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L8230003u/2012/Croup 8eporL

W r l L L e n 8 y : u a v l d C ' l l e r y - l o u n d a L l o n s , S L e p h e n S m l L h - l n L r o d u c L l o n & S L r u c L u r e , 8 l c h a r d L a m p a r L e r - C u r L a l n w a l l l n g , 8 o b e r L P u n L - 8 o o f

L d l L e d , l o r m a L L e d & r o d u c e d 8 y : S L e p h e n S m l L h

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This report has been carried out to determine the most suitable possible structural elements of a twelve-story building, intended for commercial use. As per the clients request,

this report has embraced the environmental cause and has attempted to recommend the most environmentally friendly products and materials for the main construction elements

These recommendations are as follows:-


Foundations and basement: Push & pull sheet piling to create the foundations and basement

Super Structure: Skeletal perimeter gluelam columns & beams, with recycled steel where necessary, around a CLT core.

Curtain walling: Kawneer AA110 65mm Curtain wall system with Kawneer AA120 sunshades.

Roof Structure & Elements: Flat, warm deck roof. Rain Collection, light tubing & photo voltaic panelling.

2
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Signed:
!"#$%&'()*(&+,(-$.%&(/01.2304,0&
Module Code:
Student Name:
SD No:
Hand n Date:
Module Name:
Drawing Title:
Notes:
Course:
Year:
Drawing Description:
Print/Drawing Number:
Print Date:
N/A
EB230003D
Environmental
N/A
N/A
N/A
3rd
10/05/12
Group Project
Concept for 12 story
commercial building
1/1
09/05/12

Tabl e of Contents
I ntroducti on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Project details, assumptions and constraints..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Site Analysis, CDM Considerations & Recommendations................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Basement & Foundati ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Recommendations............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Structure - frame & superstructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Other notable case studies of timber in high rise construction ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14
Recommendations........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Curtai n wal l i ng & weather resi stance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Recommendations........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
Roof structure, coveri ngs and el ements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Recommendations........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Bi bl i ography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Basement & Foundations................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23
Superstructure Structure.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23
Curtain walling & weather resistance............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Roof structure, coverings and elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Basement & Foundations................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 26
Superstructure Structure.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 26
Curtain walling & weather resistance............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Roof structure, coverings and elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Mi nutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30





















1
I ntroducti on

This report will document the possible structural elements of a twelve-story building,
intended for commercial use. Namely offices use. As per the clients requests, this report will
embrace the environmental cause and will outline the most environmentally friendly
recommendations for the four main elements of the planned project.

The four elements are as followers:

basement & foundations.
structure - frame & superstructure.
curtain walling & weather resistance.
roof structure, coverings and elements.

The report will also cover of further environmentally friendly suggestions and
recommendations not directly related to the four elements mentioned above.

Proj ect detai l s, assumpti ons and constrai nts

The client requires that the materials/processes used throughout the project are subject to
the most environmentally acceptable standards and are inherently sustainable. Both in
creation and maintenance.

The resulting materials/processes must create a pleasant working
atmosphere and a feeling of control over the environment.
They must also maintain/create a feeling of contact with the
surrounding area.

The client requires that the completed project draws very little
energy from the national grid, and that it will not rely on conventional
air-conditioning.

The proposed site is bounded by busy roads both to the North & East.

The proposed site also sits adjacent to a listed Victorian Church to
the West and a conservation river to the south.

The soil condition at the proposed site comprises of clay, there is a
high water table, particularly in the winter months. The lower parts of
the town, closer to the river are liable to floor during the wetter years.

Finally, the area of the proposed site was previously home to a 6 story
concrete office building, dating back to the 1960s. The building has
recently been demolished.



2
Si te Anal ysi s, CDM Consi derati ons & Recommendati ons


As the planned area/plot has seen previous development and indeed consists of a demolished building, the site will need extensive clean up. Special care should be taken over the following
points:

Soil and core samples should be take as soon as feasibly & realistically possible to ascertain the site current state of contamination.
As the demolished building was constructed during the 1960s, it is reasonable to presume that there could be a risk of Asbestos on site. This is particularly dangerous, as the building has
been demolished and so any Asbestos present could be vaporised during removal. Great care should be take to have the site fully inspected before and during the clearing process, so that
any necessary actions can be implemented as soon as possible.
Care could also be taken hen clearing the site that any useable or recyclable materials are collected. This is particularly relevant in the case of steel, although any brickwork etc could be
crushed and recycled to be used in the surround grounds and sub bases for paths/roadways etc.
As undoubtedly there will be an large amount of soil removed from the basement construction, consideration should be made as to the distribution of said soil across the site as to negate
the need for transportation, which would increase the carbon foot print of the project.
Future consideration should be given to the Merton. This rule dictates that 10% of the energy required by the resulting construction should be generated on site. Although this rule may not
be directly applicable to the chosen site its ideals should be followed. A thermal collection system(s) could be installed throughout the site to generate heat for the building, along with a
reed bed waste system to filtrate and recycle wastewaters.
As the site is close to a river, it would be advantageous to investigate the feasibility of using said river to transport materials to and from site.
Finally, some consideration must be given the management of traffic and deliveries to site. As the site is bounded by busy roads a system to minimise traffic disruption should be
implemented. A suitable example of this would be the creation of a holding area either on or close by to site. Out of hours deliveries could also be used to minimise traffic disruption.











3
Basement & Foundati ons



Analysis of the clients brief with regard to the basement and foundation design.

Use of the most environmentally acceptable materials;

foundations are by their very nature not visible and therefore materials used will need to be accessed in order to prove there environmental
credentials. The most widely used assessment tool for sustainability of non-domestic buildings is the Building Research Establishments
BREEAM rating.

What is ?

