the psychopathology that is often associated with bullying behavior and victimization experiences. Relevance of the TCMM to the Present Study Figure 2 attempts to organize mindfulness, bullying, and victimization into a coherent system, identify their relationships, and provide a framework for exploring the associations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences. Central to this system is psychopathology. On the one hand, bullying and victimization have consistently been shown to be associated with psychopathology and poor health (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). On the other hand, mindfulness has consistently been shown to be associated with reduced psychopathology and improved health (Grossman et al., 2003). These

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 14 Bullying and Victimization

?
Rumination
Causes (Bisho p et al., 2004)

Associated with increased… (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009)

?
Affect Intolerance & Cognitive/Behavioral avoidance

Causes… (Hayes et al., 1997)

May Reduce... (Bishop et al., 2004)

Psychopathology

May Reduce... (Bishop et al., 2004)

Self-observation skills: disengagement from the contents of the mind; de-centered perspective
May Cultivate (Bishop et al., 2004

Attitude of acceptance, openness, and curiosity

Reduces… (Grossman et al., 2003) May Cultivate (Bishop et al., 2004

Mindfulnes Figure 2: The relationship between mindfulness, bullying, and victimization as described in the conceptual framework, and depicted here by the present author.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 15 associations will be explored in depth in the literature review, and are the basis for the present study‟s correlational analysis between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. The next important relationship to consider in figure 2 is the following: on the one hand, rumination, affect intolerance, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance have been shown to cause psychopathology (Bishop et al., 2004; Hayes et al., 1996); on the other hand, the TCMM predicts that mindfulness skills cultivate an orientation of acceptance, openness, and curiosity towards experience that may result in reduced affect intolerance and reduced episodes of cognitive/behavioral avoidance – which may ultimately reduce psychopathology (Bishop et al., 2003). Additionally, the TCMM predicts that practicing mindfulness can also result in self-observation skills, including the cultivation of a de-centered perspective of the contents of the mind and the ability to disengage from the contents of the mind, both of which may lead to the reduction in ruminative tendencies, and ultimately reduce psychopathology (Bishop et al., 2003). When taking into consideration the associations between all of the variables discussed above, it is important to note that the present author was not able to find any studies that have specifically investigated the relationship between bullying/victimization and: (a) rumination, (b) affect intolerance, and (c) cognitive behavioral avoidance. This could be the missing piece to the puzzle. A study showing that bullying and victimization directly causes rumination, affect intolerance, and cognitive behavioral avoidance, could provide support for the

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 16 hypothesis that mindfulness skills may act as protective factors against the psychopathology associated with bullying and victimization. Investigating the relationship between mindfulness, bullying and victimization as depicted in figure 2 is beyond the scope of this study. Nonetheless, it provides a framework for investigating the associations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Furthermore, preliminary exploration of the topic may aid future studies in the investigation of this proposed theory. Therefore, the present study will consist of a preliminary exploration of the relationship between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, to answer the question: do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors, and between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences, in a sample of high school students? As the literature review will demonstrate, the negative correlates of bullying and victimization are also positive correlates of mindfulness, and the positive correlates of bullying and victimization are also negative correlates of mindfulness (see figure 3). Therefore, these findings provide justification for the present study‟s investigation of the potential relationship between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 17 Mindfulness Correlates Does a relationship exist? Bullying and Victimization Correlates Negative Correlates: -Self-esteem -Physical health -Social skills -Behavioral regulation -Academic success -Self-efficacy -Empathy Positive Correlates: -Powerlessness/inadequacy -Antisocial behavior -Anxiety -Depression -Psychological symptoms

Positive Correlates: -Openness to experience -Emotional Intelligence -Self-compassion -Social skills -Self-esteem -Self-efficacy -Empathy -Emotional and behavioral self-regulation -Attention skills -Academic success -Good health

Could mindfulness skills act as protective factors against the effects of bullying/vict imization?

Negative Correlates: -Psychological symptoms -Neuroticism -Thought suppression -Difficulties in emotional regulation -Experiential avoidance -Absent mindedness -Anxiety -Depression

Exploring the potential relationship b/w mindfulness and bullying/victimization…

Mindfulness

Does a relationship exist? Correlational analysis

Frequency of bullying and victimization

Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)

Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI)

Figure 3: Structure of the present study.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 18 Significance and Justification The widespread prevalence of bullying in schools coupled with its negative effects on physical and psychosocial health, have prompted researchers and health officials to urge the international community to consider bullying a significant international health issue (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). Very few studies have considered mindfulness as an intervention for bullying and victimization. Therefore, data collected from this study will add to the limited body of knowledge that exists regarding mindfulness in the context of bullying and victimization. Furthermore, the author has not been able to identify any studies that have tested for a correlation between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Therefore, this study will be the first of its kind. Assumptions The present study was based upon the following four assumptions: (1) High school students with little or no mindfulness-based knowledge or meditation experience can still register significant scores on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). (2) The subscales of the FFMQ are measuring components of the TCMM (see Relevance of the FFMQ to the TCMM). (3) The APRI‟s operationalization of bullying and victimization are congruent with the definitions of bullying and victimization as described in the literature (See What are bullying and Victimization).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 19 (4) Participants in the present study will answer items on the FFMQ and the APRI honestly and to the best of their knowledge. Research Questions This study sought to explore the following two research questions: (1) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors? (2) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences? Definition of Terms The following terms were theoretically and operationally defined for the purpose of this study: (1) Mindfulness – Theoretical Definition: The present study theoretically defines mindfulness according to the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Therefore, the present study defines the mindfulness construct as being: (a) non-judgmental of one‟s thoughts, emotions, feelings, sensations and behaviors; (b) non-reactive to one‟s thoughts, emotions, feelings, sensations, and behaviors; (c) aware and non-automatic in the present moment; (d) proficient and habitual at labeling and describing thoughts, feeling, emotions, sensations, and behaviors; and (e) self-observant. Mindfulness – Operational Definition: The present study operationally defines mindfulness as the scores attained on the FFMQ.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 20 (2) Bullying – Theoretical Definition: Bullying is theoretically defined by the following three characteristics: (a) abusive and usually unproved aggressive behavior (physical, verbal, social) intended to harm or disturb; (b) behavior that occurs repeatedly over time; (c) as an imbalance of power (physical and/or psychological) (Nansel et al., 2001; Swearer et al., 2001). Bullying – Operational Definition: The present study operationally defines bullying as the scores attained on Section A of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). This instrument measures the frequency of physical, verbal, and social bullying behaviors, as the perpetrator. (3) Victimization – Theoretical Definition: Victimization is theoretically defined as being on the receiving end of repeated, abusive, and unproved aggressive behavior (physical, verbal, social) intended to harm or disturb, and that involves an imbalance of power (physical or psychological). Victimization – Operational Definition: The present study operationally defines victimization as the scores attained on Section B of the APRI. This instrument measures the frequency of physical, verbal, and social victimization experiences, as the victim. (4) Physical bullying and victimization – Theoretical Definition: Physical bullying and victimization involves behaviors where the perpetrator directly physically attacks the victim by way of punching, hitting and/or

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 21 stealing money from the victim (Crick et al., 2001, as cited by Finger, Marsh, Craven, & Parada, n.d., p.1). Physical bullying and victimization – Operation Definitions: The present study operationally defines physical bullying as the scores attained on items 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 16 of Section A of the APRI, and physical victimization as the scores attained on items 2, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 16 of Section B of the APRI. (5) Verbal bullying and victimization – Theoretical Definition: Verbal bullying and victimization refers to direct or indirect comments aimed at the victim. Verbal bullying is intended for the effect of intimidation, humor and/or humiliation of the victim among the peer group, and can include behaviors such as making rude remarks, jokes, threats and namecalling about the victim (Crick et al., 2001, as cited by Finger, Marsh, Craven, & Parada, n.d., p.1). Verbal bullying and victimization – Operational Definition: The present study operationally defines verbal bullying as the scores attained on items 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 on Section A of the APRI, and verbal victimization as the scores attained on items 1, 4, 7, 11, 13, and 18 of Section B of the APRI. (6) Social bullying and victimization – Theoretical Definition: Social bullying and victimization is a form of indirect aggression, which involves psychological harm and can take the form of rumor spreading, and/or

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 22 social exclusion within the peer group (Crick et al., 2001, as cited by Finger, Marsh, Craven, & Parada, n.d., p.1). Social bullying and victimization – Operational Definition: The present study operationally defines social bullying as the scores attained on items 4, 8, 11, 13, 17, and 18 of Section A of the APRI, and social victimization as the scores attained on items 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, and 17 on Section B of the APRI. Variables The relationship between and among the following variables will be examined in this study: (1) Total mindfulness score (2) Non-judging of internal experience subscale score of mindfulness (3) Non-reactivity to internal experience subscale score of mindfulness (4) Observing subscale score of mindfulness (5) Acting with awareness subscale score of mindfulness (6) Describing/labeling internal experience subscale score of mindfulness (7) Total frequency of bullying behaviors score (8) Frequency of physical bullying behaviors subscale score (9) Frequency of verbal bullying behaviors subscale score (10) Frequency of social bullying behaviors subscale score (11) Total frequency of victimization experiences score

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 23 (12) Frequency of physical victimization experiences subscale score (13) Frequency of verbal victimization experiences subscale score (14) Frequency of social victimization experiences subscale score Limitations The following are limitations identified in this study: (1) There is the possibility of semantic confusion regarding mindfulness scale items by participants not familiar with mindfulness terminology (Roberts & Danoff-Burg, 2010). (2) There is the possibility that self-ratings of mindfulness are affected by individual biases and inaccurate estimations by the participant. Therefore, there may be a discrepancy between an individual‟s selfratings of mindfulness and their actual mindfulness levels (Roberts & Danoff-Burg, 2010). (3) There is the possibility that self-reporting of bullying and victimization is affected by individual biases and inaccurate estimations by the participant. Therefore, there may be a discrepancy between an individual‟s self-reporting of bullying behaviors and/or victimization experiences and their actual involvement in bullying behaviors and/or victimization experiences. (4) Due to the small convenience sample from only one high school, the results should not be generalized to populations outside of this high school.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 24 Summary In chapter one, a review of the Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM) in the context of bullying and victimization, delineates the rationale that supports the derivation of the research questions for this study: do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors, and between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences? The presence of a relationship may form the basis for future research directed at investigating the temporal ordering of, and the mediating factors between mindfulness and reduced psychopathology, bullying and victimization. Such research may reveal a process through which mindfulness skills may protect from bullying, victimization, and associated psychopathologies. Also included in the first chapter are a listing of the study‟s assumptions, research questions, definition of terms, variables, and limitations. The second chapter contains a review of information relevant to mindfulness in the context of bullying and victimization, including a review of related research studies published from January 2000 to March 2012. Also included in chapter two is a review of the instruments used in the present study to measure mindfulness (i.e.: the FFMQ), and the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences (i.e.: the APRI). The third chapter delineates the methodology used in the present study, including a description of the setting, population and sample, data collection methods, human rights protection, tools, and treatment of data.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 25 The fourth chapter is a presentation of the analysis of the data, and the fifth chapter consists of a summary of the present study, conclusions and implications, as well as recommendations for future studies based on the data collected.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 26

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

This chapter delineates the literature relevant to the topics that support this study. The chapter begins with a comparison of the physical, psychosocial, and educational benefits of mindfulness with the physical, psychosocial, and educational effects of bullying and victimization. This comparison provides justification for the present study, and thus literature relating to mindfulness in the context of health and education, are discussed in more detail and compared with a review of bullying and victimization in the context of health and education. Next, the concept of mindfulness is explored in more detail. Mindfulness is discussed in terms of its origins, its contemporary inclusion into clinical settings, its current definition, and finally how it is thought to manifest neurobiologically. Next, the multifaceted nature of mindfulness is revealed through a discussion of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) – the tool used in the present study to assess mindfulness. Definitions and statistics of bullying and victimization in schools are then discussed, followed by a description of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument – the tool used in the present study to measure the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 27 Mindfulness VS. Bullying and Victimization An analysis of available research suggests that aspects of mindfulness may be negatively associated with aspects of bullying and victimization. In particular, a review of the literature reveals that mindfulness skills may act as protective factors against the negative effects of bullying and victimization. In the present literature review, the effects of bullying and victimization on physical and psychosocial health will be compared with the effects of mindfulness on physical and psychosocial health. In addition, the effects of bullying and victimization on education will also be compared with the effects of mindfulness on education. In terms of physical health, bullying and victimization are associated with overall poor physical health (Due et al., 2005; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009), whereas mindfulness is associated with increased physical wellbeing (Baer, 2003; Grossman et al., 2004), increased immune function (Davidson et al., 2003), as well as increased self-perceptions of physical activity and physical health (Roberts & Danoff-Burg, 2010). In terms of psychosocial health, numerous studies have shown bullying and victimization to be correlated with depression (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Slee, 1995; Swearer, Song, Cary, Eagle, Mickelson, 2001). In contrast, mindfulnessbased training has been shown in several meta-analytical studies to decrease symptoms of depression (Baer, 2003; Grossman et al., 2004). Similarly, bullying and victimization have been shown in several studies to be correlated with anxiety and stress (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Slee, 1995; Swearer et al., 2001). Contrarily,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 28 mindfulness-based training has been shown to decrease symptoms of anxiety and stresses of context (Grossman et al., 2004; Baer, 2003), decrease test anxiety (Napoli et al., 2005), as well as enhance a sense of equanimity and clarity (Siegel, 2007). Whereas bullying and victimization have been associated with low selfesteem (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009), mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to increase one‟s sense of self-control and self-efficacy (Bishop, 2002; Grossman et al., 2004). Furthermore, studies show that bullying and victimization are associated with low empathy (Farrington & Ttofi, 2009), antisocial behavior, and poor social skills (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). In contrast, mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to increase social skills (Napoli, 2005), as well as increase empathy and relational satisfaction (Siegel, 2007). In addition, meditation-based training that elicits relaxation responses similar to that in mindfulness meditation, have been shown to increase emotional and behavioral self-regulation, increase frustration tolerance, and improve self-control in students (Wisner, Jones, & Gwin, 2010). Moreover, it has also been shown that mindfulness is positively correlated with self-compassion, openness to experience, and emotional intelligence (Baer et al., 2006). Finally, several largescale studies have shown that bullying and victimization are associated with overall increased negative psychological symptoms (Due et al., 2005; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009), whereas mindfulness has been negatively correlated with psychological symptoms, neuroticism, thought suppression, difficulties in

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 29 emotional regulation, alexithymia, dissociation, and experiential avoidance (Baer et al., 2006). Bullying, victimization and mindfulness can also be compared within the context of education. For instance, bullying and victimization have been associated with poor academic achievement (Nansel et al., 2001), whereas mindfulness-based training has been shown to increase academic performance and attention skills (Napoli et al., 2005). Furthermore, according to Langer and Moldoveanu (2000), employing mindfulness skills in an educational setting can lead to a number of results, including: (a) a greater sensitivity to one‟s environment, (b) more openness to new information, (c) the creation of new categories for structuring perception, and (d) enhanced awareness of multiple perspectives in problem solving. Overall, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills may act as protective factors against the negative effects of bullying and victimization. More generally, these findings suggest a potential negative relationship between aspects of mindfulness and aspects of bullying and victimization that warrants further quantitative investigation. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences, in a sample of high school students. A more in-depth analysis of these findings will be discussed below.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 30 Mindfulness and Health Over the past three decades the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program (MBSR) has been found to have a wide range of physical and mental health benefits, including alleviation from chronic pain, fibromyalgia, cancer, anxiety disorders, depression, and stresses of context (Grossman et al., 2004). A comprehensive meta-analytical review of 20 studies comprising 1605 subjects, confirmed that the MBSR program is consistent in improving anxiety, depression, physical wellbeing, and the ability to cope with disability (Grossman et al., 2004). A similar meta-analytical review conducted by Baer (2003) of 21 mindfulnessbased therapy studies found comparable results. Particularly relevant to the present study are the consistent findings that mindfulness training is associated with decreased anxiety, depression, and stress. As we will see in the following sections, anxiety, depression, and stress have been consistently documented as positive correlates of bullying and victimization. In an attempt to underpin the biological processes that are associated with the physical and mental changes that occur as a result of the MBSR program, Davidson and others (2003) conducted a randomized controlled study on the effects of mindfulness-based meditation on brain and immune function. The study found that mindfulness-based meditation produced observable effects on brain and immune function. Specifically, mindfulness-based meditation was associated with increased activation in areas of the brain that contributes to positive affect, as determined by EEG recordings. Mindfulness meditation was also associated with

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 31 an increased immune response, as measured via influenza vaccine antibody titers. Therefore, increased positive affect and immune function may be two of the biological means by which mindfulness-based meditation exerts its positive physical and mental health benefits. Besides the effects of mindfulness-based therapies on physical and mental health, mindfulness itself, as an innate quality of the mind, has also been studied in the context of physical and mental health. In one study, Roberts and DanoffBurg (2010) looked at how several prevalent health problems in college students (i.e.: sleep disturbances, cigarette smoking, binge eating, lack of physical activity, and risky sexual behavior) might relate to mindfulness. The participants were 553 students (age 18+) at a U.S. Northeastern university. The researchers hypothesized that college students who scored higher on a measure of mindfulness would report better heath, less health-related activity restriction, and fewer harmful habits. The results showed that mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with binge-eating, poor sleep quality, and higher stress. Mindfulness was also negatively correlated with activity restriction, and perceptions of poor overall health. Perceived daily physical activity, and the extent to which the activities were enjoyed, as well as the number of days of physical activity, were all positively correlated with mindfulness. Therefore, individuals who scored higher on the mindfulness scale also perceived themselves to have better overall physical and mental health. In addition, they also engaged less frequently in behaviors associated with poor health. The authors believe that

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 32 mindfulness is related to better health and less stress because mindfulness leads to relaxation, increased emotional regulation, increased nonattachment, and decreased rumination, although they did not test for these mechanisms. Overall the authors concluded that their study demonstrated a link between mindfulness and health perceptions and behaviors in a college population. The authors believe that mindfulness training might help college students to improve health behaviors. Danoff-Burg (2010) further explored the correlation between mindfulness and perceived health, by performing a regression analysis to see if stress is a mediator between mindfulness and health. The results of the regression analyses revealed that stress partially mediates relations between mindfulness and sleep quality, binge eating, activity restriction, perceived overall health, and physical activity. In other words, those that are more mindful are more likely to experience less stress, which in turn contributes to increased positive health perceptions and behaviors. Roberts and Danoff-Burg (2010) suggest that one of the key mechanisms of MBSR – relaxation – may reduce stress, and as a consequence increase positive health perceptions and behaviors. The notion that mindfulnessbased interventions can significantly reduce stress is supported by several other researchers in the field (Carmody & Baer, 2008; Shapiro, Carlson, Astin, & Freedman, 2006). Mindfulness, Education, and Character Strengths In an educational context, mindfulness has been associated with increased focused attention, increased academic success, decreased anxiety and depression,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 33 increased self-control, and reduced disruptive behaviors (Naploi, Krech, & Holley, 2005). In one study, Napoli and others (2005) looked at stress and attention in elementary students. According to Napoli and others (2005) stress over-activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which subsequently affects several organ systems, reduces the immune response, and decreases higher-ordered cognitive processing. These effects have been documented in numerous adult and children populations. In fact, the literature shows that distressed children are experiencing the same physiological symptoms as distressed adults (Naploi et al., 2005). Napoli and others (2005) conducted the study on 194 first, second, and third grade students from two elementary schools in a U.S. Southwestern city. Students were selected at random and placed in either the experimental group (mindfulness training via the Attention Awareness Program) or the control group. A total of 12 Attention Awareness Program (AAP) training/control group sessions (45 minutes in length) were administered bimonthly over the course of 24 weeks. Each student was measured with 3 instruments: (1) The ADD-H Comprehensive Teacher Rating Scale (ACTeRS); which measures attention, hyperactivity, social skills, oppositional behavior, (2) Test Anxiety Scale (TAS); which measures self-evaluation, worry, physiological reactions, concerns about time limits or constraints.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 34 (3) Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch); which measures selective (visual) attention, and sustained attention. The tests were administered pre- and post-program. The findings revealed that those students who participated in the mindfulnessbased program, showed performance improvements in selective attention skills, social skills, and test anxiety. In their analyses of the results, Napoli and others (2005) emphasized that the stress response is overused in situations that do not warrant its elicitation. For instance, in an educational context, this type of chronic activation of the stress response can have a direct effect on the learning process and academic performance (Naploi et al., 2005) For this reason, Napoli and others (2005) believe that stress-reduction programs based on mindfulness training can help foster healthy, productive learning environments. This statement is supported by numerous studies, which shows that the incorporation of stress reduction programs into the school curriculum is associated with improvements in academic performance, self-esteem, mood, concentration and behavior problems (Napoli et al., 2005). Conduct disorders and behavioral problems in students can also be a difficult barrier to overcome when trying to create and foster a healthy, productive learning environment for all students. Barnes, Bauza, and Treiber (2003) conducted a study on negative behavioral problems in high school adolescents in a southeastern U.S. city. With 36.6% of high school students reporting having been in a physical fight in the last month, and 5% of students missing school

