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CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................1

PARAGRAPH 1 - GENERAL......................................................................................................................1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.5.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Definitions ..............................................................................................................................1 Sequence of Documents ........................................................................................................1 Abbreviations .........................................................................................................................2 Dimensions and Units ............................................................................................................2 Standards and Organisations..................................................................................................2 Mechanical Abbreviations .......................................................................................................2 Electrical Abbreviations ..........................................................................................................3 The Site ..................................................................................................................................3 Site .......................................................................................................................................3 Condition of Site ....................................................................................................................4 Access to Site........................................................................................................................4 Clearance of Site ...................................................................................................................4 Prevention of Surface Erosion.................................................................................................5 Care of Water ........................................................................................................................5 Unauthorized Persons ............................................................................................................5 Advertising ............................................................................................................................5 Accommodation and Facilities on Site ...................................................................................5 General .................................................................................................................................5 Accommodation for the Contractor ..........................................................................................6 Offices for the Engineer's and Employer's Representatives .......................................................6 Site Laboratory ......................................................................................................................6 Power, Water, Sewerage, Drainage, Sanitary Provisions ..........................................................6 Telecommunications ..............................................................................................................7 First Aid Arrangements ...........................................................................................................7 Programme of Works and Methods of Construction...............................................................7 Environmental Management Plan ...........................................................................................8 Notice of Operations ...............................................................................................................8 Working Hours .......................................................................................................................8

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.22.1 1.22.2 1.22.3 1.22.4 1.22.5 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.27.1 1.27.2 1.27.3 1.27.4 1.28 1.28.1 1.28.2 1.28.3 1.28.4 1.28.5 1.28.6 Datum and Benchmarks .......................................................................................................8 Setting Out............................................................................................................................9 Joint Measurement of Works ................................................................................................9 Documentation to be Provided .............................................................................................9 Returns of Labour and Plant ...............................................................................................10 Works Diary ........................................................................................................................10 Drawings and Documents ..................................................................................................10 Photographs .......................................................................................................................12 Contractor's Responsibility for Design ...............................................................................12 Temporary Works ...............................................................................................................12 Approval of Contractor's Proposals....................................................................................13 Contractor's Staff................................................................................................................13 Assistance to the Engineer .................................................................................................13 General .............................................................................................................................13 Labour ..............................................................................................................................13 Surveying Equipment .........................................................................................................13 Protective Items .................................................................................................................13 Transport...........................................................................................................................14 Care of Public Utility Services .............................................................................................14 Testing and Inspection .......................................................................................................15 Tests on Completion...........................................................................................................16 Record Drawings ................................................................................................................17 Operation and Maintenance Manuals..................................................................................17 General .............................................................................................................................17 Operating Instructions ........................................................................................................18 Maintenance Instructions ....................................................................................................18 Minimum Inclusions............................................................................................................18 Instruction of DJB Staff ......................................................................................................19 General .............................................................................................................................19 Training Methodology .........................................................................................................19 Schedule of Instructions .....................................................................................................20 Seminar Room...................................................................................................................20 Seminar Aids .....................................................................................................................20 Additional Instruction Periods during Defects Liability Period .................................................20

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
1.28.7 1.28.8 1.28.9 Programme of Formal Three Week Instruction Period ...........................................................21 Video Tapes of Instruction Sessions ....................................................................................23 Operation of Installed Plant during the Period of Instruction ...................................................23

PARAGRAPH 2 - MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - GENERAL ..........................................................24 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 General Requirements for Materials .....................................................................................24 Published Standards ............................................................................................................24 Proprietary Products ............................................................................................................24 Approval of Equivalent Materials ..........................................................................................24 Samples ................................................................................................................................25 Purchase of Materials ...........................................................................................................25 Works Off-Site ......................................................................................................................25 Certificates ...........................................................................................................................25 Transport and Storage, Care of Works .................................................................................25 Design for Maintenance ......................................................................................................26 Means for Lifting .................................................................................................................26 Suitability for Duty ..............................................................................................................26 Wearing Parts .....................................................................................................................26 Spare Parts .........................................................................................................................26 Keys....................................................................................................................................27 Access and Safety Protection .............................................................................................27 Fixings ................................................................................................................................27 Special Tools ......................................................................................................................27 Resistance to Vermin ..........................................................................................................27 Identification Labels ...........................................................................................................27 Resistance to Corrosion and Abrasion ...............................................................................28 Welding...............................................................................................................................28 Installation ..........................................................................................................................28 Operation of Unsatisfactory Equipment ..............................................................................29 Construction Equipment .....................................................................................................29 Labour and Skilled Technicians ..........................................................................................29 Materials to be Furnished ...................................................................................................29 Protection of the Works ......................................................................................................29