BREEAM sets the standard for best practice in sustainable building design, construction and operation and has become one of the most
comprehensive and widely recognised measures of a building's environmental performance.
A BREEAM assessment uses recognised measures of performance, which are set against established benchmarks, to evaluate a buildings
specification, design, construction and use. The measures used represent a broad range of categories and criteria from energy to ecology.
They include aspects related to energy and water use, the internal environment (health and well-being), pollution, transport, materials, waste,
ecology and management processes. (http://www.breeam.org/page.jsp?id=66)
It is the BREEAM assessment of materials used, pollution and waste that are most relevant to the basement and foundation design.






Figure 1 Some examples of BREEAM calculation charts
and certificates.
4

The site is bounded by busy roads to the north and east, an adjacent listed Victorian church to the west and a
picturesque river to the south;

The foundations and basement construction will have to provide support to the surrounding structures and
prevent ingress of water from the river.

The soil comprises clay, there is a high water table level, particularly in winter when the lower parts of the town
are liable to minor flooding in very wet years;

Clay soils hold water within their structure and this water can assert lateral pressure against the basement
walls. The high water table means that protection against water ingress is required from the foundations to
finished ground level. The towns liability to minor flooding means that flood protection and or a way of
pumping flood waters from the basement will be required.

The area where this new building is to be located has recently seen the demolition of a 6 storey concrete office
building dating back to the 1960s:

The new foundation will need to negate any of the demolished office blocks foundations and will require
sustainable removal of material. The material may also be contaminated with various items present in 1960s
construction including asbestos and lead lined paints.




Figure 2 Image depicting the road that bound the
proposed site
Figure 3 Image detailing the surrounding
area of the proposed site. Including roads and
river.
5
Assumptions regarding the basement and foundation design:
1. The use of the basement, it is assumed that the basement will cater for car parking and plant storage. As the building will have 12 storeys it is envisioned that the basement will not have to
provide habitable space.
2. The Building will have multiple occupancies, and therefore assessment of the building environmental credentials will be used as a Unique Selling Point.
3. The site has been cleared of all demolition materials and a contaminations assessment and removal plan has been undertaken.
Introduction to case study one.
A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH TO FOUNDATION DESIGN by Aditi Misra & Dipanjan Basu of the University of Connecticuts Civil and Environmental Engineering Department.
The first case study is not of a buildings foundation design. It considers a new approach to measuring the sustainability of two different types of pilled foundation. Drilled shaft and driven
concrete piles. As foundations are required to carry differing loads within different sub soils no one environmentally friendly solution can be applied. Balfour Beatty a world leading Civil
Engineering company and describe the main principles of reducing embedded carbon from foundation design are
To practise lean design using the desired process for example this might mean experimenting with shorter piles, thinner piles, the location of the piles in the design
To utilise more carbon efficient materials such as recycled materials consider also where the materials are from, how they are manufactured, how they are transported and if they can replace in
part or in whole the traditional materials without having a detrimental impact on the quality of the finished solution
This case study however looks at the life cycle approach when accessing foundations environmental impact.
The case study tests the two piling systems over the following parameters.
Two soil types,
Homogeneous clay
Homogeneous sand.

Three Different working loads
415 KN
563 KN
765 KN

A constant pile length of 12m is used
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The clay soil and greatest loading parameters are the most appropriate for the scenarios proposed
foundation design. The case study introduces to new quantitative indicators, the resource use indicator and
the environmental impact indicator. Both these indicators are developed through the life cycle of the
foundations. See figure 4



The environmental impact indicator is split into different impact categories, Human health, ecosystem health,
acidification and global warming. The resource impact indicators are, Land, Cement, Steel and Diesel. The
case study sums up its finding for clay sub-soils in the table below. The categories are calculated by using
figures for associated CO2 values of all the input materials and their manufacture. These values are factored
into the categories via a formula to give the tabled values in figure 5.


From the tables we can see that the impact of driven piles is lower or approximately equal in 5 of the 7 categories. It is therefore this reposts recommendation that a form of driven pile be used.


Analysis of the case study compare to report scenario
Driven piles as shown in this report have a lower impact indicators, these can be used as an assessment of the foundations environmental credential in line with the client brief
The case study has a direct soil comparison with the report scenario.
Driven piles do not require the removal of large quantises of land materials and consequent disposal of possible contaminated soil





Figure 4 Geotechnical Planning Chart
Figure 5
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Introduction to case study two.
This report has recommended the use driven concrete piles, the next case study is about the use of push/pull
driven steel sheet piling. Although steel has a much higher embodied CO 2/m3 value as shown in the table
below, sheet pilling will have a much smaller volume then concrete piling and therefore is comparable with the
first case study

Dawson is a piling equipment company that specialise in push/pull driven foundations. Push a pull sheet piling
works by using a rig mounted hydraulic clamps. Hydraulic clamps take hold of a group of interlocked sheet piles.
The piling rig applies pressure to drive the pile into the ground until they are penetrated several meters. One of
hydraulic the clamps applies pressure to one of the sheet piles whist using the others hold the other piles in place
and provide an opposite reaction. Continuing in this way the interlocked pile are drive to the require depth or skin
friction reaction. A new pile group is position to interlock with the first and the process continues.

























Embodied carbon
dioxide (ECO
2
) and
construction materials
CONCRETE
Concrete type ECO
2
(kgCO
2
/m
3
)
ECO
2
(kgCO
2
/tonne)
Blinding, mass fill, strip
footings, mass
foundations
1

GEN1 70 mm
(CEM I only)
173 75
Trench foundations
1

GEN1 120 mm
*
(CEM I only)
184 80
Reinforced
Foundations
1

RC30 70 mm
***
(CEM I only)
318 132
Ground floors
1

RC35 70 mm
**
(CEM I only)
315 133
Structural: in situ floors,
superstructure, walls,
basements
1

RC40 70 mm
***
(CEM I only)
372 153
High strength concrete
1

RC50 70mm
***
(CEM I only)
436 176
Dense concrete
aggregate block
2

Precast block 147 75
Aerated concrete block
2

Precast block 121 240
Generic lightweight
aggregate block
3

Precast block 168 120
TIMBER
ECO
2
(kgCO
2
/m
3
)
ECO
2
(kgCO
2
/tonne)
Timber, UK Sawn Hardwood
4

