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This guide is not a list of terms, a grammar reference, or a course on how to write for a technical audience.

It is expected that every translator who works on translation/localization projects is familiar with the fundamentals of translation and knows where to obtain reference material. Localization style guides for source and target languages are the key to ensuring linguistic consistency. A localization style guide is a reference guide in which standards for regulatory compliance and culturally appropriate translations are achieved. Localization style guides include company-specific product names, jargon, buzzwords, grammar rules and other style considerations such as any special formatting notes regarding spacing, fonts, hyphenation, capitalization, etc.

1. THIS STYLE GUIDE


1.1 Purpose of the style guide
The purpose of the style guide is to unify standards, to ensure consistency throughout the project, improve quality and streamline the localization processes.

1.2 General instructions


Refer to the style guidelines provided, glossaries/terminology lists, reviewed translation memories and any other recommended reference material while localizing L-Com content.

1.3 Reference material


Check the list of reference materials and language-influencing institutions that are well-recognized in Latin America (dictionaries, grammar books, online material, other respectable bodies, government agencies, organizations influencing your language). In case of more reference materials in place for Latin American Spanish, the list is prioritized based on applicability for this project: Microsoft Language Portal Acronym Finder
http://www.microsoft.com/language/es/es/sea rch.mspx http://www.acronymfinder.com/

Eurodicautom (European Commission Translation Service) Bolsa de nombres propios Diccionario de informtica, telecomunicacione s y ciencias afines

http://iate.europa.eu/iatediff/switchLang.do? success=mainPage&lang=es (Please note that this is mostly for European Spanish) http://www.europarl.europa.eu/transl_es/plata forma/pagina/bolsanp/indice.htm http://books.google.es/books? id=31cagl0wNzEC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq =end-of-line+station%2Bestacion %2Blinea&source=web&ots=5GDpqAYV9&sig=5ulRTw3Ism6Jb4qyj6ouYdHaJ24& hl=es&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=re sult#v=onepage&q=&f=false http://www.webopedia.com/ http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_assista nce/spanish/osha_general_terms_ensp.html http://tradu.scig.uniovi.es/anton.html

Dictionary and search engine OSHA General Terms Dictionary English Longman dictionary

1.4 Respectable Language Institutions


Official language standards for Latin American Spanish can be found on the following web pages: Real Academia Espaola Diccionario Panhispnico de dudas La Pgina del Idioma Espaol Fundeu (Espaol urgente) Symbol List www.rae.es http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/ http://www.elcastellano.com/diccio.h tml http://www.fundeu.es http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/apendices /apendice3.html

2.

ORTHOGRAPHY

2.1 Capitalization
Latin American Spanish capitalization does not follow English rules. In LA Spanish, only the first word in a title is capitalized, compared with all major words in English.

English Service Level Editor Agent and Work Group Performance

Spanish Editor de niveles de servicio Desempeo del agente y del grupo de trabajo

Generally, capital letters are used when referring to commands, menus, dialog boxes, modes, buttons, etc. Only the first word of the UI element should be capitalized. English the Add button Save As menu Spanish el botn Agregar men Guardar como

Only proper nouns and product names are capitalized (see below for translation of product names). English L-Com Web (noun) website USB Ranger Spanish L-Com Web sitio web USB Ranger

Months and languages are not capitalized, unless they appear as the first word in a sentence. English January Spanish December: fiscal year end Spanish enero espaol Diciembre: cierre de ao fiscal

2.2 Punctuation 2.2.1 Hard spaces


The hard space or non-breaking space is a special space character used by a word processor that forbids an automatic line breaking at its position. Generally, and unless otherwise specified, insert a nonbreaking space (CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR or Alt+0160): - between a value and a measurement unit, such as: 20 m2. - between captulo or anexo and its number or letter. - between a unit of measure or currency and the number that goes with it. - between any items that should not be divided onto separate lines.

2.2.2

Commas

Before the conjunctions y (and) and o (or) no comma should be placed when they are used to link two related elements in a sentence. When a conjunction joins two parts of an element in a series and the element is followed by another conjunction, a comma must be used before the last conjunction. English It can answer incoming calls, outcoming calls, and provide information. Spanish Puede responder llamadas entrantes y salientes, y brindar informacin.

Use commas with introductory phrases, and before and after adverb phrases such as: por tanto, por consiguiente, as pues, ahora bien, sin embargo, como quiera que, con todo, por el contrario. English Spanish However, information is Sin embargo, la informacin est subject to change. sujeta a cambios. Commas should not separate the subject from its verb or the verb from its object.

