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Leadership and Organizational Culture

Leadership and Organizational Culture The hypothesis:

A strong leadership can positively influence the culture of an organization

In our recent PowerPoint presentation and in our group work, we have decided to build up our assignment on how a strong leadership can positively influence the culture of an organization when there is a shift in the pattern of the organizational culture. In this assignment, we will be looking at the Mauritius Union Assurance Company Limited and La Prudence Mauricienne Co. Lte. Both companies have been merged together due to Legal and Financial constraint and with this merging the Mauritius Union Group emerged as one of the leading companies in this sector. This change was due to the fact that all insurance company has to abide with the new provision of the Insurance Act 2005. From the provisions of the Insurance Act 2005, a Security Bond of Rs 25 million for each business was an obligation so both companies thought that it is more intelligent if they merged together. Life Insurance and General Insurance had to be split into separate section and by this merging; the Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd became the Mauritius Union Group, thus becoming more powerful in this sector. La Prudence Mauricienne Assurance Lte, now being a member of the Mauritius Union Group would be dealing with matters pertaining to Life Insurance and the Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd would be dealing with General Insurance. However, many difficulties arose when the two new organizational cultures became familiar to each other. Things were being done in their own way as they had two different organization cultures. Recent studies have shown that a good and healthy organization culture promotes stability and success in a business. A resistance to change can be tackled with a strong and positive leadership; As stated in the Law of Karma in Indian philosophy, every action has a reaction, and in relation to this, we can say that good leaders set path for others to follow and in line with the above, we can further state that, what a leader sow, the organization shall reap in its future.

Leadership and Organizational Culture

Table of Contents
Preface Introduction 3 Leadership.. 3 The Leadership Wheel... 3 Theories of Leadership.. 4 1. Great Man Theories... 4 2. Trait Theories. 5 3. Contingency Theories 5 4. Situational Theories... 5 5. Behavioral Theories... 5 6. Participative Theories 5 7. Management Theories 6 8. Relationship Theories 6 Theories of organizational culture according to Schein Artifacts. Espoused Values... Basic Assumptions Subcultures in an organization... Corporate culture... The Impact of Leadership on Organizational Culture... How an Organizational Culture Can Affect Leadership.... 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 11

Leadership and Organizational Culture within The Mauritius Union Assurance Company Limited... 12 Profile of the Company...... 12 Managing people.... 12 Training...... 13 Meritocracy.... 13 Performance Appraisal & Reward..... 14 Managing Change: Acquisition of La Prudence Mauricienne Assurance Lte by Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd. 14 The eight steps to manage change proposed by John Kotter. 15 Conclusion..... 17 References.. 19 2

Leadership and Organizational Culture

The culture of an organization depends greatly on what type of leadership is being promoted in its environment. The success and failure of the organization rest on the shoulders of the leader of how best he or she is encouraging and building a sense motivation to the employees.

1. Leadership
The definition of leadership highlights a number of related issues including vision, a team approach, action orientation and a sensitivity to both people and the business environment. Leaders are seen as agents of change and Leadership is a process by which a person influences others (followers) to accomplish an objective and direct the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills.

The Leadership Wheel

Each part of the wheel corresponds to an area of leadership. At the hub of the wheel, we have the vision, values, and purpose on which leaders effectively focus themselves and their teams or organizations (Focus and Context). Leaders also take initiative and do what needs to be done rather than waiting for someone else to do something (Responsibility for Choices). Leaders are authentic and lead by visible example, fostering openness and continuous feedback (Authenticity). Leaders are passionate and build strong commitment through involvement and ownership (Passion and Commitment). Leaders lead with heart and rouse team or organizational spirit (Spirit and Meaning). Leaders help people grow through strong coaching and continuous development (Growing and Developing). Finally, leaders energize people by building strong teams, inspiring and serving (Mobilizing and Energizing).

