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**Stochastic Simulation and Lagrangian Dynamics
**

This is the blog-diary created to monitorize the evolution of Rabindranath Andujar's thesis on Stochastic Simulation and Lagrangian dynamics applied to Structural Design. It is intended to extend collaboration with other people, allow the register of the studies, and force a discipline on recording references, lines of study, and whatever else appears.

JUEVES, 9 DE FEBRERO DE 2012

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**The Rayleigh-Ritz method explained for humans
**

Preliminaries

At last, I feel ready to explain the key concept needed to follow the steps in the Finite Element Method: the notion of STRAIN ENERGY! The problem with this concept is that is as simple as it looks, ergo all the attached complications must come from somewhere else... For the animation below I have chosen a classic spring to illustrate the concept (yes I know, is also a classic example...). Could have been anything else capable of storing energy, as a phone battery or a dam, but this seems more adequate given we are talking about structures. The graph (click on it to see it moving) represents the relation between the applied force to stretch the spring and the actual displacement of the spring. So far, this is pure Hooke's law from secondary school (F=Kx)... Also, the area that gets shadowed when the spring gets "tensioned" is, in mathematical terms, an integral of the drafted curve. Given this particular, although very common case of a material (an elastic one), there is a straight tilted part in the curve that is called "elastic domain". If one keeps pulling the spring further then we still wouldn't break it, but instead we cannot expect it to recover its initial shape. The spring has plastified and we are in the horizontal part of the graph...but that is another story. So, this "triangle" underneath the tilted part has an area, an Displacement e vs Force F on a spring of elastic material. Shaded area represents integral, a scalar value in squared centimeters. The value of stored strain energy. When pulled with such integral is, not in centimeters but in N per meter or a force F its tip deforms an amount e. Joules (we are comparing force vs displacement), so is an When released it pulls back with the Energy! same force F.

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Applied force on the tip F vs potential energy

Displacement e vs potential energy

And the shape of its curve, against the same displacement e or force F (click the animations) happens to be that of a parable (wasn't it obvious?)... Well, and so far for the basics. Let's now think of a solid beam or column and put it in the place of our spring. When loaded, it would deform, would store elastic energy in its material ready to be released as soon as the applied force leaves. Normally things tend not to greedily accumulate

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05/11/2012 04:16 PM

This is the famous principle of minimum total potential energy (not to be mistaken with the principle of minimum energy. a capacitor in a circuit or even the adapter of a laptop store a differential of potential that make them useful. this is a convention and so we will accept it in the absence of a better one. http://stochasticandlagrangian. This basic principle in general applies for almost everything in life. A drop of water in a cloud that has absorbed thermal energy and stored some of it as potential energy would release this as soon as it can...blogspot. which also applies but in other fields).es/2012/02/. direct shear and traverse shear. under flexural bending moment. Relating strain energies and forces The way engineers have found a beam or column or piece of metal can store energy is by means of five types of loading: axial. a state of balance is that where things store a minimum amount of potential energy. Resume of the strain energies associated to each type of applied force in engineering. The compressed beam under axial force F stores energy U of a value according to the formula. energy but just the opposite. Though disputable. Actually this is the way they have found they can stress things.. The table above gives the relation for each one of them in relation to the applied force and in relation to the caused strain. In Nature.. this is tantamount as to say that they store energy. The same beam. etc. and always does in physics. The good thing about this convention is that the job of assimilating stored potential energies for each type has already been done for us and put up in the shape of a formula. 2 of 6 05/11/2012 04:16 PM . Traverse shear has been omitted as is generally neglected.com. As for every stress there should be associated a strain and hence some potential energy. bending. torsion.Stochastic Simulation and Lagrangian Dynamics: The Ra. becoming rain when there is a lot of them.

This is so because it is based in the calculus of variations. almost. The Rayleigh–Ritz method (after Walther Ritz and Lord Rayleigh-Wikipedia).. When applied to structural mechanics the varying value is the value of the strain potential energy. It has eight fairly simple steps (this is also arguable. The internal strain energy is the sum of all the possible combinations of internal strains from the table above The external applied energy is the result of multiplying the external forces by the displacement Step 2: Arbitrarily and happily (well. The function chosen v is an approximation. What we will try to do is to find what is the configuration.. but this is how I understand it best) which I will try to picture as clearly as possible: Step 1: Define the internal stored energy function (always an integral from the table above or a combination of them) and the external (a function of the caused displacement times the applied force)...blogspot.com.. where the total energy of the system "external forces + internal stresses" gives a lowest value for the value of the energy.es/2012/02/.. 3 of 6 05/11/2012 04:16 PM . that is to be equilibrated against the work done by the external forces.) choose one function where the dimensions of the beam and the variable in the internal stored energy function get related. The more elaborated.Stochastic Simulation and Lagrangian Dynamics: The Ra. so we overline it also to denote this.and now for torsion The Rayleigh-Ritz method And now we have all the concepts and are ready to work. http://stochasticandlagrangian. the state of the beam or group of beams. The "dummy function" we will introduce into the energy formula can be any from above. Multiply it by a dummy parameter (we will call it u overlined). is considered a variational method.. Similarly for shear .. the higher the precision.

Laterally loaded beam Obtention of the second derivative of the "dummy" function A very important remark: it is assumed from the beginning that the result will not be accurate!! Step 4: Do the same for the external applied energy. but also is generally rounded as the second derivative of the displacement (v'').es/2012/02/.. V (column internal + external forces) Step 6: Applying the theorem of minimum total potential energy. 4 of 6 05/11/2012 04:16 PM . Step 7: Get the value of the parameter from the equation above.com..Stochastic Simulation and Lagrangian Dynamics: The Ra. Two possibilities of approximation functions (without the U parameter).. This will provide a relation between the dummy parameter and the internal energy. the derivative of the total energy with respect to the parameter must be 0. where normally only bending moment is considered: Internal strain energy due to the weight on the tip is given here as a function of the angle of rotation of the beam. The "dummy" function and its second derivative substituted into the potential strain (Ui) and the external (Ue) energies. Step 3: Solve. the integral in step 1 with the chosen function in step 2. by means of integral calculus. For the example below.. Step 5: Add the two energies in order to get the total energy of the system. http://stochasticandlagrangian. It is known that beams deflect quadratically.blogspot.

blogspot. Keep it going. I suggest you to make a very simple Excel exercise where e. :) Responder Pruthvi Krishna 21 de febrero de 2012 09:07 Shape function is step 8 ?? In a spring U=Ke^2 . The Rayleigh-Ritz method eventually evolved into the nowadays ubiquitous Finite Element (did you recognize the shape function there?). Rayleigh-Ritz. Finite Elements.. Strain Energy 3 comentarios: touristtam 21 de febrero de 2012 01:25 I have just discover you site about a month ago and I really do like what you are doing with sharing all these. where one should memorize the functions in order to master the method.. which is quadratic. For whatever value of x along the beam now we have a value of the deflection.. Enjoy! Publicado por Rabindranath Andujar Moreno en 12:53 Etiquetas: Finite Element Method. So U/e = F ?? Shouldnt that be linear ?? U : Strain energy. However. F and U are pictured according to the Strain-stress curve to realize this. So U=F*e ... http://stochasticandlagrangian. hence U=F*F/K=F^2/K. Shape function is chosen in step 2.es/2012/02/. Regarding the formulas.com. Responder Respuestas Rabindranath Andujar Moreno 21 de febrero de 2012 09:43 Hi Pruthvi. I really hope this helps anyone who reads it as much as it helped me to write it.Stochastic Simulation and Lagrangian Dynamics: The Ra. The rest is easy algebra and very simple first order derivatives.. hey are linear when e and F are independent. e : Displacement.. If a different shape function had been chosen in step 2. Step 8: Substitute its value in the step 2 to get the real function of the displacement. Step 8 is the resulting horizontal displacement calculated on the basis of that particular shape function.but that is another story. But K*e=F . And that is it. so a calculated displacement of the tip would diverge at least 25% from the analytical.. a different equation would have arisen out of Rayleigh-Ritz method. Unfortunately the approximation chosen v(x)=u1(x/l)^2 is not very accurate. as you pointed out well. F : Pulling Force. Well.. But then the value of K doesn't apply anymore and we are in the plastic range. Thanks again for commenting! :) Responder 5 of 6 05/11/2012 04:16 PM .. The most difficult steps are actually 1 and 2. notice that also e=F/K.

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