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Introduction This part is aimed to present a deep insight in to the methodological tools and techniques that are adopted

to arrive at the results and outcomes of the study to fulfill the set objectives and to answer the research questions. For this purpose this chapter is divided into the further subheadings to individually delineate each research tool employed in his research. This chapter introduces the method employed for this research. The way in which research is conducted may be conceived of in terms of the research philosophy subSupply Chain ribed to, the research strategy employed and so the research instruments utilized (and perhaps developed) in the pursuit of a goal the research objective(s) - and the quest for the solution of a problem the research question. We have outlined our research question and research objectives in The purpose of this chapter is to: diSupply Chain uss our research philosophy in relation to other philosophies; expound our research strategy, including the research methodologies adopted; Introduce the research instruments that we have developed and utilized in the pursuit of our goals. Methods of Research Quantitative and qualitative methods are categorised as the two most widely used research methods to carry out the research studies. Quantitative method generally deploys mathematical as well as statistical models to analyse and interpret the collected data to arrive at the conclusion (DenSupply Chain ombe, 2003). The qualitative methods involve in-depth study of the theories pertinent to the topic and subsequent analysis of the collected data by verbal argumentation (Hudson and Ozanne, 1988).

Research Philosophy A research philosophy is a belief about the way data about a phenomenon should be collected and analyzed (Levin 1988). Different philosophical perspectives used to interpret an event appear to be problematic for natural Supply Chain ientists as elsewhere (May 1997). To interpret and understand the world we are living, we certainly need ways of viewing and ways of interpreting to grasp the surrounding facts, ideas, and events. The social world, therefore, can be interpreted and understood via many Supply Chain hools of thoughts

Another research paradigm is critical realism which views the world in terms of three components: the reality, the actual, and the empirical. According to Sayer (2000), the reality concerns that which exist regardless of whether we understand it or whether we have experience of it. It is realm of objects, their structure and power and can exist even we have no experience of the results or lack of empirical evidence. The actual refers to the outcome when the structure and powers of the real are activated. And, the empirical refers to the domain of experience. The difference between this paradigm and positivism is that critical realists distinguish between the actual and the real. In exact word, the actual is not a complete representation of the real. With research questions and objectives in mind, it is clear to certain degree that this research is positioned on a continuum towards the positivistic perspective rather than on the interpretive perspective.

Research Design A choice of research design reflects decisions about the priority being given to a range of dimensions of the research process (Bryman and Bell 2007, p. 40), and this of course will have considerably influence on lower-level methodological procedures such as sampling and statistical packages. It is therefore a blueprint that enables researchers to find answers to the questions being studied for any research project. Along with clear research plan it provides, constraints and ethical issues that a study will inevitably encounter must also be taken into account (Saunders et al. 2007). In the proceeding paragraphs various research types and their importance and relationships with the situations they dealt with is deSupply Chain ribed. Furthermore the technique or the strategy which the current research is using is also diSupply Chain ussed. Various types of researches include Surveys, Case studies, Experiments, Ethnography and grounded theory. These are the research approaches that the business researches usually apply (DenSupply Chain ombe, 2003). They are used in both the types of researches called as the qualitative and the quantitative research. There are other strategies also but important one are diSupply Chain ussed in the proceeding paragraphs. Researcher starts with the survey method. Survey method or the approach is a kind where the researcher wants to find out the results and collect data through experimental and non-experimental research types. It provides a picture of

how a certain event looked when it had taken place in the past (Trochim, 1999; DenSupply Chain ombe, 2003). Research Approach, Strategy, and Time Horizon Deriving from the research philosophy is the determination of research approach, strategy, and time horizon. It is normally argued that research approaches are attached to different research philosophies (Saunders et al. 2007). By adopting a positivistic view, the present study showed a focus on theory testing wherein theory was first adopted as the framework for developing and testing hypotheses in a specific research context. This emphasizes deductive orientation of the present study. After determination on research approach, the researcher proceed to consider