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 35 because they do not feel safe to attend, Barnes and others (2003) wanted to see if a Transcendental Meditation (TM) intervention program would have an effect on negative school behavior in adolescents. TM, although different from mindfulness-based meditation, shares some similarities, the most important of which is stress reduction (Baer, 2003). In fact, the cornerstone of the TM program is its ability to effectively reduce behavioral-related stress, which according to Barnes, Bauza, and Treiber (2003), is thought to be the primary factor causing negative school behaviors. In the past, stress-reduction via the TM program has been shown to reduce depression, anxiety, hostility, emotional instability, neuroticism, and aggression (Barnes, Bauza, Treiber, 2003). With this in mind, Barnes and others (2003) conducted a study on the effects of TM on negative school behavior in adolescents. The study was conducted on 45 adolescents, aged 15 to18. Twenty-five students were assigned to the TM group, and 20 students to the control (CTL) group. The TM group engaged in two 15-min meditation sessions every day for four months. The CTL group was given daily 15-min sessions on lifestyle education for four months. Data were collected using six measures: rule infractions, suspension rates, tardy periods, absentee periods, grades, and anger. These data were recorded for the four months preceding the intervention and for the four months during the intervention. The results indicated that the TM group showed a reduction in rule infractions, a reduction in suspension days, and a reduction in absentee class periods over the four months of intervention. In contrast the control group showed

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 36 an increase in rule infractions, an increase in suspension days, and an increase in absentee class periods. No significant changes were found in tardy periods or grades. Furthermore, only females showed a decrease in anger compared to the control group over the four-month intervention period. These results demonstrate that stress-reduction associated with meditation can have a positive effect on reducing conduct disorders and behavioral problems in students. Perhaps the reduction in behavioral and conduct disorders as a result of mindfulness training is also due to the cultivation of positive character strengths. For example, in one study conducted on 613 undergraduate students, mindfulness was positively correlated with emotional intelligence, self-compassion, and openness to experience; and negatively correlated with psychological symptoms, neuroticism, through suppression, difficulties in emotional regulation, alexithymia, dissociation, experiential avoidance, and absent-mindedness (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) In a separate but related study, Wisner, Jones, and Gwin (2010) reported on an eight-week mindfulnessmeditation program that was conducted in an alternative high school for 36 students. The students meditated for 10 minutes, four days a week. According to teacher ratings taken before and after the program, the students showed increases in interpersonal and intrapersonal strengths, family involvement, school functioning, and affective strengths. Furthermore, students themselves reported that mindfulness training helped them with self-regulation, relieving stress, increasing relaxation, and improving emotional coping.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 37 In addition to increasing attention skills, decreasing anxiety and depression, cultivating character strengths, and reducing behavioral problems and conduct disorders, mindfulness-oriented classrooms have been shown to foster creativity, independent thinking, and more focused thinking (Langer, 1998). Langer (1998) believes that mindfulness teaches students to approach each situation with a „beginner‟s mind‟. In other words, mindfulness can also cultivate open-mindedness, attentiveness to distinctions, sensitivity to context, awareness of multiple perspectives, and an orientation in the present. In an educational context, these characteristics can foster creativity, cognitive flexibility, and enhance memory. As shall be revealed in the following section, the physical, psychosocial, and educational benefits of mindfulness may act as protective factors against the harmful effects that result from bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. It is this comparison between the benefits of mindfulness and the harmful effects of bullying and victimization that justifies the need for further exploration into the potential relationship between mindfulness, bullying, and victimization. Bullying, Health, and Education Bullying and victimization can affect a student‟s physical and psychological health, their social adaptation and development, as well as their academic achievement (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). In the literature, the effects of bullying and victimization are often discussed separately, as they pertain to three groups of individuals: the bullies, the victims, and the bully-victims.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 38 According to Gini and Pozzoli (2009), frequent victimization is associated with low self-esteem, low self-worth, depression, anxiety, academic problems, and suicidal ideation. In other studies, victims have been shown to exhibit poor psychosocial functioning, higher levels of insecurity, loneliness, unhappiness, as well as physical and mental symptoms (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). In comparison, bullies are more likely to engage in negative and antisocial behavior such as truancy, delinquency, and substance abuse during adolescence, and are at a high risk for psychiatric disorders (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). Finally, bully-victims appear to be the most affected, demonstrating the highest risk for physical and psychological distress and other health-related issues, poor social adjustment, and increased academic problems (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). Due and others (2005) studied data from the Health Behavior in Schoolaged Children (HBSC) initiative, a large-scale international World Health Organization collaborative study of bullying across 28 countries, completed in 1998. In particular, this study examined the relationship between the prevalence of bullying and 12 physical and psychological symptoms. Each participating country conducted a national survey. The total sample population across the 28 countries was 123, 227 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years old. The students answered a questionnaire which measured the prevalence of bullying and the frequency of 12 symptoms (physical and psychological), including: headache, stomachache, backache, feeling low, bad temper, nervousness, difficulty sleeping, dizziness, loneliness, tired in the morning, feeling left out of things, and feeling

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 39 helpless. In all 28 countries there was a graded association between bullying and each symptom separately. These results confirm the suggestions of many studies that bullying is a precursor for health problems in childhood (Due et al., 2005). As an example, the study found that 17% of 11, 13, and 15-year old boys in Canada experience bullying, and 12% for girls. Furthermore, 24.5% of boys experienced 5 or more of the symptoms on a regular basis, and 35.2% for girls. The study also found that countries that had a higher prevalence of bullying also showed a higher prevalence of students with 5 or more symptoms. Due and others (2005) point out that the appearance of these symptoms could be indicative of physical and psychological health, school attendance, as well as academic and social development issues. Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Morton, and Scheidt (2001) also analyzed data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) initiative. The sample for this study included 15, 686 students within the grade range of 6 through 10, from catholic, public, and private schools in the U.S. This sample was used to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the prevalence of bullying and psychosocial adjustment and behavior. In particular, the prevalence of bullying was compared with social and emotional well-being, parental influence, alcohol use, frequency of smoking, frequency of fighting, frequency of truancy, academic achievement, loneliness, relationships with classmates, school climate, parental involvement in school, and perception of the school and teachers.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 40 In relation to psychosocial adjustment, bullies, victims, and bully-victims all demonstrated poorer psychosocial adjustment than noninvolved youth. In particular, victims reported greater difficulty making friends, poorer relationships with classmates, and greater loneliness. In comparison, bullies demonstrated that they had higher levels of behavioral and delinquency issues, showed poorer school adjustment, and yet reported that they were not socially isolated like victims. In addition, bully-victims demonstrated the poorest social and emotional adjustment when compared with all four groups, including social isolation, lack of success in school, as well as behavioral and delinquency issues. In terms of items that tested for conduct disorders, deviancy, delinquency, as well as anger and violence, the following results were obtained: (1) fighting was positively associated with bullies, victims, and bully-victims; (2) alcohol use was positively associated with bullies; (3) smoking and poorer academic achievement were associated with bullies and bully-victims; (4) poorer relationships with classmates and increased loneliness were associated with victims and bully-vicitms; and, (5) the ability to make friends was negatively related with victims, and positively related with bullies. In another study, Gini and Pozzoli (2009) conducted three separate metaanalytical studies (for victims, bullies, and bully-victims) to test whether children involved in bullying and victimization are at risk for psychosomatic problems. Gini and Pozzoli (2009) define psychosomatic symptoms as a combination of somatic symptoms such as, “headaches, backaches, abdominal pain, sleeping

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 41 problems, bad appetite, bed-wetting” (p.1059), and psychosocial issues, such as psychological health and well-being, social and behavioral development, and emotional adjustment. The literature included articles up until March 2008. In total, 19 articles were collected from this search. Gini and Pozzoli (2009) then subjected these 19 articles to their inclusion criteria and came up with a final 11 articles that would be included in the meta-analysis. The 11 studies included a total of 152, 186 children and adolescents between 7 and 16 years old. The results are discussed in three sections. First, the association between victimization and psychosomatic problems was considered. The results showed that victimized children were found to have a higher risk for psychosomatic problems than noninvolved peers. This is in support of the literature, suggesting that victimization leads to poor emotional adjustment, low self-esteem, loneliness, depression, anxiety, poor relationships with classmates, and an increased risk of physical and psychological health problems. Second, the association between active bullying and psychosomatic problems was addressed. The results from the meta-analysis showed that bullies had a higher risk for psychosomatic problems than noninvolved children, but were at a lower risk than victims and bullyvictims. Finally, bully-victims were found to be at the highest risk for psychosomatic problems when compared with noninvolved peers, bullies, and victims. This supports other research, which shows that bully-victims are often, “poorly socially adjusted, isolated, anxious, hyperactive, and have disturbed personalities” (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009, p.1063).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 42 In another study, Swearer and others (2001) studied the internalizing psychopathologies (i.e.: anxiety and depression) of bullies, victims, bully-victims, and students who identify as neither. They used a sample of 133 six-grade students from a mid-western U.S. middle school. The Bully Survey was used to identify bullies, victims, and bully-victims. The Children‟s Depression Inventory was used to measure depression. And the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children was used to measure anxiety. The questionnaires were administered to two cohorts over the course of 1.5 hours during class time, in April 1999 and April 2000. The results revealed several interesting findings. First, bully-victims were found to experience the greatest depression and anxiety of all subgroups. Second, bullies and bully-victims were found to experience higher levels of depression than victims and no status students. Third, both bully-victims and victims showed high levels of anxiety compared with bullies who showed significantly low levels. Finally, the no status students showed low anxiety and depression. The above juxtaposition of the harmful effects of bullying and victimization with the benefits of cultivating mindfulness, illustrates that aspects of bullying and victimization may be negatively correlated with aspects of mindfulness. This not only provides justification for conducting a correlational study on mindfulness and bullying/victimization, but on a practical level, this comparison also suggests that mindfulness skills might act as protective factors against the negative effects of bullying and victimization. Therefore, the aim of

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 43 the present study is to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences; and the aim of future studies may be the design of a mindfulnessbased intervention for bullying in schools. What is Mindfulness? Mindfulness is discussed in the following chronologically ordered contexts: first, from its origins in eastern Buddhist meditation traditions; then, how the West adopted mindfulness techniques for clinical interventions in medicine; next, how it is understood and defined in contemporary psychology; and finally how mindfulness is understood to manifest neurobiologically. Mindfulness and Buddhism According to Thich Nhat Hanh (2006), The Pali word sati, means “to stop”, and “to maintain awareness of the object” (p.10). Pali is the ancient Indic language in which the sacred texts of Theravada Buddhism were written. The word sati can be found in two very important Theravada Buddhist texts: the Anapanasati Sutta (The Full Awareness of Breathing Sutra) and the Satipatthana Sutta (The Four Establishments of Mindfulness Sutra). In 1881, the Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids, translated sati into English as “mindfulness” (Didonna, 2008). Since this time, other scholars have interpreted an expanded definition of sati to mean all of the following: awareness, attention, and remembering to be aware and attentive (Didonna, 2008).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 44 According to Hanh (1997; 2006), his translations of the Anapanasati and Satipatthana Sutta‟s, are direct translations from the original Pali text into English. Hanh (2006) maintains that, “Throughout 2,600 years of Buddhist history, all generations of the Buddha‟s disciple have respected these works [i.e.: the Anapanasati and the Satipathana Suttas] and have not embellished them (as they have so many other scriptures)” (p.18). In the Theravada tradition, the Full Awareness of Breathing and the Four Establishments of Mindfulness are still regarded as the most important texts on meditation (Hanh, 1997, p.15). It can be said that the establishment of mindfulness is rooted in the awareness of the breath. According to Thich Nhat Hanh (1997), “The practice of Full Awareness of Breathing, if developed and practiced continuously, will lead to perfect accomplishment of the Four Establishments of Mindfulness” (p.8). In the Theravada tradition, the path to enlightenment begins with the full awareness of breathing. The full awareness of breathing, if developed and practiced continuously, will lead to the four establishments of mindfulness. If the methods of the four establishments of mindfulness are developed and practiced continuously, it will lead to the development of the Seven Factors Of Awakening (i.e.: full attention, investigation, energy, joy, ease, concentration, and letting go), which if developed and practiced continuously will give rise to understanding and liberation of the mind (Hanh, 1997).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 45 An Analysis of the Anapanasati and Satipatthana Sutta’s The Four Establishments of Mindfulness can be understood as having two main components: (1) full awareness of breathing, and (2) self-observation. Both of these components will be discussed below. If an individual wishes to embark on the Buddhist path to attaining mindfulness they must first perfect the full awareness of breathing. This is accomplished through the development and continual practice of specific breathing exercises (Hanh, 1997). These breathing exercises – 16 in total – are expounded in the Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing (Anapanasati Sutta), and are stated within the sutra as being a catalyst to establishing and practicing the Four Establishments of Mindfulness (Hanh, 1997). Specifically, each of the Four Establishments of Mindfulness is attained by following a series of four breathing exercises in a step-wise manner (Hanh, 1997). For instance, the first four breathing exercises found in the Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing are meant to be used as practice tools in establishing mindfulness of the body, the next four breathing exercises are meant to be used as practice tools in establishing mindfulness of feelings, the next four in establishing mindfulness of the mind, and the final four in establishing mindfulness of perceptions. Consider the following four breathing exercises found in the Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing. These breathing exercises are said to help one develop full awareness of the body. They are also the first step in establishing mindfulness of the body:

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 46 1. “Breathing in a long breath, I know I am breathing in a long breath. Breathing out a long breath, I know I am breathing out a long breath.” 2. “Breathing in a short breath, I know I am breathing in a short breath. Breathing out a short breath, I know I am breathing out a short breath.” 3. “Breathing in, I am aware of my whole body. Breathing out I am aware of my whole body” 4. “Breathing in, I calm my whole body. Breathing out, I calm my whole body.” (Hanh, 1997, p.6). In his analysis of the sutra, Hanh (1997) explains, “The first four exercises of fully aware breathing help us return to our body in order to look deeply at it and care for it…to reunite body and mind” (p.23). In other words, these breathing exercises are concerned with developing a deeper awareness of our bodies. In particular, Hanh (1997) points out that the first two exercises are meant to demonstrate that our minds and our breathing are connected – if our breathing is calm, our minds are calm, and vice versa. In the third exercise, one should become aware that breathing is an aspect of the body, thus, the mind, breath, and body, are all connected. And, as the fourth exercise demonstrates, the mind, the breath, and the body can all be controlled by developing awareness of breathing. Hanh (2006) goes into more detail about these exercises in the Sutra on the Four Establishments of Mindfulness; he writes,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 47 To succeed, we must put our whole mind into our breathing and nowhere else. As we follow our in-breath, for example we need to be watchful of distracting thoughts. As soon as a thought such as, “I forgot to turn off the light in the kitchen,” arises, our breathing is no longer conscious breathing as we are thinking about something else. To succeed, our mind needs to stay focused on our breathing for the entire length of each breath (p.36). Once the practitioner develops full awareness of breathing, the next step in establishing mindfulness is to develop self-observation skills (Hanh, 1997). After listing the 16 breathing exercises in the Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing, the next section of the sutra addresses the following question: “In what way does one develop and continuously practice the Full Awareness of Breathing, in order to succeed in the practice of the Four Establishments of Mindfulness” (Hanh, 1997, p.7). In other words, how can breathing help one to develop mindfulness? The following description addresses this question: When the practitioner breaths in or out a long or a short breath, aware of his breath or his whole body, or aware that he is making his whole body calm and at peace, he abides peacefully in the observation of the body in the body, persevering, fully awake, clearly understanding his state, gone beyond all attachment and aversion to this life. These exercises of breathing with Full

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 48 Awareness belong to the first Establishment of Mindfulness, the body (Hanh, 1997, p.7). As described in the passage above, an important element in the development of mindfulness is the practice of self-observation with an attitude/effort of nonjudgment and non-reactivity – or as the passage describes, “he abides peacefully in the observation of the body in the body”. The present study interprets „peaceful observation‟ as observation with an attitude/effort of non-judgment and non-reactivity, both of which can be considered aspects of acceptance. The theme of acceptance can be further found in this statement of the passage: “gone beyond all attachment and aversion to this life”. The present study interprets the transcending of attachment and aversion as the acceptance of one‟s internal and external conditions. Cultivating an acceptance of one‟s condition is an integral component of not only the TCMM, but also several modern mindfulness/acceptance-based clinical interventions, such as the MindfulnessBased Stress Reduction program, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Relapse Prevention Therapy. In summary, the Sutra on the full Awareness of Breathing, and the Sutra on the Four Establishments of Mindfulness can be understood as expounding two main components as essential to establishing mindfulness: (1) the full awareness of breathing, and (2) self-observation. According to Hanh (2006), “The first step is awareness of that object, and the second step is looking deeply at the object to

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 49 shed light on it. Therefore, mindfulness means awareness and it also means looking deeply” (p.9). Here, the first step, “awareness”, is similar to the first component of the two-component model of mindfulness – the “self-regulation of attention”. And, “looking deeply” is similar to component two of the TCMM, “self-observation”. Thus it appears that mindfulness as understood in the Theravada Buddhist tradition by Buddhist scholar Thich Nhat Hanh, is very similar to mindfulness as understood by contemporary western academia. The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program The most widely cited method of mindfulness training is the MindfulnessBased Stress Reduction Program (MBSR), established in 1979 by Dr. Jon KabatZinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. It is estimated that well over 240 hospitals around the world offer clinical interventions based on the MBSR program (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). In fact, in the province of Ontario, the MBSR course is covered by the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP), and the program is led by physicians at various hospital (North York General Hospital, 2009). MBSR is an 8-week, structured, mindfulness meditation program. The program is delivered in a group setting, consisting of eight weekly sessions, each 2.5 hous in length, and one full-day retreat. During these sessions, state- and traitmindfulness are explored through breathing awareness, body scans, hatha yoga postures, and discussions. The program also requires participants to commit to daily 45-minute homework assignments requiring the application of mindfulness

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 50 to everyday situations. A meta-analysis conducted by Grossman and others (2004) found the following characteristics to be important elements in cultivating mindfulness under the MBSR program: (a) purposeful awareness of the present moment; (b) non-deliberative awareness of physical sensations, perceptions, affective states, thoughts, and imagery; (c) dispassionate, non-evaluative, naturalistic observation; (d) focusing the breath, the mind, and regulating the autonomic nervous system; (e) and increasing self-awareness. Bishop and others (2004) stress however that mindfulness training is not a relaxation or mood management technique, but rather, “a form of mental training to reduce cognitive vulnerability to reactive modes of mind that might otherwise heighten stress and emotional distress, or that may otherwise perpetuate psychopathology” (p. 6). Moreover, the program is secular and non-esoteric in nature; according to KabatZinn (2005), “Although mindfulness has been described as the „heart of Buddhist meditation‟, being mindful is considered an innate human capacity that is universal, secular, and compatible with nearly every major world religion” (Didonna, 2008, p.177). The major clinical applications of this program were discussed in the Mindfulness and Health section. Another clinical intervention that is based on mindfulness training is Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). MBCT is also an 8-week group intervention that was designed primarily to help in preventing the relapse of major depressive episodes (Baer, 2003). One of the common elements that this program shares with MBSR is its emphasis on a detached, non-reactive and non-