Leadership and Organizational Culture

The leadership wheel model provides a metaphor for situations we face at personal, team, or organizational levels. For example, just as a wheel's weight-bearing ability depends upon the strength of its hub, so does the strength of our hub determine the weight of the performance and change issues that we are able to carry. The wheel also represents the circular nature of leadership: there is neither beginning nor end. All the supporting leadership principles around the outside of the Leadership Wheel are interdependent and interconnected. If we, our team, or our organization develop these leadership skills, the wheel is well rounded. If we are deficient in one or more of these skills, the ride might be a little bumpy. A key part of our continuous leadership quest is to find the approaches that fit our individual values, personality and style. No one leadership style fits all. It is like trying to find a path in a field of newly fallen snow. Once we walk across the field, we discover our path. Leaders provide a bigger environment by delegating autonomy. Strong leaders are strong coaches. They clarify performance targets, develop skills and abilities, reinforce progress, and build on strengths. Leaders consult, facilitate, counsel, and guide. They also confront when they feel someone is not living up to his or her potential.
2. Theories of Leadership

Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill levels. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types:

1. "Great Man" Theories: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent that great leaders are born not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. 2. Trait Theories: Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often

Leadership and Organizational Culture

identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.

3. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.

4. Situational Theories: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.

5. Behavioral Theories: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.

6. Participative Theories: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decisionmaking process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.

7. Management Theories: Management theories (also known as "Transactional theories") focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.

Leadership and Organizational Culture

8. Relationship Theories: Relationship theories (also known as "Transformational theories") focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards.

3. Theories of organizational culture according to Schein

Edgar H Schein "Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon 'em" Shakespeare, Twelfth Night According to Schein.s (1981, 1985, 1992) theory, organizational culture is defined as A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as a correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.. (Schein 1992, p. 12, italics altered). According the Schein, organizational culture is the learned result of group experiences, and it is to a large extent unconscious (Schein 1992). Schein considers culture to be a three-layer phenomenon. Organizational culture can be examined on different levels. Different methods will generate information about the different levels of culture. The first level of culture consists of visible organizational processes and various artifacts. For example, dress codes and the general tidiness of the workplace are artifacts that tell something about the organizations culture. The first level, according to Schein, is difficult to interpret, however, because it represents the most superficial cultural phenomena, i.e. only reflections of the true corporate culture. For example, behavior which is a cultural artifact is also influenced by countless factors other than a companys culture (Schein 1992). The first cultural level also consists of various quality systems as well as information systems and databases connected with safety and the control/monitoring of operations (cf. Reason 1997). Similarly, cultural artifacts can be

Leadership and Organizational Culture

considered to include accident statistics, sick leave and corresponding indicators, which, correctly interpreted, can be used to form conclusions about the deeper characteristics of an organizations culture. This interpretation requires effective and diverse research methods and an understanding of the internal dynamics of the culture.


On surface; Sees Hears Feels Visible products: Language Technology Products Creations Style: clothing, manners of address, myths, stories Easy to observe Difficult to decipher Symbols are ambiguous Problems in classification

The second cultural level in the Schein model consists of the organizations espoused values. These are apparent in, for example, the organizations official objectives, declared norms and operating philosophy. Espoused values, however, do not always reflect a companys everyday operations. Most important in terms of operations is the cultures deepest level, namely its underlying assumptions (Schein 1985, 1992).

Leadership and Organizational Culture

Espoused Values

All group learning reflects original values Those who prevail influence group: the leaders First begins as shared value then becomes shared assumption Social validation happens with shared learning. Initially started by founder, leader and then assimilated.

