Container | Refrigeration | Cargo

The exterior dimensions of all containers conforming to ISO standards are 20 feet long x 8 feet wide x 8 feet 6 inches

high or 9 feet 6 inches high for high cube containers. VENTILATED CONTAINER Ideal for cargo requiring ventilation 20' long and 8'6" high BULK CONTAINER 20' TANK CONTAINER 20' DRY FREIGHT CONTAINER 20' and 40' HIGH CUBE CONTAINER 40' and 45'long and 9'6" high For buslk cargoes

For transportation of liquid chemicals and food stuffs

General purpose container

9'6" High - For over height and voluminous cargo

OPEN TOP CONTAINER 20' and 40'long and 8'6" high FLAT RACK 20' and 40'long and 8'6" high PLATFORM
20' and 40'long and 1' 1 1/4"and 2' high

Removable tarpaulin for top loading of over height cargo

For over width and heavy cargo

For extra length and heavy cargo For additional insulation of sensitive cargo For cooling, freezing or heating of foods or chemicals 9'6" High - For over height and voluminous cargo requiring cooling or freezing

INSULATED CONTAINER
20' and 40'long and 8'and 8'6" high

REEFER CONTAINER 20' and 40' HIGH CUBE REEFER CONTAINER 40' and 45'

Ventilated containers
Ventilated containers are also known as passive (naturally) ventilated or coffee containers. Ventilation is provided by ventilation openings in the top and bottom side rails. The openings do not let in spray, to prevent depreciation of the cargo by rain or spray, for example. If actively ventilated containers are required, i.e. containers with adjustable ventilation, "porthole" containers may be used, which simultaneously act as insulated or refrigerated containers. For more detailed information, see under Insulated and refrigerated containers. Lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the upper and lower side rails and the corner posts. The lashing rings may take loads of up to 1,000 kg. The common size for ventilated containers is 20'.

Figures

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Dimensions/weights

The following are some of the most important details relating to ventilated containers. The data was taken from Hapag-Lloyd, Hamburg [68].

Ventilated container of steel: 20' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor Internal dimensions Door openings Max. gross wt. Weights Tare weight Max. payload Volume [m³]

Length Width Height Width Height [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]

there are two discharge hatches. hence the name coffee container. Alternatively.0 Use Ventilated containers are used especially for cargoes which have to be ventilated in transit.0 33. two unloading hatches may be mounted in the doorways. Some bulk containers are equipped with forklift pockets. Figure . 455 mm (1 3/4'). Bulk containers Description Bulk (or bulk cargo) containers have three loading hatches in the roof.[kg] 5888 5895 2325 2321 2392 2392 2334 2340 2290 2292 30480 30480 [kg] 2400 2490 [kg] 28080 27990 33. Such containers may also be used for general cargo. each of a diameter of approx. which allow handling by forklift trucks. The distance between the hatches (center to center) is 1. Lashing rings are mounted in the top side rails for securing the cargo.83 m (6'). which are sometimes equipped with short discharge tubes for guiding the bulk cargo. One of the most significant of such commodities is green coffee beans. On the door side. for emptying the containers.

[kg] 2450 2370 Max. Tank containers Description Tank containers must be at least 80% full. feedstuffs. payload [kg] 21550 21630 Length [mm] 5934 5931 Width [mm] 2358 2358 Height [mm] 2340 2326 Width [mm] 2335 2335 Height [mm] 2292 2292 Volume [m³] 32. .Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to bulk containers (source: HapagLloyd. [kg] 24000 24000 Weights Tare wt. spices. Internal dimensions Door openings Max. Hamburg [47]). to prevent dangerous surging of the liquids in transit. they may also be used for transporting general cargo.9 32. gross wt. However.9 Use Bulk containers are used in particular for transporting bulk cargo. such as grain.

5 bar (above atmospheric). or there will not be sufficient ullage space for thermal expansion. 20' tank container External dimensions Weights .On the other hand. Figure Figure 1 Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to tank containers. The temperature of the cargo may be precisely controlled using temperature sensors. Some hazardous materials must be transported in tank containers with no in.or outlet openings below the surface of the liquid. The test pressure used is 4. If the cargo requires temperature-controlled transport. they must not as a rule be over 95% full. The extent of thermal expansion may be calculated for each cargo on the basis of the following formula: Tank containers intended for transporting foodstuffs must be labeled "Potable Liquids only". Tank containers are generally designed for an operating pressure of up to 3 bar (above atmospheric). tank containers can be equipped with insulation or heating.