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
PARAGRAPH 3 - PIPELINE AND SEWERAGE WORKS ..........................................................................30 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.2.10 3.2.11 3.2.12 3.2.13 3.2.14 3.2.15 3.2.16 3.2.17 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.5 3.5.1 General .................................................................................................................................30 Materials ...............................................................................................................................30 Vitrified Clay Pipes and Fittings .............................................................................................30 Concrete Pipes and Fittings ..................................................................................................30 Prestressed Concrete Pipes and Fittings ...............................................................................31 Internal Coating of Concrete Pipes and Fittings ......................................................................31 Asbestos-Cement Pipes and Fittings .....................................................................................31 Ductile Iron Pipes and Fittings ...............................................................................................31 Steel Pipes and Fittings ........................................................................................................31 Unplasticized PVC Pipes and Fittings ....................................................................................32 Polyethylene Pipes and Fittings ............................................................................................32 Pipe Bedding Material ........................................................................................................32 Manhole Covers and Frames ..............................................................................................32 Gullies, Gully Gratings and Frames .....................................................................................33 Manhole Step Irons ............................................................................................................33 Manhole Ladders ...............................................................................................................33 Manhole Safety Chains ......................................................................................................33 Manhole Grab Rails ...........................................................................................................33 Marker and Indicator Posts .................................................................................................33

Excavation of Trenches for Pipelines and Cables.................................................................34 Excavation ..........................................................................................................................34 Support System ...................................................................................................................34 Dewatering ..........................................................................................................................35 Pipelines ...............................................................................................................................36 Installation ...........................................................................................................................36 Foundation ..........................................................................................................................36 Handling of Pipes.................................................................................................................36 Jointing and Cutting .............................................................................................................37 Connections to Sewers ........................................................................................................37 Curves and Bends ...............................................................................................................38 Protection ............................................................................................................................38 Manholes and Chambers ......................................................................................................39 General ...............................................................................................................................39

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.8 Precast Concrete Units ........................................................................................................39 Inverts and Benching ...........................................................................................................39 Setting Covers and Frames ..................................................................................................39 Pipes into Structures ............................................................................................................39 Testing..................................................................................................................................40 General ...............................................................................................................................40 Testing of Pressure Pipelines ...............................................................................................40 Testing of Gravity Pipelines ..................................................................................................40 Restoration of Surfaces ........................................................................................................41 Classification .......................................................................................................................41 Contractors Damage ............................................................................................................41 Settlement during Temporary Restoration ..............................................................................41 Temporary Restoration.........................................................................................................41 Permanent Restoration - Concrete Roads .............................................................................42 Permanent Restoration - Other Roads ...................................................................................42 Disinfection ..........................................................................................................................42

PARAGRAPH 4 - CIVIL WORKS ..............................................................................................................44 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.5.1 4.1.5.2 4.1.5.3 4.1.5.4 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.10.1 Materials ...............................................................................................................................44 Fill Material General .............................................................................................................44 Fill Material to be placed below Water ...................................................................................44 Steel Sheet Piles .................................................................................................................44 Cement ...............................................................................................................................45 Aggregates for Concrete ......................................................................................................45 General Requirements......................................................................................................45 Potential Aggregate - Cement Reactivity ............................................................................45 Fine Aggregate ................................................................................................................46 Coarse Aggregate ............................................................................................................46 Water ..................................................................................................................................46 Reinforcement Steel.............................................................................................................46 Tying Wire ...........................................................................................................................47 Cover Blocks and Spacers for Reinforcement ........................................................................47 Geo-synthetics and Accessories .........................................................................................47 General ..........................................................................................................................47

