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A Study Paper on


Submitted to



By N.RAMA KRISHNA 01030-M-039



A.A.N.M&V.V.R.S.R Polytechnic
Gudlavalleru-521356 E-mail: Phone no : 08674 273366

In the present scenario power becomes major need for human life. Due to day-to-day increase in population and lessen of the conventional sources, it becomes necessary that we must depend on non-conventional sources for power generation. While moving, the vehicles posses some kinetic energy and it is being wasted. This kinetic energy can be utilized to produce power by using a special arrangement called POWER HUMP. The Kinetic energy of moving vehicles can be converted into mechanical energy of the shaft through rack and pinion mechanism. This shaft is connected to the electric dynamo and it produces electrical energy proportional to traffic density. This generated power can be regulated by using zenor diode for continuous supply .All this mechanism can be housed under the dome like speed breaker, which is called hump. The generated power can be used for general purpose like streetlights, traffic signals. The electrical output can be improved by arranging these power humps in series this generated power can be amplified and stored by using different electric devices. The maintenance cost of hump is almost nullified. By adopting this arrangement, we can satisfy the future demands to some extent. KEY WORDS:

Non-conventional sources, Kinetic energy, Electro-mechanical unit, Speed breaker, magnetic field.
INTRODUCTION: In the present scenario power becomes the major need for human life .The availability and its percapita consumptions is regarded as the index of national standard of living in the present day civilization. Energy is an important input in all the sectors of any countries economy.

Energy crisis is due to two reasons, firstly the population of the world has been increased rapidly and secondly standard of living of human beings has increased. India is the country, which majorly suffers with lack of sufficient power generation. The capital energy consumption of U.S.A. is about 8000 K.W.H., where as per INDIA is only 150 K.W.H. U.S.A. with 7% of world population consumes 32% of total power generation where as INDIA as developing country with 20% of world population consumes only 1% of total energy consumed in the world. The availability of regular conventional fossil fuels will be the main sources for power generation, but there is a fear that they will get exhausted eventually by the next few decades. Therefore, we have to investigate some approximate, alternative, new sources for the power generation, which is not depleted by the very few years. Another major problem, which is becoming the exiting topic for today is the pollution. It suffers all the living organisms of all kinds as on the land, in aqua and in air. Power stations and automobiles are the major pollution producing places. Therefore, we have to investigate other types of renewable sources, which produce electricity without using any commercial fossil fuels, which is not producing any harmful products. There are already existing such systems using renewable energy such as solar wind), OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversions) etcfor power generation. The latest technology which is used to generate the power by such renewable energy is the POWER HUMP. WORKING PRINCIPLE: While moving, the vehicles possess some kinetic energy and it is being wasted. This kinetic energy can be utilized to produce power by using a special arrangement called POWER HUMP. It is an Electro-Mechanical unit. It utilizes both mechanical technologies and electrical techniques for the power generation and its storage. POWER HUMP is a dome like device likely to be speed breaker. When ever the vehicle is allowed to pass over the dome it gets pressed downwards then the springs are attached to the dome are compressed and the rack which is attached to the bottom

of the dome moves downward in reciprocating motion. Since the rack has teeth connected to gears, there exists conversion of reciprocating motion of rack into rotary motion of gears but the two gears rotate in opposite direction. A flywheel is mounted on the shaft whose function is to regulate the fluctuation in the energy and to make the energy uniform. So that the shafts will rotate with certain R.P.M. these shafts are connected through a belt drive to the dynamos, which converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The conversion will be proportional to traffic density. Whenever an armature rotates between the magnetic fields of south and north poles, an E.M.F (electro motive force) is induced in it. So, for inducing the E.M.F.armature coil has to rotate, for rotating this armature it is connected to a long shaft. By rotating same e.m.f, is induced, for this rotation kinetic energy of moving vehicles is utilized. The power is generated in both the directions; to convert this power into one way a special component is used called zenor diode for continuous supply. All this mechanism can be housed under the dome, like speed breaker, which is called HUMP. The electrical output can be improved by arranging these POWER HUMPS in series. This generated power can be amplified and stored by using different electrical devices. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS: The various machine elements used in the construction of power hump are RACK SPUR GEAR FLY WHEEL BEARINGS SHAFT SPRINGS ELECTRIC DYNAMO