Many 40' containers have a recess in the floor at the front end which serves to center the containers on so-called gooseneck chassis. payload [kg] 26290 26290 Use Tank containers are used for liquid cargoes. tall. toxic substances. These recesses allow the containers to lie lower and therefore to be of taller construction.Length External dimension to ISO [mm] 6058 6058 Width External dimension to ISO [mm] 2438 2438 Height External dimension to ISO [mm] 2438 2591 Max. are mounted on the front top end rail and bottom cross member and the corner posts. In contrast to standard containers. capable of bearing loads of at most 1000 kg. such as fuels. which have a maximum height of 2591 mm (8'6"). sweet oils Chemicals: hazardous materials. [kg] 30480 30480 Tare weight [kg] 4190 4190 Max. high-cube containers are 2896 mm. or 9'6". gross wt. A number of lashing rings. spirits. . corrosion protection agents High-cube containers Description High-cube containers are similar in structure to standard containers. such as: Foodstuffs: fruit juices. but are sometimes made as 45' containers. but taller. High-cube containers are for the most part 40' long.

The data was taken from Hapag-Lloyd.3 For details on high-cube containers with removable steel roof. payload [kg] 26460 Length Width Height Width Height [mm] 12024 [mm] 2350 [mm] 2697 [mm] 2340 [mm] 2597 Volume [m³] 76. gross wt.Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to high-cube container types. [kg] 30480 Weights Tare weight [kg] 4020 Max. High-cube container of steel: 40' long and 9'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor Internal dimensions Door openings Max. Hamburg. see hard top containers .

It has the following typical distinguishing structural features. Flatracks are therefore more suitable for overheight cargoes. Lashing rings. Open-top containers Description The walls of open-top containers are generally made of corrugated steel. The floor is made of wood.Use High-cube containers are used for all types general cargo (dry cargo). These two structural features greatly simplify the process of packing and unpacking the container. However. The lashing rings may take loads of up to 1. it is very easy to pack and unpack the container from above or through the doors by crane or crab when the roof is open and the door header is swivelled out. are installed in the upper and lower side rails and the corner posts. In particular. that the purpose of the roof bows of an open-top container is not solely to support the tarpaulin but also to contribute to container stability. to which the cargo may be secured. Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 . however. they are particularly suitable for transporting light. voluminous cargoes and overheight cargoes up to a maximum of 2.000 kg. The roof consists of removable bows and a removable tarpaulin.70 m tall. The door header may be swivelled out. It should be noted. Usual open-top container dimensions are 20' and 40'.

Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to open-top container types.3 66. gross wt. [kg] 30480 30480 30480 Weights Tare weight [kg] 3810 3740 3850 Max.5 Open-top container of steel: 40' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls. payload [kg] 26670 26740 26630 Volume [m³] 65. Hamburg [68]. The data was taken from Hapag-Lloyd. Open-top container of steel: 20' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls.0 32. removable tarpaulin and wooden floor Internal dimensions Length [mm] 5888 5897 Width [mm] 2345 2350 Height (middle) [mm] 2365 2377 Height (side) [mm] 2315 2347 Max.5 65.4 Dimensions of roof and door openings The meaning of the individual letters is clear from the following Figures: . gross wt. removable tarpaulin and wooden floor Internal dimensions Length [mm] 12029 12022 12030 Width [mm] 2342 2345 2350 Height (middle) [mm] 2376 2365 2377 Height (side) [mm] 2326 2315 2347 Max. payload [kg] 28230 28130 Volume [m³] 32. [kg] 30480 30480 Weights Tare weight [kg] 2250 2350 Max.

Figure 3 Figure 4 20' open-top container Roof openings Door openings Length Length Width Width Width Width Width Width Height Height A [mm] 5415 5439 B [mm] 5360 5338 C [mm] 2205 2230 D [mm] E [mm] 1880 F [mm] 2335 G [mm] 1880 1902 H [mm] 2205 2230 I [mm] 2280 2280 K [mm] 2125 2231 19902 2338 40' open-top container Roof openings Door openings Length Length Width Width Width Width Width Width Height Height A [mm] 11544 11550 11573 B [mm] 11444 11515 11472 C [mm] 2230 2205 2210 D [mm] E [mm] 1885 1880 1902 F [mm] 2336 2335 2338 G [mm] 1885 1880 1902 H [mm] 2230 2205 2210 I [mm] 2280 2280 2292 K [mm] 2146 2125 2131 Use Open-top containers are used for all types of general cargo (dry cargo). Their principal uses are as follows: .