369 470
Timber, UK Sawn Softwood
4

185 440
Plywood
4

398 750
STEEL
ECO
2
(kgCO2/m
3
)
ECO
2
(kgCO
2
/tonne)
UK Produced Structural Steel
Sections
5

15,313 1,932
Figure 7 - Hydraulic Clamps driving a sheet pile

Figure 6 Hydraulic Clamps and
Interlocking Pile
Table form www.sustainableconcrete.org.uk

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New Basement, Hornsey Street, London

Major UK contractor Kier London, in conjunction with Corus Hydrobarrier, used the Dawson Construction Plant Ltd, Liebherr LRB255 rig and four-cylinder Push-Pull attachment, to install 150No,
AU16 sheets. The sheets were between 6.5m and 8.5m long (fully driven into stiff London Clay - cohesion in excess of 150kN/m2) and were used to form the watertight retaining walls of a new
rectangular basement. The basement formed part of a new 26m development. This contract was to be the first time that the new wide U profile sheets were to be installed using hydraulic
pressing.
The sheets had to be installed quietly and without vibration, because of their close proximity to housing and the East Coast Main Railway Line. In the vicinity of the railway line a crane was not
permitted, hence the pitching and driving of the sheets had to be done by the rig alone. The basement had to be watertight, so the design required the interlocks to be welded and the sheets also
carried significant vertical load from the seven storey building above ground.
The sheets and corners were installed within 10 working days without the use of pre-augering or water jetting. This high productivity was achieved despite the restrictions due to the railway. The
productivity was combined with excellent positional accuracy (within 25mm) and verticality using only a ground beam.

Analysis of the case study compare to report scenario
The off-site fabricated steel piles can be delivered to site is large quantities and the possible use of the river for transportation
means that the impact of road deliveries would be minimised, this is a great advantage on the proposed site due to the
constraints of the surrounding roads. It would also reduce CO2 emission from delivery trucks attributed to the buildings
construction
The push and pull method is quite and vibration-less which will be import as to avoid damage to the adjacent church and noise
causing interference with the churchs activities.
The sheet piling can be driven very close to a site boundary and increases the amount of usable space as shown in figure 8.

Sheet piles can be wielded to make a watertight seal and the basement can be created within their boundary.
Maintenance of the sheet piling is minimal and only requires monitoring at the point where the piles come out of the ground.
Sheet piling is used for riverbank defence and land retaining as well as foundations. Their use in this way means they are very
durable and have a long life cycle.
Figure 8 - Sheet pilling installed on a site boundary adjacent to a train track
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Recommendati ons
This report recommends the use of push and pull sheet piling to create the foundations and basement. The use of fabricated piles rather than in-situ cast ones will reduce site waste and
construction time. Sheet piles will provide support to surrounding buildings and created a water tight basement without the need for further water-proofing methods. It is recommended that the
river be used as a possible means of transportation allowing for larger deliveries of sheet piles and at longer lengths The use of sheet piling will reduce the amount of excavated materials from
site in comparison with replacement piles. The sheet piles can be removed by reversing the installation processes making them 100% recyclable and adding to the whole life approach adopted in
case study one. The sourcing of pre-used sheet piles would be recommended as this would be environmentally friendly and avoided added to the building associated CO2 figures. The report
recommends the use of the BREEAM assessment method to shown the buildings environmental credentials.




































10
Structure - frame & superstructure.


Considering the clients wish to show the world it cares for the environment, poses some issues when approaching the
choice and style of superstructure to be used. Clearly there are a limited choice of base materials to consider:-

Concrete - The production of Portland Cement results in around 870kg of CO2 emissions per tonne of cement
(McCaffrey, 2011). Substituting GGBS Cement - ground granulated blastfurnace slag (typical mix 40 - 50%) - may reduce
CO2 emissions in concrete, but only by around 100 - 130kg per tonne (Ecocem, 2012). As this material is of a heavy
nature transport costs, both in monies and environmental impact can be high if materials have to travel any distance.
Conversely, once in place concrete if designed, manufactured and installed correctly concrete can have a life expectancy
longer than the building itself. The question is, is this necessary?

Steel - The production of steel results in around 1.75 tonnes of CO2 emissions per tonne of steel (The Carbon Trust).
Although the use of scrap steel to generate recycled steel can greatly diminish this. As with concrete, Steel travel
expenses can be relatively high, although not as much of a negative impact in comparison. Once again, if steel is
designed, manufactured and installed correctly can have a life expectancy longer that of the buildings.

Timber - Often ignored for anything other that low-rise residential construction, Mass Timber construction techniques
now make it feasible to consider building above 7 stories and even to 12 almost exclusively with timber. As can been
seen in table of figure X, timber has a much lower amount of carbon emissions in production. Not only this but is the only
material featured here that can be described as truly sustainable. Mass Timber building systems can offer an innovative
and environmentally friendly solution with possible long-term benefits to the building sector, the timber industry and the
fight against climate change/Co2 Pollution. As timber is one of the most sustainable means of construction, Mass Timber
building systems can offer an efficient solution for large-scale, tall buildings.(Mgb Architecture + Design, 2012)

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Some mass timber products can take advantage of lower grade lumber that otherwise would not be considered for structural uses, again optimising any projects Co2 footprint. After wood is
forested, logs are sent to sawmills where it is then sawn into recognisable structural timbers. As a side product of this chippings and waste are either sent to pulp mills or structural composite mills
(which could include LSL and LVL). (Mgb Architecture + Design, 2012)

Both steel and concrete are traditionally used in a projects of this nature, and used together in a skeleton frame construction it is proven that
the finished building can be strong and durable. Unfortunately this method of construction can impact negatively on the environment in many
ways. The production, The transportation of materials to manufacturing plants then to site, the workability of such intrinsically heavy materials,
and the end of the building life space including demolition. These are all areas in which proven traditional construction can fail to consider its
impact on the environment, particularly in comparison to newly developing timber hybrid construction techniques. (TECHNIKER, 2009)

An example of the use of timber exclusively as a superstructure material can be seen in
Hackney, London. Specifically 24 Mrray Grove. The Stadthaus building is a nine story
residential construction in which the Engineers (Techniker) used only cross laminated
timber (CLT) to create a honey combed style supporting frame work. Although not
identical in nature to a twelve story commercial construction, some elements can be
transposed, such as the use of CLT in replacement of a more traditional steel & concrete
slab flooring system. During construction is was shown that the use of CLT dramatically
decreased no only the carbon foot print of the projects materials directly, but also the
effective carbon used throughout construction. The panels used were laminated with a
formaldehyde- free adhesive, this contributes directly to the sustainability of the project.
The use of this laminating process lowers energy used in construction and reduces heat loss during occupation by improving the air-tightness,
insulation and thermal mass. (TECHNIKER 2009)(TRADA, 2009). A key factor that must be noted as to the reduced impact in using CLT
panels is that due to their light weight (in comparison to steel and concrete), construction times are dramatically reduced, as each factory
prefabricated panel can simply be lifted directly for the delivery method and be dropped into place. Directly contributing to the diminished
carbon footprint of the project (KLH UK).
Figure 9 Traditional steel/concrete skeletal frame
construction
Figure 11 Elevation of Stadthaus
Figure 10 - Elevation of Stadthaus
12

Furthermore as each panel weighs up to a maximum of 15 tonnes, each one is well within the range of a standard mobile crane,
eliminating the need for an on site fixed carnage solution, further speeding up the construction process and reducing the projects carbon
footprint.
As to the concerns of timber in fire CLT panels are reliant on charring to protect the structure against failure due to fire and as so, the
thickness of the panel can be adjusted to generate the appropriate time integrity required (TECHNIKA 2009) (See Figure 12).

As is show in the example of Stadthaus, a self-supporting honeycomb structure is
suitable for a residential development but has limitations when applied to
commercial structures. This is due to the popularity of open spaces and open plan design in commercial construction, this allows for future
adaptability and most importantly comfort of the occupants. Therefore as shown in the report tall wood by Michael C Green MAIBC FRAIC
AAA & J. Eric Karsh MEng PEng StructEng MIStructE Ing, a more commercially suitable frame type must be applied. This does not mean
that any compromised need be take from an environmental stand point, the FFTT construction techniques described in the report detail the
use of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL) and Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) to generate an
environmentally friendly commercial high-rise in excess of 25 floors.









Figure 12 Char diagram
Figure 13 CLT Close up
CLT panels consists of several layers of boards stacked at right angles
they are then glued together on their wide faces and narrow faces. A
cross-section of a CLT element has at least three glued layers of boards
placed in orthogonally alternating orientation to the neighbouring layers.
In special configurations, consecutive layers may be placed in the same
direction, giving a double layer to obtain specific structural capacities.
CLT products are usually fabricated with three to seven layers or lamella.
(Mgb Architecture + Design, 2012)(KLH UK 2012)

13
This almost exclusive use of Mass Timber elements would have a myriad of positive/negative impact reducing environmental factors and knock on effects, some of which are bullet pointed below:

Highly sustainable material in comparison to steel or concrete.
Low production Co2 impact in comparison to steel or concrete.
Timber construction materials are Carbon Negative - For example, the designers of the Stadthaus project calculated that if the project were carried out in concrete there would have been in
excess of 124 tonnes of extra carbon generated. In addition to this, as the timber its self locks away 188 tonnes this bring the total carbon offset to 310 tonnes.
Low Co2 impact due to transportation. As timber is intrinsically lighter that most other materials, it can be transported for a fraction of the cost.
Low construction Co2 impact due to prefabrication and workability of the material. Prefabricated section can be easily lifted into place straight from the delivery method.
Speed of construction. For example the Stadthaus building was completed in just 49 weeks, where as a concrete building of comparable size is estimated to run over 72, which equals
approximately 145% increase in speed. Detailed design and prefabrication methods can dramatically increase construction speed, from initial construction to fixing of services. For example
KLH Uk can manufacture panels with service runs already chased in factory conditions (KLH, 2012)(TECHNIKER 2009).
High thermal mass. The consequence of having a high thermal mass would be that short term temperature fluctuations within the completed building would be minimal, allowing for easier
and more efficient control of the internal environment.
Passive house standards It is possible with prefabricated Mass Timber to achieve an almost air tight construction, once again optimizing the energy used in the finished project
(TECHNIKER 2009)(STUDIO 505, 2012).
Demolition Once the building has lived out its designed life span, a Mass Timber construction is easier, safer, cleaner and more environmentally friendly to dispose of and recycle. (Mgb,
2012)

Other Non Environmental performance Characteristics of Mass Timber Elements
Uncompromised structural and fire safety. CLT panels are much stronger than more traditional stud construction.
Ease of design (Mayo, J & Blomgren, H., 2012)
Good acoustic qualitys between floors (once finished with plaster board)
High fire resistance due to char Heavy timber elements form a semi-protective layer when exposed to fire.
Clean and relatively quite construction process
Ideal for restrictive sites as materials are easily manageable and workable. (Mayo, J & Blomgren, H., 2012)
Figure 14 CLT construction detail
14



Other notabl e case studi es of ti mber i n hi gh ri se constructi on






















Kaden Klingbeils e3: Berlin, Germany

Germanys first 7-story wood building
Massive wood construction consisting of
heavy timber post and beams with infill
solid wood walls, all wood floor and
walls fire tested to reach a minimum 90
minute rating

Schankulas H8, Bad Aibling,
Germany

Germanys first 8-story wood
building
Mass Timber construction,
each wood floor took only two
days to complete, and the
entire wood structure was
completed in only three weeks
The City Academy, Nowich

3-story CLT school designed by sheppard
robson with ramboll engineers and CLT
provided by KLH Uk.