Underlying assumptions relate to the groups learned solutions to problems relating to external adaptation and internal integration. These solutions gradually become self evident assumptions that cannot be called into question later. Problems related to external adaptation concern views of an organization tasks and objectives as well as the means to implement and assess them. A solution has to be found for them so that the organization can function and succeed in its environment. Problems related to internal integration and to maintaining operating capacity concern the creation of a common language and concepts, defining group limits, the level of authority relationships and interaction, as well as methods of reward and punishment. A solution has to be found for these so that members of the organization can function together in an organized and predictable working community (Schein 1985, 1992). Schein (1985, 1992) also distinguishes so-called deeper underlying assumptions, which relate, for example, to views of human nature as well as to the nature of information and the human activity in question. These are strongly influenced by national culture, but an organization always forms its own view of them in its operations. One can assume that the deeper underlying assumptions originally acted as a basis for interpretation in determining and resolving the problems of internal integration and external adaptation. In other words, they influence how the members of an organization perceive, think and feel in matters relating to the organization. Underlying assumptions function as an unconscious basis for action and a range of decisions that shape the culture further. Underlying assumptions, therefore, are not static; culture is in an epistemological sense the creation and recreation of shared reality. In Weick.s terms it can be said that organizational reality is an ongoing accomplishment (Weick 1993). According to Schein, even though underlying assumptions direct the actions of a companys members, the organizations underlying assumptions cannot be inferred from such actions (which are only cultural artifacts, see Figure 1). Actions are also always influenced by situation-specific and individual factors (Schein 1999). Espoused norms and an organizations official rules may, however, be in conflict with everyday (artifact level) actions. Thus they can also be in conflict with the underlying assumptions, which in the end direct these actions.

Leadership and Organizational Culture

Organizations may not necessarily perceive this conflict themselves or they may even actively deny its existence.

Basic Assumptions

Evolve as solution to problem is repeated over and over again. Hypothesis becomes reality To learn something new requires resurrection, reexamination, frame breaking Culture defines us: What we pay attention to What things mean React emotionally What actions to take when Humans need cognitive stability Defense mechanisms McGregor: if people are treated consistently in terms of certain basic assumptions, they come eventually to behave according to those assumptions in order to make their world stable and predictable. Different cultures make different assumptions about others based on own values etc: see them with our eyes not theirs. Third party may help solve differences between 2 cultures Each new member comes with own assumptions.

Although Schein.s theory has been criticized (e.g. Hatch 1993, Collins 1998, Parker 2000), it covers the central elements of culture well, namely its holistic, partly unconscious and learned nature. Organizational culture, therefore, is not merely a single new variable which describes organizations and which can be examined separately from the other variables that affect an organizations activities, such as the organizations structure, strategy, market orientation and the technology it uses. Organizational culture as a scientific concept strives to describe and explain activity in the organization as a whole. An integrated organizational culture reduces the uncertainty and

Leadership and Organizational Culture

ambiguity experienced in an environment and maintains an organizations operating capacity (Schein 1992, Weick 1995). Organizational culture is a dynamic phenomenon, however. Weick (1995) examines the continual and collective reality-building process that takes place in an organization. In this process the meaning of various events is deliberated and a common view is formed based on incomplete information. Weick calls this process sense making (Weick 1995). Creating meanings is not a democratic process; power struggle and politics are also very much involved (Alvesson & Berg 1992). History also plays an important role in the building of meanings. Weick (1993) states: .remembering and looking back are a primary source of meaning. (Weick 1993). In its actions an organization creates its own opportunities and boundaries again and again (Weick 1993, see also Giddens 1984).

Subcultures in an organization
Subcultures within an organization exist when smaller groups with like ideas from inside the larger organizational culture. Subcultures may develop among individuals who have the same customs, provide the same type of function in the workplace or speak the same language. The subculture allows those within it to identify with one another. These subcultures can be supportive of the primary organizational culture, or they can work against it. How these subcultures function will be dependent on the leaders of the subculture and their attitudes toward the company.

Corporate culture
Oftentimes, two cultures clash because people from different organizations perceive things differently. They can blame their counterpart if failure occurs because they regard the other as incompetent. The best thing Managers and CEOs can do to avoid this scenario is to introduce a different culture for the company or at least make their employees aware of what they should expect. This will minimize the adverse effects of mergers on the morale of the employees and ensure a smoother flow of operations. Corporate culture shapes the way people act and interact and strongly influences how things get done. It encompasses the organizational goals, behavioral norms, and dominant ideologies.

4. The Impact of Leadership on Organizational Culture

Leading by example is the best way to influence an organization's culture.