The lashing rings may take loads of up to 2000 kg in the case of 20' flatracks or up to 4000 kg in the case of 40' flatracks. which may either be fixed or collapsible. they are sometimes equipped with lashing winches with 2 metric ton lashing belts. 40' flatracks have gooseneck tunnels at each end. . The data was taken from Hapag-Lloyd. Some types of 20' flatracks have forklift pockets. flatracks may be provided with stanchions. Flatracks are available in 20' and 40' sizes. For transport of certain cargoes. Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to flatracks.packing and unpacking from above or through the doors by crane or crab tall cargo Flatracks Description Flatracks consist of a floor structure with a high loading capacity composed of a steel frame and a softwood floor and two end walls. Hamburg [68]. the corner posts and the floor. are installed in the side rails. A number of lashing rings. The end walls are stable enough to allow cargo securing means to be attached and several flatracks to be stacked on top of one another. In addition. to which the cargo may be secured.

[kg] 30480 34000 Weights Tare weight [kg] 2520 2740 Max. 20' long and 8'6" high Internal dimensions Floor length [mm] 5950 Length between corner posts [mm] 5675 Floor width [mm] 2428 Width between stanchions [mm] 2213 Height of Height floor [mm] 2270 [mm] 316 Max. 20' long and 8'6" high Internal dimensions Floor length [mm] 5980 5962 Length between corner posts [mm] 5698 5672 Floor width [mm] 2230 2242 Width between stanchions [mm] 2245 2242 Height of Height floor [mm] 2255 2261 [mm] 336 330 Max. payload [kg] 21500 27800 Flatrack: steel frame with collapsible end walls and softwood floor. payload [kg] 30150 Flatrack/Platform: steel frame with flushfolding end walls and softwood floor. [kg] 33000 Weights Tare weight [kg] 2600 Max. gross wt. gross wt. gross wt.Flatrack: steel frame with fixed end walls and softwood floor. payload [kg] 27960 31260 . 20' long and 8'6" high Internal dimensions Floor length [mm] 6038 6038 Length between corner posts [mm] 5638 5612 Floor width [mm] 2208 2210 Width between stanchions [mm] 2438 2438 Height of Height floor [mm] 2235 2213 [mm] 370 370 Max. [kg] 24000 30000 Weights Tare weight [kg] 2500 2200 Max.

However. payload [kg] 40800 40800 40800 High-cube flatrack: steel frame with collapsible flushfolding end walls.Flatrack: steel frame with fixed end walls and softwood floor. gross wt. Use Flatracks are mainly used to transport heavy-lifts and overheight or overwidth cargoes. 40' long and 8'6" high Internal dimensions Length between corner posts [mm] 11832 11826 11826 Width between stanchions [mm] 2228 2224 2204 Height of Height floor [mm] 1981 1981 1981 [mm] 610 610 610 Max. can be converted to a platform Internal dimensions Length between corner posts [mm] 11660 11660 Width between stanchions [mm] 2200 2200 Weights Height of Maximum Tare Max. Height floor weight weight payload [mm] 2245 2245 [mm] 648 648 [kg] 45000 45000 [kg] 5700 5950 [kg] 39300 39050 Floor length [mm] 12060 12060 Floor width [mm] 2365 2365 The maximum payload may be used only if the load is distributed evenly over the floor structure. [kg] 45000 45000 45000 Weights Floor length [mm] 12010 12086 12010 Floor width [mm] 2228 2224 2244 Tare weight [kg] 4200 4200 4200 Max. if the weight of the cargo is applied to only a small proportion of the floor. Platforms (Plats) . 40' long and 9'6" high. it must be distributed and the manufacturer of the flatracks may have to be consulted on safety issues.

The lashing rings may take loads of up to 3. Figure Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to 20' and 40' platforms. are installed in the side rails. Hamburg [68]. The data was taken from Hapag-Lloyd. they have no side or end walls. to which the cargo may be secured. Lashing rings. A platform consists of a steel frame and a wooden floor structure. Platform: steel frame with softwood floor. This high loading capacity makes it possible to concentrate heavy weights on small areas. 40' platforms have a gooseneck tunnel at each end.Description Platforms consist solely of a floor structure with extremely high loading capacity. Platforms are available in 20' and 40' sizes.000 kg. 20' long and 1' 1 1/4" high Dimensions Weights .