Internal steel frame with load bearing CLT
exterior walls

Contractor, Kier, praised speed and
cleanliness of CLT system, Kier estimated 4-6
months savings in construction time
There are now dozens of schools built with
CLT panels in the UK
CREE Rhombergs 20-story timber high-
rise: the lifecycle tower, aka LCT

Demonstrates wood as a truly urban
option, prefabrication allows for fast
construction time and cost
competitiveness. Mass Timber wall
system and hybrid massive
wood/concrete floors.

CREEs first LCT has been constructed
in Dornbirn, Austria and is 8 stories
high, although there are plans for a
further, taller LCT

Figure 16 Figure 15 Figure 18 Figure 17
15

Recommendati ons
The recommendations for the superstructure are as follows:

Frame to be constructed of close grain perimeter Gluelam columns and beams around
a CLT panel core(s), with recycled steel where absolutely necessary.
Floor and wall areas to be constructed from prefabricated CLT panels. It is
recommended that these panels should be supplied and fitted by KLH Uk as this
particular firm has impeccably high green credentials and the expertise to realise a
project of the nature.

With this design we believe that all the clients wishes have been met 10 fold and that with it
they can lead the way for commercial timber construction in the UK. This design and these
recommendations will show to the world that the client is truly green.











Figure 19 Construction Breakdown
Figure 20 Section across 12 floors and 2 sub floors
Figure 21 Cladding/Curtain wall to frame fixing
example
16
Curtai n wal l i ng & weather resi stance.


With the clients wishes in mind curtain walling has been chosen as the most appropriate approach to weather clad the proposed
construction. Curtain walling consists of an extensive amount of glass that will provide contact with the outside. Curtain walling has
become increasingly popular over recent times due to its ease of assembling, high performance and pleasing visual aesthetic. As the
sections are factory produced there is minimal waste and expert precision in factory made sections that you could not get during on site
masonry walling.

The fact the site is bound by busy roads and river provides for a choice of transportation of materials that can be looked at further to find
the most appropriate.
A unitised curtain walling system shown in figure 22 would be most appropriate for high story buildings. Not only for the aforementioned
quality due to fabrication in a factory environment where there is greater control but is commonly used in difficult areas to access. (A Guide to Sustainable Aluminium Curtain Walling. [Online])


The other option is for a stick system shown in Figure 24, which is slower to
assemble and the quality depends upon the installation as each component
is prepared in a factory and assembled on site, rather than fabricated in a
factory as larger units (Principles of Curtain Walling. [Online]).
While curtain walling can be built with UPVC, steel or timber, this report
recommends aluminium due to its long life span, details and lifespan of other
elements can be seen in Figure 23.
Aluminium also does not rust and is lightweight. (A Guide to Sustainable
Aluminium Curtain Walling. [Online])


Figure 22 Construction detail
Figure 24 Construction overview
Figure 23
17
In addition to this aluminium has flexibility and serviceability and has relative strength to weight ratio as seen in
Strength to weight ratio = specific strength (figure 25). (A Guide to Sustainable Aluminium Curtain Walling.
[Online])

Aluminium is made from Bauxite which is the third most abundant material found in the earths crust and 60%
of the energy used to process is hydroelectric making it an environmentally friendly material. Aluminium is also
fully recyclable and has a minimal loss of quality when recycled and requires only 5% of the initial energy to do
so making it the best choice for energy saving. (Aluminium Information Sheets. [Online]).
The curtain walling will be fixed as shown below to the steel frame using the edge beams. There many fixing
styles available, such as using steel or aluminium angles that are powder coated as a fire barrier. (Principles of
Curtain Walling. [Online])

The slab design generally assumes that each floor level will support one level of the curtain walling for lateral loads and
gravity. (Principles of Curtain Walling. [Online])
The perimeter sealants to curtain walls require maintenance to maximise the overall life span. The perimeter sealants
have a life span of 10 to 15 years. Removal and replacement requires surface preparation and proper detailing. The
aluminium is generally treated in the factory to resist degradation and require periodic cleaning. The glazing will require
maintenance inspections to ensure the condition of the frame seals. (Building Envelope Design Guide Curtain Walls.
[Online])


There are a number of self cleaning glass products available such as Pilkington Self-Cleaning Glass that has both self cleaning and solar control properties. It works using a microscopic coating
that reacts to daylight with a photocatalytic process to break down organic dirt and gets washed away with rain water through a hydrophilic process that spreads water evenly to wipe the dirt
away. (How Self-Cleaning Glass Works. [Online])

Figure 26 Fixings Details
Figure 25
18
We recommend using Kawneer, a global curtain walling system company as they have a wealth of engineers and designers that can further guide through the design and installation process past
these recommendations. In 2008 they also won the ISO 14004 which is the international standard for environmental systems. The ISO 14001 monitors environmental impacts and the award is a
reflection of Kawneers high environmental performance. (Kawneer News: Press Releases. [Online]) We recommend using a Kawneer AA110 65mm Curtain wall system. We recommend this
brand as their products meet or exceed all requirements of current building regulations and standards for thermal performance and proven weathering performance. This system is also
appropriate for vertical or sloped applications so has design flexibility. Because 100% sealing against the weather cannot be guaranteed, also available is a mullion drainage option that allows
water to run down them to the floor and outside. Kawneer AA120 sunshades system shown left has been designed for use with this system and
comes with a wide choice of size and shapes to suit design. This system allows for passive solar control for a pleasant working atmosphere by
maximising natural light whilst limiting solar heat gain. This allows for reducing energy consumption and allows better use of naturally ventilated
systems. Their systems are assembled in factory controlled conditions for quality and craned into position once transported on site. They could be
transported via the river to minimise disruption and pollution via travelling on the roads. The time on site is also reduced via this system due to the
removal of on-site sealing and the hand over to internal services trade operatives can take place sooner than that of other alternative options.
(Kawneer Curtain Wall Systems Brochure June 2007. [Online]) Their aluminium is coated before fabrication with Kawneer Permacover Plus, a
polyester powder paint finish in 161 colours with a matt, gloss or satin finish that provides greater protection to weather conditions than any alternative
dip, wet spray or electrophorectic paint systems. The coating has a life expectancy of 30 years. (Permacover Paint Finish. [Online])
An image on the left is of the Marine Operations Centre in Aberdeen, Scotland. This building utilises the
aforementioned system. The facade has an outward sloping design so shows the systems flexibility.
Among their specification was to deliver a 270 degree visibility as demanded by the client, the Aberdeen
Harbour Board. This shows that the system can accommodate the need for contact with the outside
environment. (Kawneer Curtain Wall Systems Brochure June 2007. [Online])
The Lowry Hotel in Salford Quays, Manchester also on the left, is another example of their systems. It is
a twelve story hotel that had a construction program of just 12 weeks. This system provided time
savings needed over other walling systems and being bound by busy rounds, similar to our scenario,
shows how the factory assembled fabrication allows for quick installation. This building did not require
scaffolding and was quickly erected on site using large integrated units. (Kawneer Curtain Wall Systems
Brochure June 2007. [Online])
19
Recommendati ons

