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Solutions to CE2200 Exam-2





1. Choose the correct answer from the following options (18 pt: 3 points each):

(1) The streakline is defined as:
(A) a line which is everywhere tangent to the local velocity vector in a velocity field;
(B) a line traced out by a single fluid particle as it travels through a flow;
(C) the line that one would get if fluid particles were released one after the other.
(2) In steady nonuniform flows
(A) only convective acceleration = 0; (B) only local acceleration = 0;
(C) both the convective acceleration and the local acceleration are zero.
(3) Eulers equation is derived
(A) in an arbitrary direction; (B) in the radial direction; (C) along a streamline.
(4) A control volume is .
(A) a closed system that always contains the same fluid particles;
(B) a fixed volume in space which cannot deform with time;
(C) an open volume in space that allows mass to cross the control surface (ces).
(5) The Reynolds transport theorem .
(A) is derived by applying the continuity equation for flow in a pipe;
(B) is valid only for steady incompressible flow;
(C) is a general equation valid for steady, unsteady, compressible, and
incompressible flow.
(6). The following simplified form of the continuity equation can be used if the mass
crossing the control surface occurs through an inlet and an outlet ports, and



(A) the velocity is uniformly distributed across each port and the flow is steady;
(B) the fluid is incompressible; (C) the velocity is uniformly distributed across
each port, the flow is steady, and the fluid is incompressible.













2 1 2 2 1 1
V V Q Q A A = =
2
2. (20 pt): Two streams discharge into a pipe as shown in Fig. 1. The flows are
incompressible. The volume flow rate of stream A into the pipe is given by Q
A
= 0.02t
m
3
/s and that of stream B by Q
B
= 0.008t
2
m
3
/s, where t is in seconds. The exit area of
the pipe is 0.01 m
2
. Find the velocity and acceleration of the flow at the exit at t = 1 s.






SOLUTION:
See the posted solution to the problem #4 of homework assignment #6.


























Fig. 1
3
3. (20 pt): The flow pattern through the pipe contraction is as indicated, and the
discharge of water is 70 cfs. For d = 2 ft and D = 6 ft, what will be the pressure at
point B if the pressure at point A is 3500 psf?




SOLUTION:
See the posted solution to the problem #8 of homework assignment #6.



































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4. (21 pt): Rain falls at a uniform rate of 2 cm/hr over a 1 km 1 km field, the water
infiltrates into the soil at a rate of 1 cm/hr. At the downstream end of the field, a small
channel carries a discharge of 0.01 m
3
/s (or the water is discharged to the small
channel at the flow rate of 0.01 m
3
/s). If all rates remain constant, determine (1) how
fast the water surface moves (rises or drops) and (2) whether the water surface rises
or drops.

SOLUTION:
Step-1: Find the rate of water surface change and determine whether the
water surface rises or drops.

Step-2: Select a control volume (CV) as shown in Figure below.

Step-3: Assumptions: No mass transfer between air and water; = constant;
rainfall and infiltration are uniformly distributed over the field; velocity in the
channel is also uniformly distributed.

Step-4:: Determine the equation







Dividing both side of the equation with A yields




Step-5: Determine the variables
Rain falls at: V
rain
= 2 cm/hr = 0.02 m/hr over an area of
A = 1 km
2
= 1,000,000 m
2

Infiltration rate: V
soil
=1 cm/hr = 0.01 m/hr
A small channel causes runoff Q
channel
= 0.01 m
3
/s = 36 m
3
/hr

Step-6: Get the answer
Substituting the known values into the above equation results in
dh/dt = 0.02 0.01 36/1000000 = 0.009964 m/hr ~ 1.0 cm/hr = 2.7810
-6
m/s

Step-7: The water surface rises because dh/dt = 2.7810
-6
m/s > 0.





|
.
|

\
|
+ =
A
Q
V V
dt
dh
channel
soil rain
0 = +

}
CS
CV
d
dt
d
A V


0 ) ( = + +
rain channel soil
AV Q AV
dt
dh
A
V
soil
= 1 cm/hr
Q
channel
=
0.01 m
3
/s
V
rain
= 2 cm/hr
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5. (21 pt): Mercury is the liquid in the rotating U-tube. Determine the rate of rotation e
if l= 5 in. Then, if rotation is stopped, to what level z will the mercury level drop in
the larger leg?

SOLUTION:
Step-1: Problem Statement: The rate of rotation and level of mercury in larger leg after
rotation stops

Step-2: Schematic:

Figure 1: Rotating U-tube

Step-3: Assumptions and Approximations: The fluid is assumed to be incompressible
and in steady state motion.

Step-4: Physical Laws: The equation for pressure variation in rotating flow
C
r
z p = +
2
2 2
e
will be used to relate the heights and the rotational speed.
Step-5: Properties: Gravitational acceleration
2
2 . 32
s
ft
will be used for this problem


Step-6: Calculations:

We find (using the subscripts T for the thin tube and W for the wide tube).
Known parameters: the pressure at the two columns is atmospheric,
r w
p p = ,
l z and l r l r
w w r
3 , 5 . 1 , 5 . 0 = = = , using these values, we find

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( )
( ) ( ) ( )
find we in l value given the g u
l
g
l
g
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
5 sin ,
5 . 0 5 . 1
4
5 . 0 5 . 1
4
5 . 0 5 . 1
4
5 . 0 5 . 1
2
2
2
) 5 . 0 (
2
) 5 . 1 (
3
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
=

=
=
=


e
e

e

e


( )
s
rad
ft
in
in
43 . 12
1
12
5 . 0 5 . 1 5
2 . 32 4
2 2
=

= e

To find the level z in the thicker leg, we use the fact that when the U-tube is not spinning
the heights in the two legs must be equal. Thus we know

T W
z l z l A + = A 3 (Using positive numbers for both the As)

Furthermore, the volume of liquid which leaves the thick tube must enter the thin one.
Therefore we have

( )
4
4 4
2
2
2
2
T
w
T
w
w
z
z
d z
d z
d z
V
A
= A
A
= A =
A
= A
t
t
t

Using this relation and
T W
z l z l A + = A 3 , we find

in l of value the g u
l
z
l z
z l z l
W
W
W W
5 sin ,
5
2
2 5
4 3
= = A
= A
A + = A


ft
in
ft in l
z
W
167 . 0
12
1
5
5 2
5
2
=

= = A , therefore the final level is



ft ft
in
ft
in z l Z
W W
08 . 1 167 . 0
12
1
5 3 3 = = A =