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 51 judgmental view of one‟s cognitions, emotions, perceptions, and bodily sensations. The purpose of this practice is the recognition that your thoughts are transient events and do not reflect objective, permanent reflections of reality (Baer, 2003). This practice is thought to help stop negative autobiographical thought, self-defeating thought patterns, obsessive thinking, and ruminating tendencies before they evolve into the relapse of a depressive episode (Baer, 2003). Other clinical interventions that incorporate mindfulness training are: Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) which is commonly used in the treatment of borderline personality disorder; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT); and Relapse Prevention to aid in the treatment of substance abuse (Baer, 2003). Defining Mindfulness As mindfulness was integrated into therapeutic applications in the West, it took on additional defining qualities. Jon Kabat-Zinn (1990), the founder of one of the first mindfulness-based clinical health programs in the West stressed the qualities of non-judgment, acceptance, and compassion, as integral components of mindfulness. He later defined mindfulness as, “the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment to moment” (Kabat-Zinn, 2003, p.145). Other clinicians in the field of psychology have defined it as, “selfregulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment, and adopting a particular orientation toward one‟s experience that is characterized by

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 52 curiosity, openness, and acceptance” (Bishop et al., 2004, p.9). In other words, our minds construct our experience moment-by-moment; and, the various contents of our mind (i.e.: our perceptions, emotions, cognitions) often determine the quality of our conscious experience; in this regard, mindfulness is a skill that can be used to optimize one‟s moment-to-moment conscious experience. As a cognitive process, mindfulness is often described as a “bottom-up” rather than “top-down” functioning of the mind. According to Didonna (2008), mindfulness is considered a “bottom-up” process because one focuses their attention one-mindedly on sensory data, in a non-judgmental and non-reactive manner, instead of viewing the internal and external world through a “top-down” process whereby we interpret sensory data through higher-order, preconceived judgments and labels, or as experienced through our minds narrative stories. In some respects, mindfulness has been considered a much more primitive expression of consciousness as opposed to higher-order thinking. Although primitive in its manifestation, mindfulness allows one to experience the present moment much more effectively, whereas personal narrative, ruminations, and self-defeating thought patterns, which are much more complex in terms of cognition, can become an immense burden on one‟s mind and ultimately negatively affect the quality of their conscious experience of life. The Neurobiology of Mindfulness It is believed that humans have two or more neural modes for experiencing and interpreting the world (Farb et al., 2007). One of these neural networks has

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 53 been characterized as our self-reference or self-awareness mental state, and has been isolated to the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC] (Farb et al, 2007). According to Farb and others (2007), it is in this region that we store memories of self-traits, traits of similar others, reflected self-knowledge, and aspirations for the future. It is the mPFC that is responsible for maintaining (i.e.: continually updating) the identity of oneself across time. It is also believed however, that we can experience the self outside of this narrative, in the present moment. Farb and others (2007) refer to these two distinct modes of awareness as: narrative selfreference or narrative focus (NF), and momentary self-reference or experiential focus (EF). NF manifests as cognitive elaboration of mental events or “getting caught up in a train of thoughts”, which may result in ruminating thoughts about the self. EF manifests as an inhibition of cognitive elaboration or the disengagement of attentional processes of self-referential elaboration, in favor of a more open, curious, accepting awareness of thoughts, emotions, and feelings as they arise and depart, awareness of these thoughts and emotions without purpose or goal, without rumination or focus on any one thought/emotion, and awareness of present sensory experience without focus on any one sensation (Farb et al., 2007). Farb and others (2007) tested for the existence of these distinct neural networks. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 (MT) (N=20) was enrolled in the mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR). Group 2 (Novice) (N=16) did not partake in the MBSR program.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 54 Participants were then trained on the difference between narrative-focus (NF) and experiential-focus (EF), given multiple examples of each mental state, and only after being tested for comprehension on these states were they allowed to proceed with the experiment. Both groups were asked to engage in each of these mental states while being scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results of the experiment indicated that both the MT and novice groups showed pronounced recruitment of the mPFC (responsible for many selfreference mental activities and maintaining the identity of oneself across time), and the posterior cingulated left hemisphere language areas during NF engagement (Farb et al., 2007). This indicates that NF strongly activates areas of the brain involved in higher-order and linguistic activities. It is believed that most people reside in this automatic “default” mind state (Farb et al., 2007). Part of mindfulness training however, is aimed at breaking away from labeling concepts and objects (i.e. activating these linguistic areas of the brain) and viewing these concepts and objects from an objective standpoint. In terms of the experientialfocus (EF) mind state, both MT and novice groups showed reductions in mPFC activation during an induced EF mind state. In particular, the MT group showed significant reduction in mPFC activation, as well as increased engagement of the lateral PFC (lPFC) and viscerosomatic areas while engaged in an EF mind state (Farb et al.,2007). Farb and others (2007) also noted that novices are not able to separate NF and EF modes of self-awareness because they unknowingly, habitually couple viscerosomatic and linguistic neural networks. Therefore,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 55 novices are thought to experience viscerosomatic activity through the lens of language. In other words, these individuals may be experiencing the sensory world through the lens of their narrative mind. This will undoubtedly distort and reduce the quality of their interpretation of the true physical and sensory world. In contrast, those trained in mindfulness are able to tease apart these mind states and select at will, which is most appropriate for the particular circumstances. This was shown in the study by the uncoupling of viscerosomatic and mPFC neural networks in the MT group. Therefore, those that can uncouple these neural networks and experience the world through a more present-centered awareness via the LPFC and viscerosomatic neural networks, may experience a more objective, “self-detached” awareness of their internal and external environment. This mechanism is similar to that in which individuals can separate the neural networks that code for the affective and sensory components of pain. These results confirmed the prediction of Farb and others (2007) as well as many other researchers, that humans possess more than one stream of awareness (Siegel, 2007). We all possess a primary-sensing awareness, as well as a narrative meaning-making stream of awareness. Other researchers claim that we even possess an observational stream and a non-conceptual stream of awareness (Siegel, 2007). This suggests that there are many, potentially more effective and efficient, means for integrating and interpreting data from our internal and external environment.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 56 Measuring Mindfulness: The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is a 39-item selfreport measure that was developed by Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, and Toney (2006) by integrating items from five previously developed mindfulness questionnaires: the MAAS, FMI, KIMS, CAMS and MQ. The five self-report questionnaires represent attempts made by independent researchers to operationalize mindfulness. Due to varying operationalizations of mindfulness in the literature, progress in understanding the construct of mindfulness has been slow (Bishop et al., 2004). In an attempt to correct this flaw, Baer and others (2006) empirically examined the following five mindfulness questionnaires described below: The Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale In this instrument, mindfulness is operationalized as being attentive to and aware of present-moment experience (Baer et al., 2006). According to Baer et al. (2006), “the MAAS was significantly positively correlated with openness to experience, emotional intelligence, and well-being; and negatively correlated with rumination and social anxiety”. The Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory In this instrument, mindfulness is operationalized as non-judgmental awareness of the present moment, and was designed primarily to measure mindfulness in experienced meditators (Baer et al., 2006).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 57 The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills In this instrument, mindfulness is operationalized as a 4-factor construct: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment. All are considered components of a multi-faceted mindfulness construct (Baer et al., 2006). Each component is measured as a subcomponent on the assessment. The Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale In this instrument, mindfulness is operationalized as attention, awareness, acceptance, and non-judgment of one‟s thoughts and feelings in the present moment (Baer et al., 2006). These various components are not measured separately, but as a total score (Baer et al., 2006). According to Baer and others (2006) the CAMS is negatively correlated with experiential avoidance, thought suppression, rumination, worry, depression, and anxiety; and positively correlated with clarity of feelings, mood repair, cognitive flexibility, and well-being. The Mindfulness Questionnaire In this instrument, mindfulness is operationalized as mindful observation, letting go, non-aversion, and non-judgment (Baer et al., 2006). These various components are measured as a total score (Baer et al., 2006). Baer and others (2006) subjected the five questionnaires to internal consistency and correlation tests. The results showed good internal consistency in all five questionnaires, and all instruments were significantly positively correlated with each other (Baer et al., 2006). This demonstrates that all 5 questionnaires are psychometrically sound instruments for measuring mindfulness. Furthermore, all

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 58 five mindfulness questionnaires were found to be positively correlated with meditation experience, emotional intelligence, self-compassion, and openness to experience (the MQ scale and openness to experience were not statistically significant scores). In addition, all five mindfulness measures were found to be negatively correlated with psychological symptoms, neuroticism, thought suppression, difficulties in emotional regulation, alexithymia, dissociation, experiential avoidance, and absent-mindedness. However, the correlation between these psychological constructs and the 5 mindfulness questionnaires varied widely. For instance, some measured emotional intelligence more strongly than others. The same variation in correlations was found in most measures. Baer and others (2006) understood this observation to mean that mindfulness may be more accurately conceptualized as a multifaceted construct. To test this theory, the data from Part 1 (a combined item pool of 112 items from all five mindfulness questionnaires, and the responses to these questionnaires from the 613 participants) was combined into a single data set and subjected to exploratory factor analyses (EFA). The results revealed that, “five distinct facets are represented within the currently available mindfulness questionnaires” (Baer et al., 2006, p.42). To create the FFMQ, the seven or eight items with the highest loadings on their respective factors and low loadings on all other factors, were selected for each facet. These facets were described as: non-reactivity to inner experience, labeling and describing with words the internal world, acting with awareness, non-judging of experience, and self-observation. According to Baer

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 59 and others (2006), “the FFMQ is the only one that addresses all five of the mindfulness facets identified in this project” (p.43). Items are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from “never or very rarely true” to “very often or always true”. Recent findings support the use of the FFMQ to measure facets of mindfulness separately. In one study, 174 individuals were scored on the FFMQ pre- and post- mindfulness-based training via the MBSR program (Carmody & Baer, 2008). The results demonstrated a significant increase in scores on all five facets of mindfulness. Relevance of the FFMQ to the Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM) The present study suggests that the TCMM and the FFMQ are congruent in their operationalizations of mindfulness. In other words, the present study suggests that the five facets represented within the FFMQ are measuring components of the TCMM. Therefore, the present study assumes that the FFMQ is the most appropriate assessment of mindfulness for the context of this study. Items that represent the awareness facet of the FFMQ include questions such as, “When I do things my mind wanders off and I‟m easily distracted” and “I do jobs or tasks automatically without being aware of what I‟m doing”. These and other similar items representing the awareness facet within the FFMQ are congruent with the elements of component 1 of the TCMM, namely: the inhibition of secondary elaborative processing skills, sustained attention skills, and attention switching skills. In other words, if an individual reports that their mind very rarely wanders during activities, and that they can remain focused on

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 60 tasks once they start, then it can be assumed that the individual is likely proficient at inhibiting secondary elaborative processes, and/or sustaining attention, and/or attention switching. Therefore the present study assumes that items representing the awareness facet of the FFMQ are congruent with the „self-regulation of attention‟ component of the TCMM. Items representing the non-reactivity facet within the FFMQ include, “ In difficult situations, I can pause without immediately reacting” and “When I have distressing thoughts or images, I step back and am aware of the thought or image without getting taken over by it”. These and other items representing the nonreactivity facet appear to be measuring what Bishop and others (2004) refer to as “introducing a „space‟ between one‟s perceptions and response” and “responding to situations more reflectively as opposed to reflexively”, when describing aspects of self-observation from component 2 of the TCMM. Items representing the describing facet within the FFMQ include questions such as, “ I‟m good at finding words to describe my feelings”, and “Even when I‟m terribly upset, I can find a way to put it into words”. These and other items representing the describing facet appear to be measuring the analytical and investigative skills associated with the self-observation component of the TCMM. For instance, by being able to describe one‟s feelings and put them into their proper context, one can be said to have the ability – as the TCMM describes – to categorize or classify more appropriately the nature of one‟s experience, tease apart the various elements of the experience (i.e.: between thoughts, emotions,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 61 sensations), and also make connections about how and why the various elements of the experience arise. Items that represent the self-observation facet within the FFMQ include questions such as, “I pay attention to how my emotions affect my thoughts and behavior” and “I pay attention to sensations, such as the wind in my hair or sun on my face”. These and other items representing the self-observation facet appear to be measuring aspects of „investigative awareness‟ and „self-observation‟ as described by component two of the TCMM. Finally, items that represent the non-judging facet within the FFMQ include questions such as, “I disapprove of myself when I have irrational ideas” and “I think some of my emotions are bad or inappropriate and that I shouldn‟t feel them”. These and other items representing the non-judging facet appear to be measuring aspects of acceptance, openness, and curiosity, as defined by the TCMM. For instance, the TCMM predicts that by allowing whatever arises in the mind to be observed with curiosity, and to not try to control one‟s thoughts, emotions, perceptions, or sensations, one has taken a stance of acceptance; and it is with an orientation towards acceptance that one can begin to experience their reality without being quick to label or judge an experience. The result of this behavior may be considered cognitive flexibility, or, an openness to multiple perspectives or possibilities. However, if one is quick to label or judge their experience – as in the two questions above – then it is likely that they are not

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 62 observing their thoughts and emotions with an attitude of acceptance and openness. Therefore, the present study suggests that component one of the TCMM is congruent with the awareness facet of the FFMQ, and that the various elements that compose component two of the TCMM (i.e.: curiosity, openness, acceptance, self-observation) are congruent with the following four facets of the FFMQ: nonreactivity to internal experience, describing/labeling with words the internal world, self-observation, and non-judging of internal experience. Therefore, the present study suggests that the five facets represented within the FFMQ are measuring components of the TCMM. Therefore, the present study assumes that the FFMQ is the most appropriate assessment of mindfulness for the context of this study. What are Bullying and Victimization? It is estimated that 2, 027, 254 youth in the United States are involved in moderate bullying and 1, 681, 030 youth in frequent bullying. Furthermore, it is estimated that 1, 634, 095 US youth are victimized with moderate frequency, and 1, 611, 809 victimized frequently. In addition, it is estimated that 5, 736, 417 identify as being both a bully and a victim (Nansel et al., 2001). Other studies estimate worldwide prevalence of bullying and victimization at 30% of the total student population (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). Bullying can affect a students‟ physical and psychological health, their social adaptation and development, as well as their academic achievement (Gini

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 63 & Pozzoli, 2009). The literature describes three types of children and adolescents as being affected by bullying behavior in school: the bully, the victim, and the bully-victim (i.e. those who are both a perpetrator and a victim of bullying). Bullying has been defined in the literature as possessing the following three characteristics: (1) abusive and usually unprovoked aggressive behavior (verbal, physical, psychological) intended to harm or disturb; (2) behavior that occurs repeatedly over time; and (3) as an imbalance of power (physical and/or psychological) (Nansel et al., 2001; Swearer et al., 2001). It is important to note that bullying can take the form of direct and indirect aggression and is made up of three types. According to Crick and others (2001), these types are: (1) Physical bullying and victimization involves behaviors where the perpetrator directly physically attacks the victim by way of punching, hitting and/or stealing money from the victim; (2) Verbal bullying and victimization refers to direct or indirect comments aimed at the victim. Verbal bullying is intended for the effect of intimidation, humor and/or humiliation of the victim among the peer group, and can include behaviors such as making rude remarks, jokes, threats and name-calling about the victim, and (3) Social bullying and victimization, is a form of indirect aggression, which involves psychological harm and can take the form of rumor spreading, and/or social exclusion within the peer group (as cited by Finger, Marsh, Craven, & Parada, n.d., p.1).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 64 According to Finger, Marsh, Craven, and Parada (n.d.), measuring these three types of bullying and victimization are important because many studies suggests the existence of these three types of bullying and victimization. The instrument used in the present study – the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument – does measure these three types of bullying and victimization. In fact, according to Marsh and others (2004), “the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument is the only bullying and victimization instrument that the authors are aware of which has been empirically supported as a robust measure of bullying and victimization, in addition to a measure of all 3 types of behavior” (as cited by Finger et al., n.d., p.3). Measuring the Frequency of Bullying Behaviors and Victimization Experiences: The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) was developed by Parada (2000) to measure specifically 3 types of bullying behaviors and 3 types of victimization experiences, as well as to generate total-bullying and totalvictimization scores. A high score in these subscales indicates frequent bullying behavior and frequent experiences of victimization. On the other hand, low scores indicate bullying or victimization that is not as frequent (Finger et al., n.d.). The questionnaire is divided into two sections: Section A measures the frequency of bullying behaviors and Section B measures the frequency of victimization experiences.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 65 Section A is an 18-item self-report measure with 3 subscales assessing the frequency of physical, verbal, and social bullying as the perpetrator. All items begin with the statement, “In the past year at this school I…” Examples of physical bullying items include: “crashed into a student on purpose as they walked by”. Examples of verbal bullying items include: “picked on a student by swearing at them”. Examples of social bullying items include: “got my friends to turn against a student”. Section B is an 18-item self-report measure with 3 subscales assessing the frequency of physical, verbal, and social bullying as the victim. All items begin with the statement. “In the past year at this school…” Examples of physical victimization items include “I was pushed or shoved”. Examples of verbal victimization items include, “jokes were made about me”. Examples of social victimization items include, “A student got students to start a rumor about me”. All items are rated on a 6-point scale ranging from “never” to “everyday”. The APRI was developed for youth aged 12-17 years. One study showed the reliability of the 3-factor structure for bully and victim subscales ranged from .83 to .92, and the reliability of total bully and total victim scores were .93, .95 respectively (Finger et al., n.d.). According to Marsh et al., (2004) confirmatory factor analysis and reliability psychometric evaluations of the bullying and victimization APRI scales with a sample of approximately 4000 students in grades 7 to 11 from 8 high school in Australia, showed support for the first-order a priori 6-factor structure (i.e.: three types of bullying and victimization: physical,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 66 verbal, social), and a higher order a priori 2-factor structure for total bullying and victimization (i.e.: bully, victim)(Finger et al., n.d.). One study compared the APRI scale to three of the most well-known bullying/victimization instruments. The study looked at three important methodological concerns: (1) utilizing uni-dimensional approaches to assess multi-dimensional concepts; (2) using instruments that have not been demonstrated with sound psychometric properties; and (3) dichotomizing continuous variables (Finger et al., n.d.). In examining the first methodological issue of using uni-dimensional approaches to assess multi-dimensional concepts, the authors found that none of the popular instruments supported the 3-factor structure for types of bullying and victimization, despite extensive research showing that these three factors do exist for bullying and victimization. Instead, all three popular instruments use a global measure of bullying and victimization, with additional separate measures for the types of bullying and victimization. On the other hand, the APRI uses 18 items to measure 3 types of bullying and victimization. This design is supported by a study done by Marsh and others (2004) which found strong factor loadings and psychometric properties for the APRI (as cited by Finger et al., n.d.). Furthermore, the APRI can also be used to generate a total (global alternative) measure of bullying and victimization (Finger et al., n.d.). In examining the second methodological issue of using instruments without demonstrated sound psychometric properties, the authors point to the