2.2.3

Apostrophes and Quotation Marks

Apostrophes ( ) are rarely used in Latin American Spanish. Due to technical reasons and to avoid issues during file compilation, when apostrophes appear in the source text, it is recommended to: - remove them in the target text or - keep the same type of apostrophes used in source text In Latin American Spanish, curly quotation marks ( ) are used. When combining straight and curly quotation marks, straight ones must be placed within curly quotation marks. No space should be left between the quotation marks and the first and last word of the string they contain. In some cases, the use of straight quotes (rather than curly quotation marks) may be necessary due to compilation issues. This should be confirmed with the project manager before starting the project.

2.2.4

Bullets

Bullet lists as sentences with no conjugated verb: They start with a capital letter but no punctuation mark at the end. English You can perform the following: Copy to a New Location Paste in a different location Spanish Puede realizar lo siguiente: Copiar a nueva ubicacin Pegar en una ubicacin distinta

Bullet lists as full sentences or paragraphs: They start with capital letter and end with a period mark at the end. English To exit this wizard, click OK. Follow the following rules: Never write down your password. Never share your password with anyone. Spanish Para salir de este asistente, haga clic en Aceptar. Siga las normas que se indican a continuacin: Nunca escriba la contrasea en papel. Nunca comparta la contrasea con nadie.

Single words or phrases as bullet lists: They start with capital letter but no punctuation mark at the end. English The following options are available: Copy and Paste Delete Spanish Las siguientes opciones estn disponibles: Copiar y pegar Eliminar

2.2.3

Colons/Semicolons

The word following a colon within a sentence should NOT be capitalized unless:

The colon introduces a quotation or is part of a letter salutation.

- After the colon, the sentence continues in a different line. E.g. Nota: No utilice la misma direccin IP ni el nombre del host de una conexin LDAP anterior. - To separate a word or a phrase and its concept. After colon, lower case is used. E.g. Numeracin binaria: sistema que utiliza como cifras exclusivamente el 0 y el 1.

2.2.4

Double spaces

In English double spaces are used after a period while in Latin American Spanish a single space is used. After colons, only one space is used. After completing a document, perform a global search and replace to ensure that there are no double spaces after punctuation marks.

2.2.5

Brackets and parentheses

No space should be left between the brackets and the first and last word of the string they contain. Punctuation marks are placed outside the closing bracket. Square brackets should be placed inside brackets. E.g. - (Se necesita una licencia para la cantidad mxima requerida de llamadas SIP [Protocolo de inicio de sesiones] simultneas).

2.2.6 Periods
In Latin American Spanish only one space is used after a period. Periods are written outside brackets and quotation marks. No period is written after exclamation or interrogation marks. When abbreviations are placed at the end of a sentence, the period of the abbreviation will replace final period, i.e. only one period is used in these cases. E.g. Se eliminarn de forma permanente todos los usuarios, los perfiles, las salidas, etc. No period is used at the end of titles, articles or chapters.

2.2.7

Dashes

The Em dash (raya or guin largo) is used to set off a parenthetical phrase within a sentence or to set off a phrase at the end of a sentence for the greatest emphasis. The En dash (signo menos) is used to indicate ranges of numbers for example, inclusive values, dates, times, or reference numbers. No spaces are used around the en dash in this case. Also use an en dash to represent a minus sign. In most cases where English uses dashes, colons, commas, or parentheses will suffice in Latin American Spanish. If the sentence is too long, create a new sentence. English Authentication Access Rights When pasting text as in the case of a Word document make sure to select the entire text. Incorrect Spanish Authentication Derechos de acceso Al pegar como en el caso de un documento Word, asegrese de seleccionar todo el texto. Correct Spanish Autenticacin: derechos de acceso Al pegar texto (como en el caso de un documento Word), asegrese de seleccionar todo el texto.