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
4.1.10.2 4.1.11 4.1.12 4.1.13 4.1.14 4.1.15 4.1.16 4.1.17 4.1.17.1 4.1.17.2 4.1.18 4.1.19 4.1.20 4.1.21 4.1.22 4.1.23 4.1.24 4.1.25 4.1.26 4.1.27 4.1.27.1 4.1.27.2 4.1.27.3 4.1.27.4 4.1.27.5 4.1.27.6 4.1.28 4.1.29 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 Characteristics of Geo-synthetics .....................................................................................47 Stone ................................................................................................................................48 Concrete Blocks/Bricks for Slope Protection Works ..............................................................48 Clay ..................................................................................................................................48 Geotextile Filter Fabric........................................................................................................48 Sand and Gravel for Underdrain Filters ................................................................................49 Gabions ............................................................................................................................49 Structural Mild Steel ...........................................................................................................50 Steel...............................................................................................................................50 Sections .........................................................................................................................50 Nuts, Bolts and Welding Electrodes .....................................................................................50 Steel Water Storage Tanks .................................................................................................50 Glass Reinforced Plastic Water Storage Tanks ....................................................................50 Aggregates for Roads and Pavement Structures ..................................................................51 Road Base Course.............................................................................................................51 Asphaltic Surface Treatment ...............................................................................................51 Aggregates for Asphaltic Surface Treatment ........................................................................51 Bituminous Prime Coat .......................................................................................................52 Bituminous Tack Coat ........................................................................................................52 Asphaltic Concrete .............................................................................................................52 Asphaltic Material ............................................................................................................52 Mineral Aggregates .........................................................................................................52 Coarse Aggregate ...........................................................................................................52 Fine Aggregate ...............................................................................................................52 Filler ...............................................................................................................................53 Combined Mineral Aggregate ...........................................................................................53 Concrete Tile Pavement .....................................................................................................53 Reflectorised Paint for Road Markings .................................................................................54

Earthworks ...........................................................................................................................54 Notice to be Given before Commencing Earthworks ...............................................................54 Earthworks to Lines and Levels ............................................................................................54 Clearing ..............................................................................................................................54 Demolition and Dismantling ..................................................................................................55 Stripping of Topsoil ..............................................................................................................55

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 4.2.12 4.2.13 4.2.14 4.2.15 4.2.16 4.2.17 4.2.18 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.5.1 4.4.5.2 4.4.5.3 4.4.6 4.4.7 4.4.8 4.4.9 4.4.10 4.4.11 4.4.12 4.5 Relocation of Utilities ............................................................................................................55 Excavation General..............................................................................................................56 Extent of Excavations ...........................................................................................................56 Slips, Falls and Excess Excavation .......................................................................................57 Support System .................................................................................................................57 Dewatering ........................................................................................................................58 Excavations to be Kept Dry .................................................................................................58 Excavation of Berms and Slopes .........................................................................................58 Excavation of Drains ..........................................................................................................58 Excavation of Roads ..........................................................................................................58 Excavation for Structures ....................................................................................................59 Tolerances for Excavation ..................................................................................................59 Preparation of Formation ....................................................................................................59

Piling ....................................................................................................................................60 General ...............................................................................................................................60 Steel Sheet Piling.................................................................................................................60 Concrete Piling ....................................................................................................................60 Backfill and Fill .....................................................................................................................62 Fill Material General .............................................................................................................62 Fill Material under Structures ................................................................................................62 Placing and Compaction of Fill and Backfill ............................................................................62 Fill placed below Water ........................................................................................................63 Embankments .....................................................................................................................63 General ...........................................................................................................................63 Excavation .......................................................................................................................63 Embankment Placing........................................................................................................63 Tolerances for Fill ................................................................................................................64 Control Testing of Fill ...........................................................................................................64 Allowance for Settlement ......................................................................................................64 Works at Borrow Pits............................................................................................................64 Disposal of Surplus Material................................................................................................65 Stockpiling .........................................................................................................................65 Cleaning of Drains .............................................................................................................66

Slope and Bottom Protection Works ....................................................................................66

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6 4.5.7 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 4.6.5 4.6.6 4.6.6.1 4.6.6.2 4.6.6.3 4.6.6.4 4.6.7 4.6.8 4.6.9 4.6.10 4.6.11 4.6.12 4.6.13 4.6.14 4.6.14.2 4.6.14.3 4.6.15 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.7.4 General ...............................................................................................................................66 Mortar .................................................................................................................................66 Stone Pitching .....................................................................................................................66 Rip Rap...............................................................................................................................67 Gabions ..............................................................................................................................67 Clay Lining ..........................................................................................................................68 Geo-synthetic Fabric Layers .................................................................................................68 Concrete Work ......................................................................................................................70 Storage of Cement ...............................................................................................................70 Testing of Cement................................................................................................................70 Records and Returns of Cement ...........................................................................................70 Storage of Aggregates .........................................................................................................70 Additives .............................................................................................................................70 Concrete Mixes....................................................................................................................70 Quality of Concrete ...........................................................................................................70 Concrete Mix Design ........................................................................................................71 Concrete Mix Design - Underwater Concrete......................................................................72 Trial Mixes .......................................................................................................................72 Mixing Concrete...................................................................................................................73 Transporting Concrete..........................................................................................................73 Placing and Compacting Concrete ........................................................................................74 Concrete Placed on Set Concrete .......................................................................................74 Concrete Placed Underwater ..............................................................................................75 Concreting in Unfavourable Weather ...................................................................................75 Curing Concrete.................................................................................................................75 Precast Concrete ...............................................................................................................76 Precast Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Piles.................................................................77 Testing and Rejection ......................................................................................................78 Testing Concrete and Rejection ..........................................................................................78