payload [kg] 27960 31260 Platform: steel frame with softwood floor. [kg] 30480 34000 Tare weight [kg] 2520 2740 Max. gross wt. A distinction may be drawn between two different systems: 1. [kg] 45000 Weights Tare weight [kg] 5700 Max. 40' long and 2' high Dimensions Length Width [mm] 12192 Use [mm] 2245 Floor height [mm] 648 Max. Integrated Unit): . Integral Unit (Integral Reefer Container.Length Width [mm] 6058 6058 [mm] 2438 2438 Floor height [mm] 370 370 Max. Refrigerated and insulated containers Description Refrigerated and insulated containers are mainly available as 20' and 40' containers. payload [kg] 39300 Platforms are used principally for oversized and very heavy cargoes. gross wt.

For transport by road and rail. "power packs" may be used. If the aforesaid capacity is too low for the refrigerated containers to be transported. integral units have to be connected to the on-board power supply system. cooled in the refrigeration unit and then blown back in the container as cold air. the containers are connected to the terminal's power supply system. the "warm" air is drawn off from the inside of the container. Figure 4 . which are equipped with relatively large diesel generators and satisfy ISO requirements with regard to the dimensions of a 20' container. Figure 1 When being transported by ship. The refrigeration unit is arranged in such a way that the external dimensions of the container meet ISO standards and thus fit into the container ship cell guides. When at the terminal. This may either be a component of the refrigeration unit or connected to the refrigeration unit.This type of refrigerated container has an integral refrigeration unit for controlling the temperature inside the container. In general. most integral unit refrigeration units are operated by a generator set (genset). Figure 2 Figure 3 Air flows through the container from bottom to top. for example. The number of refrigerated containers which may be connected depends on the capacity of the ship's power supply system. The presence of an integral refrigeration unit entails a loss of internal volume and payload.

Once transferred to a PC. In the refrigeration units. integral units also allow a controlled fresh air exchange. The Partlow recorder generally records return air temperature. Figure 8 Figure 9 To ensure vertical air flow from bottom to top. one of these values is used to control the cold air. so as to measure temperatures inside the container. Pallets form an additional space between container floor and cargo. For this purpose. the data may then be evaluated. Data loggers are increasingly used. both the supply and return air temperatures are measured and. In addition. which detect temperature digitally and indicate it on a display. top layer at door . adequate space (at least 12 cm) must likewise be provided for air flow.To ensure adequate circulation of the cold air. the floor is provided with gratings. Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 In the upper area of the container. since this provides an indication of the state or temperature of the cargo. The recorder should be accommodated in such a way that it records the temperatures at risk points in the container (inside the packaging. The maximum load height is marked on the side walls. Digital or analog recorders may also be positioned directly in the cargo. Temperature measurement may be performed in various ways. the side walls of the container are "corrugated". In addition to temperature regulation. for example for the removal of metabolic products such as CO2 and ethylene in the case of the transport of fruits. which ensures satisfactory air flow there too. depending on the operating mode. so also forming a satisfactory air flow channel. packaging must also be appropriately designed and the cargo must be sensibly stowed. The temperature display is attached to the outside of the refrigeration unit. so that operation of the unit may be checked at any time. during packing of the container adequate free space must be left above the cargo.

the inside of the container is supplied with cold air via the ship's central cooling plant. Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 . leading to increased refrigeration capacity requirements. Figure 10 Figure 11 Integral units may be stowed both above and below deck on a ship. 2. Porthole containers: This type of container is often referred to not as a refrigerated container but as an insulated container. the containers are often exposed to strong solar radiation. The lack of a refrigeration unit allows such containers to have a larger internal volume and payload than integral units. as it has no integral refrigeration unit. Above deck stowage has the advantage that the heat from return air may be more readily dissipated. On board. The air flows through the container in the same way as in integral units. However.end). Figure 12 Figure 13 Portholes (sealable openings) at the end of a porthole container. Cold air is blown in at the bottom and the "warm" air is removed at the top.