In some cases when translating software, replacing the dash with a colon does not apply. In this case, the dash should be maintained and each element must be capitalized. Most of these instances are available in the glossary, but please raise a query if in doubt. English Routing Point Service Level Trend General and Duration-Based Behaviors Summary Incorrect Spanish Nivel de servicio del punto de enrutamiento: tendencia Comportamiento: general y basado en duracin: resumen Correct Spanish Nivel de servicio del punto de enrutamiento Tendencia Comportamiento General y basado en duracin - Resumen

2.2.8 Slashes
When there are options between slashes, the first letter after the slash should be in lower case.

E.g. Seleccionar/deseleccionar todo Forward slashes are mostly used. Backward slashes are used as a path separator as in C:\Archivos de programa\Adobe\InDesign

1. GRAMMAR 3.1 Accentuation


The use of accented capital letters is mandatory according to the Latin American Spanish grammar rules. E.g. ndice, CAPTULO Do not use accented letters in directory paths. For example: English C:\User Directory\Reports\Losses\ Spanish C:\Directorio de usuario\Informes\Perdidas

3.2 Hyphenation
In English, the hyphen is reserved for use between elements of compound words. However in Spanish, compound words are translated as one single word or as separate words, without a hyphen. English Web-based tool pre-defined multi-user Spanish herramienta basada en Web predefinido multiusuario

3.3 Compound nouns


In English compound words are hyphenated, while in Spanish they are written as a single word or as separate words. Prefixes such as sub-, ultra-, intra-, pre-, etc. are not separated by a hyphen. They are joined to the major word. English sub-title multi-site Spanish subttulo sitios mltiples

3.4 Prepositions
Preposition use will be governed by Spanish grammar rules. Spanish has many different prepositions with different uses. The most common mistakes in IT field are the following:

Preposition de will not be used between the item and its name. English Delete button Properties dialog box Spanish botn Borrar cuadro de dilogo Propiedades

Recognized key names (as they appear in the keyboard) will be written in upper case and with no preposition de. English Ctrl Enter Spanish tecla Ctrl tecla Intro

However, generic key names will be written in lower case with preposition de. English Backspace key Tab key Spanish tecla de retroceso tecla de tabulacin

3.5 Incorrect expressions


Grammar construction para + noun should be avoided if it can be replaced by a fin de/para + verb. English Incorrect Spanish Keep this Conserve esta information for informacin para future use uso posterior. Correct Spanish Conserve esta informacin para usarla posteriormente.

For more information will be translated as para obtener ms informacin, and not para ms informacin. English For more information about this product, see Chapter Incorrect Spanish Para ms informacin sobre este producto, consulte el captulo Correct Spanish Para obtener ms informacin sobre este producto, consulte el captulo

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Possessive adjectives In English there is a tendency to overuse possessive adjectives while in Spanish they are rarely used. English A mark will appear on your document. Incorrect Spanish Aparecer una marca sobre su documento. Correct Spanish Aparecer una marca sobre el documento.

A and One are not always translated as uno, as they may refer to any. In this case, they should be translated as: algn, alguna, ningn. English If you do not want to print a file... Incorrect Spanish Si no desea imprimir un archivo Correct Spanish Si no desea imprimir ningn archivo

Regarding the English construction article + noun1 + noun2, literal translation in Spanish must be avoided: article + noun1 + de + noun2 English To change a file description Incorrect Spanish Para cambiar una descripcin de archivo Correct Spanish Para cambiar la descripcin de un archivo

2. COUNTRY STANDARDS 4.1 Acronyms and abbreviations


Acronyms are not translated unless there is an equivalent translation in Spanish which is accepted worldwide. E.g. CPU (unidad de procesamiento central). The recognized translation will be added between brackets the first time the acronym appears in a manual chapter or in a help topic. Thereafter, only the acronym will be used. The explanation of acronyms will not be added in titles, headers or indexes. If an article is required before the acronym, the article must agree with the first word of the translated acronym. E.g. la CPU Acronyms in Spanish do not take plural form, it is indicated by the article.

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English the APIs

Incorrect Spanish las APIs

Correct Spanish las API

Acronyms do not use a final period, while abbreviations do. It is recommended to use full words at the beginning of sentences, rather than abbreviations. The following abbreviations are accepted: Months: en., feb., mar., abr., may., jun., jul., ag., sept., oct., nov., dic. Days: lun., mar., mir., jue., vier., sb., dom.

4.2 Format of numbers


Numbers from zero to nine should be spelled out in Spanish, unless used in a technical context. English Goes from 1 active section to 2 active sections. Spanish Pasa de una seccin activa a dos secciones activas.

A non-breaking space should be used between the numeric value and the corresponding measurement unit. No space should be left between the number and the percentage sign.

