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One of the major problems most developing countries facing today is air pollution and the major source of which is automobiles running on road. To reduce the worlds pollution problems there is no one optimum solution, but one thing is for sure; the automobile must clean up its act. Automobile factors like an increase in Fossil fuel consumption eventually emissions of HC, NOx, and CO2 will be increased in accordance with these factors. The huge number of vehicles in the developing countries will give a serious environmental load and therefore current technologies like engine control and catalyst should be transferred to developing countries to minimize automobile emissions. The CO2 emission ratio during actual use is extremely large compared to other process. Therefore; it would be very effective to develop high fuel economy and low fuel consumption from CO2 emission point of view. Concerning resource availability there has been a strong warning indicating that petroleum resources may be depleted in the relative near future. Gasoline which has been the main source of fuel for the history of cars is becoming more and more expensive and impractical, especially from an environmental standpoint. In the process of burning gasoline, it produces carbon monoxide, Nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons which are the main pollutants and are responsible for bad effects of pollution. There comes need to think about alternatives such as Biodiesel and natural gas, Electric cars, Hybrid cars, Hydrogen fuel cells but, these alternative fuels also have some drawbacks which are discussed in detail in chapter 4 as comparative study. One possible alternative fuel is the compressed air. There are ongoing projects that are developing a new type of car that will run on compressed air. In this seminar report of AIR POWERED CARS, we will learn about the technology behind compressed air cars being developed and how these cars are best options providing most comprehensive answer to todays urban pollution problems in simple economic and most inoffensive manner which makes car users to replace their present cars running on gasoline in the coming years as these cars are safe to use safe to users and are also environment friendly.

One of the versions of an air-powered car is being developed by Abe Hertzberg and his team of researchers at the University of Washington using the concept of a steam engine, except there is no combustion. The Washington researchers use liquid nitrogen as the propellant for their LN2000 prototype air car. The researchers decided to use nitrogen because nitrogen makes up about 78 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. The liquid nitrogen, stored at -320 degrees Fahrenheit (-196 degrees Celsius), is vaporized by the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is the heart of the LN2000's cryogenic engine, which gets its name from the extremely cold temperature at which the liquid nitrogen is stored. Air moving around the vehicle is used to heat the liquid nitrogen to a boil. Once the liquid nitrogen boils, it expands to about 700 times the volume of its liquid form. This highly pressurized gas is then fed to the expander, where the force of the nitrogen gas is converted into mechanical power by pushing on the engine's pistons. The only exhaust is nitrogen, and since nitrogen is a major part of the atmosphere, the car gives off little pollution. Some of the leftover heat in the engine's exhaust is cycled back through the engine to the economizer, which preheats the nitrogen before it enters the heat exchanger, increasing efficiency. Two fans at the rear of the vehicle draw in air through the heat exchanger to enhance the transfer of heat to the liquid nitrogen. The Washington researchers have developed a crude prototype of their car, using a converted 1984 Grumman-Olson Kubvan mail truck. The truck has a radial five-cylinder that produces 15 horsepower with the liquid nitrogen fuel. It also features a five-speed manual transmission. But LN2000 had developed some drawbacks like; Mainlythe fact that frost builds up and reduces the efficiency of the car. 1. Also with exhaust LN2000 emits cold nitrogen gas which freezes water vapor in the air to form small clouds behind the vehicle. 2. It consumes about five gallons of nitrogen fuel per mile also it reaches a top speed of only 22 m. p. h. and fails to accelerate up on hills. 3. Also the motor operates at less than 20 percent of efficiency. Thus LN2000 has failed due to lack of power, performance and fuel economy with the same basic principle the next version of air car has been developed by Guy Negre, an engineer from the little town of Carros, France, both literally and figuratively. During his career of designing engines for lightweight aircraft and formula one race car engines he became familiar with isotherm dynamics, a process that creates power by expanding air at an almost constant temperature. Instead of using liquid nitrogen Negre theorized that by heating and expanding super-cooled compressed air he could power a nonpolluting car. Compressed air is used to start Formula One cars, but in this case the compressed air is the fuel driving a motor with classic components such as pistons and valves. To power the pistons, negres two cylinder motor uses a combination of heated outside air and super compressed air from tanks stored under the car.

The car can be refueled at home in four hours by a small compressor in the car linked to the house electricity supply. While the air is free, the electricity used to refuel the tank at home would cost less than $2. A rapid recharge, using a high pressure air pump, charges the air tanks in 2 - 3 minutes at a compressed air filling station. The basic principle of air car is protected world-wide by more than 20 patents owned by MDI. The MDI patents cover not only the basic principal, but also the means of making it economically feasible. For this purpose, the conventional cylinders, pistons and connecting-rods have been redesigned. Systems for the recuperation of energy have been developed as well as a new power transmission assembly. To demonstrate the viability of the concept, three prototype vehicles equipped with air, mono-energy, engines were developed. A taxi called "TOP" (Taxi zero Pollution), a delivery van and a pickup truck were built. In May 1998, the first road tests of these prototypes were done in Brignoles, France. The potential market for the "clean engine" concept is immense: e.g., vehicles such as taxis, buses, vans, delivery trucks, industrial warehouse tractors, golf buggies, lake or canal boats and many other applications in which fixed engines are primarily used in urban or restricted areas. A version of the MDI engine can, in addition to air, also function with the use of traditional fuel after vehicle reaches 60 kmph which is electronically controlled. To manage the development process successfully, MDI has contracted its product research and development activities to CQFD Air Solution, a company based in Brignoles, France. Here, under the direction of Guy Negre, some 20 engineers and technicians have at their disposal the most modern equipment for engine and vehicle Development, testing and production, supported by the latest in information technology. Until now, the main activities of this group have been to perfect the engine and vehicle prototypes. After the first applications of the MDI mono-energy engine have demonstrated, the engine will be introduced to major car manufacturers in order to study its adaptation for their common models. The engine will be produced by the manufacturers within their existing structures. The engine is significantly lighter less expensive to produce, maintain and utilize, pollutes less when it runs on fuel and is totally pollution free when it runs on air. Mr. Negres silent, odour-free engine design was chosen for the world's most polluted city after a worldwide search by the Mexican authorities that included tests on dozens of electric and other nonpolluting experimental vehicles. The taxis, produced by Motor Development International (MDI) in Brignoles, France, will hit the streets of Mexico City. Remarkably, these vehicles don't stop at zero pollution but they actually remove pollution from the air. When a driver brakes, the MDI vehicle takes in polluted air and filters it, expelling the cleaned air upon acceleration. MDI vehicles are expected to be released internationally at an average price of $13,000. A Mexican licensee, Dina, has signed a contract to produce an estimated 40,000 ZP taxis and urban delivery vehicles a year. It hopes to replace all of Mexico City's 87,000 petrol and diesel taxis.