In addition. conveyed upwards through the cargo and discharged via the return air opening. the containers are provided with openings for supply and return air.Off the ship. Wear to rubber door gaskets or improper handling may result in the doors no longer closing correctly. refrigeration capacity has to be increased to compensate for losses due to cold air leakage. In general. water ingress may lead to cargo spoilage or to ice formation in the door area. the temperature is controlled by a terminal refrigeration system or "clip-on units". distributed by means of the gratings in the container floor. Figure 18 Figure 19 On the opposite end wall from the door. the "clip-on units" may be returned using special frameworks. General: The doors constitute a weak point in both integral units and porthole containers. they no longer fulfill ISO requirements with regard to dimensions. During transport of chilled goods and frozen goods. Porthole containers do not have an integral temperature display. Figure 20 . so that they are no longer sealed against rainwater and the like. appropriate air ducts must be provided in the floor and the ceiling and the cargo must be sensibly packaged and stowed. After completion of transport. Either such a display is installed in the terminal refrigeration systems or the "clip-on units" or the temperature values may be obtained from the ship's central cooling plant. If the porthole-containers are provided with "clip-on units" when ashore. 3. dimensions of which match those of a 20' container. For this purpose. supply air is blown into the lower opening. This type of container also requires adequate air flow.

After 12 days. the goods are usually packed using the block stowage method. Required temperature = -18°C. the temperature even rose by one degree. and the actual cargo requires a considerably longer period for refrigeration. the heat is passed to the air and the cooling effect of the refrigeration unit is not passed to the cargo. The cargo is too warm. If the air cannot pass the available cooling capacity to the cargo. After the supply air openings are closed and an additional manual defrosting operation has been carried out. 3-hour defrosting phases. The refrigerated container is not able to cool the cargo by more than 13°C within 15 days (see Figure 21). If a load which is too warm is loaded into a refrigerated container. The required temperature is reached after 19 days. the refrigeration unit starts to ice up.In the case of frozen cargo and cargo containing non-respiring goods (goods other than fruit and vegetables). the temperature is stabilized and automatic defrosting only occurs every 12 hours. Warm external air was drawn into the reefer. The reason: The supply air opening was not completely closed. Despite automatic. it is cooled rapidly by the high cooling capacity of the refrigeration unit. The cold air only flows around the goods and does not circulate between the boxes. Here it is important for the cargo to be pre-chilled to the required temperature before it is loaded into the container. Figure 22 . The daily variation of the external air temperature can be seen clearly. Figure 21 The same consignment: The temperature chart (see Figure 22) of a further container shows that at -10°C this cargo was too warm when it was loaded into the container. Two examples of how not to do it: A consignment of frozen goods is to be transported from Izmir to East Asia with transshipment in Egypt. This was warmer during the day than by night.

steps must be taken to ensure that the containers are arranged in such a way that the circulation of supply air is not interrupted by the base of the pallet. At temperatures of -62°C. This returns the cold air under the pallets. allowing it to reach the goods. Suitable packaging such as crates.Respiring goods (e. Steps should also be taken to avoid spaces on the floor to prevent the supply air from taking the path of least resistance (circulation bypass). Fresh air is supplied through the fresh air flaps. fruit. Figures Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 . If the cargo is loaded on pallets. which means that any spaces should be filled to prevent the load from slipping. depending on their metabolic activity. it is necessary for the perforations in the packaging to be aligned. vegetables. This means that at temperatures of below 62°C it is possible to transport or store foodstuffs for an "infinite" period without loss of quality. a plastic sheet can be jammed between the stack of pallets and the container door. To allow the supply air to circulate through the cargo from bottom to top.g. In this case. Spaces between the last row of pallets and the container door can often not be avoided. plants) require the supply of a certain amount of fresh air and cooling air. the "eutectic point" (EP) is reached Only once the EP is reached is all the water in the cells of the product completely frozen and all microbial decomposition brought to a standstill. This restricts metabolic processes and draws off the gases produced such as ethylene and carbon dioxide. perforated plastic containers or perforated boxes must be used to allow the mixture of cooling air and fresh air to penetrate directly to the goods. Figure 23 Ultra-low temperature refrigerated containers are capable of transporting goods at a temperature of -60°C. thus threatening correct cooling of the goods in some areas. Circulation bypass can also be caused by slippage of the load.

Insulated container: 20' long and 8' high. walls of sandwich construction Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Net [kg] Volume Footnote [m³] Length Width Height Max.6 59. load height [mm] 2014 2110 2110 Door openings Width [mm] 2286 2260 2260 Height [mm] 2067 2090 2090 Gross [kg] 24000 24000 27000 Weights Tare [kg] 2550 2900 2900 Net [kg] 21450 21100 24100 Volume [m³] 26.Dimensions/weights The following are some of the most important details relating to refrigerated container types. load height Width [mm] 2286 2286 [mm] 2120 2210 [mm] 2286 2286 Integral Unit: 20' long and 8'6" high. with steel frame.4 27. walls of sandwich construction Internal dimensions Length [mm] 5724 5770 5770 Width [mm] 2286 2260 2260 Max. walls of sandwich construction Internal dimensions Length [mm] 11840 11810 Door openings Height [mm] 2195 2300 Gross [kg] 30480 30480 Weights Tare [kg] 3850 3650 Net [kg] 26630 26830 Volume [m³] 60.5 Insulated container: 40' long and 8'6" high. with steel frame. Hamburg [68]. Width Height Gross Tare load [mm] [mm] [mm] height [mm] [mm] [kg] [kg] .5 27. The data was taken from Hapag-Lloyd.8 Width Max. with steel frame.

