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The Per Unit System (Examples) Example 1 A three-phase, wye-connected system is rated at 50MVA and 120kV.

Express 40MVA of three-phase apparent power as a per unit value referred to: a) The three-phase system as MVA base, and b) The per-phase system MVA as base. Solution a) For the three-phase system MVA as base, S B 3 = 50 MVA S pu 3 = V B (line ) = 120 kV S actual 40 = = 0.8 pu S B 3 50

b) For the per phase base 50 M = 16.67 MVA 3 3 VB ( line ) 120 k V B ( phase ) = = = 69.28kV 3 3 1 40 S pu 1 = = 0.8 pu 3 16.67 S B 1 = = S B 3

Example 2 Find the per unit value for XT1, XT2 and XT if the base values are 11kV and 60MVA.
60 MVA 11kV X G=0.5 EG=1.5pu T1 G 60 MVA 12/132kV X T1=10% X T=20 30 MVA 132/33kV X T2=10% T2

Solution Step 1: Draw the section of the network.

60 MVA 11kV X G=0.5 EG=1.5pu

T1 G XT=20

T2

60 MVA 12/132kV XT1=10%

30 MVA 132/33kV X T2=10%

Step 2: Find the base value of the voltage for each section. S B = 60 MVA V B1 = 11kV VB 2 = VB 3 = V2 132 V B1 = 11kV = 121kV V1 12 V3 33 VB 2 = 121kV = 30.25kV V2 132

Step 3: Find the per unit values of each component Transformer T1 and T2 Since both transformer voltage base are the same as their rated values, their p.u reactance on a 60MVA are: Z
new pu 2

=Z

old pu

V old S new B B V new S old B B


2

new T1

12 60 = 0.1 = 0.12 pu 11 60
2

:: Looking at the LV side of T1

OR 132 60 X Tnew = 0.1 = 0.12 pu :: Looking at the HV side of T1 1 121 60


2

132 60 X Tnew = 0.1 = 0.24 pu :: Looking at the HV side of T2 2 121 30 OR X


new T1 2

33 60 = 0.1 = 0.24 pu :: Looking at the LV side of T2 30.25 30

NOTE: The per unit value for the transformer impedance is the same whether it is seen in the HV or LV side of the transformer- one of the advantages of per unit system.

Line Impedance Since the impedance given in actual value, we have to find the base value for the impedance. X T ( base ) = X T ( pu ) =

(V B 2 ) 2
SB * X T ( base )

(121k ) 2
60 M

= 244

X T ( actual )

20 = 0.082 pu 244

Note that the line impedance has only the resistive value. Therefore the complex power conjugate value is the same since is equal to 0.

Example 3 The one-line diagram of three-phase power system is shown below. Select a common base of 100 MVA and 22 kV on the generator side. Draw an impedance diagram with all impedance including the load impedance marked in per-unit.
50 MVA 22/220 kV X = 10% 40 MVA 220/11 kV X = 6.0%

T1

2 Line 1 220 kV
X = 48.4

T2

4
66.5 MVA 10.45 kV X = 18.5%

G
90 MVA 22 kV X = 18%

M
T3 3 Line 2 110 kV
40 MVA 22/110 kV X = 6.4% X = 64.43 40 MVA 110/11 kV X = 8.0%

T4 Load
57 MVA 0.6 pf lag 10.45 kV

Solution Step 1: Draw the zone in the circuit diagram

50 MVA 22/220 kV X = 10%

T1

40 MVA 220/11 kV X = 6.0%

T2

2 Line 1 220 kV
X = 48.4

4
66.5 MVA 10.45 kV X = 18.5%

G
90 MVA 22 kV X = 18%

M
3 Line 2 110 kV
40 MVA 22/110 kV X = 6.4% 57 MVA 0.6 pf lag 10.45 kV

Load
40 MVA 110/11 kV X = 8.0%

T3

X = 64.43

T4

Step 2: Find the base voltage for each zone. Vb1 = 22kV Vb 2 = Vb 3 = Vb 4 = V2 220 Vb1 = 22k = 220 kV V1 22 V3 110 Vb1 = 22k = 110kV V1 22 V4 11 Vb 2 = 220 k = 11kV V2 220

