Digital Signals

For floating point DS processor, the amplitudes can be floating points.

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Common Digital Sequences
Unit-impulse sequence:

Unit-step sequence:

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Shifted Sequences
Shifted unit-impulse Shifted unit-step

Right shift by two samples

Left shift by two samples

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Sinusoidal and Exponential Sequences
Example

Sinusoidal

Example

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Exponential

Example 1

Solution:

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Generation of Digital Signals
Let, sampling interval, t  T x(n): digital signal x(t): analog signal

Also

Example 2
Convert analog signal x(t) into digital signal x(n), when sampling period is 125 microsecond, also plot sample values.

Solution:

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Example 2 (contd.)
The first five sample values:

Plot of the digital sequence:

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Linear System
System: A system that produces an output signal in response to an input signal.

Continuous system & discrete system.

Time, t

Sample number, n

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Linear Systems: Property
1.
2. 3.

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Homogeneity
Additivity Shift invariance

Must for all linear systems

Must for DSP linear systems

Homogeneity: (deals with amplitude) If x[n]  y[n], then kx[n]  ky[n] K is a constant v = iR v across R Linear System
p  v2

i across R

v across R

Non Linear System

p in R

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Linear Systems: Property
Additivity

2

Homogeneity & Additivity

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Linear Systems: Property
Shift (time) Invariance

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Example 3
x(n) y(n)

Let a digital amplifier, If the inputs are: Outputs will be:
x1 (n)  u(n)
y1 (n)  10u(n)

X 10

X 10

x2 (n)   (n)

X 10

y2 (n)  10 (n)

If we apply combined input to the system: The output will be:
2 y1 (n)  2 10 x1 (n)  20u (n) 4 y2 (n)  4 10 x2 (n)  40 (n)

Individual outputs:
2 x1 (n)  2u(n)
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+

Linear System
4 y2 (n)  40 (n)

X 10 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad
King Saud University

2 y1 (n)  20u(n)

4 x2 (n)  4 (n)

X 10

Example 4
x(n)
y(n)  x 2 (n)

System
x1 (n)  u(n)
y1 (n)  u 2 (n)  u(n)

System

x2 (n)   (n)

System

y2 (n)   2 (n)   (n)

If the input is:

Then the output is:

Individual outputs:

4 y1 (n)  4  x1 2 (n)  4u (n) 2 y2 (n)  2  x2 (n)  2 (n)
2

+

Non Linear System

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Example 5 (a)
Given the linear system , find whether the system is time invariant or not.

Solution:
x1 (n)

System

y1 (n)  2 x1 (n  5)

Let the shifted input be:
Therefore system output: Shifting y1 (n)  2 x1 (n  5) by n0 samples leads to Equal

Time Invariant
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Example 5 (b)
Given the linear system y(n)  2 x(3n) , find whether the system is time invariant or not.

Solution:
x1 (n)

System

y1 (n)  2 x1 (3n)

Let the shifted input be: Therefore system output: Shifting
y1 (n)  2 x1 (3n)

NOT Equal

by n0 samples leads to

NOT Time Invariant
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Causality
Causal System:
Output y(n) at time n depends on current input x(n) at time n or previous inputs, such as x(n-1), x(n-2), etc.

Example:

Non Causal System:
Output y(n) at time n depends on future inputs, such as x(n+1), x(n+2), etc.
Example:

The non causal system cannot be realized in real time.
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Difference Equation
A causal, linear, and time invariant system can be represented by a difference equation as follows:

Outputs
After rearranging:

Inputs

Finally:

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Example 6
Identify non zero system coefficients of the following difference equations.
Solution:

b0  1, a1  0.25
Solution:

b0  1, b1  0.5

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System Representation Using Impulse Response

Impulse input with zero initial conditions

Impulse Response

Any input

y(n) = x(n)  h(n) Convolution

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Example 7 (a)
Given the linear time-invariant system:

a.

Solution:

Therefore,

b.
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c.

Example 7 (b)

Solution:
a. Then

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Infinite!

Example 7 (b) – contd.
b.

c.

Finite Impulse Response (FIR) system:
When the difference equation contains no previous outputs, i.e. ‘a’ coefficients are zero. < See example 7 (a) >

Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) system:
When the difference equation contains previous outputs, i.e. ‘a’ coefficients are not all zero. < See example 7 (b) >
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BIBO Stability
BIBO: Bounded In and Bounded Out

A stable system is one for which every bounded input produces a bounded output.

Let, in the worst case, every input value reaches to maximum value M.

Using absolute values of the impulse responses,

If the impulse responses are finite number, then output is also finite.
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Stable system.

BIBO Stability – contd.
To determine whether a system is stable, we apply the following equation:

Impulse response is decreasing to zero.
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Example 8
Given a linear system given by: Which is described by the unit-impulse response: Determine whether the system is stable or not.

Solution:

Using definition of step function:

For a < 1, we know Therefore
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The summation is finite, so the system is stable.

Digital Convolution

The sequences are interchangeable. Commutative

x[n] * h[n]  h[n] * x[n]

Convolution sum requires h(n) to be reversed and shifted. If h(n) is the given sequence, h(-n) is the reversed sequence.

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Reversed Sequence

Solution:
a.

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Convolution Using Table Method Example 9

Solution:

Length = 3

Length = 3

Convolution length = 3 +3 – 1 = 5
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Convolution Using Table Method Example 10

Solution:

Length = 3

Length = 2

Convolution length = 3 + 2 – 1 = 4
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Convolution Properties
Commutative:
Associative:

a[n] * b[n]  b[n] * a[n]
(a[n] * b[n]) * c[n]  a[n] * (b[n] * c[n])
Distributive:

a[n] * b[n]  a[n] * c[n]  a[n] * (b[n]  c[n])

Associative
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Distributive

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