[mm] 5479 5459 5448 5534 5529 5535 1 2 2286 2295 2290 2316 2316 2284 2257 2268 2264 2331 2331 2270 2157 2168 2164 2231 2290 2224 2286 2291 2286 2316 2316 2290 2220 2259 2260 2290 2290 2264 30480 3160 27320 30480 3050 27430 30480 3060 27420 30480 3030 27450 30480 2960 27520 30480 2942 27538 28.9 28. load height Door openings Weights Volume Net [m³] Width Height Gross Tare . with steel frame. walls of sandwich construction Internal dimensions Length Width Height Max.9 29.0 Max. with steel frame.7 1 ) ) ) ) ) ) 2 2 2 2 2 ) Not suitable for transporting foodstuffs ) Suitable for clip-on generators Integral Unit: 40' long and 8'6" high. walls of sandwich construction.3 29.4 28. load height Width [mm] 2161 [mm] 2288 Integral Unit: 40' long and 9'6" high.3 28. not suitable for transporting foodstuffs Internal dimensions Length [mm] 11563 Width Height [mm] 2294 [mm] 2261 Door openings Height [mm] 2188 Gross [kg] 34000 Weights Tare [kg] 4600 Net [kg] 29400 Volume [m³] 60.

meat and dairy products. High-cube integral units are used in particular for voluminous and light goods (e.7 30480 4180 26300 32500 4300 28200 32480 4240 28240 30480 4180 26300 30480 4180 26300 30480 4000 26480 30480 4150 26330 30480 4640 25840 34000 4190 29810 34000 4110 28890 34000 4190 29810 34000 4120 29880 34000 4190 29810 34000 4150 29850 34000 4240 29760 34000 4300 29700 Use Refrigerated containers are used for goods which need to be transported at a constant temperature above or below freezing point. These goods are divided into chilled goods and frozen goods.2 67. They principally include fruit.g.0 66.0 67.8 67.[mm] 11643 11575 11568 11580 11580 11580 11580 11578 11585 11577 11577 11583 11595 11578 11578 11578 [mm] [mm] [mm] 2288 2294 2290 2288 2290 2286 2286 2295 2290 2286 2286 2286 2296 2280 2280 2296 2498 2560 2509 2498 2513 2528 2515 2550 2525 2525 2532 2532 2542 2525 2525 2542 2378 2440 2389 2378 2393 2408 2395 2425 2405 2400 2407 2412 2402 2400 2400 2402 [mm] 2288 2286 2290 2288 2290 2286 2286 2290 2290 2286 2294 2294 2294 2276 2276 2294 [mm] 2517 2570 2473 2517 2522 2545 2535 2560 2490 2490 2550 2550 2550 2471 2471 2550 [kg] [kg] [kg] 66. such as butter and cheese. vegetables. depending on the specified transport temperature.0 67.0 66.4 66.0 67.8 67. Nowadays.8 66.7 66.5 68.0 67.0 67. fruit.8 66. flowers). which have a markedly higher market share than porthole containers. goods requiring refrigeration are mostly transported in integral units. .

the large refrigeration unit manufacturers have acquired an increasing share of the market for standalone controlled atmosphere containers. Figure 29 Special controlled atmosphere refrigerated containers are available for transporting fruit and vegetables which may be stored for a longer period in a controlled or modified atmosphere.Chilled meat is sometimes also transported hanging. . for which purpose the ceilings of refrigerated containers are equipped with special hook rails. The atmosphere is usually established by flushing the container with nitrogen and CO2. In recent years. A number of manufacturers supply the refrigerated container market with controlled atmosphere systems which may be installed in integral refrigerated containers. Controlled atmosphere containers must be as gastight as possible to prevent ambient air (oxygen) from penetrating. Controlled atmosphere systems for porthole containers are also available. During transport. the atmosphere is regulated by nitrogen flushing or CO2 and ethylene scrubbers.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful