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RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging

Its an EM system for the detection and location of reflecting objects j It operates by transmitting a particular type of waveform
and detects the nature of echo signal reflected from the object/target g j g

The value of radar lies not in being a substitute for the eye
but, in doing what the normal eye cant do It can be designed to see through the condition of darkness, fog, rain, snow, etc.

Radar has the major advantage of being able to measure the distance/range to the target, with high frquency in all weather conditions. conditions

The elementary form of radar consist of:

Transmitting antenna: emitting an EM radiation generated by oscillator R i i antenna, and Receiving d An energy detecting device named as Receiver

diagram A portion of the transmitting energy is intercepted by the target, and is reradiated in all direction
The energy reradiated back by target is of prime interest to the radar

The receiving antenna collects some portion of the returned energy and delivers it to the Receiver.
It detects the presence of target and extract its location and relative velocity

Three Important parameters to be measured: The range is determined by measuring the time taken for the radar signal to travel to the target and returned back. The angular position of target may be determined from the e angula o ta get ay dete ed o t e direction of arrival of the reflected wave-front
generally measured by narrow antenna beam.

If relative motion exist between target and radar, the shift in carrier frequency of the reflected wave (Doppler effect) is a measure of the target relative velocity
may be used to distinguish moving target from stationary objects

Range to a target: Most common radar waveform is a train of narrow, rectangular shape pulse, modulating a sinusoidal carrier
Since the EM energy propagate at the speed of light c, Range, R = CTR/2 where, , TR time taken by the radar signal for a round trip travel

Maximum Unambiguous Range (MUR): Once the transmitted pulse is emitted by the radar
a sufficient length of time must elapse to allow echo signal to return, and be detected before the next pulse may be transmitted

Therefore, the rate at which pulse may be transmitted is determined by the longest expected range. If the P l R h Pulse Repetition Frequency (prf, fp) i too high ii F ( f is hi h
the echo signals from same target might arrive after the transmission of next pulse This leads to an ambiguity in measurement of the range Echo that arrive after the transmission of next pulse are called second-timearound echoes

Such an echo would indicate about a much shorter range than the actual one
This could be misleading, if not known to be a second time around echo misleading second-time-around

Thus the range beyond which, the target appear as second-timea ou d ec o, s ca ed t e U de ed around echo, is called the MUR defined as, Runamb = C/2fp diagram A very long pulse is needed for long range radar to achieve sufficient energy to detect small targets

Radar Equation for range: di discussed on board d b d

Radar Frequencies: Conventional radar have been operated at frequencies ranges p q g from 220MHz to 35GHz

Radar Block Diagram diagram T Transmitter: itt

may be an oscillator which is pulsed (i.e., ON/OFF) by the modulator to generate a repetitive train of pulses This waveform travel via a transmission line to the antenna
Then radiated into the space.

Duplexer: p
Pretend the receiver from damage caused by high power of Transmitter Also, direct the returned echo signal towards the Receiver

Usually of the superheterodyne type The mixer and LO convert the RF signal to IF signal. signal

Applications of Radar: pp Air Traffic Control (ATC)

Aircraft & ground vehicular traffic at large airport are monitored by g g p y means of high resolution radar.

Aircraft Navigation
For weather condition information and avoidance

Ship Safety
Avoid probable collision of ships

Space Remote Sensing Law Enforcement Military

Surveillance navigation and control of guided weapons Surveillance,