Step 3: Find the per unit value Generator and Transformer Since generator & transformer voltage base are the same as their rated values, their p.u reactance on a 100 MVA
new V Bold S B new old Z =Z VB S B new new old S Z pu = Z pu B S old B 100 new Z G = 0.18 = 0.2 pu 90 100 Z Tnew = 0.10 = 0.2 pu 1 50 100 Z Tnew = 0.06 = 0.15 pu 2 40 100 Z Tnew = 0.064 = 0.16 pu 3 40 Motor 100 Z Tnew = 0.08 = 0.2 pu 4 40 new pu old pu 2

new S B = 100 MVA

old S B = 66.5MVA

V Bnew = 11kV
old Z motor = 0.18

V Bold = 10.45kV V old S new B B old V new SB B


2 2

new motor

=Z

old motor

10.45 100 = 0.18 11 66.5 = 0.25 pu

Line Impedance Line 1 V B 2 = 220 kV S B = 100 MVA Z B line1 = Line 2


2

(V )
B2

SB

( 220k )
100 M

V B 3 = 110 kV = 484 S B = 100 MVA Z B line 2 =

Z line1( pu ) =

Z actual 48.4 = = 0.1 pu Z B line1 484

(V B 3 ) 2
SB

(110k ) 2
100 M

= 121

Z line 2 ( pu ) =

Z actual 65.43 = = 0.54 pu Z B line 2 121

Load

S 3 = 57 MVA VL = 10.45kV pf = 0.6 lagging

= cos 1 0.6 = 53.13 S 3 load = 57 53.13MVA


Z load ( act ) = Z load (base ) VL
2

S 3 load * SB

(10.45k ) 2
57 M53.13

= 1.1495 + j1.5327

(VB 4 ) 2 = (11k ) 2 =
100 M Z load ( act ) Z load ( base ) =

= 1.21

Z load ( pu ) =

1.1495 + j1.5327 = 0.95 + j1.267 pu 1.21

Step 4: Draw the per unit impedance diagram. 5

XT1= j0.2p.u

ZL1= j0.10p.u

XT2= j0.15p.u

XG= j0.2p.u

XT3= j0.16p.u

ZL1= j0.54p.u

XT4= j0.20p.u

Zmotor= j0.25p.u

G
ZLoad= 0.95+j1.267

Example 4 Using base values of 30kVA and 240V in the generator side, draw the per unit circuit, and determine the per unit impedances and the per unit source voltage. Then calculate the load current both in per unit and in amperes. Transformer winding resistance and shunt admittance branches are neglected.
T1 30 kVA VG=2200V G 30 kVA 240/480V X T1=0.1pu Xline=2 T2 Zload=0.9+j0.2

20 kVA 460/115V XT2=0.1pu

Solution Step 1: Draw the zone in the network.


T1 30 kVA VG=2200V G 30 kVA 240/480V X T1=0.1pu Xline=2 T2

20 kVA 460/115V XT2=0.1pu

Zload=0.9+j0.2

Step 2: Draw the per unit circuit

IS(pu)

XT1(pu)

Zline(pu)

XT2(pu)

Iload(pu)

VS(pu)

Zload(pu)

Step 3: Find the base values SB for the entire network is 30kVA. Find the base voltages and impedances of each zone. ZB = VB SB
2

V B1 = 240V VB 2 = VB 3 = V2 480 V B1 = 240 = 480V V1 240 115 480 = 120V 460

Z B1 = Z B2

240 2 = 1.92 30k 480 2 = = 7.68 30k 120 2 = 0.48 30k

Z B3 =

Find base current in zone 3 [!:to calculate the load current later] S 30k I B3 = B = = 250 A V B 3 120 Step 4: Find the per unit values

Vs ( pu ) =

Vs 2200 = = 0.9167 0 pu V B1 240 X line 2 = = 0.2604 pu Z B2 7.68


old T2 new V Bold S B new old V S B B 2 2

new old X T 1 = X T 1 = 0.1 pu

X line ( pu ) = X
new T2

=X

460 30 = 0.1 = 0.1378 pu 480 20 or X


new T2

:: calculation using base value

=X

old T2

V old S new B B V new S old B B


2

Z load(pu)

115 30 = 0.1 = 0.1378 pu :: calculation using voltage ratio 120 20 Zload 0.9 + j 0.2 = = = 1.875 + j 0.4167 pu ZB3 0.48

Step 5: Find the load current I load ( pu ) = I s ( pu ) = = = Vs ( pu ) Z total ( pu ) Vs ( pu ) j ( X T 1 + X line + X T 2 ) + Z load ( pu )

I load

0.9167 0 j (0.1 + 0.2604 + 0.1378) + (1.875 + j 0.4167 ) 0.9167 0 = 2.08626.01 = 0.4395 26.01 pu = I load ( pu ) I B 3 = 0.4395 26.01 250 = 109.9 26.01 A