4.3 Decimal and thousand separator


Spanish uses different separators than English:

A comma should be used as the decimal separator. E.g. 0,56 A period should be used as the thousand separator. E.g. 21.354 Do not use the thousands separator with numbers representing years (2002), page numbers, postal codes and addresses, laws, lotteries, etc.

4.4 Date
The short date format in Spanish is dd/mm/yyyy. E.g. 3/2/2010 For days and months ranging from 1 to 9, there is no need to add a preceding zero. Unless it is necessary for technical reasons, 12

such as computerized forms, or for security reasons, to avoid modifying dates in legal or commercial documents. The long date format in Spanish is 3 de febrero de 2010. Months are written in lower case and preposition de is added between day and month, and month and year.

4.5 Time
In Spanish the time format generally used is 24 hour. English 4:30 PM Spanish 16:30 h

4.6 Currencies
Unless otherwise specified, currencies should not be converted to other currencies; the source currency will be used in the translation. Currency signs should be placed before the amount, when they are not expressed in letters, and no space should be left in between. Please refer to ISO standard currency symbols (http://www.iso.org/iso/support/currency_codes_list-1.htm).

4.7 Measurement
Unless otherwise specified, values expressed in the source text should be kept in the target text, they should not be localized. Check the international measurement symbols: http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltConsulta?lema=s%EDmbolo English 2 in 2" 12 ft Spanish 2 in 2 in 12 ft

Measurement unit abbreviations do not take final dot.

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3. TERMINOLOGY 5.1 Do Not Translate Terms (DNT)


Characters or symbols in HTML code will not be translated. Symbol HTML Code © ® é Character Name smbolo de copyright smbolo de marca registrada e acentuada

(and other HTML entities)

The following items will NOT be translated: Product Names Proper Names URL addresses Protocol Acronyms Protocol Names (unless they have a recognized translation in Spanish) Joined words that belong to programming language (routepoint, chatqueue) Underscored words (CCR_HOME) Command lines (from OS: pagefileconfig, <b>show runningconfig</b>) Hardcode specific strings Special Characters and Concatenations (\t [tab character]; \n [new line]) Tags (<TITLE>, <IMG>, <A>, <\A>

5.2 Common Terms


Translation of common terms: English host routing router host PC client-server interface switch firewall support (v) support (n) Spanish host (n) / hospedar (v) enrutamiento enrutador computadora host cliente servidor interfaz conmutador firewall admitir/ser compatible con soporte/asistencia

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English Web (www) web (adjective) KB/Kb/MB/Mb, etc. backup IP address cache trunk link tab log (n) report (n) click

Spanish Web (upper case, noun) web (lower case) KB/Kb/MB/Mb, etc. copia de seguridad direccin IP cach (do not use article, if article is necessary use "la memoria cach") troncal/enlace troncal enlace ficha registro informe clic

Some words have more than one acceptable translation depending on the grammar function and the context. English source open view Access path display Spanish fuente/origen abrir (v) / abierto (adj.) vista (n) / ver (v) Acceder a la ruta / Ruta de acceso pantalla (n) / mostrar (v) / visualizacin (n)

4. STYLE 6.1 Tense


The imperative tense in English will be translated as the imperative tense in Spanish, and not as the infinitive. English Press F3 Incorrect Translation Presionar F3 Correct Translation Presione F3

In documents and user guides, chapter titles, sections and epigraphs using the imperative tense in English will be nominalized in Spanish.

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English Edit Texts

Incorrect Translation Editar textos / Edite textos

Correct Translation Edicin de textos

The use of a gerund is very common in English. A gerund is used to express an idea in progress; that is why it is used so much in titles and epigraphs in user guides. Gerunds will be nominalized in Spanish. English Printing a Graphic on Page Incorrect Translation Imprimir / Imprimiendo un grfico en una pgina Correct Translation Impresin de un grfico en una pgina

However, a gerund will be used in Spanish to refer to an action taking place at that precise moment. English Opening page, please wait Correct Translation Abriendo pgina, espere

Usually, the gerund marks the action of the verb with an adverbial quality: andaba corriendo or lleg cantando. Avoid using gerunds to mark a noun with an adjectival quality as in the following examples: English To select consecutive files or folders, hold down the CTRL key while click the desired items. Filter action links, each containing Filter associations. Correct Translation Para seleccionar archivos o carpetas que son consecutivos, mantenga presionada la tecla CTRL haciendo clic en los elementos que desee. Vnculos de acciones de filtrado, cada uno de los cuales contiene asociaciones a Filtros.