The car is being studied by other countries, including the Netherlands, because it can also clean up air that has been polluted by petrol vehicles. But it may take even longer to persuade automobile manufacturers to build it. Because car companies have set mentalities, they have already spent a great deal of money on the electric car, which turned out be heavy and expensive, so they don't want to listen to another new idea. The Mexican government, on the other hand, is all ears. It's backing an order for 40.000 Z.P. Taxis to replace the gasoline and diesel models in Mexico City, which suffers from probably the worst air pollution in the\ world due to its high altitude. Mexico's City first pollution-free taxis will hit the streets in two years. While they are not yet ready to displace fossil fuels, zero pollution vehicles can still play an important role in reducing the level of greenhouse gases. If we start with taxis, then move to buses and vans, it will take very little time to improve the pollution problem in our cities.

Details of Air Powered Car
Air tanks: The air tanks in air powered cars are composed of an interior thermoplastic container which ensures it is airtight. This is held in a coiled and crossed carbon fiber shell. This technique is the result of many studies into factors such as: mechanical Specifications, density of material, choice of fibers etc. (Refer figure no.3.1) the specifications of tank are, Maximum effective pressure: (300 bars) Temperature of use: (40C to 60C) The tanks weigh 35 - 40 kg for 100 liters of air at 300 bars. Special machines make the tubular shell as shown in figure (Refer figure no.3.2) The tanks are submitted to numerous tests to meet official approval such as: 1. Pressure testing (405 b) 2. Rupture testing (705 b) 3. Cycles at ambient and extreme temperatures 4. Fire-resistance testing 5. Resistance to cuts 6. Shock and fall testing 7. Airtight testing During rupture testing, the tank cracks, but does not break up, producing no splinters or fragments. In the event of a cracked tank, it is most likely to occur within the cylinder itself About the safety of the compressed air storage tanks: Though these tanks hold 90 cubic meters of air compressed to 300 bars, even in the case of a major accident, they would not explode since they are not metal. Instead an elongated crack would appear in the tank, without exploding, and the air would simply escape, producing a loud but harmless noise. For extra security, a protective plate is fixed underneath the vehicles chassis and in addition limits circuit of high pressure air. (Refer figure no.3.3) Chassis: Based on its experience in aeronautics, MDI has put together highly-resistant, yet light, chasses, aluminum rods glued together. Using rods enables us to build a more shock-resistant chassis than regular chasses. Additionally, the rods are glued in the same way as aircraft, allowing quick assembly and a more secure join than with welding. This system helps to reduce manufacture (Refer figure no.3.4)

Composition of air tank.

manufacturing of air tanks on special machines.

location of air tank with a protective plate fixed on chassis.

Gear box Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system developed by MDI. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears . The latest of many previous versions, this gearbox achieves the objective of seamless changes and mimimal energy consumption. Air Filter: The MDI engine works with air that is taken from the atmosphere and air precompressed in tanks. Air is compressed by the on-board compressor or at service stations equipped with a high-pressure compressor. Before compression, the air must be filtered to get rid of any impurities that could damage the engine. Carbon filters are used to eliminate dirt, dust, humidity and other particles which, unfortunately, are found in the air in our cities. It is the first time that a car eliminates and reduces existing pollution rather than emitting dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust pipe on the MDI cars produces clean air, which is cold on exit (between -15 and 0) and is harmless to human life. With this system the air that comes out of the car is cleaner than the air that went in.
Electrical system:

Guy Ngre, inventor of the MDI Air Car, acquired the patent for an interesting invention for installing electrics in a vehicle. Using a radio transmission system, each electrical component receives signals with a microcontroller. The MDI vehicles have only one wire weighing less than one kilo, thus only one cable is needed for the whole car. So, instead of wiring each component such as headlights, dashboard lights, lights inside the car, etc, one cable connects all electrical parts in the car. This wire acts as a wave-guide to convey the commands to microchips that actually operate all electric parts in the car. So the vehicle functions like a mini-Internet network, for communication between vehicles. The advantages are the ease of installation and repair and the removal of the approximately 22 kg of wires. Whats more, the entire? system becomes an anti-theft alarm as soon as the key is removed from the car. The MDI vehicles will be nothing like cars. They will take customers into a new era of advanced, significantly safer and more secure, clean, low cost, mobility. Engine of Air Car: Characteristics: Single energy bi-cylindrical 1200cc engine with a pause at the Peak Rest Point for 70, variable volume expansion chamber, Power limited to 25cv. Expansion cylinder: 1200cc Year of invention: 2000/2001 Advantage: Impressive torque motor curve. Disadvantage: The utilization of two connecting crank-shafts for gears caused vibration problems.(Refer figure no.3.5 & 3.6) Special features : The pistons are mounted on rollers to minimize friction and the loss of due lateral force on the liner. The marginal lubrication is provided by a low pressure oil pump which uses very little energy. It utilizes the boxer design and the pause at PRP with just one crank.

Chassis of Air Car

: Engine used in Air Car

Engine details

Body: The MDI car body is built with fiber and injected foam, as are most of the cars on the market today. This technology has two main advantages: cost and weight. Nowadays the use of sheet steel for car bodies is only because of cost - it is cheaper to serially produce sheet steel bodies than fiber ones. However, fiber is safer because it doesnt cut like steel and is easier to repair i.e. it is glued, also it doesnt rust etc. MDI is currently looking into using hemp fiber to replace fiber-glass, and natural varnishes, to produce 100% non-contaminating bodywork (Refer figure no.3.7&3.8) Other features of air car: Total mass: 820 kg. Engine cut out during standstills. Variable opening distribution. Low consumption. Con-rod system with pause of piston at top dead center which allow a lower pressure injection (30 bars). Classic distribution seal with reduced friction due to use of rollers. Three-stage expansion, almost isothermal. Maximum power (25hp) 18.3 Kw @ 3000 rpm. Maximum torque 6.3 kg-m @ 2500 rpm. Rear mount engine and Rear wheel drive. Automatic continuously variable transmission. Suspension: Front: coil springs and Rear: pneumatic. Disk brakes. Rack and pinion steering. Tires: classic tires replaced with "green" tires increase mileage by 5%

Actual picture of body of Air Car

Location of engine and air tank

Moto-alternator The moto-alternator connects the engine to the gearbox. It has many functions: It supports the CATs motor to allow the tanks to be refilled. As an alternator it produces brake power. It starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary.\

Distribution and valves To ensure smooth running and to opitimize energy efficiency, the engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into the engine. This system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise.

Articulated con-rod The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to be held at Top Dead Centre for 70% of the cycle. This way, enough time is given to create the pressure in the cylinder. The torque is also better so the force exerted on the crankshaft is less substantial than in a classic system.


Technology Description
The following is the technology description of the actual functionality of the motor. A more detailed explanation can be found in U.S. patent no: 6,334,435 4.1 Process Description




The first piston takes in ambient air and compresses it to approximately 300 psi and 200*f in the compression chamber during the first cycle of the engine. When the piston pause, a small amount of compressed air from the tanks is released into the expansion chamber to create a low pressured, low temperature volume of about 140psi Shortly before the valve to the exhaust cylinder is opened, a high-speed shutter connects the compression and expansion chambers. The sudden pressure and temperature difference between the low chambers creates pressure waves in the expansion chamber, thereby producing work in the exhaust chamber that drives the piston to power the engine.

The air tanks for storing the compressed air are localized underneath the vehicle. They are constructed of reinforced carbon fiber with a thermoplastic liner. Each tank can hold 3,180 ft3 of air at a pressure of up to 4,300 psi. When connected to a special compressor station, the tanks can be recharged within 3-4 minutes. They can also be recharged using the on-board compressor 3-4 hours after connecting to a standard power outlet. 4.2 Technology Overview These new vehicles incorporate various innovative and novel systems such as storing energy in the form of compressed air, using new materials such as fiberglass to build the car and vegetable oil for the motor lubrication. Numerous innovations have been integrated in the engine design. As an example, there is a patented system of articulated conrods that allow the piston to pause at top dead center. The following graph indicates this movement of the piston in relation to the driving shaft rotation. The car engine runs on compressed air and incorporates the three laws of thermodynamics. The first law states that energy can neither be destroyed nor be wasted. The second law describes the disorder within substances.


The third law defines that only in crystals at 0o k, there is absolute disorder.

The car incorporates these laws of thermodynamics in the following way. First, the pressure that is created within on-board tanks during compression is in direct proportion to the energy that has been stored in it. This process is equivalent to the energy stored in a wire spring when it is compressed. Furthermore, thermal energy is dissipating from the system, thereby lowering the temperature of a compressed gas volume that expands. This process is equivalent to harnessing energy that has been stored. In turning the shaft, shock waves similar to supersonic waves are created when two gases with very different characteristics are mixed together in a certain fashion. All these effects result in a highpowered air technology.

4.3 Working of Air Powered Car Basic principle: Air at -100 degree Celsius and 300 bar pressure is used as a fuel. When this air is allowed to expand at atmospheric conditions its volume is increased many times this energy produced is used to drive pistons of air powered car. Although the technology is new, the idea isn't completely unknown to Formula One car, since every Formula One engine starts with a shot of compressed air as an EnergyBooster. Guy Negre has simply extended this concept for running the engines by heating and expanding super-cooled compressed air.


About working cycle: The secret of the working of Air powered motor is simply to - decompress the air in stages and in so doing efficiently release energy at each point in the chain. This process is repeated as many times as possible to extract the maximum energy efficiency from the compressed air. Its secret is isotherm dynamics. Isotherm dynamics is a process that creates power by expanding air at an almost constant temperature, cylindrical expansions are between the isothermic and the adiabatic. Isothermic expansion is defined by a constant temperature during the increase in volume. Adiabatic expansion is characterized by a lack of thermic exchange with the exterior. In the following figure the green line, represents the ideal transformation of the compressed air: in effect, the air temperature is the same coming in and going out of the cylinder, and power is maximized. (Refer figure no. 4.1) On the contrary, the worst transformation is the adiabatic transformation, represented by the red line. The derived power is minimal, and the air leaves the system at a very low temperature indeed. The blue line, or polytrophic curve, represents the transformation that the MDI motor realizes, and the individual stages outlined above can be seen. The transformation going through the first cylinder is represented by the polytrophic line (somewhere between our ideal isotherm and the adiabatic curve). The temperature rise brings the line closer to the isotherm, and allows the second and subsequent stages to produce more power. Negre theorized that by heating and expanding super-cooled compressed air he could power a nonpolluting car. Negres company, Motor Development International (MDI), created what it calls the Compressed Air Technology (CAT) car by combining a lightweight automobile body with a new type of small rear-mounted engine.


4.4 Working Operations:

Steps in working cycle:

A. The air is released through the main line firstly to an alternator B where the first stage of decompression takes place. The now cold air passes through a heat exchanger C which adds thermal energy to the air using the warmth of external air. and provides a convenient opportunity for air conditioning D. The warmed compressed air now passes to the motor E. where a two more stages of decompression and re-heating take place. The motor drives the rear axle G through the transmission F. Control of engine speed is through a conventional accelerator pedal H controlling a valve within the motor. An energy recycler J is under test which uses engine braking K to recompress air during braking into a secondary storage facility, providing additional energy for re-start and acceleration. Conventional hydraulic braking L is supplied. Finally, the air is passed through carbon filters like those in scuba diving tanks and expelled as pollutant-free exhaust. The "exhaust" leaves the engine at about zero degrees Celsius, a result of the expansion and cooling action. The exhaust is totally pure and fit to breathe. The vehicle can be refilled by using the onboard compressor M or by refilling the tank at an air station at N. (Refer figure no.4.2)


4.5 Cryogenic Heat Engine Another version of an air-powered car is being developed by researchers at the University of Washington using the concept of a steam engine, except there is no combustion. The Washington researchers use liquid nitrogen as the propellant for their LN2000 prototype air car. The researchers decided to use nitrogen because of its abundance in the atmosphere -- nitrogen makes up about 78 percent of the Earth's atmosphere -- and the availability of liquid nitrogen. There are five components to the LN2000 engine: A 24-gallon stainless steel tank. A pump that moves the liquid nitrogen to the economizer. An economizer that heats the liquid nitrogen with leftover exhaust heat. A heat exchanger that boils the liquid nitrogen, creating a high pressure gas. An expander, which converts nitrogen's energy into usable power. The liquid nitrogen, stored at -320 degrees Fahrenheit (-196 degrees Celsius), is vaporized by the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is the heart of the LN2000's cryogenic engine, which gets its name from the extremely cold temperature at which the liquid nitrogen is stored. Air moving around the vehicle is used to heat the liquid nitrogen to a boil. Once the liquid nitrogen boils, it turns to gas in the same way that heated water forms steam in a steam engine. Nitrogen gas formed in the heat exchanger expands to about 700 times the volume of its liquid form. This highly pressurized gas is then fed to the expander, where the force of the nitrogen gas is converted into mechanical power by pushing on the engine's pistons. The only exhaust is nitrogen, and since nitrogen is a major part of the atmosphere, the car gives off little pollution. However, the cars may not reduce pollution as much as you think. While no pollution exits the car, the pollution may be shifted to another location. As with the e.Volution car, the LN2000 requires electricity to compress the air. That use of electricity means there is some amount of pollution produced somewhere else. Some of the leftover heat in the engine's exhaust is cycled back through the engine to the economizer, which preheats the nitrogen before it enters the heat exchanger, increasing efficiency. Two fans at the rear of the vehicle draw in air through the heat exchanger to enhance the transfer of heat to the liquid nitrogen. The Washington researchers have developed a crude prototype of their car, using a converted 1984 Grumman-Olson Kubvan mail truck. The truck has a radial five-cylinder that produces 15 horsepower with the liquid nitrogen fuel. It also features a five-speed manual transmission. Currently, the vehicle is able to go only about two miles (3.2 km) on a full tank of liquid nitrogen, and its top speed is only 22 mph (35.4 kph). However, because a liquid nitrogen-propelled car will be lighter, the researchers think that a 60-gallon (227 liters) tank will give the LN2000 a potential range of about 200 miles (321.8 km). With gas prices soaring, as they have over the past two years, it might not be long before many motorists turn to vehicles powered by alternative fuels. Although air-powered vehicles are still behind their gasoline counterparts when it comes to power and performance, they cost less to operate and are arguably more environmentally friendly, which makes them attractive as the future of highway transportation.


Air car by Zero pollution motors: Another version of the air powered car has been produced by ZPM (Zero Pollution Motors). This French company has designed a two cylinder air powered car called the evolution. The first cylinder in the engine is the intake/compression cylinder, and the second is an exhaust/expansion cylinder, with an air injector on each cylinder In between these 2, with the transfer and the chamber inlet valves into each cylinder, is the combustion chamber. The air is expanded here straight from the compressed air tank, and then compressed in the first cylinder, during the first cycle of the engine Then passed to the second where it expands, where the pistons pause for awhile at that time small amount of compressed air from the tank is released into the expansion chamber to create a low pressure, low temperature volume of about 149psi.


Articulated con-rod:

The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to "pause" at top dead center during approximately 70 degrees of the rotation of the crankshaft allowing expansion at constant volume. Due to the piston pause at the TDC gets sufficient time to establish the correct pressure which gives engine a high torque at high RPM. So the force exerted on the crankshaft is less substantial than in a classic system. (Refer figure no.4.4) Shortly before the valve to the expansion cylinder is opened, a high speed shutter connects the compression and the expansion chamber. This sudden pressure and temperature difference between the two chambers create pressure waives in the expansion chambers, thereby producing work in the exhaust chamber that drives the piston to power the engine, and turning the crankshaft. It is then passed out of the exhaust having gone through a chemical filter, rather like a catalytic converter, before going back into the atmosphere. This is commonly because in typical urban use, the air is much polluted, and so the air expelled from the air powered car is cleaned.


Power transmission:
Gear changes are automatic, powered by an electronic system developed by MDI. A computer which controls the speed of the car is effectively continuously changing gears. The moto-alternator connects the engine to the gearbox. It has many functions: It supports the cats motor to allow the tanks to be refilled. As an alternator it produces brake power. It starts the vehicle and provides extra power when necessary. Its steering-wheel is equipped with a 5kW electric moto-alternator. This motor is simultaneously: The motor to compress air The starting motor The alternator for recharging the battery An electric moderator/brake A temporary power supply (e.g. For parking) No clutch is necessary. The engine is idle when the car is stationary and the vehicle is started by the magnetic plate which re-engages the compressed air. Parking manoeuvres are powered by the electric motor. 5.1 Duel energy system: The Series 34 CATs engines can be equipped with and run on dual energies - fossil fuels and compressed air - and incorporate a reheating mechanism (a continuous combustion system, easily controlled to minimize pollution) between the storage tank and the engine. This mechanism allows the engine to run exclusively on fossil fuel which permits compatible autonomy on the road.While the car is running on fossil fuel, the compressor refills the compressed air tanks. The control system maintains a zero-pollution emission in the city at speeds up to 60 km/h. 5.2 Distribution and valves: To ensure smooth running and to optimize energy efficiency, CATs engines use a simple electromagnetic distribution system which controls the flow of air into 15 the engine. This system runs on very little energy and alters neither the valve phase nor its rise. Brake power recovery: The MDI vehicles will be equipped with a range of modern systems. For example, one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary i.e. at traffic lights, junctions etc. Unlike conventional cars, the engine does not operate in traffic jams, which thus saves on fuel. Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system when the car brakes, the kinetic energy from braking are used to drive a pump that helps to restore some of the lost pressure.


The CAT's motor does require a small amount of oil, about 0.8 ltrs that the driver will have to change just every 31,000 miles (50,000 km). Air tanks fixed is filled with normal air to a pressure of 300kPa an hold about 300 liters of air. This compressed air can travel up to 200 km at a top speed of 96.5 kph. 5.3 Refueling: The air tanks could be refilled in one of two ways i.e. Either by using a household electrical source, it takes about four hours to refill the compressed air tanks. Tanks are refilled by plugging the car into a mains socket to feed the motor-alternator which compresses the air with the motor-compressor. Or by means of a special system, i.e. a rapid three-minute recharge is possible, using a highpressure air pump at air stations. (Refer figure no. 4.5 & 4.6) These methods consume electrical energy which loads the power stations also leading to increase pollution since power stations depend on fossil fuels for power generation. Hence some alternative sources of refueling which can be used in future are; wind energy, hydraulic systems, fuel cells, photovoltaics etc can be used.

5.4 Efficiency: Zero Pollution Motor vehicles would run at a cost of 1c/km. It would cost R250 (33c US) to fill the tank with air and the engine would have to be serviced only once every 50,000km, because it runs cold. The engine weights just 32 kg, but it can do 90 kph. When seating five people, the car the engine is lodged in, can accelerate from 0-90 in 7 seconds.Its super-efficient, and since it uses no combustion, it produces no air pollution; ironically, the air from the exhaust is cleaner than the air that goes in - because of an internal filter. There is even an option for a hybrid model that would automatically switch to a combustion engine mode -- burning traditional fuels when the vehicle reached a certain speed. (60 kmph) Thus it is best option not only to stop pollution but to reduce the present pollution.


CHAPTER 6 Comparative Study Following are the types of fuels or cars which are available in practice nowadays but each of them has drawbacks when which compared with air powered cars shows that air powered cars are best options to the current conditions. 1) Gasoline: It has two problems when burned in car engines. The first problem has to do with smog and ozone in big cities. The second problem has to do with carbon and greenhouse gases. Catalytic converters eliminate much of this pollution, but they are not perfect either. Whereas air powered cars doesnt produce pollution at all because it runs on compressed air only instead air expelled from air car gives cooling effect. (2) Biodiesel and natural gas: These can greatly reduce emissions and can be distributed through the current infrastructure. Moreover, existing cars can be converted to run on these fuels. The drawback is that these fuels are more expensive, and still emit some pollution. Comparatively air required for air powered cars are very cheaply refueled and just takes 3 minutes for refueling and doesnt produce pollution at all. (3) Hybrid cars: These cars are already on the road and selling like mad. They have the pollution controlling advantages of electric cars combined with a range and performance better than gas powered vehicles. Their only drawback is they still rely on fossil fuels. Also the system can be very heavy, bulky, and costly and requires a complex control system. Other disadvantage is safety implications of energy storage system and requirement of additional maintenance. When compared with hybrid cars air powered cars are light in weight and are cheap in cost with very simple control system with very less maintenance. Also air powered cars do not use fuels like fossils fuels henceforth maintaining the natural resources of earth. (4) Hydrogen fuel cells: Major drawback to current fuel cell technology is that it requires extremely high temperatures, to get the zirconium membrane to convert gas into electricity. The reason fuel cells have not entered into the marketplace is because they are very expensive right now. Hydrogen is plentiful, but it requires power to separate it out of other compounds. Whereas air powered cars runs on compressed air only doesnt require power for processing and very cheaply available. (5) Electric cars: These cars have been under development for years, but most of those in production suffer from poor range or performance. New chemical battery technologies improve the range and performance, but possibly at the cost of safety or chemical pollution in the batteries. Most batteries use heavy metals are not environmentally friendly. And the better the battery is, the more expensive it is. Whereas air powered cars uses only air for operation and are economical as well as environmental friendly. Following table shows comparative statement for different features of air powered cars with the Electric cars available in market today:


Thus air cars are more efficient cheaper and less pollutant than electric cars. COMPARISION CHART Fuel type Mpg avg. [1] Annual fuel cost [2] Annual greenhouse gas emissions [3] Range Top speed Engine characteristics Recharge time Price 2000 NISSAN ALTRA EV Electric 123 $331.00 3.5 129 75 mph 62 kW AC Induction 5h $50,999 2003 TOYOTA RAV4 EV Electric 104 $391.00 4.1 126 78 mph 50 kW DC 6.75 h [4] $42,000 2003 MDI CITY C.A.T. Compressed Air 198 $220.00 1.2 120-190 68 mph 18.3 kW CCE 3 min or 4 h [5] $15000-$20,000

After carrying out the comparative study and from efficiency point of view the features can be advantageous and can be collectively listed as below. 1. Uses air which is naturally and cheaply available. 2. Also light in weight (approx 800 kgs) due to use of composite material, with attractive looks. 3. In conjunction with compressed air it also runs on traditional fuel i.e. when car runs below 60 kmph it run s on compressed air and above 60 kmph it runs on traditional fuel like gasoline, diesel, etc which is electronically controlled. 4. The air powered cars are equipped with a range of modern systems. For Example, one mechanism stops the engine when the car is stationary i.e. at traffic lights, junctions etc. Unlike conventional cars, the engine does not operate in traffic jams, which thus saves on fuel. 5. Another interesting feature is the pneumatic system when the car brake, the kinetic energy from braking is used to drive a pump that helps to restore some of the lost pressure. 6. During refueling the natural air is passed through carbon filter where the impurities of the air are removed and henceforth the air expelled from the car gives negative pollution i.e. it removes pollution from the surrounding air. 7. Air expelled from the engine has very less temperature below zero degrees which can be used for the ACs of the car. Also the air expelled from the car has low temperature which gives cooling effect to surrounding. 8. For refueling at compressed air stations it requires only 3 minutes and also it can be refueled at home within 4 hours. 9. Though the carrying capacity of the car is 5 persons, it can accelerate from 0 to 50 mph within 7 secs. 10. To refuel the air tank of 300 ltrs at 300bars it requires approx $5.00 with which it can travel upto 200 kms or can run for 10 hrs in city traffic. Thus average running cost per km is 1 cent only.


11. Electrics and existing cars require some 25 to 30 kg of wiring for functioning of various parts whereas air powered cars uses single wire less than 1 kg for various functioning and works like mini internet network. 12. The cost factor for air powered cars is one-tenth to the cost of gasoline cars. Air powered cars also have some disadvantages like: 1. The power needed to develop compress air is electricity, and for generation of electricity fuels are used which creates pollution at power stations. 2. While operation the engine creates noise due to sudden expansion of air. 3. Considering power point of view air powered cars are still behind gasoline cars. But these drawbacks are not much serious and can be removed by: Using wind, hydraulic systems, fuel cells and photovoltaic to fill up air tanks. By encasing the engine to reduce noise. By increasing air carrying capacity we can increase power output of air car.