Our recommendations are for an aluminium curtain walling system for its flexibility, recycling and environmental advantages. Also recommended is Kawneer AA110 65mm Curtain wall system
with Kawneer AA120 sunshades for its ease and speed of construction with superior design specification that meets or surpasses building regulations and thermal standards. This coupled with
the evidence that the Kawneer system are environmentally friendly with the use of sustainable materials make this an appropriate recommendation for establishing the clients green credentials
and giving their employees a pleasant working atmosphere with a feeling of control over their environment with contact with the outside.

























20
Roof structure, coveri ngs and el ements

In the next part of the report we will be discussing a few roofing options to try and give the roof the minimum environmental impact, while maximising the use of the technology, in order to save
energy and keep the carbon footprint as small as possible. I will discuss the pros and cons of each of the recommendations listed below and shown in the sketch.
PV solar power
Light tubes
Rainwater harvesting
Green roofing
Atrium

The first thing to consider when designing a roof structure is whether a pitched or flat roof would be more
appropriate for the building. Due to the scale of the 12 story building it would be uneconomical to specify a pitched
roof, firstly because of the amount of materials needed to construct it and secondly because of the altitude of the
roof, the forces acting on it in the form of wind would be increased. This would necessitate further strengthening as
the roof would be under huge stress. From this I can eliminate the pitched roof and carry forward the idea of a flat
roof, the next thing to consider is any loads that the roof will need to support for example plant rooms, solar or wind
generation, access for maintenance, the possibility of a green roof.
Firstly I researched the green roof and although it provides insulation (1) and supports local ecosystems I would
not advise a green roof. The area of the roof would make it an un economical option as it would add so much extra
weight, as the average weight is 90-140kg/m2, that the building itself would have to have additional support to deal
with all this extra weight. Although I wouldnt advise an entirely green roof I hope to include an element of this in my
final recommendation as it would benefit the local environment. The green roof would hold water which would help
in the heavy rain to soak up water and if enough buildings used this system it would help alleviate local flooding.
21

Due to the large surface area of the roof I have decided to include rainfall collection and recycling by using it to flush toilets to further increase the buildings sustainability. This will help cut down
on water consumption and save on energy and carbon because rainwater does not need to be treated before it can be used in this way. One litre of tap water in the UK takes 0.298g of carbon to
produce not taking in to account the energy and CO2 it takes to transport it to the user (2). The roof will be sloped so as to divert all runoff in to a storage tank (via a filter) in the top floor in order to
remove any contaminants soil, pollen etc.. The tank will have overflow measures put in place in order to prevent the roof from flooding in extended periods of heavy rain. As the tank would be at
the top of the building there would be no need to pump the water around the building as gravity would suffice.

In office accommodation one of the largest running costs is the cost of lighting. As described in the walls section, windows are used to
make use of natural light. Elements in the roofing structure that can help alleviate lighting costs, while reducing the carbon footprint is the
use of skylights and light tunnels. Light tunnels are not a new invention, they have been around since the Ancient Egyptians, and the only
real difference is the materials used. The concept of using a tube through the top of a building to let sunlight in to the middle of buildings
sounds simple enough. With advancements in new technology and materials, we are able to make them much more efficient. This is
achieved by directing the light due to funnel shaped reflectors, lenses on the top of the tube and engineered placements of mirrors and
diffusers. (3) I plan to use multiple light tubes at the centre of the building in order to reduce energy consumption.

The final piece of technology I plan to use is Photovoltaic panelling, which as well as generating carbon neutral energy for the building, can feed back in to the grid potentially earning the client
money for years to come. The only downside is that the initial investment cost is relatively high but when you consider that the payback period in the UK can be as little as six years it begins to
look like a more promising investment. Manufacturers such as Sanyo give a 10 year defects warrantee and a performance guarantee for 10 years at 90% efficiency and 25 years at 80% (4).
These assurances are on the HIT-N240SE10 panel which is sized at 798x1580mm giving an efficiency of 19% and 240watts per panel. I would recommend installing a solar system on the roof of
the building linked with a BMS (building management system) in order to record the electricity generated and to distribute the power around the building. This would be a good solution as the
highest energy demands in an office building are between the standard working hours of 9am to 5pm, in between which the strongest sunlight is available.




22
Recommendati ons

In conclusion I would recommend a flat, warm deck roof. I would use metal for most of the top covering,(5) underneath which I would place a membrane in order to improve water tightness. The
metal covering, shaped with falls to the middle of the roof, will allow fast runoff from the roof area and ease collection of water in a central gutter. The gutter will then direct the water through the
filter and be piped in to one of the tanks on the top floor, ready to be piped in to flush the toilets. The rainwater collected will have less salts in, and therefore will not deposit as much limescale as
tap water would, reducing the need for chemical use in the pans. I have decided to plant an area 1 meter wide around the perimeter of the roof in order to create an urban wilderness habitat for
plants and insects and birds. In order to get sunlight in to the centre of the building, as it is quite deep, I have recommended a series of light tubes running down the backbone of the building and a
glass atrium in the centre of the building. In an attempt to drive down running costs and slash potential CO2 production I have recommended large areas of solar panels that will generate carbon
neutral energy for years to come. In conclusion I think this plan would deliver a green, economic building with modern technology for the 21
st
century.






