Leadership and Organizational Culture

Corporations are most successful when employees feel valuable and appreciated, which tends to lead to increased commitment, loyalty and productivity. Developing a positive organizational culture, one that refers to the beliefs, values and behaviors that the business applies to everyday challenges, falls squarely on the shoulders of the company's executive leaders. Leaders who encourage creativity and honest communication can foster an organizational culture that can maneuver around any challenge successfully.

5. How an Organizational Culture Can Affect Leadership

Leaders are supposed to be in charge of organizations, but the culture of an organization has tremendous weight and influence in the workplace. If leaders wish to institute change, their leadership styles must be strategically aligned to accommodate the organizational culture.

Organizational Culture Organizational culture is a concept that describes the beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors of an organization. These traits are developed by people in the organization who identify themselves based on similarities, like-mindedness and norms.

Leadership Leadership is about guiding others towards a unified goal, by serving as a positive influence and using motivational tactics. In business, leaders are used to guide companies through structural, operational and procedural changes.

Types There are many types of leadership, such as directive and supportive. Directive leadership is focused on outcomes and productivity, and these leaders give their subordinates orders. Supportive leadership is based on building relationships with employees. Effects Business leaders should evaluate the organizational culture before determining what style of leadership they intend to employ. This is because their leadership style can have a positive or negative impact on the organizational culture.

Benefits According to the June 2005 issue of "Journal of Change Management," organizational culture has a lot of power within a business structure. If a leadership style goes against the grain of the

Leadership and Organizational Culture

organizational culture, it can be met with resistance and therefore that leader will not be effective or successful.

6. Leadership and Organizational Culture within The Mauritius Union Assurance Company Limited
Profile of the Company The Mauritius Union Assurance Company Limited was incorporated in 1948 and in 2008 the Company celebrated its Diamond Jubilee - 60 years proudly serving Mauritian people. The Mauritius Union is one among the leading insurance organizations serving businesses and individuals with a broad range of insurance products and insurance-related services. Mauritius Union is the oldest Mauritian composite insurance company, listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius since 1993. Being financially strong, and in its quest to provide valueadded to its shareholders, Mauritius Union proudly announced the acquisition of National Mutual Fund (NMF Ltd) on December 2009 and that of La Prudence Mauricienne Co. Lte in March 2010. La Prudence Mauricienne also operates in the General and Life insurances sector, and owns a subsidiary Feber Associates, which specializes in Group Pension Schemes. Hence, a bigger and stronger Mauritius Union Group is being formed to support all the activities. Managing people From one of its annual report, the company states; An exemplary company in Mauritius as it has successfully developed and built on principles that include respect for the individual, equality of opportunity and independence to all. From this, we can deduce that a change in the leadership style is in placed at the company where job satisfaction, determination and motivation are being felt. However, a decrease in the number of customers were being felt regarding the personal pension when government policy was put in placed whereby it is still stated that people cannot deduct pension from Income Tax. Being faced with such unforeseen situation, the insurance company launched a new service whereby loan activities were offered and the number of Clientele regains confidence at the company.

Leadership and Organizational Culture

Training The Company put a lot of emphasis in its method of recruiting talented, ambitious and motivated staffs. As said earlier, leaders with their strong leadership skills motivate the team and encourage them towards new perspective because this is not only beneficial to them but it also brings growth to the organization. From grass root level to top management level, training is of a very important aspect. Training is taken into consideration for each and every one to be in-line with the modernization and globalization. The Company provides training to its employees by providing workshop sessions, coaching, and shadowing. Employees are also assessed through a Personal Development Plan. Training is beneficial not only to the organization but it also benefits its employees by empowering and enriching their knowledge to enable them to face new challenges of the company and also face the demand of the customers. New recruits are placed on a probation period of six months to get them adapted to the organizational culture. On-the-Job training programs are offered to them. It is at that particular point that we can determine whether the employee have been able to get adapted to the environment of the company by showing a sense of appartenance and dedication to the position occupied. Meritocracy Meritocracies are also prone at the company in the sense that, having the required skills, potentials, and self-determination/motivation, can easily make an employee to move steps above within the company. Leaders pave the way for others to follow and then followers are given their chance to be leaders. In several cases, simple sales agents have been given opportunities to make their proof in position such as Senior Managers. Performance Appraisal & Reward Employees retention and satisfaction are also taken into consideration. Better are your performance, better shall you be rewarded. Compensation, benefits and rewards are also provided for good performers. A system of Performance Appraisal is in place at the company whereby on a regular basis, performance of employees are evaluated on KPI (Key Performance Indicators) and objectives which were set. It is also noted that through this clear method of evaluation, productive employees have a sense of being valued.


Leadership and Organizational Culture

Other benefits such as beautiful uniforms, perfect working conditions, mode of transport, bus, car allowance are also factors which further motivates and transform the employees to be more efficient and productive. As said; A happy employee makes a happy customer.

7. Managing Change: Acquisition of La Prudence Mauricienne Assurance Lte by Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd.
The Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd made the acquisition of La Prudence Mauricienne Assurance Lte in March 2010. Both merged together to became one so as to respond to external environment. It is also observed that one of the main objectives behind this acquisition is due to the fact according to the provisions of the amended Insurance Act; all insurance company will have to split their businesses into two parts, one for the Life Insurance and the other for General Insurance. By this merging, the Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd became the Mauritius Union Group, thus becoming more powerful in this sector. La Prudence Mauricienne Assurance Lte, now being a member of the Mauritius Union Group would be dealing with matters pertaining to Life Insurance and the Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd would be dealing with General Insurance. However, leaders from both companies are facing many problems since the merging of these two. Two different organizations cultures, two different mindset, two different behaviors. Leaders have to tackle the change process carefully for not creating any conflict or a state of chaos. Leaders and Senior Managers were put on the same table to identify the causes of problems which came to be the Human Resource Management. At various levels, employees were reluctant to change. Employees from each company were doing things in their own way rather than doing things in line with the Mauritius Union Group Policies. Frustrations were somehow being felt from both companies to accept each ones new organizations culture. In order to redress the situation, the Managing Director of the Mauritius Union Group Ltd with his strong leadership capacity decided to achieve the vision and bring solutions to the arising problems which the companies were being faced with. An outstanding team of Senior Managers and Team Leaders both from The Mauritius Union Assurance Ltd and La Prudence Mauricienne Assurance Lte were constituted to pave the way by setting examples for junior staffs to follow. Each and everyone have to take the responsibility for leading, by living the firms values. All employees had to work together towards shared goals.


Leadership and Organizational Culture

The leaders and Senior Managers have decided that, in order to facilitate and bring employees on the same playing field level, the model of John Kotter were to be applied. John Kotter is internationally known and widely regarded as the foremost speaker on the topics of Leadership and Change. For J. Kotter, each case is unique in itself and he has identified eight steps to manage change. His steps must be followed step-wise to achieve success. In order to redress the situation at the Mauritius Union Group Ltd, the following steps were to be adopted, namely; 8. The eight steps to manage change proposed by John Kotter To inform the all employees the why of the urgency of this merging and to communicate to them that it is more beneficial if the companies join together and explain to them the provision of the Insurance Act and amendment which have been brought. Invite the Senior Managers and the employees to come with ideas so as to bring and promote a new culture.

Convince all stakeholders that the change is important. A powerful committed team with Senior Managers who have will and power to lead and facilitate the change from all departments at all level has to be constituted. Team Building exercises are to be carried out for the Senior Managers with the objectives to improve the morality and the leadership skills so that they will be able to tackle barriers and better understand the new structure. Moreover this will give them tools to handle the junior employees in their team.

The Senior Managers will have to communicate the clear vision and the values throughout the organization. The Senior Managers are expected to first familiarize with the organizational culture, the vision and the values and then to communicate same. All employees should clearly be made aware what the leaders want to achieve, after then it will be easier for him to make sense of the directives given to him.

