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ABSTRACT

Time dispersion plays an important role in the propagation of femtosecond pulses through water. The combined e ects of time dispersion, radial di raction and the Kerr nonlinearity on the pulse propagation are analyzed and it is shown that normal time dispersion leads to signi cant temporal broadening of ultrashort pulses and that it increases the threshold power for catastrophic self-focusing. Keywords: time dispersion, ultrashort pulse, self focusing, optical breakdown

1 INTRODUCTION

The interpretation of high intensity laser experiments such as optical breakdown or retinal damage requires information on the electric eld at the target area. In many cases a direct measurement is not possible and the electric eld value is calculated using linear di ractive optics formulas for the pulse propagation through the media and the pulse characteristics before entering the media. The use of a linear model may be incorrect if the pulse power is comparable to the critical power for nonlinear self-focusing. In this work we suggest that in propagation of ultrashort pulses time dispersion also plays an important role. Therefore, there is a need for a simple model that predicts how the combination of radial di raction, time dispersion and the Kerr nonlinearity e ect the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through an aqueous media. Time dispersion can be normal or anomalous and its e ect is di erent in each case. The qualitative picture is clearer in the case of anomalous time dispersion: Both time dispersion and radial di raction are of the same sign and the propagation dynamics are determined by the balance between the 3D focusing Kerr nonlinearity and the 3D defocusing Laplacian. While the model that we use in this work cover this case, from now on we will concentrate on the more complicated case when normal time dispersion and radial di raction have opposite signs.

R R

1

t

r z

In the absence of radial di raction the equation governing the pulse propagation is the same as the equation for pulse propagation through optical bers and both normal time dispersion and the Kerr nonlinearity contribute to the temporal broadening of the pulse as it propagates. A di erent dynamics is observed in the absence of time dispersion: The pulse radius is determined by the competition between the self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity and radial di raction. The magnitude of nonlinear self-focusing is proportional to the pulse power and is stronger than radial di raction when the pulse power is above the critical power for self-focusing.

3

The main question that we address in this work is how the pulse propagates when all three mechanisms act together. Note that because of the nonlinearity one cannot simply superimpose the e ect of each mechanism. Most theoretical studies have concentrated on the case of small time dispersion. These studies showed that if the pulse is self-focusing even small normal time dispersion can have an important e ect by delaying the onset of self-focusing and leading to the temporal splitting of the pulse into two pulses. The case of non-small normal time dispersion was studied in and it was shown that normal time dispersion increases the threshold power for catastrophic self-focusing. Recently, Berg
and Rasmussen derived a mathematical model for propagation e of Gaussian pulses under time dispersion, radial dispersion and Kerr nonlinearity. In this work we use their model to analyze the interaction between these three mechanisms and to calculate the changes in the radial and temporal width of the pulse as it propagates.

4,5 2,6 1

2 THE MODEL

In this section we present a simpli ed model for ultrashort laser pulse propagation. For a derivation of the model see appendix 6.1. The propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse through an aqueous media is described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with time dispersion 6. In this equation the relative magnitude of time dispersion can be written as "
@ !n ! r ; G = ! n ! @! : 1 = RG ; R = cT

3 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 0

The value of R is proportional to the ratio of the pulse initial radius r to its initial temporal pulse width cT . Therefore, R is small for pulses that are `cigar-like' long and narrow but is large for `disc-like' short and wide pulses. Note that femtosecond pulses are usually `disc-like': R = 100 for a 100 femtosecond pulse with 0:3 mm radius. G is the nondimensional group velocity dispersion of the media at the pulse frequency and its sign determines whether time dispersion is normal 0 or anomalous 0. In the visible regime jGj 1 since the value of n for water is almost constant and time dispersion magnitude can become comparable to radial dispersion only for disc-like pulses.

0 0 0

!0

Direct analysis and simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with normal time dispersion are di cult. However, the mathematical model can be considerably simpli ed if we consider pulses with an initial Gaussian pro le and assume that they maintain a Gaussian pro le during their propagation. In this case the propagation dynamics can be approximated by : 1 1, P 1 lzz = l z 2 Pc Lz P Lz 3 Lzz = L 1 z + D P l z ; D = 8:27 :

1 0 3 2 0 3

Here Lz and lz are the temporal and radial broadening factors, respectively, z is given in units of the di raction length ldiff = k r , P is the initial peak power and Pc = 1:22 =32n n is the critical power for self-focusing in the absence of time dispersion. The initial conditions are given at the media interface at z = 0: ldiff l0 = 1 ; L0 = 1 ; lz 0 = R ; Lz 0 = C : 4 lens and they include the possibility of an initial frequency chirp C and a lens with focal length Rlens located at z = 0.

0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2

We begin by considering the case of an unchirped collimated beam i.e. lz 0 = Lz 0 = 0. Equation 2 shows that the pulse focuses radially when its peak power P =Lz is larger than the critical power for self-focusing Pc and defocuses otherwise. Equation 3 shows that both normal time dispersion and the nonlinearity contribute to temporal broadening of the pulse. By solving

0

L ; L0 = 1 ; Lz 0 = 0 we can get a lower bound estimate for temporal broadening: Lzz

3

L z

2

z +1 :

2

Therefore, the pulse duration will more than double after it travels a distance of 2ldiff = . If the pulse power is below critical the propagation dynamics is determined by time dispersion and the nonlinearity. However, when P Pc the picture is more complex. Let us denote by zTD the point where in the absence of radial di raction the peak pulse power becomes equal to Pc i.e. LzTD = P =Pc and let zSF be the blowup point in the absence of time dispersion where lzSF = 0. There are two possible cases in 2 3 when P Pc:

0 0 0

zTD zSF In this case the power goes below critical before l reaches zero. Therefore, the pulse is undergoing a continuous temporal broadening while it focuses radially for z zTD and defocuses radially afterwards. zSF zTD In this case temporal broadening is not fast enough to arrest catastrophic self-focusing which will occur at zSF .

10 A 10 l, L

1

10 l, L 10

10

0

2

0.5

1 z

1.5

10

0.5

1 z

1.5

10 10 l, L 10 10 10 10

0.5

1 z

1.5

Figure 2: Temporal broadening factor L dashed line and radial broadening factor l solid line as a function of the distance of propagation z in di raction length units for = 1 and a pulse power of A: P = 2Pc, B: P = 6Pc and C: P = 8Pc .

0 0 0

Figure 2 shows the evolution of lz and Lz for an unchirped collimated pulse when = 1. Time dispersion clearly dominates in gure 2A and although the initial pulse power is twice the critical one for self-focusing Pc very little radial focusing takes place. Even when the input power is raised to 6Pc gure 2B time dispersion arrests self-focusing after focusing by a factor of ten. However, when the pulse power is 8Pc gure 2C nonlinearity dominates and catastrophic self-focusing occurs. In this case most radial focusing occurs very close to the blowup point. The separation line between the two cases is zTD = zSF : This equation can be solved for the threshold power for self-focusing PTH as a function of and the initial conditions appendix 6.2. Catastrophic self-focusing will occur if P PTH while temporal broadening will arrest radial focusing when P PTH .

0 0

We are now in a position to analyze the e ects of various parameters on the propagation: E ect of pulse duration: If the pulse is shorter, increases, temporal broadening is faster, zTD is smaller and PTH increases. E ect of initial pulse radius: A wider pulse corresponds to a larger value of and has the same e ect in the model equations as that of a shorter pulse duration. However, the dynamics will occur over a larger physical distance since the di raction length is longer. E ect of a focusing lens: A focusing lens is represented in the model by lz 0 0. Therefore, radial focusing is faster, zSF is smaller and PTH decreases. E ect of a frequency chirp: A positive frequency chirp C 0 corresponds to Lz 0 0. Therefore temporal broadening is faster, zTD is smaller and PTH increases. The opposite is true for C 0. E ect of wavelength: The choice of wavelength e ects the pulse propagation in many ways. Most importantly, it determines whether time dispersion is normal or anomalous. It also e ects the size of and the length scale ldiff for changes in z.