whether the present study should be exploratory, causal, or deSupply Chain riptive. Given the nature of the research objectives (i.e. to investigate the effects of the independent variables on service employee behavioral outcomes) and the adequate availability of prior evidence to formulate hypothesized relationships for examination, it was deemed that cross-section deSupply Chain riptive survey was the most appropriate option for this study. Instruments or the tool of the Research There are three types of tools through which the data can be collected as identified by Sekaran (2002). They are the interviews, questionnaire and observations. Every tool has its own importance. Selection of tool is very much important because only right tool can give true picture that we want to find. Interviews are of different types according to the need of research. They can be structured or unstructured that are conducted according to situation. They are preplanned. Structured one is the planned. Different means of communication can be used for interview which can include face to face or through any other electronic or print medium. This research will use structured questionnaires because the research is qualitative in nature. Data Collection Procedure All questionnaires are being filled in a pleasant environment by the respondents so that the respondents do not feel any problem regarding the environment. Respondents will be facilitated as much as possible. Data will be gathered from the employees of the whose job level does not matter because the research aim is to find out how supply chain management is affecting the

performance of the ten companies of UK as per the response of their employees. Two of the sources through which data is collected are the secondary source and the primary source. These are explained in the coming headings.

Secondary data Secondary data is the one that has been already collected for the purpose. It includes research articles and books. In the literature review the results are present and they only need to be matched with the results of this research when the data will be collected.

Primary Data Primary data is a type of data which is collected specifically for the research project at hand. It is collected from structured interview which is used as a method for primary data collection. Interview will be conducted and in this way the data will be gathered from the interviewees.

The present study employed multi-methods, using both quantitative and qualitative techniques, in data collection with more emphasis on quantitative methods. It must be noted that the questionnaire survey was used as main data collection instrument of this study because the questionnaire survey enables researchers to examine and explain relationships between constructs, in particular cause-and-effect relationships (Saunders et al. 2007). The following diagram represents the whole process of data generation in the present study. It can be divided into two major stages:

1) Generation of questionnaire; and 2) Translation and pretesting of questionnaire.

Questionnaire Development Process The process of questionnaire development is based on the approach recommended by Churchill and Iacobucci (2002) which was used as a guideline for generating the questionnaire employed in this study.


Dependent variable: Performance Company

Independent variable: Orientation of customers Information sharing Companys adoption of information technology Leadership Communication Trainings Partnership.

Research Sampling Sampling is the selection of a fraction of the total number of unites of interest to decision makers for the ultimate purpose of being able to draw general conclusions about the entire body of units (Parasuraman et al. 2004, p. 356). A conclusion can be made from the sample about the population to achieve the research objective (Saunders et al. 2007). It is, therefore, uncommon for a research to survey the entire population due to time and financial constraints, especially, when the population is very large. The present project follows five-step procedure for drawing a sample based on Churchill and Iacobuccis (2002) and Wilsons (2006) suggestions. There are 150 employees from ten companies of UK. The sample size is too large.
Sample of the Study

Proportionate sampling technique will be utilized to congregate qualitative primary data from the respondents that will be selected from the management of the selected Companies. Proportion of respondents is given under the table below. Sampling Table 1

Characteristics of Sample Characteristics are the qualities or the demographics of the sample. The following are the characteristics of the sample 1) Age 2) Gender 3) Tenure

Reliability and Validity The reliability and validity of the research is important because the instruments on which the various are to be asked are important and if they are not reliable and valid then it can have impact on the research outcomes (Selltiz et al, 1959; Black and Champion, 1976; Blalock, 1974). Validity is defined as the design or the architect that the researcher is using must fits in the situation broadly and authentically (McKinnon). The reliability is defined as the questions on which the variables are checked must be reliable and the data must be independent (Kirk and Miller, 1986). This means that the tool must be reliable as well as reliable. Since the questions that are used in this research are self-made and are not adopted from any of the research there can be threat to the reliability and validity. Ethics or codes in Research The participants were approached at their work places. They were briefed about the nature of the study being carried out. Participants were assured that their responses will be remained confidential.

The participants did volunteer contribution in order to have honest answer. The names of respondents will not be mentioned. The information will only be used for analysis, conclusion and recommendation.

Since the research does not require any detail of the consumers just main one is the requirement but still it will be ensured that the confidentiality of the consumer will be given a serious note.

It will not harm in any case the job or the status of the respondents. The research is not an offensive one as it does not try to target any other company or the brand.

Other ethics that need to quote here be identified by various ethical codes are: honesty, objectivity, carefulness, openness, and respect for intellectual property, confidentiality and human subjects protection.