Figure 27 Diagram depicting possible Green Roof
construction
Figure 28 - Image showing possible PV and Green Roof/Wall installation.

23
Bi bl i ography
Basement & Foundati ons

Roger Hunt, 2012. Sustainable Foundations. [online .pdf] (updated 2012)
Available at: www.huntwriter.com[Accessed 01 May 2012].

Aditi Misra and Dipanjan Basu., 2000. A Sustainable approach to foundation design. Department of civil and environmental engineering University of Connecticut.
[Assessed March 2012]
Dawson Push Pull Technical Brochure available at www.dcpuk.com
[Assessed March 2012]

Site, Foundations, and Sustainable Construction, Structure Magazine. pp, 34 35 December 2009
[Assessed March 2012]

http://www.balfourbeatty.com
http://www.breeam.org
www.sustainableconcrete.org.uk

Superstructure Structure


Moore, M., 2000. Scotia Place 12 Story Apartment Building: A case Study of High-Rise Construction Using Wood and Steel. NZ Timber Design Journal, 1(10), pp 5-12.

TECHNIKER, 2009. Tall Timber Buildings: The Stadthaus, Hoxton, London [online .pdf ] (updated 2009)
Available at: http://www.techniker.co.uk [Accessed 01 May 2012].

Trada, 2009. Stadthaus, 24 Murray Grove, London. [online .pdf] (updated 2009)
Available at: http://www.trada.co.uk [Accessed 01 May 2012].

Australian Design Review. 2011. Why not timber high-rises? [Online article] (updated 07 March 2011)
Available at: http://www.australiandesignreview.com/features/1966-why-not-timber-high-risesr [Accessed 01 May 2012].

The Age.com.au, 2011. Wooden high-rise to bring cheers to old brewery site. [online] (updated 28 February 2011)
Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/wooden-highrise-to-bring-cheers-to-old-brewery-site-20110227-1ba1p.html [Accessed 01 May 2012].

Studio 505, 2011. Delta. [online] (updated 2011)
Available at: http://www.studio505.com.au/work/project/category/3/residential/delta/36 [Accessed 01 May 2012].

Mgb Architecture + Design, 2012. Tall Wood: The case for Tall Wood buildings, how Mass Timber offers a safe, economical and environmentally friendly alternative for tall building structures.
[Online .pdf] (update 22 February 2012)
Available at: http://wecbc.smallboxcms.com/database/rte/files/Tall%20Wood.pdf [Accessed 01 May 2012].

24
Alter, L. 2010. World's Tallest Wood Tower Proposed for Austria. [online] (updated 29 October 2010)
Available at: http://www.treehugger.com/green-architecture/worlds-tallest-wood-tower-proposed-for-austria.html [Accessed 01 May 2012].

Mayo, J & Blomgren., H 2012. Wood: Concrete Of The 21
st
Century. [online] (updated 11 April 2012)
Available at: http://.www.clerk.seattle.gov/~public/meetingrecords/2012/plus20120411_7a.pdf [Accessed 01 May 2012].

KLH UK., 2012. Portfolio. [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.klhuk.com/portfolio.aspx [Accessed 01 May 2012].

KLH UK., 2012. Sustainability. [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.klhuk.com/sustainability.aspx [Accessed 01 May 2012].

KLH UK., 2012. Product. [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.klhuk.com/product-.aspx [Accessed 01 May 2012].

TECHNIKER, 2009., Tall Timber Buildings: The Stadthaus, Hoxton, London. [online] (updated 2009)
Available at: http://techniker.oi-dev.org/assets/264739566/52/Tall%20Timber%20Buildings%20Feb10.pdf [Accessed 7 March 2012]

Curtai n wal l i ng & weather resi stance

ALFED Aluminium Federation, 2012. Aluminium Information Sheets. [Online] (No Updated Date)
Available at: http://www.alfed.org.uk/documents/
[Accessed 14 March 2012]

Kawneer, 1999. Principles of Curtain Walling. [Online] (updated 1999)
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/united_kingdom/en/pdf/Principles_of_Curtain_Walling.pdf
[Accessed 7 March 2012]

Kawneer, 2007. Kawneer Curtain Wall Systems Brochure June 2007. [Online] June 2007.
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/united_kingdon/catalog/pdf/brochures/Curtain_Wall_Brochure_June_2007.pdf
[Accessed 7 March 2012]

Kawneer, 2008. Kawneer News: Press Releases. [Online] (updated 30 January 2008).
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/en/news/relaeses/Leay_ISO_14001.asp
[Accessed 2 April 2012]

Kawneer, 2012. Permacover Paint Finish. [Online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/united_kingdom/en/product_info_page_cat.asp?cat_id=0&prod_id=0&parent_info_page_id=713&info_page_id=714
[Accessed 2 April 2012]

Pilkington Self-Cleaning Glass, 2012. How Self-Cleaning Glass Works. [Online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.pilkingtonselfcleaningglass.co.uk/how-it-works/
[Accessed 2 April 2012]

The VEKA Group, 2012. A Guide to Sustainable Aluminium Curtain Walling. [Online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.system10aluminium.co.uk/uploads/VEKA%20Group%20-%20A%20Guide%20to%20Sustainable%20Curtain%20Walling%20Final.pdf
[Accessed 7 March 2012]
25

WBDG a programme of the National Institute of Building Sciences, 2012. Building Envelope Design Guide Curtain Walls. [Online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.wbdg.org/design/env_fenestration_cw.php
[Accessed 7 March 2012]

Roof structure, coveri ngs and el ements


Energy Saving Trust, 2012. Solar panels [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generate-your-own-energy/Solar-panels-PV#3 [Accessed 7 March 2012]

European Federation of Green Roof Associations, 2012. Environmental Advantages. [online] (updated 2012)
Available at :http://www.efb-greenroof.eu/verband/fachbei/fa01_englisch.html [Accessed 7 March 2012]

Hickman, L., 2007. Energy it takes to produce tap water. The Guardian [e-journal]
Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/aug/02/ethicalliving.ethicalliving [Accessed 7 March 2012]
















26
References
Basement & Foundati ons


Roger Hunt, 2012. Sustainable Foundations. [online .pdf] (updated 2012)
Available at: www.huntwriter.com[Accessed 01 May 2012].