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 67 problem of the popular instruments using inconsistent response scales to measure global scales and subscale scores. For instance, the Rigby and Slee Peer Relations Questionnaire measures global items on a prevalence response scale using specified time periods (i.e.: „weekly‟) yet the subscale items are measured on a subjective frequency scale (i.e.: „never‟, „sometimes‟, „often‟) (Finger et al., n.d.). Alternatively, the APRI uses a 6-point prevalence response scale using specified time periods („never‟ to „everyday‟) for all types of bullying and victimization, and therefore total scores and subscale score are measured on the same response scale and matched on the same time period (Finger et al., n.d.). In examining the third methodological issue, the authors note that dichotomization is often used in other popular instruments. The authors point to other research which has shown that the, … dichotomization of continuous and quantitative variables leads to: (a) loss of effect size and statistical significance; (b) distortion of effects; (c) the potential of researchers to overlook non-linear relationships; and (d) differences between variables that existed prior to dichotomization are considered as equal when dichotomized (Finger et al., n.d., p.4). Therefore, when data analyzing bullying and victimization is dichotomized, children are unavoidably categorized, as opposed to the behavior, into a bully, victim, or non-involved group. For instance, the Salmivalli Participant Role Questionnaire uses cut-off scores to classify students into participant roles: bully,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 68 assistant, reinforcer, defender, outsider, no clear role and victim. Conversely, the APRI scale does not advocate dichotomization of variables and the scale can be used without the use of cut-off scores (Finger et al., n.d.). Therefore, the work conducted by Finger and others (n.d) demonstrated that the APRI scale is the only instrument in comparison to the most well-known measures, which has overcome the following methodological concerns: (a) utilizing uni-dimensional approaches to assess multi-dimensional concepts; (b) using measurement instruments which have not been demonstrated with sound pscyhometric properties; and (c) dichotomizing continuous variables. Thus, according to Finger and others (n.d.), “the APRI is a psychometrically robust instrument which consistently measures the 3 types of bullying and victimization while also calculating the total bully/total victim score” (p.6). Summary The chapter began with a comparison of the benefits of mindfulness with the harmful effects of bullying and victimization. When bullying and mindfulness are compared in terms of their effects on physical health, psychosocial health and development, and education, it appears as though aspects of mindfulness may be negatively associated with aspects of bullying and victimization. In particular, it appears as though mindfulness skills may act as protective factors against the harmful effects of bullying and victimization. To understand how mindfulness skills might act as protective factors against the harmful effects of bullying and victimization, the concept of mindfulness was discussed at length. Included was a

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 69 discussion of its origins in Buddhist meditation traditions, its therapeutic applications in clinical settings in the West, current definitions, and how it is currently understood in contemporary psychology and neurobiology. This review provides a framework for understanding how mindfulness skills may act as protective factors against the harmful effects of bullying and victimization in schools. As a preliminary step to investigating the relationship between mindfulness, bullying, and victimization, the aim of the present study was to conduct a correlational analysis between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences in a sample of high school students. As was discussed in this chapter, the correlational analysis will be accomplished by administering the FFMQ, which assesses mindfulness, and the APRI, which measures the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. The procedure for the collection and treatment of this data will be outlined in the following chapter.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 70

CHAPTER III

PROCEDURES

Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences in a sample of high school students. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Spearman rank order correlations (rho). Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section A of the APRI were used to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors. Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section B of the APRI were used to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences. This chapter presents information on the setting, the population and sample, the protection of human rights, the assessment tools, as well as the procedure for the collection and analysis of the data.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 71 Setting The setting for the study was a public high school located in northern Ontario. The school draws its students from a number of surrounding small towns and First Nations communities. The high school offers English language programs from Grades 9 through 12. Consent letters were sent home with 105 students, with 66 students from 6 different classes returning signed consent letters. Those students that volunteered to participate and had parental consent were given the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument. Those students that did not have consent were given an interest survey. Classes were tested on different days during the month of November 2011, in their regular classrooms, and at their own desks. Population and Sample This study used a convenience sample. The population for this study consisted of the 616 students in grades 9 through 12 that attended this public high school in northern Ontario. The sample for this study consisted of the 66 students who agreed to participate, had parental consent, and completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). The sample of 66 students was drawn from six different classes, including two grade 9 classes, two grade 10 classes, and two grade 11 classes.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 72 Protection of Human Rights The study involved the administration of two assessments that relate to the behavior and characteristics of individuals, including: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) to assess mindfulness, and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) to assess frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. The researcher did not manipulate subjects‟ behavior and the research did not involve stress to subjects. Furthermore, the subjects were not exposed to any physical or psychological risks, nor were they exposed to any physical discomfort. For these reasons, the researcher applied for an expedited review application with the D‟Youville College Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB subsequently granted full approval with respect to the protection of human subjects. The subjects were protected from coercion during the recruitment and research process because the researcher, who has no previous relationship with the students, recruited subjects as opposed to the principal or teacher. To ensure protection from coercion, the researcher was the first and only individual to approach the students about the research and offer them the chance to participate. The researcher did this by visiting the classrooms, reading the assent form, and answering questions. Therefore, this prevented students from feeling compelled or obligated to participate because their principal, teacher, or parent(s) asked them to be subjects in the study. Furthermore, throughout this process the subjects were not exposed to any deception. The researcher distributed to each student the

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 73 subject assent and parental consent forms. The researcher instructed those students that were interested in participating in the study to sign the assent form and have a parent or legal guardian sign the consent form, and return both signed documents to the teacher in a sealed envelope with the researchers name on it. Because the subjects were under the age of 18, voluntary informed consent was required from a parent or legal guardian. A letter was sent home with those students that wanted to participate. This letter explained the research topic and the purpose of the research. Furthermore, the letter informed parents: (a) that the duration of the study would be approximately 30 minutes; (b) of the procedures that would be followed, including a brief explanation of the two assessment tools; (c) that there would be no risk to their child; (d) that subjects‟ data will remain confidential (i.e. names with corresponding codes will ensure that students do not know who received the assessment and who received an alternative activity, and that only the investigator will have access to this list) until data collection, at which time data will become anonymous (i.e. list of names with corresponding codes will be destroyed upon completion of data collection); (e) that the results from this study may be used to develop an intervention against the harmful effects of bullying and victimization; (f) that participation was voluntary and refusal to participate would involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which subjects were otherwise entitled; (g) that subjects would have the right to withdraw their consent by contacting the researcher prior to data collection; and (h) that they could obtain a copy of the results of the study by putting their

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 74 address on the reverse side of the consent form. Furthermore, the letter provided the name and telephone number of the thesis director, Dr. Helen Kress, whom they could contact if they had questions concerning the research, or their child‟s rights as a research subject. The students whom did not have a signed parental consent form, nor a signed assent form, were given an interest survey. Subjects‟ data remained confidential until data was fully collected, at which time data became anonymous (i.e. the list of names with associated number codes was destroyed). See Data Collection Methods for more information on how subjects‟ data will remain confidential. Subjects‟ data will be securely stored in a locked desk at the researcher‟s house for 6 years. Data Collection Methods Upon being granted full approval by the D‟Youville College IRB, the researcher contacted the principal of the high school by email to request permission to conduct a study at the school. Following preliminary approval, the researcher then wrote a formal letter to the principal explaining the nature of the research project and the purpose for conducting the study. The researcher also mailed the following items to the principal: (a) a copy of the data collection methods, (b) a copy of the assessments used in the study, (c) a sample of the consent letters to be sent to the parents, (d) a sample of the assent forms to be read to and signed by students, and (e) a copy of the Institutional Review Board approval letter from D‟Youville College.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 75 Upon receiving formal approval from the school‟s principal, the researcher was ready to begin recruiting subjects for the study. At a staff meeting, the researcher introduced himself to the school‟s teachers, and explained the nature of the research project, the purpose for conducting the study, the protection of human rights, and the data collection procedure. The researcher then asked if any teachers would like to volunteer their class for the study. If a teacher was interested in volunteering their class, they were instructed to contact the researcher by email. The teachers were also instructed to not discuss any aspect of the study with their class in order to protect students from coercion. After one week, the researcher received requests from six teachers interested in volunteering their class for the research, including, two grade 9 classes, two grade 10 classes, and two grade 11 classes. Moving forward, the researcher then organized two dates that were convenient for each teacher, in order to: (a) meet with the class to discuss the research and hand out student assent and parental consent forms, and, (b) administer the questionnaires. All dates were set for the month of November 2011. On the date that the researcher first met with a class, he took ten minutes to explain the nature, purpose, and procedure of the research, and to answer questions related to the protection of human rights, confidentiality, and anonymity. Specifically, the investigator explained that the questionnaires included questions about their experiences at school and how they think in their day-to-day life (see Appendix A and C). The investigator explained that

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 76 participation in the study was completely voluntary, and that those students who did not wish to participate or whose parents did not give consent would not be penalized or at a loss of benefit to which they were otherwise entitled, and would be given an interest questionnaire instead (see Appendix J). The investigator also assured students that nobody would know who was writing the research questionnaire, and who was writing the interest survey. In other words, students were assured that their willingness or non-willingness to participate in the study would remain confidential. The investigator explained that this would be done by not putting their names on the booklets; but instead, that matching code numbers would be placed by the investigator on each booklet. The students were told that a list comprised of the students‟ names and code numbers would be used so that the research questionnaire and the interest survey would be given to the appropriate students. The researcher assured the students that he would destroy this list immediately following the collection of data. The investigator pointed out that this would ensure that their answers to the questionnaires would remain anonymous. Finally, the researcher then distributed assent (see Appendix H) and parental consent forms (see Appendix G) to the students. The students were told that if they wished to participate in the study, they would have to first circle “yes” on the subject assent form, then have their parent of legal guardian sign the parental consent form. If a student did not wish to participate, they were told to circle “no” on the subject assent form. In both cases, students were instructed to

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 77 return their assent and parental consent forms in a sealed envelope to their teacher within one week. After one week, the researcher met with the teacher to collect the envelopes and a class list. The researcher then determined which students were writing the research questionnaire, and which were writing the interest survey. Booklets containing the research questionnaire were prepared and codified for those students who circled “yes” on the assent form and had a signed parental consent form. Booklets containing the interest survey were prepared and codified for those students who either circled “no” on the assent form or who did not return a signed parental consent form. The codes were written beside the corresponding student name on the class list. The tests were then ready to be administered. On the day of the test, a standardized script was read to the students (see Appendix I) followed by written directions for completing the assessments (see instructions on Appendices A, C, and J). A booklet with only a code on the cover sheet, and containing either the research questionnaire or the interest survey, was given to the appropriate student according to the codified student list. The students were reminded not to put their names on the booklets. The students were told that they would have approximately 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire. All students were able to complete the questionnaire in that time frame. During that time, the researcher made himself available to answer questions while the students were completing the assessments. Students were

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 78 instructed to raise their hand once they were finished, and the researcher would collect their booklet. After collecting all the booklets, the researcher thanked the students and the teacher for their participation. Furthermore, the researcher debriefed that class by detailing instructions for contacting the school counselor or principal in case of any psychological discomfort from participating in the study, or to report incidences of bullying. Finally, immediately following the collection of data, the researcher destroyed the codified class list. Tools The instruments used in this study were the: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) (Baer et al., 2006) to assess mindfulness; and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) (Parada, 2000) to assess frequency of bullying behaviors and frequency of victimization experiences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire The FFMQ was used to assess mindfulness. The FFMQ is a 39-item selfreport measure of mindfulness. According to Baer and others (2008), “the assessment of complex constructs at the facet level is essential for clarifying their relationship with other variables” (p.330). Therefore, the FFMQ was primarily selected because of its ability to measure mindfulness at the facet level. This is particularly relevant to the present study because a more comprehensive and detailed assessment of mindfulness allowed for a more sensitive detection of potential relationships between aspects of mindfulness and bullying/victimization. Furthermore, granular data from the FFMQ may help isolate specific facets of

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 79 mindfulness that are more successful than other facets at reducing the frequency of bullying behaviors and/or victimization experiences. This data may then be used to develop a mindfulness-based skills training course tailored specifically to reducing the frequency of bullying behaviors and/or victimization experiences. The FFMQ has been shown to have satisfactory to good internal consistency, with alpha coefficients ranging from .75 to .91 (Baer et al., 2006). Further studies confirm this, with alpha coefficients ranging from .72 to .92 (Baer et al., 2008). Additionally, all five instruments from which the items of the FFMQ were taken are significantly correlated with the FFMQ. Furthermore, mediation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses have reinforced the validity of the FFMQ (Baer et al., 2006; Baer et al., 2008). Other studies show test-retest reliability of the FFMQ to be good to excellent (Veehof, Klooster, Taal, Westerhof, & Bohlmeijer 2011). Overall, these studies demonstrate that the FFMQ is a reliable and valid measure for assessing mindfulness. The FFMQ consists of five subscales that are defined as follows: (a) Observing includes noticing or attending to internal and external experiences, such as sensations, cognitions, emotions, sights, sounds, and smells; (b) Describing refers to labeling internal experiences with words; (c) Acting with awareness includes attending to one‟s activities of the moment and can be contrasted with behaving mechanically while attention is focused elsewhere (often called automatic pilot); (d) Non-judging of inner experience refers to taking a non-evaluative stance toward thoughts and feelings; and (e) Non-

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 80 reactivity to inner experience is the tendency to allow thoughts and feelings to come and go, without getting caught up in or carried away by them (Baer et al., 2008, p.330). Items are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from “never or very rarely true” (1 point) to “very often or always true” (5 points). Items are stated as positive or negative statements. An example of a positive statement is, “I‟m good at finding words to describe my feelings”. An example of a negative statement is, “I criticize myself for having irrational or inappropriate emotions”. For scoring negative items the scale must be reversed. In other words, a subject that records a 5 on the negative item would be scored as a 1, a 4 would be scored as a 2, a 3 as a 3, a 4 as a 2, and a 1 as a 5. Negative items are marked in appendix B (Scoring the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire) and below by the letter R. Items 1, 6, 11, 15, 20, 26, 31, and 36 measure Observing. Items 2, 7, 12R, 16R, 22R, 27, 32, and 37 measure Describing. Items 5R, 8R, 13R, 18R, 23R, 28R, 34R, and 38R measure Acting with Awareness. Items 3R, 10R, 14R, 17R, 25R, 30R, 35R, and 39R measure Non-judging of inner experience. And, items 4, 9, 19, 21, 24, 29, and 33 measure Non-reactivity to inner experience. Scoring is achieved by adding the items up for a subscale or total score. For instance, say subject 1 records the following scores for the Describe items on the FFMQ: a 5 on item 2, a 3 on item 7, a 4 on item

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 81 12R, a 1 on item 16R, a 3 on item 22R, a 5 on item 27, a 2 on item 32, and a 1 on item 37. The Describe subscale score for subject 1 would be: 5 + 3 + 2 + 5 + 3 + 5 + 2 + 1 = 26. This score would be entered into the Excel worksheet under Describe for subject 1. The same process is applied for each of the five subscales. To obtain a total mindfulness score, the scores from all five subscales are summated. This process is repeated for each subject. An explanation of how the FFMQ was developed, and a description of its relation to the present study can be found in Chapter II, Measuring Mindfulness: The Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument Section A of the APRI will be used to assess the frequency of bullying behaviors committed by a student in the past year. Section A is an 18-item self-report measure consisting of three subscale scores and a total score. The Physical bullying subscale assesses the frequency of physical bullying behaviors committed by the student in the past year. The Verbal bullying subscale assesses the frequency of verbal bullying behaviors committed by the student in the past year. And, the Social bullying subscale assesses the frequency of social bullying behaviors committed by the student in the past year. All three subscales consist of 6 items each. Items 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 16 assess the frequency of physical bullying behaviors committed by the student in the past year. Items 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 assess the frequency of verbal bullying behaviors committed by the

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 82 student in the past year. Finally, items 4, 8, 11, 13, 17, and 18 assess the frequency of social bullying behaviors committed by the student in the past year. Items are rated on the following 6-point scale: Never; Sometimes; Once or twice a month; Once a week; Several times a week; Everyday. Each item is rated with a point value, “Never” having a point value of “1”, “Sometimes” a point value of “2”, and so-on up to “Everyday” with a point value of “6”. Scoring is achieved by adding the items up for a total or subscale score. For instance, say subject 1 records the following scores for the Physical bullying items on Section A of the APRI: a 5 on item 2, a 3 on item 6, a 4 on item 9, a 1 on item 12, a 3 on item 15, and a 5 on item16. The Physical bullying subscale score for subject 1 would be: 5 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 3 + 5 = 21. This score would be entered into the Excel worksheet under Physical bullying for subject 1. The same process is applied for each of the three subscales. To obtain a total frequency of bullying behaviors score, the scores from all three subscales are summated. This process is repeated for each subject. A total score of 18 or a subscale score of 6 means that the respondent has never bullied or has never bullied in that particular way, respectively. Section B of the APRI will be used to assess the frequency of victimization incidences experienced by a student in the past year. Section B is an 18-item self-report measure consisting of three subscale scores and a total score. The Physical victimization subscale assesses the frequency of

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 83 physical victimization incidences experienced by the student in the past year. The Verbal victimization subscale assesses the frequency of verbal victimization incidences experienced by the student in the past year. And, the Social victimization subscale assesses the frequency of social victimization incidences experienced by the student in the past year. All three subscales consist of 6 items each. Items 2, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 16 assess the frequency of physical victimization incidences experienced by the student in the past year. Items 1, 4, 7, 11, 13, and 18 assess the frequency of verbal victimization incidences experienced by the student in the past year. Finally, items 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, and 17 assess the frequency of social victimization incidences experienced by the student in the past year. Items are rated on the same 6-point scale described above. Furthermore, scoring is achieved by using the same method outlined above. A total score of 18 or a subscale score of 6 means that the respondent has never been bullied or has never been bullied in that particular way, respectively. The APRI is a relatively new instrument and has not been extensively used or tested for in terms of validity and reliability. However, one study showed the reliability of the 3-factor structure for bully and victim subscales ranged from .83 to .92, and the reliability of total bully and total victim scores were .93, .95 respectively (Finger et al., n.d.). According to Marsh et al., (2004) confirmatory factor analysis and reliability psychometric evaluations of the bullying and victimization

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 84 APRI scales with a sample of approximately 4000 students in grades 7 to 11 from 8 high school in Australia, showed support for the first-order a priori 6-factor structure (i.e.: three types of bullying and victimization: physical, verbal, social), and a higher order a priori 2-factor structure for total bullying and victimization (i.e.: bully, victim) (Finger et al., n.d.). For a more detailed description of the APRI, studies pertaining to its reliability and validity, and its relation to the present study see Measuring the Frequency of Bullying and Victimization: The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument in Chapter II. Treatment of Data Statistical analysis of data was performed using SPSS. This study met the criteria for correlational analysis, i.e.: that associations will be examined, that data will be collected from only one sample, that no experimental treatment will be involved, and that the sample was not randomly selected. Furthermore, the data obtained from both the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) is ordinal. With ordinal data, only the order of scores is relevant, not the distance between scores. In other words, you cannot quantify the difference between “never or very rarely true” and “very often or always true”. For example, if subject A records a 5 for “very often or always true” in response to “I am easily distracted”, this does not indicate that subject A is exactly five times more frequently distracted than subject B who selected a 1 for “never or very rarely true” on the same item. The scales used on

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 85 the FFMQ and the APRI produce ordinal data. Therefore, the researcher concluded that the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (rho) was the most appropriate statistical analysis tool for this study. Furthermore, because the Spearman test only uses ranks, the affect of outliers is lessened (i.e. a subject with the highest score receives the same rank whether they scored a 20 or 100). Data from the Spearman rank order correlation (rho) revealed the nature and strength of the relationship among and between the variables of the FFMQ and the APRI. An r value between -1 and +1 was the outcome of the analysis, with the minus value indicating an inverse relationship and the positive value indicating a direct relationship. Whether negative or positive, the magnitude of the values were interpreted according to the following accepted strengths for correlations in educational research: .20 - .34 weak, .35 - .65 moderate, .66 – 1.0 strong (Gay & Airasian, 2003). Furthermore, because there has been no previous research conducted on the relationship between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, the researcher cannot predict the direction of a potential relationship, and will therefore use a two-tailed test. The FFMQ consists of a total mindfulness score and five subscale scores, including: (a) non-judging of internal experience subscale; (b) non-reactivity to internal experience subscale; (c) observing subscale; (d) acting with awareness subscale; and (e) describing/labeling internal experience subscale. The APRI consists of two sections: Section A and Section B. Section A consists of a total frequency of bullying behaviors score, and three subscale scores, including: (a)

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 86 frequency of physical bullying behaviors subscale score; (b) frequency of verbal bullying behaviors subscale score; and, (c) frequency of social bullying behaviors subscale score. Section B consists of a total frequency of victimization experiences score, and three subscale scores, including: (a) frequency of physical victimization experiences subscale score; (b) frequency of verbal victimization experiences subscale score; and (c) frequency of social victimization experiences subscale score. Spearman rank order correlations (rho) were calculated among and between all of the aforementioned variables, and a correlation matrix was produced (see table 2). Additionally, descriptive statistics including minimum and maximum scores, means, and standard deviations were also calculated (see table 1). Summary This chapter presented the procedure for the collection of data for this study, including: the setting, the population and sample, human rights protection, data collection methods, tools, and treatment of data. The study was conducted at a high school in northern Ontario and consisted of a convenience sample of 66 students. The D‟Youville College IRB granted the study full approval with respect to the protection of human subjects. In particular, the researcher was careful to protect the students from coercion, to obtain voluntary informed consent from a parent or legal guardian, and to ensure that data was kept confidential until it became anonymous.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 87 The researcher collected data in the following sequence: (a) obtained approval from the principal of the high school; (b) met with the school‟s teachers to recruit classes for the study; (c) met with each class to discuss the research, answer questions, and distribute assent and consent forms; (d) collected the submitted assent and parental consent forms from the teachers after one week; (e) prepared and codified the test booklets; and (f) administered the test to each class separately, and on different days. Those students that did not have parental consent were given an interest survey. Those students who gave assent and who had parental consent, were administered the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). Data from these two questionnaires was entered into an Excel worksheet then transferred to SPSS for statistical analysis. Because the data was ordinal, it was concluded that a Spearman rank order test was the most appropriate tool for examining relations between the six variables of the FFMQ and the eight variables of the APRI. Examining and interpreting the correlation coefficients obtained from the SPSS correlation matrix would help answer the study‟s two research questions: (a) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors; and, (b) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences?