Thus air cars are the best options suitable to current conditions around us.



Though air powered cars are meant mainly for individual consumers in urban areas most of the early adopters will be businesses like taxi services and local transport. Also products are manufactured for the retail and fleet customer market and are mainly used for local transportation. Each vehicle is equipped with the same type of engine power output of 25HP with a maximum speed of 68mph. Following are some of the models developed by MDI: 1) Family car: Description: A spacious car with seats which can face different directions. The vehicles design is based on needs of typical family Features: Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats

2) Van: Description: Design for daily use in industrial urban or rural environments whose primary drivers would be tradesmen farmers and delivery drivers. Features : Airbag, air conditioning, 2 seats, 1.5 m3


3)Taxi: Description: Inspired by London taxi with numerous ergonomic and comfort advantages for the passenger as well as drivers. Features : Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats

4)Pick up car: Description: The Pleasure car designed for excursions outdoor sports or water sports. Also suitable for small business & tradesmen Features : Airbag, air conditioning, 6 seats

Specifications -which are common to above models: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Dimension: 3.64m, 1.72m, 1.75m Weight: 750 Kg Maximum speed: 110 Kmph Mileage: 200-300 Km Recharge time: 4hr (mains) & 3min (at stn) Maximum load: 500 Kg


5) Minicat: Description: The smallest and most innovative: three seats, minimal dimensions with the boot of a saloon: a great challenge for such a small car which runs on compressed air. The Minicat is the city car of the future. Features: Airbag, air conditioning, ABS, 3 seats, 1.5 m3. Specifications Dimensions: 2.65m, 1.62m, 1.64m Maximum load: 270 Kg

Refilling methods for Air Cars In the mains Tanks are refilled by plugging the car into a mains socket to feed the motor-alternator which compresses the air with the motor-compressor. Refilling time obviously depends on the source of electricity used. Here are our initial estimates: For: 230V: 3 hrs. 30mins - 4hrs 380V: 2hrs 30mins - 3hrs. 115V: currently being tested.


Refilling at a service-station As the energy is so easy to store, MDI anticipates the installation of air stations These stations can refill a car in 3 minutes

How air car helps to reduce pollution: The most important pollutants in car exhaust include: Carbon monoxide (a poison). Carbon monoxide is formed because combustion is incomplete. Not enough oxygen is available fast enough to react completely with all of the carbon available. Nitrogen oxides - Because of the pressure and temperature inside a cylinder, nitrogen and oxygen in the air combine in various ways. Unburned hydrocarbons - not all of the hydrocarbons participate in the reaction because there is so little time available during the combustion phase. As about gasoline is the main source of pollution, if we use compressed air instead of gasoline then we can improve environment. As we know that nitrogen is the main constituent of environment, in case of air car we extract nitrogen from environment, liquefy it and used as fuel in car, then there will be nitrogen, only the exhaust gas which is not harmful to human being and environment. By using liquid nitrogen (compressed air) in car, we can reduce pollution up to 70-80%.


Future Applications: MDI has developed various vehicles and systems which promise to drastically change the outlook of public transportation and energy use.

THE ZERO-POLLUTION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT: "CAT's inside" A new concept in public transportation, the MULTICAT is a train, consisting of a number of carriages: (Refer figure no. 6.6 & 6.7) The drivers car(Locomotive) Passenger carriages(Wagons)

General Overview: Each carriage is self-powered and runs on an MDI CATs (Compressed Air Technology systems) Each passenger carriage is attached to the drivers car and has its own steering which reproduces the same changes in direction as the drivers car and ensure perfect co-ordination: Easy to drive Urban agility Acceleration and braking in the passenger carriages are co-ordinated with the drivers car, and highly accurate inter-carriage sensors maintain the distance between each carriage. The drivers car controls the passenger carriage features such as: opening and closing the doors, lights, heating, air conditioning and more. The driver and passenger cars benefit from the non-contaminating technology developed by MDI: Glued aluminum chassis. Two-part body with a layer of polyurethane foam. Single-cable electric system. Carriages are equipped with pneumatic suspension.


Non-combustion generation and co-generation: Patented by MDI, the CATs Series 34 moto-compressors/ moto-alternators are also non-combustion generators, very safe and very powerful. While running, the moto-alternator, working as an engine gets its energy from the citys mains supply and moves the moto-compressor, working as a compressor to replenish or maintain the high pressure of the air in the tanks. In the case of a power cut, the moto-compressor automatically becomes an motor and, powered by the compressed air from the tanks, forces the moto-alternator to switch into an alternator to provide electricity. The basic 34 P02 engine can produce generator sets of 15 - 20 kW at a very attractive price.For higher power, MDI proposes an original and economical solution (also patented) according to which various low-powered generator sets are grouped into a rack, interconnected and controlled by an energy station. The moto-compressor moto-alternators can thus be turned on as required, one at a time or altogether. Fossil fuel generator set: For uninterrupted supply, the CATs Series 34 moto-compressor motoalternator is perfectly adaptable to generation with combustible fuels such as gas, petrol and diesel. Using fossil fuel a CATs Series 34 can produce approximately 40 kW. Used in a multi-rack format, with 25 motors interconnected, up to 1000 kW can be reached. In parallel to providing electricity, the set of CATs Series 34 generators can supply compressed air to a filling station. Advantages of the CATs generator sets: 1. No worry about combustible provision 2. Complete starter safety 3. Safety of use 4. Attractive buying price 5. Unprecedented running costs Thus Air vehicles are also perfectly adopted to public transport also


A car that runs on air, in India soon
Tata Motors has signed an agreement with Motor Development International of France to develop a car that runs on compressed air, thus making it very economical to run and be almost totally pollution free. Although there is no official word on when the car will be commercially manufactured for India, reports say that it will be sooner. The car could cost around Rs 350,000 in India and would have a range of around 300 km between refuels. The cost of a refill would be about Rs 90.

8.1 Advantages The principal advantages of an air powered vehicle are:

Refueling can be done at home using an air compressor or at service stations. The energy required for compressing air is produced at large centralized plants, making it less costly and more effective to manage carbon emissions than from individual vehicles. Compressed air engines reduce the cost of vehicle production, because there is no need to build a cooling system, spark plugs, starter motor, or mufflers. The rate of self-discharge is very low opposed to batteries that deplete their charge slowly over time. Therefore, the vehicle may be left unused for longer periods of time than electric cars. Expansion of the compressed air lowers its temperature; this may be exploited for use as air conditioning. Reduction or elimination of hazardous chemicals such as gasoline or battery acids/metals Some mechanical configurations may allow energy recovery during braking by compressing and storing air. Recent findings from Southwest Research Institute indicate that air-hybrids would allow for up to 50 percent better fuel economy and an 80 percent reduction in emitted toxins compared to conventional engines[Swedens Lund University also reports that buses could see an improvement in fuel efficiency of up to 60 percent using an air-hybrid system. But this only refers to hybrid air concepts (due to recuperation of energy during braking), not compressed air-only vehicles.


8.2 Disadvantages: The principal disadvantage is the indirect use of energy. Energy is used to compress air, which - in turn - provides the energy to run the motor. Any conversion of energy between forms results in loss. For conventional combustion motor cars, the energy is lost when chemical energy in fossil fuels is converted to mechanical energy, most of which goes to waste as lost heat. For compressed-air cars, energy is lost when chemical energy is converted to electrical energy, when electrical energy is converted to compressed air, and then when the compressed air is converted into mechanical energy.

When air expands in the engine it cools dramatically (Charles's law) and must be heated to ambient temperature using a heat exchanger. The heating is necessary in order to obtain a significant fraction of the theoretical energy output. The heat exchanger can be problematic: while it performs a similar task to an intercooler for an internal combustion engine, the temperature difference between the incoming air and the working gas is smaller. In heating the stored air, the device gets very cold and may ice up in cool, moist climates. This also leads to the necessity of completely dehydrating the compressed air. If any humidity subsists in the compressed air, the engine will stop due to inner icing. Removing the humidity completely requires even additional energy that cannot be reused and is lost. Conversely, when air is compressed to fill the tank it heats up. If the stored air is not cooled as the tank is filled, then when the air cools off later, its pressure decreases and available energy decreases. The tank may require an internal heat-exchanger in order to cool the air quickly and efficiently while charging, since without this it may either take a long time to fill the tank, or less energy is stored. Refueling the compressed air container using a home or low-end conventional air compressor may take as long as 4 hours, though specialized equipment at service stations may fill the tanks in only 3 minutes. To store 14.3 kWh @300 bar in 300 liter reservoirs (90 m3 of air @ 1 bar), requires about 30 kWh of compressor energy (with a single-stage adiabatic compressor), or approx. 21 kWh with an industrial standard multistage unit. That means a compressor power of 360 kW is needed to fill the reservoirs in 5 minutes from a single stage unit, or 250 kW for a multistage one. However, intercooling and isothermal compression is far more efficient and more practical than adiabatic compression, if sufficiently large heat exchangers are fitted. Efficiencies of up to 65% may be achieved, however this is lower than the Coulomb's efficiency with lead acid batteries. The overall efficiency of a vehicle using compressed air energy storage, using the above refueling figures, is around 5-7%. For comparison, well to wheel efficiency of a conventional internal-combustion drivetrain is about 14%,

Early tests have demonstrated the limited storage capacity of the tanks; the only published test of a vehicle running on compressed air alone was limited to a range of 7.22 km. A 2005 study demonstrated that cars running on lithium-ion batteries out-perform both compressed air and fuel cell vehicles more than threefold at the same speeds. MDI claimed in 2007 that an air car will be able to travel 140 km in urban driving, and have a range of 80 km with a top speed of 110 km/h (68 mph) on highways, when operating on


compressed air alone, but in as late as mid-2011, MDI has still not produced any proof to that effect. A 2009 University of Berkeley Research Letter found that "Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix." However, they also suggested, "a pneumaticcombustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles."

8.3 Limitations of Compressed Air Car Technology: The only limitation of the compressed air propelled cars is that it does not have the refueling stations as that of the petrol. It requires 4 hours to recharge if domestic power supply is used. But we can easily overcome these limitations.


Frequently Asked Questions
How does the air tanks work and are there any issues with their safety? One of the most frequently asked questions regards the safety of the air tanks, which store 90m3 of air at 300 bars of pressure. Many people ask whether this system is dangerous in case of an accident, and whether there is an explosion risk involved. The answer is NO. Why? Because the tanks are the ones already used to carry liquefied gases on some urban buses, and therefore make use of the technology that is already used to move buses on natural gas. That means that the tanks are prepared and certified to carry an explosive product: methane gas. In the case of an accident, with air tank breakage, there would be no explosion or shattering, now that the tanks are not metallic. Due to the fact that they are made of glass fiber the tanks would crack longitudinally, and the air would escape, causing a strong buzzing sound with no dangerous factor. It is clear that if this technology has been tested and prepared to carry an inflammable and explosive gas, it can also be used to carry air. A final matter with reference to the air tanks is the improvement that MDI contributed to the original structure. In order to avoid the so-called 'rocket effect', this means to avoid the air escaping through one of the tank's extremities causing a pressure leak that could move the car, MDI made a small but important change in the design. The valves on the buses tanks are placed on one of the extremities. MDI has placed the valve in the middle of the tank reducing the 'rocket effect' to a minimum. It is said to have a 90m3 tank. That is impossible, for it would take up the space of four Lorries. There must be a mistake. Yes, there is a mistake. The four tanks have a capacity of 90 liters, and they store 90m3 of air at a pressure of 300 bars. You refer to an air tank at 200 pressure bars that can be recharged at home with a domestic compressor. With the ones I know about, not only is it impossible, but also it would be dangerous. The pressure is of 300 bars, not 200. It is not referring to a conventional compressor to refill the tanks. The MDI car has a small compressor designed to fully refill the tanks in 3 to 4 hours.

Which materials are used to produce the body? The car bodies of the MDI vehicles are made of glass fibre with injected foam, such as many other cars that are on the market nowadays. This technology brings in two main advantages: lower cost and less weight. What is the weight capacity of the car? It can carry 450kg of bulk weight, or 4 passengers and the driver.


Is the car noisy? No, its sound is lower than a normal car's, now that neither explosion nor combustion takes place in the engine.