6.2 Passive/active voice


In Spanish, the passive voice is not used as frequently as in English. Instead, a reflexive verb construction is much more prevalent.

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English The file is generated by virus and has been removed. This option is chosen by selecting

Incorrect Spanish El archivo fue generado por un virus y se ha eliminado. Esta opcin es elegida seleccionando

Correct Spanish Un virus ha generado el archivo y ste se ha eliminado. Esta opcin se elige al seleccionar

In order to avoid the passive voice, the impersonal style can be also used. This style is highly recommended in software translation, particularly in error messages: English File cannot be opened No user data found Correct Spanish No se puede abrir el archivo No se encontraron datos de usuarios

6.3 Formal/informal tone


Formal tone will be used throughout. English Select the desired option. Incorrect Translation Selecciona la opcin deseada. Correct Translation Seleccione la opcin deseada.

6.4 Country-specific style


Appropriate professional marketing language and correct technical terms must be used for general public accessibility. Sentences must be concise and clear. The aim is to produce an impression that the sentences were written in the target language. In technical and IT files, too long or subordinated sentences should be avoided. Impersonal style is preferred.

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6.5 Localization-specific style


Commands, menus, dialog boxes, checkboxes, modes and buttons names are localized following the Spanish grammar rules mentioned above. Shortcuts keys and combinations of keystrokes will also be localized.

6.5.1 File names


File names and file extensions should not be localized. The translation of paths depends on the localization of the operating system. For instance, if the OS is in Spanish, there are certain paths that will be translated such as those included in the hard unit disc (C:\Archivos de programa\Adobe\Acrobat) and others that will remain in English (C:\Documents and Settings\All Users)

6.6 Trademarks and names


Trademarks and product names are kept in English. No article will be placed before these names.

6.6.1

Business titles

Team names, degrees and job positions will be translated and the first letter of each content word will be capitalized. English Executive Director Spanish Director Ejecutivo

6.6.2

Department names

Unless otherwise specified, department names will be localized and the first letter of each content word will be capitalized. English Human Resources Department Spanish Departamento de Recursos Humanos

6.6.3

Proper names

Proper names used as examples in software or documentation will be localized. Otherwise, they will remain in English.

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5. DOCUMENTATION LOCALIZATION 7.1 Headings


In documents and user guides, chapter titles, sections and epigraphs using imperative tense in English will be nominalized in Spanish. Only the first word in titles should be capitalized, rather than all major words. No preposition will be added between the word section or chapter and the section or chapter name. E.g. seccin Configuracin de la red Books with recognized translations will be localized; otherwise, they will be left in English, a translation may be provided in brackets, but please check with your project manager. No final period will be added to headings, chapter titles, and sections.

7.2 Indexes
The Table of Contents is a list of the parts of a document organized in the order in which the parts appear. When creating the document, the table of contents is automatically generated from titles of chapters and sections, so translation is not required, it is an automatic process. Its format in Spanish is determined by the original format in English. It generally includes the number and name of the chapter or appendix and two section levels. The Index is a list of words or phrases ('headings') and associated pointers ('locators') to where useful material relating to that heading can be found in a document. The index entries appear in the documentation as well as in the Help file, and they must be translated. If the English entry is a gerund, it will be translated as a noun or phrasal noun. If the entry is an infinitive or a noun, it will be translated as a noun or phrasal noun, unless it refers to a command which will be translated as an infinitive. When translating entries and sub-entries, key words; i.e., option names, menu names, etc. will appear first and then the word menu, option, dialog box, etc. separated by comma. English Page Setup dialog Incorrect Translation dilogo, Configuracin de pgina Correct Translation Configuracin de pgina, cuadro de dilogo

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Document level

nivel de documentos

documento, nivel

Main entries and sub-entries will be written in singular and lower case, unless they are proper names, product names or components. No prepositions or punctuation marks will be added.

7.3 Glossary files and alphabetized lists


A Glossary will contain a list of words or phrases in English with its corresponding translation in Spanish. They will be written in lower case, unless they are proper names, product names or trademarks. Definitions of entries will take no article at the beginning and they will be as clear as possible.

7.4 Graphics
Graphics must be localized. If full sentences are used in descriptions, these will start with capital letter and end with a final period. If single words or phrases are used, they will be written in lower case, unless they are proper names, with no ending period.