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 88 Chapter IV will describe the results that were obtained from the study. Chapter V will include the discussion, implications for practice and education, and recommendations for further research.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 89

CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS OF DATA Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences in a sample of high school students. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Spearman rank order correlation coefficients (rho). Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section A of the APRI were used to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors. Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section B of the APRI were used to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences. Upon examination of the results, weak but significant findings found between the FFMQ and APRI subscale and total scores revealed that certain facets of mindfulness are negatively associated with the frequency of certain types

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 90 of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. This chapter will present the analysis of data for this exploratory correlational research study. Also included in this chapter is a description of the population and sample, the research questions, tools used, serendipitous findings, as well as the results of the descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients (rho). Description of the Population and Sample This study used a convenience sample. The population for this study consisted of the 616 students in grades 9 through 12 that attended this public high school in northern Ontario. The school draws its students from a number of surrounding small towns and First Nations communities. Consent letters were sent home with 105 students, with 66 students from 6 different classes returning signed consent letters. Therefore, the sample consisted of the 66 students who agreed to participate, had parental consent, and completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). The sample of 66 students was drawn from six different classes, including two grade 9 classes, two grade 10 classes, and two grade 11 classes. Those students that did not have consent were given an interest survey. Classes were tested on different days during the month of November 2011, in their regular classrooms, and at their own desks. Research Questions This study was designed to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 91 victimization experiences, in a sample of high school students. In particular, this study sought to explore the following two research questions: (1) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors? (2) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences? Tools The instruments used in this study were the: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) (Baer et al., 2006) to assess mindfulness; and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) (Parada, 2000) to assess the frequency of bullying behaviors and frequency of victimization experiences. Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section A of the APRI were used to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors. Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section B of the APRI were used to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences. The FFMQ consists of a total mindfulness score and five subscale scores, including: (a) non-judging of internal experience subscale; (b) non-reactivity to internal experience subscale; (c) observing subscale; (d) acting with awareness subscale; and (e) describing/labeling internal experience subscale. The APRI consists of two sections: Section A and Section B. Section A consists of a total

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 92 frequency of bullying behaviors score, and three subscale scores, including: (a) frequency of physical bullying behaviors subscale score; (b) frequency of verbal bullying behaviors subscale score; and, (c) frequency of social bullying behaviors subscale score. Section B consists of a total frequency of victimization experiences score, and three subscale scores, including: (a) frequency of physical victimization experiences subscale score; (b) frequency of verbal victimization experiences subscale score; and (c) frequency of social victimization experiences subscale score. Each participating subject received a booklet containing the two instruments. The FFMQ appeared before the APRI. The researcher did not instruct the subjects to complete the assessments in any particular order. Subjects most likely completed the FFMQ first, but some may have done otherwise. No questionnaires had to be excluded from the data set because they were incomplete or because the researcher couldn‟t read the response. Therefore, 66 subjects were given both assessments, and 66 subjects were included in the data analysis. Responses on items were summated using a calculator to obtain subscale scores from both the FFMQ and the APRI for each subject. In all, five subscale scores for the FFMQ, and six subscale scores for the APRI were summated for each subject using a calculator, and the scores entered into an Excel worksheet. A formula was entered into the Excel worksheet to automatically calculate the total mindfulness score, the total frequency of bullying behaviors score, and the total frequency of victimization experiences score. After recording the data from all 66

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 93 subjects, the excel worksheet was then imported into an SPSS computer program for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarize means and standard deviations (see Table 1). To examine relations between facets mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors, and between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences, Spearman rank order correlation tests (rho) were conducted between the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ and the APRI. The results of were displayed in a correlation matrix (see Table 2). The obtained data were compared at a p < .05 level of significance. Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics are displayed in Table 1. Mean levels of mindfulness and standard deviations (total score and subscale scores) were similar to levels in other studies using the FFMQ (Roberts & Danoff-Burg, 2010). The lowest possible score for the non-react subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is 7, and the highest possible score is 35. Of the 66 subjects, scores ranged from a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 30. For the remaining subscales of the FFMQ (i.e. observe, describe, act with awareness, and non-judge), the lowest possible score is 8, and the highest possible score is 40. Of the 66 subjects, scores on these subscales ranged from a minimum of 10 to 14, to a maximum of 37 to 40. Finally, the lowest possible score for total mindfulness is 39, and the highest possible score is 180. Of the 66 subjects, scores ranged from a minimum of 81 to a maximum of 161.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 94 The lowest possible score for all six subscales of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) is 6, and the highest possible score is 36. Of the 66 subjects, a minimum score of 6 was recorded for all six subscales. The following maximum scores were recorded for the six subscales: 24 for verbal bullying, 13 for social bullying, 23 for physical bullying, 30 for verbal victimization, 32 for social victimization, and 22 for physical victimization. Finally, the lowest possible total bullying score and total victimization score is 18, and the highest possible score is 108. Of the 66 subjects, total bullying scores ranged from a minimum of 18 to a maximum of 58. Total victimization scores ranged from a minimum of 18 to a maximum of 67.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 95 Table 1. Descriptive Statistics (N = 66) Minimum M(Observe) M(Describe) M(Awareness) M(Nonjudge) M(Nonreact) M(Total) B(Verbal) B(Social) B(Physical) B(Total) V(Verbal) V(Social) V(Physical) V(Total) 10 14 10 12 10 81 6 6 6 18 6 6 6 18 Maximum 37 40 40 37 30 161 24 13 23 58 30 32 22 67 Mean 23.86 25.82 26.55 27.41 18.91 122.55 11.02 7.48 8.92 27.42 11.00 9.15 8.82 28.97 Std. Deviation 5.678 5.508 6.062 5.651 4.285 14.166 4.408 1.947 3.931 8.910 5.684 4.470 3.671 11.946

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 96 Table 2. Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficients Among FFMQ and APRI Variables (N = 66) Variable 1. M(Observe) 2. M(Describe) 3. M(Awareness) 4. M(Nonjudge) 5. M(Nonreact) 6. M(Total) 7. B(Verbal) 8. B(Social) 9. B(Physical) 10. B(Total) 11. V(Verbal) 12. V(Social) 13. V(Physical) 14. V(Total) 1 1.000 .302* -.105 -.332** .503** .452** .048 .081 -.097 .049 .201 .113 .113 .212 1.000 .169 -.044 .315** .654** .193 .042 -.170 .104 -.206 -.045 -.284* -.170 1.000 .417** .042 .576** -.091 -.284* -.180 -.219 -.224 -.258* -.258* -.281* 1.000 -.222 .293* -.090 -.108 -.023 -.097 -.268* -.213 -.245* -.314* 2 3 4

Note. *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 97 Table 2 (continued). Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficients Among FFMQ and APRI Variables (N = 66) Variable 1. M(Observe) 2. M(Describe) 3. M(Awareness) 4. M(Nonjudge) 5. M(Nonreact) 6. M(Total) 7. B(Verbal) 8. B(Social) 9. B(Physical) 10. B(Total) 11. V(Verbal) 12. V(Social) 13. V(Physical) 14. V(Total) 1.000 .557** -.084 -.086 -.150 -.082 .074 -.101 -.041 -.003 1.000 .022 -.183 -.217 -.078 -.186 -.220 -.255* -.242 1.000 .487** .714** .938** .322** .306* .365** .409** 1.000 .421** .617** .267* .324** .319** .320** 5 6 7 8

Note. *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 98 Table 2 (continued). Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficients Among FFMQ and APRI Variables (N = 66) Variable 1. M(Observe) 2. M(Describe) 3. M(Awareness) 4. M(Nonjudge) 5. M(Nonreact) 6. M(Total) 7. B(Verbal) 8. B(Social) 9. B(Physical) 10. B(Total) 11. V(Verbal) 12. V(Social) 13. V(Physical) 14. V(Total) 1.000 .853** .355** .276* .602** .471** 1.000 .371** .338** .496** .473** 1.000 .645** .667** .925** 1.000 .466** .793** 9 10 11 12

Note. *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 99 Table 2 (continued). Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficients Among FFMQ and APRI Variables (N = 66) Variable 1. M(Observe) 2. M(Describe) 3. M(Awareness) 4. M(Nonjudge) 5. M(Nonreact) 6. M(Total) 7. B(Verbal) 8. B(Social) 9. B(Physical) 10. B(Total) 11. V(Verbal) 12. V(Social) 13. V(Physical) 14. V(Total) 1.000 .788** 1.000 13 14

Note. *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 100 Results of the Spearman Rank Order Correlations (rho) In order to conclude whether or not the results are meaningful, the correlation coefficient should be analyzed against the following three benchmarks: (a) the statistical significance of the association; (b) the strength of the association; and (c) the square of the correlation coefficient (Cohen, Lawrence, & Morrison, 2007). According to Cohen, Lawrence and Morrision (2007) exploratory relationship studies – such as the present study – are generally interpreted with reference to their statistical significance, and can use the statistical significance to extrapolate to the populations from which the samples are drawn. The present study found nine significant negative correlations at p < .05. Therefore, there is less than a 5% chance that the results of these correlations occurred by chance, and the null hypothesis can be rejected. In other words, the researcher can conclude that in this population, a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. However, this conclusion provides no information about the strength of the relationships. In order to determine this information, the researcher must consider the value of the correlation coefficient. Whether negative or positive, the magnitude of the values were interpreted according to the following accepted strengths for correlations in educational research: .20 - .34 weak, .35 - .65 moderate, .66 – 1.0 strong (Gay & Airasian, 2003). All nine significant negative correlations found in the present study were

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 101 less than .34, and are therefore interpreted as being weak correlations. Cohen, Lawrence, and Morrison (2007) point out that although correlations at this level show only very slight relationship between variables, they still have meaning in exploratory relationship research. Therefore, the nine significant negative correlations found in the present study will be interpreted as weak, but meaningful associations that suggest doing further research. Finally, the square of the correlation coefficient, r2, shows the proportion in variance in one variable that can be attributed to its linear relationship with the second variable (Cohen, Lawrence, & Morrison, 2007). Of the nine significant correlations found in the present study, values of r2 range from .06 to .10. In other words, 6 to 10 percent of the variation shown by the mindfulness scores can be attributed to the tendency of mindfulness to vary linearly with frequency of bullying and victimization. Therefore, the following nine associations discussed below should be interpreted as significant (i.e. did not occur by chance), negative, weak (i.e. only a slight relationship), and meaningful (i.e. suggest further research). Correlations Between Mindfulness and Frequency of Bullying Behaviors Spearman rank order correlations (rho) among the mindfulness scores (total and subscale scores) on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the bullying scores (total and subscale scores) on Section A of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) are reported in Table 2. A significant but weak negative association at p < .05 found between the FFMQ scores and Section A APRI scores indicates that a negative relationship exists between facets of

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 102 mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors. Specifically, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with frequency of social bullying (r = -.284, p < .05). That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to socially bully other students. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with frequency of physical, verbal, or overall bullying behaviors. In addition, non-judging of internal experience, nonreactivity to internal experience, observing, describing/labeling internal experience, and total mindfulness were not significantly associated with any of the following four variables: (a) frequency of social bullying behaviors, (b) frequency of verbal bullying behaviors, (c) frequency of physical bullying behaviors, or (d) frequency of total bullying behaviors. Correlations Between Mindfulness and Frequency of Victimization Experiences Spearman rank order correlations (rho) among the mindfulness scores (total and subscale scores) on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the victimization scores (total and subscale scores) on Section B of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) are reported in Table 2. Significant but weak negative associations at p < .05 found between the FFMQ scores and Section B APRI scores indicate that a negative relationship exists between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences. The following describes the significant negative associations found. Acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with frequency of social victimization (r = -.258, p < .05). That is, students with higher

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 103 levels of acting with awareness are less likely to be victims of social bullying. Acting with awareness was also significantly negatively associated with frequency of physical victimization (r = -.258, p < .05). That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to be victims of physical bullying. Furthermore, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with frequency of overall victimization (r = -.281, p < .05). That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to be victims of bullying in general. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with frequency of verbal victimization. Labeling and describing with words the internal world was significantly negatively associated with frequency of physical victimization (r = -.284, p < .05). That is, students that are more adept and habitual at labeling and describing with words their internal world are less likely to be victims of physical bullying. Labeling and describing with words the internal world was not significantly associated with frequency of verbal, social, or overall victimization. Non-judging of internal experience was significantly negatively associated with frequency of physical victimization (r = -.245, p < .05). That is, students that are less judgmental of their internal experiences are less likely to be victims of physical bullying. Non-judging of internal experience was significantly negatively associated with frequency of overall victimization (r = -.314, p < .05). That is, students that are less judgmental of their internal experiences are less likely to be victims of bullying in general. Furthermore, non-judging of internal experience

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 104 was also significantly negatively associated with verbal victimization (r = -.268, p < .05). That is students that are less judgmental of their internal experiences are less likely to be victims of verbal bullying. Non-judging of internal experience was not significantly associated with frequency of social victimization. Total mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with frequency of physical victimization (r = -.255, p < .05). That is, students with overall higher levels of mindfulness are less likely to be victims of physical bullying. Total mindfulness was not significantly associated with frequency of social, verbal, or overall victimization. Finally, both non-reactivity to internal experience and observing were not significantly associated with frequency of physical, social, verbal, or overall victimization. Serendipitous Findings Although the present study was only examining relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences, the results of the Spearman rank order correlation test (rho) also revealed weak, moderate, and strong significant positive associations between bullying and victimization scores. These findings indicate that a direct relationship exists between frequency of bullying behaviors and frequency of victimization experiences. First, verbal bullying was significantly positively associated with verbal victimization (r = .322, p < .01), social victimization (r = .306, p < .05), physical victimization (r = .365, p < .01), and

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 105 total victimization (r = .409, p < .01). That is, students that more frequently verbally bully other students are more likely to be bullied themselves. Specifically, they are more likely to bullied verbally, socially, physically, and in general. Second, social bullying was significantly positively associated with verbal victimization (r = .267, p < .05), social victimization (r = .324, p < .01), physical victimization (r = .319, p < .01), and total victimization (r = .320, p < .01). That is, students that more frequently socially bully other students are more likely to be bullied themselves. Specifically, they are more likely to be bullied verbally, socially, physically, and in general. Third, physical bullying was significantly positively associated with verbal victimization (r = .355, p < .01), social victimization (r = .276, p < .05), physical victimization (r = .602, p < .01), and total victimization (r = .471, p < .01). That is, students that more frequently physically bully other students are more likely to be bullied themselves. Specifically, they are more likely to be bullied verbally, socially, physically, and in general. Finally, total bullying was significantly positively associated with verbal victimization (r = .371, p < .01), social victimization (r = .338, p < .01), physical victimization (r = .496, p < .01), and total victimization (r = .473, p < .01). That is, students that more frequently bully other students in general are more likely to be bullied themselves. Specifically, they are more likely to be bullied verbally, socially, physically, and in general. These findings support research into bully-victims, which shows that children who bully are often bullied themselves. For instance, in one large study

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 106 involving 25 high schools and 7,290 students in a southern Ontario region of Canada, bully-victims comprised approximately one third of the students who were involved in some type of bullying or victimization (Marini, Dane, Bosacki, & YLC-CURA, 2006). Furthermore, it is estimated that 5.7 million U.S. youth identify as being both a bully and a victim (Nansel et al., 2001). These findings are relevant since numerous studies have demonstrated that bully-victims demonstrate the highest risk for physical, psychological, social, behavioral, and educational problems when compared with bullies, victims, and non-involved youth (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Nansel et al., 2001; Swearer et al., 2001). Summary This exploratory correlational study examined relations between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors, and between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences, in a sample of 66 high school students in northern Ontario. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients (rho) were calculated among and between the students‟ total and subscale scores on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). Significant but weak negative associations at p < .05 found between the FFMQ scores and APRI scores indicate that a negative relationship exists between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types bullying behaviors, and between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences (see table 2). Specifically, significant negative relationships were

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 107 found in four out of the six mindfulness scores. First, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associating with social bullying, social victimization, physical victimization, and overall victimization. Second, labeling and describing with words the internal world was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. Third, non-judging of experience was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization, verbal victimization, and overall victimization. Finally, overall mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. Additionally, the spearman rank order correlation coefficients (rho) revealed weak, moderate, and strong significant positive associations between frequency of bullying and victimization scores, suggesting that a direct relationship exists between frequency of bullying behaviors and frequency of victimization experiences. Collectively, these findings support the need for further research into studying the relationship between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, as well as further investigation into the direct association between frequency of bullying behaviors and frequency of victimization experiences. Interpretations of these findings and their relevance to educational practice are discussed in Chapter V.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 108

CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION Summary A literature review indicated the need to study the relationship between mindfulness, bullying, and victimization, in schools. Thus, an exploratory, correlational study was conducted to examine relations between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences, in a sample of high school students. The study consisted of a convenience sample of 66 students from six different classes at a high school in northern Ontario. Each subject volunteered to take part in the study and had parental consent. The researcher collected data on various dates during November 2011. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Spearman rank order correlation coefficients (rho). Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section A of the APRI were used to examine relations between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 109 behaviors. Correlations of the total and subscale scores of the FFMQ with the total and subscale scores of Section B of the APRI were used to examine relations between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences. Results of the study revealed nine significant negative associations between various total and subscale sores of the FFMQ and the APRI, with rvalues ranging from -.245 to -.314 at p < .05. These results suggest that a negative relationship does exist between certain facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Despite the results being significant and meaningful for exploratory relationship research, the associations found were weak, and thus should be interpreted with caution until further research is conducted. A three-phase proposal for conducting further research into mindfulness, bullying, and victimization, is outlined in chapter V. The three-phase proposal consists of recommendations: (a) for improving the present study, (b) for conducting randomized controlled studies testing the efficacy of mindfulnessbased skills training on reducing the frequency and harmful effects of bullying and victimization, and (c) for testing a mechanism of how mindfulness might reduce the frequency and harmful effects of bullying and victimization. Finally, it is suggested that granular data on mindfulness, bullying, and victimization continue to be collected so that a mindfulness-based skills training program may be customized specifically for victims of bullying.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 110 CONCLUSIONS Relationship of the Results to the Conceptual Framework For the present study, the conceptual framework utilized to support this research is the Two-Component Model of Mindfulness (TCMM). The TCMM predicts that practicing self-regulation of attention skills, self-observation skills, and adopting an orientation towards experience that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance, will foster the development of a psychological state of mindful awareness. The TCMM further goes on to predict two possible mechanisms by which mindfulness may reduce psychopathology. First, Bishop and others (2004) hypothesize that a psychological state of mindful awareness can lead to a decentered perspective and the ability to disengage from the contents of the mind, which in turn can lead to reductions in ruminative thinking, and ultimately reduced psychopathology such as anxiety and depression. Second, Bishop and others (2004) also hypothesize that a psychological state of mindful awareness encourages an attitude of acceptance, openness, and curiosity towards one‟s experience, which can lead to increased affect tolerance and decreased patterns of cognitive and behavioral avoidance, which ultimately may reduce psychopathology such as anxiety and depression. These hypotheses are strengthened by one study which showed that increased mindfulness in daily life is associated with decreased rumination, decreased fear of emotion, and increased behavioral self-regulation (Lykins & Baer, 2009). The present study‟s conceptual framework uses the TCMM to predict how mindfulness skills may act as

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 111 protective factors against the psychopathologies – such as anxiety and depression – that are associated with bullying and victimization (see figure 2). As noted in the conceptual framework, testing this theory was beyond the scope of this study. Furthermore, there is very little research exploring the relationship between mindfulness, bullying and victimization. Therefore, it was the purpose of the present study to first conduct exploratory research to investigate the relationship between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors, and between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences, in a sample of high school students. Relationship of the Victimization Scores to the Conceptual Framework Spearman rank order correlations (rho) among the mindfulness scores (total and subscale) on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the victimization scores (total and subscale scores) on Section B of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) revealed eight significant but weak negative associations, indicating that a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences. First, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with social, physical, and overall victimization. That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to become victims of social, physical, and general bullying. Second, labeling and describing with words the internal world was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. That is, students that are more proficient and habitual at labeling and describing their

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 112 thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations, are less likely to become victims of physical bullying. Third, non-judging of internal experience was significantly negatively associated with physical, verbal, and overall victimization. That is, students that are less judgmental of their thoughts, feeling, emotions, and sensations, are less likely to become victims of physical, verbal, and general bullying. Finally, total mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. That is, students with overall higher levels of mindfulness are less likely to become victims of physical bullying. In relation to the present study‟s conceptual framework, these results can be interpreted as follows: acting with awareness, labeling and describing with words the internal world, and non-judging of experience, are all aspect of mindfulness that may cultivate: (a) self-regulation of attention skills, (b) selfobservation skills (such as the ability to disengage from the contents of the mind and adopt a decentered perspective), and (c) an attitude of acceptance, openness, and curiosity towards one‟s experiences. These skills then in turn may act to reduce or prevent rumination, affect intolerance, and cognitive and behavioral avoidance patterns. Ultimately, these effects may act to reduce or prevent the psychopathologies that are often associated with bullying and victimization, such as anxiety and depression. Finally, as psychopathology is reduced or prevented, the child or adolescent may become less of a target for bullies. In fact, a recent study showed that depressive symptoms in children precede victimization. Specifically, the study showed that children who displayed higher levels of

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 113 depressive symptoms in grade 4 were more likely to be bullied in grade 5 (Kochel, Ladd, & Rudolph, 2012). Therefore, mindfulness skills may disrupt this process, preventing both psychopathology and bullying/victimization. Furthermore, mindfulness skills may empower the child or adolescent with the ability to successfully avoid or effectively respond to threats of bullying behavior in real time. Let‟s consider each of the associations found in this study in more detail. Acting with awareness in operationalized in the FFMQ by items such as: When I do things, my mind wanders off and I‟m easily distracted; I don‟t pay attention to what I‟m doing because I‟m daydreaming, worrying, or otherwise distracted; I find it difficult to stay focused on what‟s happening in the present; It seems I am “running on automatic” without much awareness of what I‟m doing; and I do jobs or tasks automatically without being aware of what I‟m doing. By acting with awareness – i.e.; staying anchored in the present moment by selfregulating attention through: (1) sustained attention skills, (2) attention switching skills, and (3) inhibition of secondary elaborative processing skills – a student can become more open and curious to their present moment experience rather than having their attention continually tied up in secondary elaborative processing or ruminative thinking. A reduction in ruminative thinking may lead to a reduction in psychopathology. As psychopathology is reduced, the student may become less of a target for bullies. Furthermore, by remaining alert and vigilant in the present

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 114 moment, the student may be better able to evaluate and successfully avoid or effectively respond to potential threats of bullying behavior. Having the ability to label and describe with words the internal world is operationalized in the FFMQ by the following items: I‟m good at finding words to describe my feelings; I can easily put my beliefs, opinions, and expectations into words; When I have sensations in my body, it‟s difficult for me to describe it because I can‟t find the right words; Even when I‟m feeling terribly upset, I can find a way to put it into words; and, my natural tendency is to put my experiences into words. By adopting an open, exploratory, and curious orientation towards their internal experiences, a student may be more comfortable and more skillful at labeling and describing their thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations. In fact, part of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course focuses on how one use language to internally express and understand one‟s thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). In order to more appropriately label and describe one‟s thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations, the MBSR course exposes the student to a list of hundreds of descriptive words that can help them better express their internal experiences, and encourages the student to learn and use the words more frequently. Ultimately, improving language can enhance mindfulness by altering how one perceives and responds to their internal experience. For example, by not having a selection of words available to express how one feels, the student may consistently classify many of their thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations as “bad” or “stupid”, when in fact they may

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 115 have been feeling “frustrated”, “annoyed”, “manipulated”, “disconnected”, or “rejected”. By funneling all of one‟s internal experiences into one category of “bad”, one is then restricting the potential range of emotions they are capable of experiencing. For instance, by understanding that one is feeling rejected or disconnected, it is expected that one will then not have the same internal experience as that of feeling “bad” – which, after years of associating all negative experiences to, may possess powerful negative connotations and potential psychosomatic effects. It is now well established that beliefs, attitudes, thoughts, and emotions can affect health and cause disease (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Therefore, improving one‟s ability to appropriately label and describe one‟s thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations, may improve how one perceives and responds to their internal experiences. Bishop and others (2004) believe that, “[mindfulness] approaches alter the impact of, and response to, thoughts, feelings and sensations” (p.20). It is also believed that altering the impact of, and response to one‟s internal experience, may be an effective strategy for reducing affect intolerance and cognitive and behavioral avoidance patterns, and may ultimately act to reduce or prevent psychopathology (Bishop et al., 2004). Furthermore, as psychopathology is reduced, a student may become less of a target for bullies. Non-judging of experience is operationalized in the FFMQ by the following items: I criticize myself for having irrational or inappropriate emotions; I tell myself I shouldn‟t be feeling the way I‟m feeling; I make judgments about whether my thoughts are good or bad; I tell myself that I shouldn‟t be thinking the

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 116 way I‟m thinking; and, when I have distressing thoughts or images, I judge myself as good or bad, depending what the thought/image is about. In relation to the present study‟s conceptual framework, being less judgmental may cultivate an attitude of acceptance towards one‟s internal experience. In mindfulness philosophy, acceptance does not mean having a passive attitude, tolerating things, or giving-up, instead, acceptance is about being prepared to see things as they are (Kabat-Zinn, 1990, p. 39). According to Kabat-Zinn, by adopting an attitude of acceptance, one may have a clearer picture of what is happening and may be better able to decide on an appropriate response. By practicing a non-judgmental attitude towards their internal experiences, a victim of bullying may be better able to accept their thoughts and feelings for what they are, and realize that their negative thoughts, feelings, and emotions aren‟t necessarily accurate reflections of themselves or reality, and decide on a more effective response, or perhaps that “no response” is the most effective response. Bishop and others (2004) predict that these types of strategies may act to reduce rumination, affect intolerance, and cognitive and behavioral avoidance patterns, and may ultimately reduce psychopathology. As previously noted, as psychopathology is reduced, a student may become less of a target for bullies. In summary, acting with awareness, labeling and describing with words the internal world, and being non-judgmental, are all aspects of mindfulness that may cultivate: (a) self-regulation of attentions skills; (b) self-observation skills; and (c) an attitude of acceptance, openness, and curiosity. These skills may help a

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 117 student or victim of bullying to reduce: (a) rumination; (b) affect intolerance; and (c) cognitive and behavioral avoidance patterns, which ultimately may reduce psychopathology. Finally, as psychopathology is reduced, the student may become less of a target for bullies. Furthermore, these mindfulness skills may help orient the student in the present moment, allowing them to better evaluate and successfully avoid or effectively respond to potential threats of bullying behavior. Relationship of the Bullying Scores to the Conceptual Framework Spearman‟s rank order correlations (rho) among the mindfulness scores (total and subscale scores) on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the bullying scores (total and subscale scores) on Section A of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) revealed one significant but weak negative association, indicating that a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors. Specifically, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with social bullying. That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to socially bully other students. As previously noted, acting with awareness is operationalized in the FFMQ as being alert, attentive, focused, and aware, in the present moment, the opposite of “running on automatic”. Acting with awareness may affect bullies the same way it does victims. By acting with awareness – i.e.; staying anchored in the present moment by self-regulating attention through: (a) sustained attention skills, (b) attention switching skills, and (c) inhibition of secondary elaborative

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 118 processing skills – a student can become more open and curious to their present moment experience rather than having their attention continually tied up in secondary elaborative processing or ruminative thinking. A reduction in ruminative thinking may lead to a reduction in psychopathology. As psychopathology is reduced, there may be an associated decline in bullying behaviors. Furthermore, acting with awareness may act to increase a bully‟s emotional awareness of their victim. Relationship of the Results to the Literature The present study‟s review of the literature demonstrated that aspects of mindfulness may be negatively associated with aspects of bullying and victimization. In particular, the present study looked at how bullying and victimization negatively affect psychosocial health, physical health, and education, and juxtaposed these harmful effects with the psychosocial, physical, and educational benefits that are derived from increased levels of mindfulness. The results of the present study support this exposition, and will be discussed in more detail below. Mindfulness, Bullying, Victimization, and Psychosocial Health Numerous studies show that bullying and victimization are associated with depression (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Slee, 1995; Swearer, Song, Cary, Eagle, Mickelson, 2001), anxiety, and stress (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009; Slee, 1995; Swearer et al., 2001). In contrast, mindfulness-based training has been shown in several meta-analytical studies to decrease symptoms of depression (Baer, 2003;

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 119 Grossman et al., 2004), anxiety, and stresses of context (Grossman et al., 2004; Baer, 2003). Furthermore, bullying and victimization have been associated with low self-esteem (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009), low empathy (Farrington & Ttofi, 2009), antisocial behavior and poor social skills (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009), and increased negative psychological symptoms (Due et al., 2005; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). In contrast, increased levels of mindfulness are associated with an increased sense of self-control and self-efficacy (Bishop, 2002; Grossman et al., 2004), increased social skills (Napoli, 2005), increased empathy and relational satisfaction (Siegel, 2007), and increased self-compassion, openness to experience, and emotional intelligence (Baer et al., 2006). Mindfulness is also negatively correlated with psychological symptoms, neuroticism, thought suppression, difficulties in emotional regulation, alexithymia, dissociation, and experiential avoidance (Baer et al., 2006). Current research suggests that students that display symptoms of depression such as low energy, social withdrawal, passive behavior, and obsessive negative self-focus, are rejected by their peers, which results in them being marked as having low social status, and are then subsequently targeted by bullies because of the perceived imbalance in power (Kochel, Ladd, & Rudolph, 2012). Because increased levels of mindfulness are associated with reduced symptoms of depression, students that are more mindful may be less likely to become rejected by their peers, and therefore less likely to become a target for bullies. Furthermore, increased levels of self-control, self-efficacy, empathy, emotional

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 120 intelligence, and decreased levels of neuroticism, psychological symptoms, and difficulties in emotional regulation – all associated with increased levels of mindfulness – are all expected to increase relationships with peers and facilitate forging new friendships. Therefore, mindfulness skills may help students develop and maintain groups of friends, which prevents social isolation and becoming marked as having low social status, and provides safety in numbers. The result of this may ultimately be a reduction in the frequency of victimization experiences. Mindfulness, Bullying, Victimization, and Physical Health Studies show that bullying and victimization are associated with overall poor health, including increased symptoms relating to headaches, stomachaches, and backaches (Due et al., 2005; Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). In contrast, studies show that increased levels of mindfulness are associated with increased physical wellbeing (Baer, 2003; Grossman et al., 2004), increased immune function (Davidson et al., 2003), as well as increased self-perceptions of physical activity and physical health (Roberts & Danoff-Burg, 2010). Since bullying is defined as an imbalance of power (physical and/or psychological) (Swearer et al., 2001), perhaps the appearance of overall better physical health and fitness in those students that are more mindful, reduces any perceived imbalance of power, and makes the student less of a target for bullies. Furthermore, students that are constantly absent from school due to illness may have limited opportunities to socialize with peers and forge friendships. Because increased levels of mindfulness are associated with increased health, perhaps students that are more

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 121 mindful are less frequently absent from school, and therefore have more opportunities to socialize and forge friendships. By belonging to a larger social group at school, the student may then reduce becoming isolated from their peers, reduced becoming labeled as having low social status, and subsequently reduce becoming targeted by bullies due to a perceived imbalance in power. Mindfulness, Bullying, Victimization, and Education Studies show that bullying and victimization are associated with poor academic achievement (Nansel et al., 2001), increased academic problems, truancy and delinquency (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009), poorer relationships with classmates, and increased frequency of fighting (Nansel et al., 2001). In contrast, increased levels of mindfulness have been associated with increased academic success, increased focused attention, decreased test-taking anxiety, increased self control, decreased disruptive behavior (Napoli, Krech, & Holley, 2005), as well as increased creativity and independent thinking (Langer, 1998). Becoming successful at school may prevent students from engaging in bullying behaviors because they may feel that they have more to lose if they get caught. Furthermore, by being more focused and attentive at school, more of the student‟s attention and energy may be directed at classroom and school activities, rather than on findings ways to bully other students. When the negative effects of bullying and victimization are juxtaposed with the positive effects of increased levels of mindfulness, it becomes apparent that a negative relationship may exist between bullying, victimization, and

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 122 mindfulness. The results of the present study support this hypothesis, and suggest the need for further investigation. Specifically, the results of this study show that a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Subsequent studies need to test whether increased levels of mindfulness can cause a decrease in the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Furthermore, subsequent studies may look at whether mindfulness-based skills training can reduce the negative physical, psychosocial, and educational effects of bullying and victimization. In addition, such studies need to be combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Studies using fMRI show that a state of mindfulness manifests in distinct neural networks in the Lateral PreFrontal Cortex (LPFC) and viscerosomatic areas of the brain (Farb et al., 2007). Therefore, research should test whether bullies and victims have reduced activation in these areas of the brain. Such findings could provide a neurological basis for using mindfulness-based skills training to reduce bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Nothing from the literature review can explain why the present study found that some facets of mindfulness (i.e. acting with awareness, non-judging of internal experience, and labeling/describing with words the internal world) were significantly negatively associated with frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, while other facets of mindfulness (i.e. non-reactivity to internal experience, and observing) were not. However, one study may provide a

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 123 clue as to why the observing facet was found not to be significantly negatively associated with frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Baer and others (2006) found that the observing facet was positively correlated with absentmindedness, psychological symptoms, and thought suppression in a non-meditating sample. The reason for this could be a misinterpretation of the observing items on the FFMQ in non-meditating samples (see Relationship of the Results to the tools), or that non-meditating samples do not know how to effectively observe the mind (see Relationship of the Results to the Variables). As the present study used a non-meditating sample, it is possible that similar results were obtained. In addition, nothing in the literature review can explain why the present study found that facets of mindfulness were more predominantly associated with a reduced frequency of physical bullying behaviors. Perhaps studies using larger sample sizes, more schools, and across more diverse areas of socio-economic status would reveal different results. Relationship of the Results to the Research Questions This study sought to explore the following two research questions: (1) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying behaviors? (2) Do relationships exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences?

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 124 Regarding the first research question, results of the Spearman rank order correlations (rho) between the mindfulness scores (total and subscale scores) on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the bullying scores (total and subscale scores) on Section A of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) revealed one significant but weak negative association, indicating that a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types bullying behaviors. Specifically, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with social bullying. That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to socially bully other students. Regarding the second research question, results of the Spearman rank order correlations (rho) between the mindfulness scores (total and subscale) on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the victimization scores (total and subscale scores) on Section B of the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) revealed eight significant but weak negative associations, indicating that a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences. First, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associated with social, physical, and overall victimization. That is, students with higher levels of acting with awareness are less likely to become victims of social and physical bullying, and bullying in general. Second, labeling and describing with words the internal world was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 125 That is, students that are more proficient and habitual at labeling and describing their thoughts, feelings, emotions, and sensations, are less likely to become victims of physical bullying. Third, non-judging of internal experience was significantly negatively associated with physical, verbal and overall victimization. That is, students that are less judgmental of their thoughts, feeling, emotions, and sensations, are less likely to become victims of physical and verbal bullying, and bullying in general. Finally, total mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. That is, students with overall higher levels of mindfulness are less likely to become victims of physical bullying. Relationship of the Results to the Variables The fourteen variables examined in this study can be organized into three categories: (a) mindfulness variables; (b) bullying variables; and, (c) victimization variables. The relationship of the results to each of the variables, in each category, will be discussed below. Relationship of the Results to the Mindfulness Variables The following six mindfulness variables were included in this study: (a) total mindfulness; (b) non-judging of internal experiences; (c) non-reactivity to internal experiences; (d) acting with awareness; (e) labeling and describing with words the internal world; and (f) observing. Each of these variables was tested for associations with frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. In total, four of the six mindfulness variables were found to have significant negative associations.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 126 Acting with awareness was found to have the most numerous significant negative associations with frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Acting with awareness was found to be weakly but significantly negatively associated with social bullying, social victimization, physical victimization, and overall victimization. These results suggest that acting with awareness – self-regulating attention, remaining alert and vigilant to the here and now, staying anchored in the present moment, and not “running on automatic pilot” – may be the specific facet of mindfulness that most strongly influences the association with reduced frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Therefore, future studies may look at whether acting with awareness mediates the negative association between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Labeling and describing with words the internal world, non-judging of internal experience, and total mindfulness, were the other three variables found to have weak but significant negative associations with frequency of victimization experiences, but not with frequency of bullying behaviors. Labeling and describing with words the internal world was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. Non-judging of internal experience was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization, verbal victimization, and overall victimization. And, total mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization. Therefore, future studies may also look at whether the ability to proficiently and habitually label and describe one‟s internal

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 127 experience, and be less judgmental of one‟s internal experience, mediate negative associations between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences. Non-reactivity to internal experiences and observing were not significantly associated with any of the bullying or victimization variables. These results suggest that non-reactivity to internal experience and observing internal experience may not be facets of mindfulness that are associated with a reduced frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. These results may be partly explained by one study, which showed that the observing facet may not be an element of mindfulness in non-meditating samples (Baer et al., 2006). In fact, the observing facet was shown to be positively correlated with absentmindedness, psychological symptoms, and thought suppression in a nonmeditating sample. However, this pattern was not found in the meditating sample (Baer et al., 2006). Baer and others (2006) believe that with mindfulness meditation practice, the experience of observing one‟s cognitions and emotions goes from a maladaptive self-focused type of observation to an adaptive accepting, non-judgmental and non-reactive type of observation. Relationship of the Results to the Bullying Variables The following four bullying variables were included in this study: (a) total frequency of bullying behaviors; (b) frequency of physical bullying behaviors; (c) frequency of verbal bullying behaviors; and, (d) frequency of social bullying behaviors. The results revealed only one significant association between frequency of bullying behaviors and facets of mindfulness. Specifically, social