4 DISCUSSION

The model provides qualitative information on the interaction between time dispersion, radial di raction and the Kerr nonlinearity that was not available before. In addition, it allows experimentalists to estimate the pulse width, duration and power at the retina, near the location of optical breakdown etc. However, the quantitative predictions of the model are only correct to within an order of magnitude because of the error introduced by the assumption that the pulse maintains a Gaussian pro le. For example, the results obtained for PTH using the model appendix 6.2 are higher by a factor of two compared with the formula obtained by Luther et al for the case of an unchirped collimated beam: n o TH = 1 3:38 + 5:5p , 1 = , 1:84 p = , 0:852 , 0:0219 ; p = PP p c

6 2 1 2 1 2 2

The validity of the model breaks down when time dispersion is small and the pulse power is above critical since the Gaussian approach fails to capture the delicate balance between radial di raction and the nonlinearity. Even if is not small, if the pulse power is greater than PTH radial focusing will dominate over temporal broadening and the relative magnitude of time dispersion l=L will become small near the blowup point. Therefore, while the model predicts catastrophic self-focusing l = 0 when P PTH , its validity breaks down once l L , = . Note that this only occurs near the blowup point where most of radial focusing takes place see gure 2C. In this region modulation theory for small time dispersion becomes valid and the pulse will split temporally into two pulses. Additional mechanisms can also become important in this region such as optical breakdown and beam nonparaxiality.

2 0 1 2 4

5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author would like to thank G.C. Papanicolaou for many useful discussions. This study has been supported by the ARPA under URI grant number N00014092-J-1890.

6 APPENDIX

6.1 Derivation of the model

The propagation of a laser pulse through an aqueous media is described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation:
@ + 1 @ + @ + 1 @ , k @ k @ + 2k n jj = 0 ; 2ik @z v @t @r r @r @! @t n g p where z; r; t is the envelope of the electric eld, r = x + y is the radial coordinate, z is the axial coordinate in the direction of propagation, n is the linear index of refraction of water, n is the Kerr coe cient and vg = @!=@k is the group velocity. To bring this equation into a canonical form, we change into a retarded time frame = t , z=vg and non-dimensionalize the variables: ~ 5 r = rr ; z = l z ; ~ = T ~ diff where r is the pulse initial radius and ldiff = k r is the di raction length. The resulting equation is @ i @ + @ r + 1 @ , =0 : 6 + jz j @~ z @~ z r @~ ~ r @~ | | | z radial di raction time dispersion Kerr nonlinearity The relative magnitude of the nonlinearity is jj , where = 2r k n n

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0

r = T

2

0

@ k @!k

2

!0

We study the propagation of a pulse which enters the media at z = 0 with an initial Gaussian pro le and allow for the possibility that it has an initial frequency chirp C and that it is focused by a lens with focal distance Rlens: r
t
ik
iCt
r; t = E exp , 2r exp , 2T exp 2R r exp , ,2T lens or in dimensionless form:
~
~ ~; ~ = E exp , r2 exp , ~ exp ildiff r exp , iC~ : r 2 2Rlens 2

2 2 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 2 0 0

We drop the tilde signs and look for solutions of 6 that maintain a Gaussian pro le:

1 r
exp , 1 E exp i z , azr + Az = lzL = z exp , 2 lz 2 Lz 4 4

2 2 0 2 1 2

7

Here lz and Lz are the relative radial and temporal broadening, respectively. If we plug 7 into equation 6, the imaginary part of the equation is satis ed exactly if a = , 2lz ; A = , 2Lz : l L From the initial condition and the last relation we get the initial condition 4. The O1 terms in the real part of the equation determines z: E 1 z=, + l 2L + 2Ll :