7.5 Guide names


Titles of Guides and Help documents should be nominalized whenever possible, or the direct interrogative pronoun cmo followed by infinitive form should be used.

6. HELP LOCALIZATION 1.1.

Interface references

Whenever it is possible, all software terms must be translated following Microsoft Terminology Database as a reference. If we encounter terms belonging to a particular interface which will not be translated, we leave the term in English with its corresponding translation between brackets. Any formatting in the source text must be applied to the target text.

1.2.

Topic titles

Titles of Guides and Help documents should be nominalized whenever possible, or the direct interrogative pronoun cmo followed by infinitive form should be used. English Downloading Incorrect Translation Descargar un Correct Translation Cmo descargar un

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a document

documento

documento Descarga de un documento

Jump links will be translated if the page they are directed to are also translated, otherwise, they will be kept in English with the corresponding translation between brackets.

1.3.

Cross-references

When referring to another section or chapter, no preposition will be added between the word section or chapter and the section or chapter name. Books with recognized translations will be localized; otherwise, they will be left in English. English See Routing Point Group Behaviors section. Incorrect Translation Consulte la seccin de Comportamientos del grupo de puntos de enrutamiento. Correct Translation Consulte la seccin Comportamientos del grupo de puntos de enrutamiento.

7. SOFTWARE LOCALIZATION 9.1 Capitalization


Spanish capitalization does not follow English rules. In Spanish, only the first word in a title should be capitalized, rather than all major words. English Service Level Editor Agent and Work Group Performance Spanish Editor de niveles de servicio Desempeo del agente y del grupo de trabajo

Generally, capital letters are used when referring to commands, menus, dialog boxes, modes, buttons, etc. English the Add button Spanish el botn Agregar

In some instances when translating software, capitalization may be used in items that are dashed. For example: English Agent Results Context Summary Agent Performance by Spanish Contexto de resultados del agente Resumen Desempeo del agente por cola -

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Queue - Summary (totals)

Resumen (totales)

Proper nouns and product names are capitalized. (See section regarding translation of product names). English L-Com Web (noun) website USB Ranger Spanish L-Com Web sitio web USB Ranger

Months and languages are not capitalized, unless they appear as the first word in a sentence. English January Spanish December: fiscal year end Spanish enero espaol Diciembre: cierre de ao fiscal

9.2 File names and file extensions


File names and file extensions should not be localized.

9.3 Path names


The translation of paths depends on the localization of the operating system. For instance, if the OS is in Spanish, there are certain paths that will be translated such as those included in the hard unit disc (C:\Archivos de programa\Adobe\Acrobat) and others that will remain in English (C:\Documents and Settings\All Users).

9.4 Verbs/Nouns
In general, menus, dialog boxes, drop-down boxes, buttons are translated in the infinitive with no preposition. English Open file Select all Spanish Abrir archivo Seleccionar todo

Titles of Guides and Help documents should be nominalized whenever possible, or the direct interrogative pronoun cmo followed by the infinitive form should be used without interrogative marks.

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English Downloading a document How to create team members

Incorrect Translation Descargar un documento Cmo crear miembros de equipo?

Correct Translation Descarga de un documento Cmo crear miembros de equipo

9.5 Length limitations


If the internationalization process was applied, the following expansion rules should govern. When the source text is 0 -10 characters 11- 20 characters 21 - 30 characters 31 - 50 characters 50 - 70 characters Over 70 characters The expansion required is 101 - 200%. 81 - 100% 61 - 80% 41 - 60% 31 - 40% 30%

If no engineering process was applied and there are no specific instructions, length limitations should be similar to the source text. Text expansion is allowed in messages (especially for GUI items). English update link Spanish actualizacin vnculo

9.6 Error messages and strings


Error messages and strings translation must be as clear as possible. English Failed to write new definition File not found Impossible to save changes A write fault occurred. Incorrect Translation No se ha podido escribir la nueva definicin. No se ha podido encontrar el archivo Imposible guardar los cambios Ha ocurrido un error de escritura. Correct Translation No se pudo escribir la nueva definicin. No se encontr el archivo. No se pudieron guardar los cambios. Error de escritura

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Full sentence with conjugated verb take a final period. Sentences with no conjugated verb do not take a final period.

9.7 Parameters, variables and placeholders


Parameters, variables and placeholders must remain in English as these are programming language values. Nevertheless, they can be moved around in the sentence in order to make the translated text understandable. English NULL parameter table_name variable <label for="c_texto"> Object {0} found in database {1} item. Spanish Parmetro NULL Variable table_name <label for="c_texto"> Objeto {0} encontrado en el elemento {1} de la base de datos.