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 128 bullying was weakly, but significantly negatively associated with acting with awareness. These results suggest that higher levels of acting with awareness is associated with a reduced frequency of social bullying, but not with a reduced frequency of verbal or physical bullying. Relationship of the Results to the Victimization Variables The following four victimization variables were included in this study: (a) total frequency of victimization experiences; (b) frequency of physical victimization experiences; (c) frequency of verbal victimization experiences; and, (d) frequency of social victimization experiences. The results revealed eight significant but weak negative associations between frequency of victimization experiences and facets of mindfulness. Physical victimization was found to have the most numerous significant negative associations with the mindfulness variables. Specifically, physical victimization was found to be significantly negatively associated with total mindfulness, non-judging of internal experience, labeling and describing with words the internal world, and acting with awareness. These results suggest that more facets of mindfulness are negatively associated with physical victimization, than with social, verbal, or overall victimization. In other words, physical victimization is the specific type of victimization that is most predominantly negatively associated with facets of mindfulness. The results also revealed the following significant negative associations of the victimization variables with the mindfulness variables: (a) social victimization was significantly negatively associated with acting with awareness; (b) overall

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 129 victimization was significantly negatively associated with acting with awareness, and non-judging of experience; and, (c) verbal victimization was significantly negatively associated with non-judging of experience. Overall, these results suggest that higher levels of certain facets of mindfulness are associated with a reduced frequency of physical, social, verbal, and overall victimization. Relationship of the results to the Study Design and Data Collection Methods The researcher was able to pinpoint four factors of the study design and data collection methods that may have influenced the results. These four factors include: (a) Data collection on different dates; (b) Sending students home with parental consent forms; (c) A small convenience sample from only one high school; and, (d) Not collecting demographic data. The effects of each of these factors on the results are considered below. Data was collected on different dates for all six classes. Therefore, students that already took the test may have had the chance to speak with students from another class about the content of the test before they wrote it. This could have influenced their answers and biased the results of the study. This may be avoided in future studies by trying to coordinate administering the test to all classes on the same day. Parental consent forms were given to 105 students with 66 students from 6 different classes returning signed consent letters. The study therefore had a 63% participation rate. Of the 105 students, no student returned a subject assent form

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 130 indicating that they did not want to participate, and no parental consent forms were returned to the researcher indicating that they did not want their son or daughter to participate in the research. Therefore, 39 students failed to return their consent forms for reasons other than not wanting, or not being allowed to participate. A larger sample size would have made the data more accurate for drawing conclusions about the population. The researcher believes that these students failed to return their parental consent forms due to a lack of motivation and/or interest in the study. This may be avoided in future studies by first calling, then visiting the house of those students‟ who agree to participate, and having the parental consent forms signed in person. Due to the small convenience sample from only one high school, the results cannot be generalized to populations outside of this high school. Future studies may benefit from conducting the study in multiple cities, at multiple high schools, and in neighborhoods of various socio-economic statuses. Finally, the researcher did not collect demographic data, including: gender, race, age, or socio-economic status. Therefore, data from this study describes characteristics of the population in general. Detailed demographic data would have provided more specific information about mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences in the population. Furthermore, demographic data would have provided an overall better context for interpreting the results.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 131 Relationship of the Results to the Tools Used Two tools were used to collect data in this study: the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). The FFMQ consists of a total mindfulness score and five subscale scores, including: (a) non-judging of internal experience subscale; (b) non-reactivity to internal experience subscale; (c) observing subscale; (d) acting with awareness subscale; and (e) describing/labeling internal experience subscale. As noted in the limitations, there was the possibility of semantic confusion regarding mindfulness scale items by students not familiar with mindfulness terminology that may have affected the results. In particular, previous studies have shown the observing facet to be positively correlated with absentmindedness, psychological symptoms, and thought suppression in non-meditating samples (Baer et al., 2006). It is therefore possible that subjects in the present study were misinterpreting the meaning of the observe subscale items, and this could have affected the results. For instance, observe item 11 states, “I notice how foods and drinks affect my thoughts, bodily sensations, and emotions”. A subject may interpret a 5 on the scale (very often or always true) for this item as meaning they obsess or ruminate over the food and drinks they consume (which would be the opposite of mindfulness), when in fact a score of 5 on this scale would represent the highest level of mindfulness for this item. The results on the FFMQ may also have been affected by self-ratings of mindfulness that were biased or inaccurately estimated. Therefore, there may be a

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 132 discrepancy between an individual‟s self-ratings of mindfulness and their actual mindfulness level. Future studies may benefit from incorporating teacher and/or parent ratings in addition to self-ratings of mindfulness. Additionally, the results of the FFMQ may have been affected by incorrect usage of the scale at the top of the page. Consider the following observations: The FFMQ consists of a mixture of positive and negative statements. An example of a positive statement is: “I can easily put my beliefs, opinions, and expectations into words”. An example of a negative statement is: “It‟s hard for me to find the words to describe what I‟m thinking”. While entering the data into the Excel worksheet, a pattern was noted on several students‟ FFMQs. It appeared as though these students were potentially not reversing the scale when answering the negative statements. For example, some of these students scored a 4 (i.e.; often true) or 5 (i.e.; very often or always true) on nearly all the 39-items from the FFMQ. Similarly, other students scored a 1 (i.e.; never or very rarely true) or 2 (i.e.; rarely true) on nearly all of the 39-items from the FFMQ. This could indicate that the students were not referring to the scale at the top of the page after each question, and were not reversing the scale in order to appropriately answer the negative statements. However, it is also possible that such results may in fact be true representations of their opinions, or that these students simply recorded scores at random. The researcher was also unable to locate any research pertaining to the testing of the FFMQ on high school adolescents. Future research may look at adapting a version of the FFMQ for use with adolescents.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 133 The APRI consisted of two sections. Section A consisted of a total frequency of bullying behaviors score, and three subscale scores, including: (a) frequency of physical bullying behaviors score; (b) frequency of verbal bullying behaviors score; and, (c) frequency of social bullying behaviors score. Section B consisted of a total frequency of victimization experiences score, and three subscale scores, including: (a) frequency of physical victimization experiences score; (b) frequency of verbal victimization experiences score; and (c) frequency of social victimization experiences score. As noted in the limitations, there is the possibility that self-reporting of bullying and victimization was affected by individual biases and inaccurate estimations by the student. Therefore, there may be a discrepancy between an individual‟s self-reporting of bullying and/or victimization in the results obtained, and their actual involvement in bullying and/or victimization. Future studies may benefit from teacher and peer ratings in addition to self-ratings of frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Additionally, some subjects may have interpreted bullying and/or victimization items as being “playful” as opposed to bullying behavior. For instance, items such as “I pushed or shoved a student” or “I made jokes about a student” could have been interpreted by some subjects as playful behaviors, rather than abusive and aggressive behaviors intended to harm. This type of misinterpretation of the items could have affected the results. Future studies may

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 134 benefit from defining bullying behavior at the beginning of the instrument, and indicating that all items are in relation to this definition. Finally, because each subjects subscale scores for both the FFMQ and the APRI were summated using a calculator, human error may have negatively affected the results. Relationship of the Results to the Statistical and Data Analysis Methods Spearman rank order correlations (rho) were calculated among and between the six variables from the FFMQ, the four variables from Section A of the APRI, and the four variables from Section B of the APRI (see Variables Chapter 1). In relation to the research question, the researcher was specifically looking at 48 associations. Results are presented in Table 2. Associations were flagged with one asterisk by the SPSS program as being statistically significant at p < .05 (2-tailed) (see Table 2). Nine associations were found to be significant, and 39 were found to be non-significant. Therefore, approximately 19% of the FFMQ variables were found to be significantly negatively associated with the APRI variables. Significant negative associations found between the FFMQ scores and APRI scores indicate that a negative relationship does exist between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types bullying behaviors, and between facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of victimization experiences. First, acting with awareness was significantly negatively associating with social bullying (r = -.284, p < .05), social victimization (r = -.258, p < .05), physical

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 135 victimization (r = -.258, p < .05), and overall victimization (r = -.281, p < .05). Second, labeling and describing with words the internal world was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization (r = -.284, p < .05). Third, nonjudging of experience was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization (r = -.245, p < .05), verbal victimization (r = -.268, p < .05), and overall victimization (r = -.314, p < .05). Finally, overall mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with physical victimization (r = -.255, p < .05). According to accepted strengths for correlations in educational research, all of the above associations are considered weak (i.e. r < .34) (Gay & Airasian, 2003). Nonetheless, these data imply that there exists a negative relationship between variables of the FFMQ and variables of the APRI. The large proportion of non-significant associations may have been due to the small sample size, which resulted in a small spread of scores and therefore low variability. Therefore, future research should increase the sample size to increase the power of the correlations. Additionally, the spearman correlation coefficients revealed associations that the researcher was not originally looking for. Weak, moderate, and strong significant positive associations between were found between frequency of bullying and victimization scores, suggesting that a direct relationship exists between frequency of bullying behaviors and frequency of victimization experiences. These findings support research into bully-victims, which shows that children who bully are often bullied themselves.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 136 Recommendations for Future Research The widespread prevalence of bullying in schools coupled with its negative effects on physical and psychosocial health, have prompted researchers and health officials to urge the international community to consider bullying a significant international health issue (Gini & Pozzoli, 2009). The literature review presented in this thesis coupled with the significant results of the present study, suggests that the use of mindfulness as a means to reducing the frequency and negative effects of bullying in schools deserves more attention from the research community. In order to more fully explore the role that mindfulness can play in reducing the frequency and negative effects of bullying in schools, the present author recommends that future research be conducted in three phases: (a) by improving the present study; (b) by conducting randomized controlled trials to see whether mindfulness-based skills training can reduce the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences; and (c) by testing for a mechanisms by which mindfulness reduces the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. The results of the present study‟s exploratory relationship research revealed nine significant negative associations between various total and subscale sores of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) (see Results of the Spearman Rank Order Correlations). These results suggest that a negative relationship does exist between certain facets of mindfulness and frequency of certain types of bullying

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 137 behaviors and victimization experiences. Despite the results being significant and meaningful for exploratory relationship research, the associations found were weak, and thus should be interpreted with caution until further research is conducted. The present author suggests that the same or similar studies be conducted, but with the recommendations found below. The present study‟s design, data collection methods, tools, and statistical analysis methods could be improved in the following ways: (a) by administering the test to all classes on the same day; (b) by first calling, then visiting the house of those students‟ who agree to participate, and having the parental consent forms signed in person; (c) by conducting the study in multiple cities, at multiple high schools, and in neighborhoods of various socio-economic statuses, and compare the scores across different grade levels, gender, and socio-economic statuses; (d) by increasing the sample size; (e) by incorporating teacher and parent ratings of mindfulness in addition to self-ratings of mindfulness; (f) by adapting a version of the FFMQ for use with adolescents; (g) by incorporating teacher and peer ratings in addition to self-ratings of frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences; (h) by defining bullying behavior at the beginning of the APRI, and indicating that all items are in relation to this definition; and (i) by defining the observing facet of mindfulness to avoid confusion over its meaning. For a detailed explanation of the above recommendations, please refer to: Relationship of the Results to the Study Design and Data Collection Methods, Relationship of the Results to the Tools, and Relationship of the Results to the Statistical and Data

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 138 Analysis Methods. Furthermore, it is also recommended that future studies test levels of mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, using different tools that have proven validity and reliability. Each student‟s score should be compared between tools to ensure consistency. In addition, future studies might also consider testing the same students at different times during the school year, and comparing scores. If after re-conducting the present study with the above recommendations, statistically significant negative associations that are moderate to strong in strength are found, research can move on to phase two – randomized controlled trials testing whether mindfulness-based skills training can reduce the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. If the results of such studies revealed that mindfulness-based skills training can reduce the frequency of bullying behaviors and/or victimization experiences, research can move on to phase 3 – testing for a mechanism by which mindfulness reduces the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. The present study‟s conceptual framework and literature review suggests a potential mechanism. Consider the following proposed mechanism by which mindfulness may reduce the frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Mindfulness cultivates self-regulation of attention skills, selfobservation skills, and an orientation towards experience that is characterized by acceptance, openness, and curiosity (Bishop et al., 2004). Mindfulness can also be understood as cultivating the following characteristics: (a) being non-judgmental

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 139 of one‟s internal experience; (b) being non-reactive to one‟s internal experience; (c) acting with awareness; (d) being able to proficiently and habitually label and describe one‟s internal experience; and (e) being observant (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, 2006). Cultivating these characteristics and habitually employing these skills may result in reduced rumination, reduced affect intolerance, and reduced patterns of cognitive and behavioral avoidance (Bishop et al., 2004; Lykins & Baer, 2009). Ultimately, a reduction in these psychological dispositions can result in reduced psychopathology (Baer, 2003; Grossman et al., 2004; Baer et al., 2006), improved health (Davidson et al., 2003), improved success at school (Napoli, 2005), improved character strengths (Siegel, 2007; Baer et al., 2006), and increased relational satisfaction (Siegel, 2007). All of these factors are likely to increase the quantity and quality of a student‟s social network, and, in terms of victimization, an increase the quantity and quality of a social network are likely to reduce any perceived imbalance in power by potential bullies. For instance, a student that shows no depressive symptoms is less likely to be rejected by peers, to be socially isolated and marked as having low status, and then to be target by bullies because of a perceived imbalance in power (Kochel, Ladd, & Rudolph, 2012); a student that is healthier may be absent from school less frequently, and therefore have more opportunities to socialize, forge new relationships, strengthen existing relationships, and subsequently may reduce the chance of becoming rejected by peers, socially isolated, and target by bullies; a student that possesses character strengths that promote healthy relationships with

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 140 others, such as emotional intelligence and empathy, may be more likely to have a larger and healthier social network, and therefore a reduced chance of becoming socially isolated and target by bullies. Furthermore, larger social networks should provide “safety in numbers”. The present study found eight significant negative associations between mindfulness and frequency of victimization experiences, and only one significant negative association between mindfulness and frequency of bullying behaviors. Future studies will reveal whether mindfulness is just as significantly negatively associated with frequency of bullying behaviors as it is with frequency of victimization experiences. Besides a general reduction in psychopathology, improvements in health, increased success at school, improvements in character strengths, and increases in relational satisfaction, the present study‟s author is hesitant to offer a specific mechanism for how mindfulness might reduce the frequency of bullying behaviors because of the present study‟s results. Implications for Practice and Education Formal mindfulness training is most widely conducted by the 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. The MBSR program employs breathing awareness, body scans, hatha yoga postures, and discussions, with the objective of cultivating the following: (a) purposeful awareness of the present moment; (b) non-deliberative awareness of physical sensations, perceptions, affective states, thoughts, and imagery; (c) dispassionate, nonevaluative, naturalistic observation; (d) focusing the breath, the mind, and

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 141 regulating the autonomic nervous system; (e) and increasing self-awareness (Grossman et al., 2004). Bishop and others (2004) believe that mindfulness training is, “a form of mental training to reduce cognitive vulnerability to reactive modes of mind that might otherwise heighten stress and emotional distress, or that may otherwise perpetuate psychopathology” (p.6). With further research, mindfulness-based skills training may prove to be a viable prevention and intervention strategy for reducing the frequency and harmful effects of bullying in schools. The MBSR course teaches mindfulness skills in a general context in order to have widespread clinical effects. For instance, a typical MBSR course would be offered in a hospital setting, and would consist of 20 to 25 patients with various diverse medical conditions, such as chronic pain, fibromyalgia, cancer, anxiety disorders, and depression. Furthermore, mindfulness-based courses taught to children and adolescents in schools use a similar approach. Mindfulness, however, is a multi-faceted construct (Baer et al., 2006), and some facets of mindfulness may be more effective than others at treating specific medical conditions. Based on the results of the present study, a mindfulness-based course designed specifically for victims of bullying, and based on research such as the present study, may be more effective at reducing the frequency and harmful effects of victimization experiences than a typical MBSR course taught in a general context. For instance, the present study found that acting with awareness, labeling and describing with words the internal world, and being non-judgmental

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 142 of internal experience, were specific facets of mindfulness that were most strongly negatively associated with physical victimization in particular. Further research may strengthen these findings, or prove otherwise. Nevertheless, granular data on mindfulness, bullying, and victimization, such as that found in the present study, should be useful in tailoring a mindfulness-based skills training program specifically to victims of bullying. For example, if future research strengthened the findings of the present study, a mindfulness-based skills training program may be designed to focus on activities that: (a) develop self-awareness of physical victimization experiences, and its effects on internal experience; (b) cultivate skills to proficiently and habitually label and describe physical victimization experiences in order to most effectively respond to one‟s internal experience; and (c) develop strategies for becoming non-judgmental towards one‟s cognitions, emotions, feelings, and sensations in the context of physical victimization, in order to reduce cognitive vulnerability to reactive modes of mind. Finally, the present author believes that mindfulness-based skills training would be most effectively taught by school psychologists or trained counselors. Furthermore, teachers and parents might also benefit from participating in the course.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 143 References Baer, R.A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125-143. Baer, R.A., Smith, G.T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-repost assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. Baer, R.A., Smith, G.T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., Walsh, E., Duggan, D., & Williams, J.M. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 20, 1-14. Barnes, V.A., Bauza, L.B., & Treiber, F.A. (2003). Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1(10), 1-7. Bishop, S.R. (2002). What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 71-84. Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z.V., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230-41.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 144 Bond, L., Wolfe, S., Tollit, M., Butler, H., & Patton, G. (2007). A comparison of the Gatehouse Bullying Scale and the Peer Relations Questionnaire for students in secondary school. Journal of School Health, 77, 75-79. Brown, K.W., & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822-848. Carmody, J., & Baer, R.A. (2008). Relationship between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 25-33. Cohen, L., Lawrence, M., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education, Sixth Edition. New York: Routledge. Davidson, R.J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Miller, D., Santorelli, S.F., Urbanowski, F., Harrington, A., Bonus, K., & Sheridan, J.F. (2003). Alerations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564-570. Didonna, F. (2008). Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness. New York: Springer. Due, P., Holstein, B.E., Lynch, J., Diderichsen, F., Gabhain, S.N., Scheidt, P., Currie, C., & The Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Bullying and Working Group. (2005). Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: International comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 145 European Journal of Public Health, 15(2), 128 – 132. Farb, N.A., Segal, Z.V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., & Anderson, A.K. (2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 313-322. Farrington, D.P., & Ttofi, M.M. (2009). How to reduce school bullying. Victims & Offenders, 4(4), 321-326. doi:10.1080/15564880903227255 Finger, L.R., Marsh, H.W., Craven, R.G., & Parada, R.H. (n.d.). Strengthening anti-bullying research: An investigation into the misuse of dichotomous variables. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/05pap/fin05326.pdf Gay, L.R., & Airasian, P. (2003). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications, Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Gini, G., & Pozzoli, T. (2009). Association between bullying and psychosomatic problems: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 123(3), 1059-1065. Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Jounral of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 35-43. Hayes, S.C., Wilson, K.G., Gifford, E.V., Follette, V.M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 146 approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1152-1168. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your mind and body to Face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delacorte. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144-156. Kochel, K.P., Ladd, G.W., & Rudolph, K.D. (2012). Longitudinal associations among youth depressive symptoms, peer victimization, and low peer acceptance: and interpersonal process perspective. Child Development, 83(2), 637-650. Langer, E.J. (1998). The Power of Mindful Learning. New York: Perseus Books Group. Langer, E.J., & Moldoveanu, M. (2000). The construct of mindfulness. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 1-9. Lykins, L.B., & Baer, R.A. (2009). Psychological functioning in a sample of long term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. Journal of Cognitive Psychology: An International Quarterly, 23(3), 226 – 241. Marini, Z.A., Dane, A.V., Bosacki, S.L., & YLC-CURA. (2006). Direct and indirect bully-victims: different psychosocial risk factors associated with adolescents involved in bullying and victimization. Aggressive Behavior, 32(6), 551-569.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 147 Nansel, T.R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R.S., Ruan, W.J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094-2100. Napoli, M., Krech, P.R., & Holley, L.C. (2005). Mindfulness training for elementary students: The attention academy. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21(1), 99-125. North York General Hospital. (2009). Referral for Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Group. Retrieved from http://www.nygh.on.ca/downloads/Referral_MBSR_Aug.09.pdf Parada, R. (2000). Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument: A theoretical and empirical basis for the measurement of participant roles in bullying and victimisation of adolescence: An interim test manual and a research monograph: A test manual. Publication Unit, Self-concept Enhancement and Learning Facilitation (SELF) Research Centre, University of Western Sydney. Roberts, K.C., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2010). Mindfulness and health behaviors: Is paying attention good for you? Journal of American College Health, 59(3), 165-173. Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of Mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373-386.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 148 Siegel, D.J., (2007). Mindfulness training and neural integration: differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 259-263. doi:10.1093/scan/nsm034 Slee, P.T. (1995). Peer victimization and its relationship to depression among Australian primary school students. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(1), 57-62. Swearer, S.M., Song, S.Y., Cary, P.T., Eagle, J.W., & Mickelson, W.T. (2001). Psychosocial correlates in bullying and victimization: The relationship between depression, anxiety, and bully/victim status. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, 95-121. Hanh, T.N. (1997). Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing. New Delhi: Full Circle. Hanh, T.N. (2006). Sutra on the Four Establishments of Mindfulness. Berkely, CA: Parallax Press. Veehof, M.M., Klooster, P.M., Taal, E., Westerhof, G.J., & Bohlmeijer, E.T. (2011) Psychometric properties of the Dutch Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical Rheumatology, 30(8), 1045 – 1054. Wisner, B.L., Jones, B., & Gwin, D. (2010). School-based meditation practices for adolescents: A resource for strengthening self-regulation, emotional coping, and self-esteem. Children & Schools, 32(3), 150-159.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 149 Zvolensky, M.J., Solomon, S.E., McLeish, A.C., Cassidy, D., Bernstein, A., Bowman, C.J., & Yartz, A.R. (2006). Incremental validity of mindfulness based attention in relation to the concurrent prediction of anxiety and depressive symptomatology and perceptions of health. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 35(3), 148-158.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 150