Habitual communication and contact between Senior Managers and employees are expected. Senior Managers are expected to demonstrate the kind of behaviour they want from the employees and they should be at the disposal of employees for all ideas and comments. A culture of contribution and relations should be created.

Team building workshops for each department should be organized and this will enable to remove barriers between employees as well as to give them tools. Intensive training, coaching and monitoring will be the best methods to empower each and every in the merged organization.
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Leadership and Organizational Culture

For short term win, Key Performance Indicators are to be set and short term performance appraisal exercise will be carried out. Each Senior Manager will assess his department and those who will be found to be committed and are compatible to the new culture will be rewarded.

Continuous Refresher courses will help to maintain and reinforce the new behavior. Nurturing of potential will also be the concern of the leaders. Recognition and rewarding people for making change happen motivate people in performing better. The Senior Managers have to determine along with the employees the causes for resistance to change and strategies have to be adopted to remedy the problems. John Kotter assumed that each success provides an opportunity to build on what is right and to identify what can be improved accordingly.

It was also decided that in order to have a motivated and committed personnel, all the success and the progress of this merging will be communicated in due time to them. When recruiting staff and during training, refresher course, the values will be communicated. The securing of the culture is vital.

In line with of John Kotters eight steps plan for implementing change, we are of opinion that if these steps are correctly followed then Mauritius Union Group should not face much difficulties in managing change and in bringing a new sense of Self-Satisfaction and appartenance within the company.

9. Conclusion We must say that each organization has its own leadership style and cultural background and a single change in those aspects sometimes may be felt as a negative impact its future course of action. A well established and healthy company should adopt strategies in order to promote changes, bring about innovation and also create a sense of motivation within the environment of the business which are considered to bring more profitability.


Leadership and Organizational Culture

Having new talents and recruiting new ones are also important because visions vary from one to another. One of the main qualities in new recruits should be their abilities to be versatile, i.e. to be an all-rounder so as to be able to get adapted to any changing situation/position. Good and effective communication is another factor which should be taken into consideration for a company to be successful. Correct implementation of the strategies proposed earlier on will surely achieved good result. To conclude, the linkage between organizational culture and leadership is manifested and carried through the leaders role and functions. Though different levels of thinking regarding the specific functions of leaders and subordinates are apparent within the organization, transmitting the organizational culture passes through different stages from the founders towards successions. There are three proofs that leadership has a direct effect on organizational culture. Organizational culture is built by the leaders since leaders are the ones who determine the purpose of the founding organizations while emphasizing the leaders and organizational members worth in arriving at accomplishing common objectives. An implicit attribute for leaders is their empathy for identifying themselves to their subordinates and vice versa though the fear of failing is already there. Since leaders created organizational culture it is also their responsibility to maintain such culture and all the processes, systems and frameworks that accompanies it. An aggressive approach of integrating values and knowledge from internal and external sources that supports the positive development of organizational culture is critical. Internally, there are primary and secondary embedding mechanisms that an organization must utilize. The involvement of triedand tested processes, exploiting them and discovering both functional and dysfunctional attributes within the organization purports the evolution of new patterns of organizational culture. In order to protect organizational culture from outside forces, leaders must act as watchdogs. To wit, safeguarding the organizational culture, values and philosophy is likewise protecting the organization from people to equipments to processes and the like. Overseering requires an organizational learning and leaders are considered as effective tools to watch over the learning process to maintain and to look after organizational culture.

"A true Master is not the one with the most students, but one who creates the most Masters. A true leader is not the one with the most followers, but one who creates the most leaders." Neale Donald Walsch


Leadership and Organizational Culture

10. References:
1. Clark, D. (1997). Leadership Styles

URL:// donclark/leader/leadstl.html (15 October 2010) 2. Heathfield, S.M. (2006) Leadership values and ethics , Secrets of leadership success URL:// (17 October 2010)

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3. Managing Directors Report Annual Report 2007 URL:// (23 October 2010)


6. 7.] 8. 9.


11. Lecture notes