Aditi Misra and Dipanjan Basu., 2000. A Sustainable approach to foundation design. Department of civil and environmental engineering University of Connecticut.
[Assessed March 2012]
Dawson Push Pull Technical Brochure available at www.dcpuk.com
[Assessed March 2012]

Site, Foundations, and Sustainable Construction, Structure Magazine. pp, 34 35 December 2009
[Assessed March 2012]

http://www.balfourbeatty.com
http://www.breeam.org
www.sustainableconcrete.org.uk

Superstructure Structure

Dr McCaffrey, R. 2002. The cement industry's role in climate change. [online .pdf] (updated 2002)
Available at: http://www.ecocem.fr/bibliotheque/bibliographie/ecologie/33_le_changement_climatique_et_l_industrie_du_ciment_royaume_uni_en.pdf [Accessed 01 May 2012].
Ecocem. 2012. [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.ecocem.ie/ [Accessed 01 May 2012].

The Carbon Trust, 2012. Manufacturing. [online .pdf] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.carbontrust.com/media/39204/ctv015_manufacturing.pdf [Accessed 01 May 2012].

Mgb Architecture + Design, 2012. Tall Wood: The case for Tall Wood buildings, how Mass Timber offers a safe, economical and environmentally friendly alternative for tall building structures.
[Online .pdf] (update 22 February 2012).

TECHNIKER, 2009., Tall Timber Buildings: The Stadthaus, Hoxton, London. [online] (updated 2009)
Available at: http://techniker.oi-dev.org/assets/264739566/52/Tall%20Timber%20Buildings%20Feb10.pdf [Accessed 7 March 2012]

Trada, 2009. Stadthaus, 24 Murray Grove, London. [online .pdf] (updated 2009)
Available at: http://www.trada.co.uk [Accessed 01 May 2012].

KLH UK., 2012. Portfolio. [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.klhuk.com/portfolio.aspx [Accessed 01 May 2012].
27
Curtai n wal l i ng & weather resi stance

ALFED Aluminium Federation, 2012. Aluminium Information Sheets. [Online] (No Updated Date)
Available at: http://www.alfed.org.uk/documents/
[Accessed 14 March 2012]

Kawneer, 1999. Principles of Curtain Walling. [Online] (1999)
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/united_kingdom/en/pdf/Principles_of_Curtain_Walling.pdf
[Accessed 7 March 2012]

Kawneer, 2007. Kawneer Curtain Wall Systems Brochure June 2007. [Online] June 2007.
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/united_kingdon/catalog/pdf/brochures/Curtain_Wall_Brochure_June_2007.pdf
[Accessed 7 March 2012]

Kawneer, 2008. Kawneer News: Press Releases. [Online] 30 January 2008.
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/en/news/relaeses/Leay_ISO_14001.asp
[Accessed 2 April 2012]

Kawneer, 2012. Permacover Paint Finish. [Online] (2012)
Available at: http://www.kawneer.com/kawneer/united_kingdom/en/product_info_page_cat.asp?cat_id=0&prod_id=0&parent_info_page_id=713&info_page_id=714
[Accessed 2 April 2012]

Pilkington Self-Cleaning Glass, 2012. How Self-Cleaning Glass Works. [Online] (2012)
Available at: http://www.pilkingtonselfcleaningglass.co.uk/how-it-works/
[Accessed 2 April 2012]

The VEKA Group, 2012. A Guide to Sustainable Aluminium Curtain Walling. [Online] (2012)
Available at: http://www.system10aluminium.co.uk/uploads/VEKA%20Group%20-%20A%20Guide%20to%20Sustainable%20Curtain%20Walling%20Final.pdf
[Accessed 7 March 2012]

WBDG a programme of the National Institute of Building Sciences, 2012. Building Envelope Design Guide Curtain Walls. [Online] (2012)
Available at: http://www.wbdg.org/design/env_fenestration_cw.php
[Accessed 7 March 2012]
















28
Roof structure, coveri ngs and el ements

(1) European Federation of Green Roof Associations, 2012. Environmental Advantages. [online] (updated 2012) available at :http://www.efb-greenroof.eu/verband/fachbei/fa01_englisch.html
[Accessed 7 March 2012]
Research by Nottingham Trent University has shown the following:
Summer insulation findings.
Mean daily temperature 18.4C
Temperature beneath membrane of normal roof 32C
Temperature beneath membrane of green roof 17.1C
Winter insulation findings.
Mean Temperature 0C
Temperature under membrane standard roof 0.2C
Temperature under membrane green roof 4.7C
This shows that green roofs do have the ability to affect the temperature and insulation properties of roofs, though this is variable due to the daily conditions of the green roof. The potential for the
cooling and thermal insulation properties of green roofs can have costs benefits for building owners/managers.

(2) Hickman, L., 2007. Energy it takes to produce tap water:. The Guardian [e-journal]
Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/aug/02/ethicalliving.ethicalliving

(3) Diagram of a simple light tube.


29
(4) Energy Saving Trust, 2012. Solar panels [online] (updated 2012)
Available at: http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generate-your-own-energy/Solar-panels-PV#3 [Accessed 7 March 2012]

(5) Metal, providing it is adequately protected from the elements, is a very long lasting material and some companies give a 100 year guarantee. Another advantage of metal roofing is that after its
serviceable life is over it is easily recyclable.





























30
Mi nutes

















































31
Minutes