Appendix A Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 151 Subject number_________ Date_________

Five-Facet Mindfulness QUESTIONNAIRE Please rate each of the following statements using the scale provided. Write the number in the blank that best describes your own opinion of what is generally true for you. 1 Never or very rarely true 2 Rarely True 3 Sometimes True 4 Often True 5 Very often or always true

_____ 1. When I‟m walking, I deliberately notice the sensations of my body moving. _____ 2. I‟m good at finding words to describe my feelings. _____ 3. I criticize myself for having irrational or inappropriate emotions. _____ 4. I perceive my feelings and emotions without having to react to them. _____ 5. When I do things, my mind wanders off and I‟m easily distracted. _____ 6. When I take a shower or bath, I stay alert to the sensations of water on my body. _____ 7. I can easily put my beliefs, opinions, and expectations into words. _____ 8. I don‟t pay attention to what I‟m doing because I‟m daydreaming, worrying, or otherwise distracted. _____ 9. I watch my feelings without getting lost in them. _____ 10. I tell myself I shouldn‟t be feeling the way I‟m feeling. _____ 11. I notice how foods and drinks affect my thoughts, bodily sensations, and emotions. _____ 12. It‟s hard for me to find the words to describe what I‟m thinking. _____ 13. I am easily distracted. _____ 14. I believe some of my thoughts are abnormal or bad and I shouldn‟t think that way. _____ 15. I pay attention to sensations, such as the wind in my hair or sun on my face.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 152 _____ 16. I have trouble thinking of the right words to express how I feel about things. 1 Never or very rarely true 2 Rarely True 3 Sometimes True 4 Often True 5 Very often or always true

_____ 17. I make judgments about whether my thoughts are good or bad. _____ 18. I find it difficult to stay focused on what‟s happening in the present. _____ 19. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I “step back” and am aware of the thought or image without getting taken over by it. _____ 20. I pay attention to sounds, such as clocks ticking, birds chirping, or cars passing. _____ 21. In difficult situations, I can pause without immediately reacting. _____ 22. When I have a sensation in my body, it‟s difficult for me to describe it because I can‟t find the right words. _____ 23. It seems I am “running on automatic” without much awareness of what I‟m doing. _____24. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I feel calm soon after. _____ 25. I tell myself that I shouldn‟t be thinking the way I‟m thinking. _____ 26. I notice the smells and aromas of things. _____ 27. Even when I‟m feeling terribly upset, I can find a way to put it into words. _____ 28. I rush through activities without being really attentive to them. _____ 29. When I have distressing thoughts or images I am able just to notice them without reacting. _____ 30. I think some of my emotions are bad or inappropriate and I shouldn‟t feel them. _____ 31. I notice visual elements in art or nature, such as colors, shapes,

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 153 textures, or patterns of light and shadow. _____ 32. My natural tendency is to put my experiences into words. _____ 33. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I just notice them and let them go. _____ 34. I do jobs or tasks automatically without being aware of what I‟m doing. _____ 35. When I have distressing thoughts or images, I judge myself as good or bad, depending what the thought/image is about. _____ 36. I pay attention to how my emotions affect my thoughts and behavior. _____ 37. I can usually describe how I feel at the moment in considerable detail. _____ 38. I find myself doing things without paying attention. _____ 39. I disapprove of myself when I have irrational ideas.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 154

Appendix B Scoring the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 155 Scoring the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire Ruth Baer, University of Kentucky October 2005 Observe items: 1, 6, 11, 15, 20, 26, 31, 36

Describe items: 2, 7, 12R, 16R, 22R, 27, 32, 37

Act with Awareness items: 5R, 8R, 13R, 18R, 23R, 28R, 34R, 38R

Nonjudge items: 3R, 10R, 14R, 17R, 25R, 30R, 35R, 39R

Nonreact items: 4, 9, 19, 21, 24, 29, 33

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 156

Appendix C Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 157 Subject number_________ Date_________

Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument Section A Since you have been at this school THIS YEAR how often HAVE YOU done any of the following things to a STUDENT (or students) at this school. WRITE THE NUMBER IN THE BLANK THAT IS CLOSEST TO YOUR ANSWER. IN THE PAST YEAR AT THIS SCHOOL I… 1 Never 2 Sometimes 3 Once or twice a month 4 Once a week 5 Several times a week 6 Everyday

_____ 1. Tease them by saying things to them. _____ 2. Pushed or shoved a student. _____ 3. Made rude remarks at a student. _____ 4. Got my friends to turn against a student. _____ 5. Made jokes about a student. _____ 6. Crashed into a student on purpose as they walked by. _____ 7. Picked on a student by swearing at them. _____ 8. Told my friends things about a student to get them into trouble. _____ 9. Got into a physical fight with a student because I didn‟t like them. _____ 10. Said things about their looks they didn‟t like. _____ 11. Got other students to start a rumor about a student. _____ 12. I slapped or punched a student. _____ 13. Got other students to ignore a student. _____ 14. Made fun of a student by calling them names. _____ 15. Threw something at a student to hit them. _____ 16. Threatened to physically hurt or harm a student. _____ 17. Left them out of activities or games on purpose. _____ 18. Kept a student away from me by giving them mean looks.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 158 Section B Please indicate how often a student (or students) at this school has done the following things TO YOU since you have been at this school this year. WRITE THE NUMBER IN THE BLANK THAT IS CLOSEST TO YOUR ANSWER. IN THE PAST YEAR AT THIS SCHOOL… 1 Never 2 Sometimes 3 Once or twice a month 4 Once a week 5 Several times a week 6 Everyday

_____ 1. I was teased by students saying things to me. _____ 2. I was pushed or shoved. _____ 3. A student wouldn‟t be friends with me because other people didn‟t like me. _____ 4. A student made rude remarks at me. _____ 5. I was hit or kicked hard. _____ 6. A student ignored me when they were with their friends. _____ 7. Jokes were made up about me. _____ 8. Students crashed into me on purpose as they walked by. _____ 9. A student got their friends to turn against me. _____ 10. My property was damaged on purpose. _____ 11. Things were said about my looks I didn‟t like. _____ 12. I wasn‟t invited to a student‟s place because other people didn‟t like me. _____ 13. I was ridiculed by students saying things to me. _____ 14. A student got students to start a rumor about me. _____ 15. Something was thrown at me to hit me. _____ 16. I was threatened to be physically hurt or harmed. _____ 17. I was left out of activities, games on purpose. _____ 18. I was called names I didn‟t like.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 159

Appendix D Scoring the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 160 Scoring the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument Roberto Parada, University of Western Sydney 2000 Point values are assigned as indicated above. Section A contains the bullying items. Subscale scores are computed as follows: Verbal bullying items: 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 Social bullying items: 4, 8, 11, 13, 17, and 18 Physical bullying items: 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 16 Section B contains the victim items. Subscale scores are computed as follows: Verbal victimization items: 1, 4, 7, 11, 13, and 18 Social victimization items: 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, and 17 Physical victimization items: 2, 5, 8, 10, 15, and 16 Scoring is achieved by adding the items up for each individual total score (bullying and victimization) or for each subscale score (verbal, social, and physical). Any student who scores 18 for either the bullying or victimization total score has never been bullied or has never bullied others. There are no cut off scores for this instrument. For the subscales, a score of 6 means the respondent has never been bullied or has never bullied others in that particular way.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 161

Appendix E IRB Application

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 162

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 163

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 164

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 165

Appendix F Letter to Principal

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 166 Dear Principal, I am writing to request your permission to conduct a study in your school. I am conducting a study entitled A correlational analysis of the relationship between mindfulness and bullying, to determine whether higher levels of mindfulness are associated with a lower frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Attached to this letter are an explanation of the purpose of the study, the methodology, the steps that will be taken to protect human rights, the assessments used in the study, a sample of the consent letters to be sent to the parents, and assent forms for students. The study is currently being assessed by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of D‟Youville College, and must first receive a formal letter of approval before data collection can begin. You will be notified as soon as I receive approval. The study will involve the administration of two questionnaires, and will take approximately 30 minutes per class. I hope to be able to conduct the study with as many students as possible. I plan to conduct the study as soon as I receive permission from the IRB. If you decide to participate, I would be willing to conduct the study at your convenience, any time before the end of the school year. Please review the attached documents. If you agree to participate in the study, a letter of approval from you would be greatly appreciated. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me at (416)-666-5508, or committee member Dr. David Gorlewski at (716)-829-8169. I thank you in advance for me giving me this opportunity, and I look forward to hearing from you. Sincerely,

Zachary Garofolo

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 167

Appendix G Parental Consent Form

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 168 Dear Parents, The purpose of this form is to assure that you are given sufficient information to make an informed decision as to whether you will agree to allow your child to be a subject in a study involving research. Zachary Garofolo, hereafter referred to as researcher, is conducting a study entitled A correlational analysis of the relationship between mindfulness and bullying to determine whether higher levels of mindfulness are associated with a lower frequency of bullying behaviors and victimization experiences. Your child‟s participation will involve one session for approximately 30 minutes. As a subject, your child will be asked to complete two questionnaires. The first questionnaire –the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire – assesses the level of mindfulness in a subject by asking 39 questions that assess aspects of everyday awareness and self-observation. The second questionnaire – the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument – measures how often a subject is involved in physical, verbal, and social bullying behaviors, both as a perpetrator and as a victim. This questionnaire consists of 36 questions. The questionnaires to be used in this study are not considered experimental. There are no more risks or discomforts associated with the procedures involved in this study than those ordinarily encountered in daily school life. Besides an increased awareness of bullying behaviors and personal awareness, there may be no direct benefits to your child for participating in this research. Furthermore, your child‟s participation could be helpful in developing an intervention for bullying in schools that employs mindfulness techniques. Any information that your child provides during the course of the study will be recorded in such a way that his or her identity will remain confidential. This means that number codes will be used to record your child‟s information. The researcher will be the only to have access to the information, and it will be securely stored. A list with the children‟s names and numbers will be used to make sure that only the children who have permission to participate in the study receive the questionnaires. This list will be destroyed after the data is gathered. Your child‟s identity will never be revealed and information about the study will be reported in group-format only. Your child‟s participation in this study is completely voluntary. Even if you chose to allow for your child to participate, you may change your mind prior to the collection of data by contacting me at 416-666-5508. There is no penalty or loss of benefits to which your child is otherwise entitled if you decide to withdraw your child from the study, or if you choose not have your child participate. If during the course of the study you have questions about the research, tasks or activities your child will be asked to complete, or your child‟s rights as a research subject, you may contact my thesis director, Dr. Helen Kress at (716) 930-4447, and your questions will be answered.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 169 You are receiving two copies of this form. Return the signed copy to your child‟s teacher in a sealed envelope, with my name, Zachary Garofolo on it. Please return it as soon as possible and keep the other copy for future reference. If you would like to receive a summary of the results of the study upon its completion, write your full address on the reverse side of this form. My signature below indicates that I understand the procedures to be employed in this study, all my questions concerning the study have been answered to my satisfaction, and that I agree to let my child be a subject in this study. I also agree to allow the researcher to present his findings publicly or privately, orally or in written form.

Name of Child

Parent‟s (or) Legal Guardian‟s Signature

Date

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 170

Appendix H Subject Assent Form

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 171 My name is Zachary Garofolo. I am conducting a research study about mindfulness and bullying in high school students. I am getting people like yourself to volunteer to answer questions from two questionnaires to find out how mindful you are throughout the day, and how you behave towards other students and how they behave towards you. Your participation will be for one session for 30 minutes. I will ask you to circle your answer to the questions in the booklet, like in a multiple-choice test. You may choose to be in the study or not, and you may choose to do, or stop doing the questionnaires any time you want to. All you have to do is let me know when you want to stop. No matter what you choose, it will not interfere with any other activities you are doing in school. If you would like to help me with my study, you will need to circle YES on this assent form. This form will say that you are willing to take part in my study. If you don‟t want to participate, you can hand in a blank form and you will receive a different questionnaire that will help you reflect on your own strengths and weaknesses.

Do you want to be in the study? Circle “Yes” or “No” Yes No

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 172

Appendix I Instructions for Students

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 173 Hi, my name is Zachary Garofolo and I am a graduate student in education at D‟Youville College in Buffalo, N.Y. I am doing a study about how students think about themselves and also about how they interact with other students at school. I will be giving some of you a booklet. In it are questions from two questionnaires: the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI). The first questionnaire (i.e.: FFMQ) will be used to find out how mindful you are throughout the day. The second questionnaire (i.e.: APRI) has two parts. Section A will be used to find out how you behave toward other students at school. Section B will be used to find out how other students behave toward you at school. Do not put your name on the booklet. There are numbers on them instead. Those of you who do not wish to participate will also receive a booklet, but with a different questionnaire that will help you reflect on your own strengths and interests. When you are done with your booklet I will collect it from you. Thank you for your help.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 174

Appendix J Alternative Activity

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 175 Subject number_________ Date_________

Strength and Interest Survey PART 1 People are all different. Isn’t that wonderful? What a boring world this would be if we were all the same. The survey below helps you reflect on your own strengths and interests. There are no right or wrong answers. Be honest with yourself and you may learn something new about YOU! Give yourself a score from 0-10 for each of the statements below. A 10 means the statement describes you perfectly. A 0 means the statement is not like you at all. _____ 1. I enjoy playing with words (writing, telling jokes, & talking about language). _____ 2. Working with modeling clay or play dough is fun form me. _____ 3. I love to solve mathematical puzzles. _____ 4. I enjoy dancing. _____ 5. I often sit alone and ponder (think about) things. _____ 6. Being a member of a team is important to me. _____ 7. I find myself humming or tapping on things. _____ 8. I wonder about the world around me and like to look up the answers to my questions or find them by experimenting. _____ 9. I feel I am a good leader in groups. _____ 10. I am a talented storyteller. _____ 11. I have a special interest and participate in one or more sports. _____ 12. I know myself well and can identify my feelings easily. _____ 13. I find myself doodling or drawing often. _____ 14. I enjoy singing. _____ 15. I can put myself in another‟s place and tell how they feel. _____ 16. I enjoy discussing topics of interests with others. _____ 17. I look at things (like clouds) and see pictures in them. _____ 18. I like to make decisions and plan things. _____ 19. I evaluate myself often and try to change things that I don‟t like.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 176 _____ 20. I listen to music everyday for personal pleasure. _____ 21. I like to communicate with my body (acting, role playing, charades). _____ 22. I am told that I have a good sense oh humor. _____ 23. I am a good friend. _____ 24. I play one or more instruments. _____ 25. I like to gather facts and organize them. _____ 26. I enjoy daydreaming. _____ 27. I know myself well (how I learn best, my strengths, my weaknesses) _____ 28. I learn new sports/dances easily. _____ 29. I am good at finding my way using a map. _____ 30. I feel competent at making a speech or giving a report. _____ 31. I often figure out if I‟ve received the correct change at the store. _____ 32. I exercise regularly though physical activity. _____ 33. I am able to hum a tune that I just heard. _____ 34. I usually give encouragement and positive support to others. _____ 35. I like to explore my values and think about what I feel is right or wrong.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 177 Subject number_________ Date_________

Strength and Interest Survey PART 2 People are all different. Isn’t that wonderful? What a boring world this would be if we were all the same. The survey below helps you reflect on your own strengths and interests. There are no right or wrong answers. Be honest with yourself and you may learn something new about YOU! Give yourself a score from 0-10 for each of the statements below. A 10 means the statement describes you perfectly. A 0 means the statement is not like you at all. _____ 1. I can easily add, subtract, and multiply numbers in my head. _____ 2. I know about my feelings, strengths and weaknesses. _____ 3. I enjoy spending time in nature. _____ 4. I prefer team sports. _____ 5. I get uncomfortable when I sit too long. _____ 6. I enjoy solving mysteries. _____ 7. I like to learn about myself. _____ 8. I like working in groups. _____ 9. I like to put things into categories. _____ 10. I like to do things in class that I can get out of my seat to do. _____ 11. Ideas put into a graph or charts are easier for me to follow. _____ 12. I enjoy being alone sometimes. _____ 13. I‟m comfortable in a crowd. _____ 14. I am happiest outdoors. _____ 15. I am always curious about how things work and sometimes like to take things apart to find out. _____ 16. I am good at estimation. _____ 17. I like to work alone. _____ 18. I can figure out what people are thinking. _____ 19. I like taking care of animals and plants. _____ 20. I would rather show someone how to do something, than explain it in words.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 178 _____ 21. I solve math problems easily. _____ 22. I am curious and ask a lot of questions. _____ 23. I would rather spend my spare time with my friends, than alone. _____ 24. I learn best by going on field trips. _____ 25. I learn by doing rather than watching. _____ 26. I enjoy math and computers. _____ 27. I keep a personal journal or diary to record my thoughts. _____ 28. I have a collection of rocks and/or shells. _____ 29. I use my hands when speaking. _____ 30. I wonder how things work. _____ 31. When I have a personal problem, I like to figure out how to solve it on my own. _____ 32. I enjoy helping others. _____ 33. I enjoy talking to people. _____ 34. I care about the environment, so I am involved in conservation. _____ 35. I think of myself as well coordinated. _____ 36. I think in pictures. _____ 37. I like color and interesting designs. _____ 38. I can easily find myself around unfamiliar places. _____ 39. When I read, I can see the story happening in my head. _____ 40. I enjoy solving jigsaw puzzles and mazes.

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 179

Appendix K D‟Youville College IRB Letter of Full Approval

Mindfulness, Bullying, and Victimization 180