Reinforcement ......................................................................................................................80 General ...............................................................................................................................80 Working Drawings and Bending Schedules............................................................................80 Splicing and Concrete Cover to Reinforcement Steel ..............................................................80 Cutting, Bending and Fixing of Reinforcement Steel ...............................................................80

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.3.1 4.8.3.2 4.8.3.4 4.8.3.4 4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.3.1 4.9.3.2 4.9.3.3 4.9.3.4 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.13.1 4.13.2 4.13.3 4.13.4 4.13.4.1 4.13.4.2 4.13.4.3 4.13.4.4 4.13.4.5 4.13.4.6 4.14 4.14.1 4.14.2 4.14.3 Formwork .............................................................................................................................81 General Requirements .........................................................................................................81 Removal of Formwork ..........................................................................................................82 Surface Finishes ..................................................................................................................82 Ordinary Finish.................................................................................................................82 Smooth Finish ..................................................................................................................83 Broomed Finish ................................................................................................................83 Floor Finish ......................................................................................................................83

Joints....................................................................................................................................83 Polythene Sheeting ..............................................................................................................83 Construction Joints ..............................................................................................................83 Movement Joints..................................................................................................................84 Movement Joint Filler........................................................................................................84 Joint Sealer......................................................................................................................84 Waterstops ......................................................................................................................84 Dowel Bars ......................................................................................................................85 Repair of Concrete ..............................................................................................................85 Testing of Concrete Water Retaining Structures.................................................................85 Tolerances ..........................................................................................................................86 Repair of Existing Concrete ................................................................................................86 Dewatering and Cleaning ...................................................................................................86 Identification of Repairs ......................................................................................................86 Materials ...........................................................................................................................86 Types of Defects ................................................................................................................87 Repair of Cracks 1 up to 3mm wide ..................................................................................87 Repair of Leaking Cracks 1 up to 3 mm wide .....................................................................87 Repair of Cracks 3 up to 20mm wide ................................................................................88 Repair of Defective Concrete ...........................................................................................88 Repair of Deteriorated Joints ............................................................................................89 Repair of Voids under Concrete Slabs ..............................................................................89

Steel Work ..........................................................................................................................90 General .............................................................................................................................90 Standards for Materials and Workmanship ...........................................................................90 Sizes and Dimensions ........................................................................................................90

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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CONTENTS
4.14.4 4.14.5 4.14.6 4.14.6.1 4.14.6.2 4.14.6.3 4.14.6.4 4.14.6.5 4.14.6.6 4.14.7 4.14.8 4.15 4.15.1 4.15.2 4.15.2.1 4.15.2.2 4.15.2.3 4.15.3 4.15.3.1 4.15.3.2 4.15.3.3 4.15.4 4.15.5 4.16 4.16.1 4.16.2 4.17 4.17.1 4.17.2 4.17.3 4.17.4 4.17.5 4.17.6 4.17.7 Samples and Test Certificates.............................................................................................90 Working Drawings and Method Statement ...........................................................................91 Fabrication ........................................................................................................................91 Welding ..........................................................................................................................91 Bending ..........................................................................................................................91 Cutting............................................................................................................................91 Holing .............................................................................................................................91 Bolting ............................................................................................................................92 Marking of Parts ..............................................................................................................92 Works Erection ..................................................................................................................92 Site Erection ......................................................................................................................92 Water Storage Tanks ..........................................................................................................93 General .............................................................................................................................93 Steel Water Storage Tanks .................................................................................................93 General ..........................................................................................................................93 Supervision of Erection of Steel Tanks ..............................................................................93 Design of Supporting Tower for Steel Water Reservoirs .....................................................93 Glass Reinforced Plastic Water Storage Tanks ....................................................................94 General ..........................................................................................................................94 Supervision of Erection of GRP Tanks ..............................................................................94 Design of Supporting Tower for GRP Water Storage Tanks................................................94 Reinforced Concrete Tanks ................................................................................................94 Disinfection of Tanks ..........................................................................................................95 Protection and Painting of Metal .........................................................................................95 Painting .............................................................................................................................95 Galvanising .......................................................................................................................96 Roads and Pavements ........................................................................................................96 Road Construction .............................................................................................................96 Types of Pavement Structures ............................................................................................97 Grade and Alignment Control ..............................................................................................97 Curves and Transitions .......................................................................................................97 Materials and Plant for Roads and Pavement Structures .......................................................97 Sub Grade .........................................................................................................................98 Base Course......................................................................................................................98