What is its maximum range? The range is dependent on the speed. At 50 km/p/h the range is over 300 km. At 100 kmh it is reduced to one third of that. In an urban environment the car can run for upto 10 hours.

What does the fuel cost? Around $2 to fill up the air tanks.

How long does the refilling of the tanks take? In an air-refilling station, it takes between 3 and 4 minutes. At home, with a 220V plug, it takes 3 and half hours.

How does the electrical system works? Guy Negre, the inventor of the MDI engine, acquired the patent of an interesting invention for the electrical installation of the vehicle. It is a system based on the radio emission picked up by micro controllers installed in each one of the electrical devices of the car, which allows there to be one sole cable for the whole car. That is to say, that instead of using one cable for each device (lights, interior car lights, indicators, etc), it uses one cable for the whole car. The two obvious advantages are the simplicity of installation and repairs of the system, and the reduction of weight by 22kg.

What kind of filter is built in, and how does it work? The MDI engine works with air taken from the atmosphere and pressurized air in the tanks. The air is compressed by the onboard compressor that is incorporated in each car or in an airrefilling station equipped with a high pressure compressor. In order for the air to be pressurized, it must be filtered previously, to remove all possible impurities that could damage the compressor. Carboni type filters are used to remove dirt, dust and abundant abrasive particles that unfortunately exist in the air of our cities. This factor is truly revolutionary in the automotive world, for the first time an engine produces negative contamination, in other words it eliminates and reduces already existent pollution rather than releasing dirt and burnt gases. The exhaust pipe of the MDI vehicle expels clean air, that comes out fresh (between 30 C and 0C) and does not cause disruptions to any form of life. Thanks to this system, the air leaves the vehicle cleaner than it entered. The engine does not take dirty air and miraculously restore purified air. It expels clean air, I guess with a small amount of oil, and it leaves a dirty filter. Yes. In the same way as major industries are forced to use filters in order to avoid polluting, the compressor filters the air, and later these are recycled and the filters decontaminated. There is no magic or miracles.

The exhaust gases are used to cool the car. But, how does the heating work? The exhaust gases are not as we generally understand them to be as in the common vehicle. What leaves the vehicle is cool air. The heating works using the energy produced by the considerable temperature difference between the head of the piston at 400C and the cold air expelled between 0C and -30C. When a new vehicle is made, it is shown to the media and then to the ordinary citizens. Although the engine does not expel contaminating gases, the electric energy needed to make the commediaor work has been produced (most probably) throughout some form of contamination. You are right. But I doubt you have reached the end of the reasoning. The matter is briefly outlined: With regards to pollution: the MDI engine allows "two displacements and one optimization". The first displacement is geographical: the car is urban, and with it we will stop polluting the city centres now that there is NO emission of contaminating gases. It is important to remember that 80% of car displacements are done in urban centres, where precisely the majority of the population lives. The second displacement is with regards to the responsibility of the pollution. The car runs on air, but this air is pressurized previously by a compressor that uses electricity. At the same time this electricity is produced by the State, thanks to hydraulic energy of rivers, thermic plants that burn petrol, nuclear energy, solar energy and wind energy. If the general citizen decides to use a car that does not expel any form of pollution, it is not in his/her responsibility to determine the source of the energy production. In each country the matter is different. In Spain, the majority of electricity is produced by burning petrol or nuclear sources. That is to say that most of the energy that the car uses is polluting, the rest is clean. In other countries, these figures are the opposite. On the other hand, MDI has patents to install systems of production of compressed air by using the currents of rivers. The cars that use this method will be 100% noncontaminating. In certain provinces, such as Navarra, electricity is nearly 'clean' of pollution, thanks to the use of wind power; the same occurs in areas where wind forms are present, like the Costa del Sol. The optimization that the engine brings is simple: it is much more polluting to burn a bit of petrol in each one of the cars in Spain than to produce this energy massively in industrial plants and use its power throughout compressed air. This system is an evident optimization now that it benefits the vehicle's global energetic profitability. Environmentally speaking, the restore of a gas to the atmosphere (even if it is air), at a very different temperature (between 0C and -30C) means an impact on the atmosphere. Completely true in theory, but in practice it works the other way round: ALL human systems produce great amounts of heat that had not been previewed and that affect the planetary ecosystem since tens of years ago. Releasing small amounts of cool air does not assume any risks. What's more: in order to compress the air some heat is released in the process...


When will the approval process be finalized? Towards the end of the year 2002/early 2003.

When will the first cars produced? In France the first car series are to be produced towards late December 2002 and the first cars will be used to assist float orders.

When will the first cars on the market? Maybe in a simultaneous way around the same date as above. It all depends on the order of construction of factories throughout the world.

What is the average estimate price? Between 8.000 and 10.000 $ for the basic vehicle: taxi, van, pick-up truck or "family car".


CONCLUSION The pollution of world is increasing continuously so we need to find the ways to find our power needs maintain quality of life and protect the environment so there is an obvious need to stop pollution just because we are not able to give up a means of transport such as cars. Present cars pollute clean air create health problems and poor air quality so its time to wake up and start being responsible for future generations. In urban areas pollution caused by traffic is responsible for diseased such as chronic bronchitis and asthma attacks equally serious is the economic impact of this pollution. If we really want to live in a globalized world we have to know that pollution have no bound when each of us owns a diesel or petrol car we will have millions of exhaust pipes producing pollutions that we can hardly imagine. There are various excellent solutions existing outside the world of petroleum and its time to realize it. One of them is air powered vehicles as it is the only one system which works against pollution and its side effects such as global warming. The different versions of air powered vehicles provide equation most comprehensive answer to urban pollution. They cost less to operate and are arguably more environmental friendly. These produce zero pollution not only that during there operation they actually remove pollution from air i.e. when driver brakes the air powered cars, the car takes in the polluted air and filters it expelling the clean air upon acceleration. Also during working the air expelled from the car is at temperature below zero degrees Celsius so unlike the traditional cars it doesnt add heat to surrounding instead it makes surrounding colder thus preventing global warming effect produced by traditional cars. Thus the AIR POWERED CARS are the best options which provide most comprehensive answer to the present urban pollution problems in simple, economic and inoffensive manner. Thus these vehicles are safe to manufacture, safe to use, safe to users and also environment friendly.