9.8 Special characters


Certain characters, such as the left bracket (<), ampersand (&) and right bracket (>) are reserved by the HTML language to represent special attributes. Symbolic references start with an ampersand, an abbreviation for the symbolic expression, and ends with a semi-colon. E.g. &copy; for . Numeric references also start with an ampersand and finish with a semicolon, but between them is a number preceded by a hash (#). E.g. &#169; for . Special characters should NOT be localized. In order to avoid mistakes, copy the character in the source text and paste it in the target text. However, make sure to remove any tags in the text that is not used in Spanish, for example: English Research &amp Development Spanish Investigacin y desarrollo

9.9 Hotkeys
Hotkeys: A key press combination that sends a command, usually to provide a short-cut to a menu option. Control key: A key that initiates some kind of physical control action; i.e., line feed, tabs, etc.

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Many of these accelerators already have a recognized translation in Spanish. These must be followed. English Save As New Spanish Guardar como Nuevo

The same hotkey cannot be assigned to more than one function within the same dialog box. English Save Save As Spanish Guardar Guardar como

In most translation applications hotkeys are indicated by the ampersand symbol (&) placed BEFORE the letter representing the hotkey: English &Save E&xit Spanish &Guardar Sa&lir

8. MULTIMEDIA LOCALIZATION 10.1 Target audience and style


Before the translation process is started, there are some elements that should be taken into account to meet target audience expectations. - potential reader location - level of knowledge of potential reader - varieties of Spanish (Spain, Latin America, Mexico) - goal of the translated text (information purpose, marketing purpose, etc.) English press link Department computer Spanish Spain of Spanish of Latin America pulse presione enlace vnculo Apartamento Departamento ordenador computadora Spanish Mexico presione enlace Departamento computadora of

A formal style will be used in all cases.

10.2 Word order


Word order in Spanish may differ from English. 25

There may be cases in which it is required to modify the word order in Spanish to provide a clearer and more legible message. A common example is in passive voice. English Spanish All the calls were answered Los agentes respondieron todas by the agents. las llamadas.

9. MARKETING LOCALIZATION 11.1 Style


Slogans and marketing phrases must be catchy, to the point, and full of meaning. The translation must reflect the same meaning as the original text. Unless they are trademarks, slogans must be localized. A formal style will be used. English Find the right solutions, at the right moment, at the right place Spanish Encuentre la solucin adecuada, en el momento justo y en el lugar que necesite

11.2 Cultural references


In technical and IT fields, there is little use of connectors and subordinators, instead straightforward expressions and impersonal sentences are used. English There are two SD card slots; one is for the system SD card and is available in two modes, the IP Office mode or the Partner mode. Incorrect Translation Se encuentran disponibles dos ranuras de tarjeta SD, una ranura es para la tarjeta SD del sistema y est disponible en dos modos, el modo IP Office y el modo Partner. Correct Translation Hay dos ranuras para tarjetas SD. Una es para la tarjeta SD del sistema que est disponible en dos modos: IP Office o modo Partner.

The terminology used in these texts is very specific and unique. Sometimes it will be necessary to add explanations to specific terms that might not be well known in the target market. The target audience must be taken into account in order to provide a precise and adequate translation that can be understood and implemented.

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10. APPENDIX 12.1 False friends, dos and donts


Trademarks and product names must not be localized. Here is a list of common terms that might cause problems in translations: English All right reserved Copyright Warning drop-down list report application actual actually mobile monitor virus store Spanish Todos los derechos reservados. Copyright Advertencia lista desplegable informe solicitud real en realidad mvil control/supervisin/monitoreo virus almacenar (v)

12.2 General Considerations


In all instances, glossaries and TMs must be used when doing translations. If no glossaries or TMs are provided for a specific project, please consult with the project manager to confirm whether you can use any other L-Com material that you may have from previous projects. You should ONLY use reference material from other projects if no reference is provided and only after confirmation from the project manager. If you do not receive reference material, please raise a query to the project manager to see if any are be available. If there are inconsistencies between the glossary provided and the supplied TM, a query MUST be raised in order to resolve the issue. Please do not hesitate to raise queries when in doubt. The goal is to provide the client with the best translation possible, free of inconsistencies and incorrect terminology.

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