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
4.17.8 4.17.9 4.17.10 4.17.11 4.17.12 4.17.13 4.18 4.18.1 4.18.2 4.18.3 4.18.4 4.18.5 4.18.6 4.18.7 4.19 4.19.1 4.19.2 Asphaltic Surface Treatment .............................................................................................100 Bituminous Prime Coat .....................................................................................................103 Bituminous Tack Coat ....................................................................................................104 Asphaltic Concrete .........................................................................................................104 Concrete Kerbs ..............................................................................................................106 Reflectorised Paint for Road Markings .............................................................................106

Sidewalks and Other Paved Areas ....................................................................................107 Reinforced Concrete Sidewalk ..........................................................................................107 Stone Surfaced Tile Sidewalk ...........................................................................................107 Paving Block Sidewalk .....................................................................................................107 Concrete Tile Pavement ...................................................................................................107 Hot-Asphaltic Sidewalk .....................................................................................................107 Limit of Construction and Allowable Tolerances ..................................................................108 Other Requirements .........................................................................................................108 Fencing and Walls ............................................................................................................108 Fences and Gates............................................................................................................108 Existing Boundary Walls and Fences .................................................................................108

PARAGRAPH 5 - BUILDING WORKS ....................................................................................................109 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 5.1.11 5.1.12 5.1.13 5.1.14 Materials .............................................................................................................................109 Precast Concrete Blocks ....................................................................................................109 Mortar ...............................................................................................................................109 Damp-proof Courses in Walls .............................................................................................109 Timber ..............................................................................................................................109 Chipboard and Plywood .....................................................................................................110 Nails and Screws ...............................................................................................................110 Timber Glue ......................................................................................................................110 Flush Doors .......................................................................................................................110 Metal Door Frames ............................................................................................................110 Metal Windows and Doors ................................................................................................110 Louvred Windows ............................................................................................................110 Roller Shutter Doors .........................................................................................................111 Ironmongery ....................................................................................................................111 Suspended Ceilings .........................................................................................................111

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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CONTENTS
5.1.15 5.1.16 5.1.17 5.1.18 5.1.19 5.1.20 5.1.21 5.1.22 5.1.23 5.1.24 5.1.25 5.1.26 5.1.27 5.1.28 5.1.29 5.1.30 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.4 5.4.1 Aluminium Sheet Roofing .................................................................................................111 Asbestos Cement Sheet Roofing.......................................................................................111 Metal Roof and Wall Sheeting ...........................................................................................111 Clear Sheet Glass ............................................................................................................112 Fixed Metal Louvres .........................................................................................................112 Sandtex Textured Finish ...................................................................................................112 Insulation Board ...............................................................................................................112 Precast Terrazzo Tiles......................................................................................................112 Ceramic Tiles ..................................................................................................................112 Plastic Pipes for Hot and Cold Water Services ...................................................................112 Stop Valves .....................................................................................................................112 Draw-off Taps ..................................................................................................................112 Water Storage Tanks .......................................................................................................113 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipes...............................................................................................113 Sanitary Appliances .........................................................................................................113 PVC Tiling and Skirting .....................................................................................................113

Blockwork Walls .................................................................................................................113 Storage of Materials ...........................................................................................................113 Mortar Mixing.....................................................................................................................114 Blockwork .........................................................................................................................114 Protection and Curing.........................................................................................................114 Non Load-bearing Walls .....................................................................................................114 Ties to Concrete Structures ................................................................................................114 Movement Joints................................................................................................................114 Carpentry and Joinery ........................................................................................................115 General .............................................................................................................................115 Timber Preservation ...........................................................................................................115 Nails and Screws ...............................................................................................................115 Finished Sizes ...................................................................................................................115 Workmanship ....................................................................................................................115 Check before Priming .........................................................................................................116 Defects .............................................................................................................................116 Doors and Windows ...........................................................................................................116 General .............................................................................................................................116