A dome is mounted on four springs and in the bottom, a rack is clamped. The rack consists contact teeth on both the faces. It is connected to two gear wheels to rotate the gear wheels only in one direction. We have inserted a free wheel in each gear. The free wheel and the gear assembly are mounted centrally. The flywheel is also mounted on the same shaft and the shaft is simply supported at the both ends by means of ball bearings. Now a dynamo is connected to each shaft by belt drive. The output terminal of dynamo is connected to an electrical storing device. The total assembly is arranged in concrete pit. S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 NAME OF THE MATERIAL USED COMPONENT RACK SPUR GEAR FLY WHEEL SHAFT SPRINGS MILD STEEL CAST IRON CAST IRON MILD STEEL CHROMEVANADIUM 6 7 BEARINGS ELECTRIC DYNAMO RACK: Its primary function is to convert translatory motion into rotary motion. It must have higher strength, rigidity and resistance to shock load and less wear and tear. STEEL HIGH ALLOY CARBON 4 2 QUANTITY 1 2 2 2 4


Fig: Line diagram of power hump

SPUR GEAR: It is a positive power transmission device with definite velocity ratio. In volute teeth profile is preferred for adjusting some linear misalignment. It should have high wear and tear, shockabsorbing capacity.

FLY WHEEL: The primary function of flywheel is to act as an energy accumulator. It reduces the fluctuations in speed. It absorbs the energy when demand is less and release the same when it is required. SHAFTS: It is a rotating element, which is used to transmit power from one place to another place. It supports the rotating elements like gears and flywheels. It must have high torsional rigidity and lateral rigidity. SPRINGS: It is defined as an elastic body whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed. It cushions, absorbs or controls energy either due to shocks or due to vibrations. BEARINGS: It is a machine element, which supports another machinery. It permits relative motion between the contacting surfaces while carrying the loads. They reduce the friction and transmit the motion effectively. ELECTRIC DYNAMO: It is a device, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. It works based on faradays laws of electromagnetic induction. FIRST LAW: Whenever a conductor cuts across magnetic lines of flux an e.m.f is induced in it. SECOND LAW: The magnitude of induced e.m.f is equals to the rate of change of flux. CONCLUSION: Energy is an important input to sustain industrial growth and standard of living of a country and can be directly related to per-capita energy consumption. The conventional sources

energy like coal, oil, uranium etc are depleting very fast and by the turn of the century man will have to depend upon non conventional sources of energy for power generation. The various types of non-conventional sources of energy are solar energy, wind energy, biogas etc now by developing POWER HUMP we can generate power with out utilizing any external sources mentioned earlier. Now, vehicular traffic in big cities is more, causing a problem to human being. But this vehicular traffic can also be utilized for power generation by means of new technique called POWER HUMP. If it is placed in heavy traffic roads, the weight and kinetic energy of the vehicles can be used to produce mechanical power in shafts and this mechanical power is once again converted into electrical energy. As it does not utilize any external source, and traffic will never be reduced, these power humps are more reliable, and have more life than any other power source. It is also feasible from the customer point of view as follows. The total installation cost of the hump is 6000 rupees. Total cost = 6000 rupees Say with improvements in design it can glow 5 streetlights of 40-watt capacity, which will consume 2.7 K.W.H. per day. For t years electricity bill will be 2986.5*t T=2years i.e. the consumer will be repaid his investment with in 2 years period. From this onwards, there will be no investment and free of cost. The life of POWER HUMP is estimated to be 6 years. So the customer will get free power generation for 4 years period. But the major drawback of this POWER HUMP is design of springs. When we have less traffic and there is difficulty in design of springs also the generation of power is intermittent, we have to smooth out this variations.

With proper improvements in design and installation, we can produce 240v/230v with 5-10A power smoothly and can be used for public use like streetlights or traffic signals.

REFERRENCES: Machine Design Shigley Design of Machine Elements R.C.Mouli Production Technology Pandya and Shah Machine Drawing N.D.Bhatt Strength Of Materials Punmi Marketing and Sales Agarwal Electrical Technology B.L.Theraja