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Unit-impulse sequence:

Unit-step sequence:

Shifted Sequences

Shifted unit-impulse Shifted unit-step

Example

Sinusoidal

Example

Exponential

Example 1

Solution:

Let, sampling interval, t T x(n): digital signal x(t): analog signal

Also

Example 2

Convert analog signal x(t) into digital signal x(n), when sampling period is 125 microsecond, also plot sample values.

Solution:

Example 2 (contd.)

The first five sample values:

Linear System

System: A system that produces an output signal in response to an input signal.

Time, t

Sample number, n

1.

2. 3.

Homogeneity

Additivity Shift invariance

Homogeneity: (deals with amplitude) If x[n] y[n], then kx[n] ky[n] K is a constant v = iR v across R Linear System

p v2

i across R

v across R

p in R

Additivity

10

Shift (time) Invariance

11

Example 3

x(n) y(n)

x1 (n) u(n)

y1 (n) 10u(n)

X 10

X 10

x2 (n) (n)

X 10

y2 (n) 10 (n)

2 y1 (n) 2 10 x1 (n) 20u (n) 4 y2 (n) 4 10 x2 (n) 40 (n)

Individual outputs:

2 x1 (n) 2u(n)

12

Linear System

4 y2 (n) 40 (n)

King Saud University

2 y1 (n) 20u(n)

4 x2 (n) 4 (n)

X 10

Example 4

x(n)

y(n) x 2 (n)

System

x1 (n) u(n)

y1 (n) u 2 (n) u(n)

System

x2 (n) (n)

System

Individual outputs:

2

13

Example 5 (a)

Given the linear system , find whether the system is time invariant or not.

Solution:

x1 (n)

System

y1 (n) 2 x1 (n 5)

Therefore system output: Shifting y1 (n) 2 x1 (n 5) by n0 samples leads to Equal

Time Invariant

14 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Example 5 (b)

Given the linear system y(n) 2 x(3n) , find whether the system is time invariant or not.

Solution:

x1 (n)

System

y1 (n) 2 x1 (3n)

y1 (n) 2 x1 (3n)

NOT Equal

by n0 samples leads to

15 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Causality

Causal System:

Output y(n) at time n depends on current input x(n) at time n or previous inputs, such as x(n-1), x(n-2), etc.

Example:

Output y(n) at time n depends on future inputs, such as x(n+1), x(n+2), etc.

Example:

16 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Difference Equation

A causal, linear, and time invariant system can be represented by a difference equation as follows:

Outputs

After rearranging:

Inputs

Finally:

17

Example 6

Identify non zero system coefficients of the following difference equations.

Solution:

b0 1, a1 0.25

Solution:

b0 1, b1 0.5

18

Impulse Response

Any input

19

Example 7 (a)

Given the linear time-invariant system:

a.

Solution:

Therefore,

b.

20 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

c.

Example 7 (b)

Solution:

a. Then

21

Infinite!

b.

c.

When the difference equation contains no previous outputs, i.e. a coefficients are zero. < See example 7 (a) >

When the difference equation contains previous outputs, i.e. a coefficients are not all zero. < See example 7 (b) >

22 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

BIBO Stability

BIBO: Bounded In and Bounded Out

A stable system is one for which every bounded input produces a bounded output.

Let, in the worst case, every input value reaches to maximum value M.

If the impulse responses are finite number, then output is also finite.

23 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Stable system.

To determine whether a system is stable, we apply the following equation:

24 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Example 8

Given a linear system given by: Which is described by the unit-impulse response: Determine whether the system is stable or not.

Solution:

25 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Digital Convolution

Convolution sum requires h(n) to be reversed and shifted. If h(n) is the given sequence, h(-n) is the reversed sequence.

26

Reversed Sequence

Solution:

a.

27

Solution:

Length = 3

Length = 3

Convolution length = 3 +3 1 = 5

28 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Solution:

Length = 3

Length = 2

Convolution length = 3 + 2 1 = 4

29 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Convolution Properties

Commutative:

Associative:

(a[n] * b[n]) * c[n] a[n] * (b[n] * c[n])

Distributive:

Associative

30 CEN352, Dr. Ghulam Muhammad King Saud University

Distributive

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