2 0 2 2 2

2 2

lzz = l1 1 , E L 1 Lzz = L + E L : l

2 0 3 2 2 0 3 2

8 9

4 4

From the derivation we see that when we use the assumption that the pulse maintains a Gaussian pro le 7 we neglect some O ; r terms. Therefore, this assumption leads to results which are qualitatively correct but that do not give the correct quantitative answers. However, some improvement can be achieved by adjusting the constants in 8,9. For example, consider the case when there is no time dispersion = 0. In this case L 1 and lzz = l1 1 , 2N 10 where N is the initial nondimensional peak power: Z 1 N = j r; 0j rdr = 2 E : Since we would like equation 10 to predict catastrophic self-focusing i.e. l going to zero when the peak dimensional power P is greater than the critical one for self-focusing Pc, we replace it by 1 1, P : 11 lzz = l Pc Similarly, in the absence of radial di raction l 1 and 1 + 2 N L Lzz = L 12 We would like this equation to agree with the formula of Potasek et al for temporal broadening in the absence of radial di raction: 1 L z = 1 + 2, = E z + z 1 + p E z : 13 3 3 From equation 13 which was was derived for the case Lz 0 = 0:

3 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 2 3 0 7 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 0 0

Lzz 0 =

+ 2 N :

0

P = N ; N 1:86 ; c= Pc Nc

0 0

p + D P L ; D = 2Nc : Pc Comparison of equations 8 9 with 11 14 leads to the model equations 2 3.

2 0 3

14

Let us de ne zSF to be the blowup point i.e. lzSF = 0 in the absence of time dispersion. In that case l is changing according to 11 with the initial condition: l0 = 1 ; l0 0 = l0 : 15 The solution of this equation is l0 l z = c z + c + K ; K = 1 , P ; c = l0 + K c Pc Hence p ,l0 P =Pc , 1 zSF = l0 + 1 , P =P 16

0 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 0

zSF = p 1 : P =Pc , 1 Similarly, de ne zTD as the point where the maximumpower goes below critical in the absence of radial di raction. From 2, this will occur when LzTD = P =Pc. To nd zTD , we solve equation 14 with L0 = 0 ; L0 0 = L0 : Multiplying 14 by 2Lz and integrating, we have Lz = , L , 2D P =Pc + c ; c = + 2D P =Pc + L L Therefore, dz = p L dL cL , 2D P =PcL , The solution of this equation subject to L0 = 1 is z = FL , F 1 where ! 1 pcL , 2D P =P L , + D P =Pc ln 2pcpcL , 2D P =P L , +2cL , 2D P =P 17 FL = c c c c c=

0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 3 2 0 2 0

Therefore

zTD = F P , F1 : Pc

0

18

The equation can now be solved using 16 18 for PTH

7 REFERENCES

1 L. Berg
and J.J. Rasmussen. Pulse splitting of self-focusing beams in normally dispersive media. preprint, e 1995. 2 P. Chernev and V. Petrov. Self-focusing of light pulses in the presence of normal group-velocity dispersion. Opt. Lett., 173:172 174, Feb 1992. 3 G. Fibich. Time-dispersive e ects in ultrashort laser-tissue interactions. In Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, volume HTD 322 and BTD 32. ASME, 1995. 4 G. Fibich, V.M. Malkin, and G.C. Papanicolaou. Beam self-focusing in the presence of small normal time dispersion. Phys. Rev. A, 525:4218 4228, 1995. 5 G.G. Luther, A.C. Newell, and J.V. Moloney. The e ects of normal dispersion on collapse events. Physica D, 74:59, 1994. 6 G.G. Luther, A.C. Newell, J.V. Moloney, and E.M. Wright. Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media. Optics Letters, 19:862 864, 1994. 7 M.J. Potasek, G.P. Agrawal, and S.C. Pinault. Analytic and numerical study of pulse broadening in nonlinear dispersive optical bers. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 32:205 211, 1986.

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