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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CONTENTS
5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.6.5 5.6.6 5.6.7 5.6.8 5.6.9 5.6.10 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5 5.7.6 5.7.7 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 Fixed Windows ..................................................................................................................116 Glazing .............................................................................................................................116 Fixing of Doors and Windows .............................................................................................116 Ironmongery ......................................................................................................................117 Lamination ........................................................................................................................117 Roofing and Wall Cladding .................................................................................................117 Metal Roof and Wall Sheeting .............................................................................................117 Asbestos Roof Sheeting .....................................................................................................118 Bituminous Roofing of Slabs ...............................................................................................118 Aluminium Sheet Roofing ...................................................................................................119 Plumbing Installations ........................................................................................................119 General .............................................................................................................................119 Coupling Unions ................................................................................................................119 Valves ...............................................................................................................................119 Overflow Pipes ..................................................................................................................119 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipes ................................................................................................120 Sanitary Appliances ...........................................................................................................120 Pipework and Fittings .........................................................................................................120 Rainwater Pipes and Gutters ..............................................................................................121 Testing of Waste and Soil Pipes..........................................................................................121 Testing of Water Supply Pipes ..........................................................................................122

Rendering and Other Finishes ............................................................................................122 Plastering and Rendering ...................................................................................................122 Granolithic Floor Screed .....................................................................................................123 In-situ Terrazzo Paving and Skirtings ..................................................................................123 Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles .................................................................................................123 Ceramic Floor and Skirting Tiles .........................................................................................123 Roofing Tiles .....................................................................................................................123 Protection of Tiling .............................................................................................................124 Painting and other Coatings ...............................................................................................124 General .............................................................................................................................124 Paints ...............................................................................................................................124 Testing of Paint..................................................................................................................124 Preparation and Maintenance of Surfaces ...........................................................................125

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

CONTENTS
5.8.5 5.8.6 5.8.7 5.8.8 5.8.9 5.8.10 5.8.11 5.8.12 Painting Workmanship and Conditions ................................................................................125 Protection and Painting of Softwood ....................................................................................126 Protection of Hardwood ......................................................................................................126 Protection of Wood in Water ...............................................................................................126 Protection and Painting of Concrete, Plasters and Blockwork ................................................126 Colours ...........................................................................................................................126 Rehabilitation of Existing Painting ......................................................................................127 Summary of Coating Systems ...........................................................................................127

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

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GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONSGENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS PARAGRAPH 1 - GENERAL

1.1

Definitions In this Specification (as hereinafter defined) the following words and expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned to them: "Specification" means both General Specification and Particular Specification. "General Specification" means this specification specifying description, requirements for materials and the construction method, and other requirements which are not shown on the drawings. The General Specification covers all classes of workmanship, materials and equipment commonly involved in construction. Hence, the General Specification may specify works that are not applicable to this particular contract. The General Specification shall be used in conjunction with the drawings and the Particular Specification. "Particular Specification" means the specification which the Engineer has specifically specified for any particular work and any revisions thereof which have been approved by the Engineer. It shall include additional specifications prepared before or during the construction for the modification or addition for any specific parts of the Works. "Provided" and its derivatives means the complete design, manufacture, delivery, installation, testing and commissioning of the works, inclusive of such ancillary services as inspection and witnessed testing at the places of manufacture, workshop and site painting, handling on site, site trials and of all such other services as are noted in the Specification or reasonably necessary for the safe, reliable and efficient completion of the Contract. "Earth excavation" is defined as excavation of any naturally occurring or man made or placed material that can be removed manually or by mechanical shovel, bulldozer or ripper. "Rock excavation" is defined as excavation of any naturally occurring or man made or placed material that cannot be removed by other means than by systematic blasting or by barring or by wedging or by the use of pneumatic tools or impact breakers. "Topsoil" is defined as any layer of soil adjacent to the existing surface which contains or is discoloured by roots or other organic matter which in the opinion of the Engineer will adversely affect part of the Works superimposed thereupon.

1.2

Sequence of Documents The drawing and specifications shall be taken as being mutually explanatory of one another. However, in cases of ambiguity, discrepancy or conflict, the same shall be explained and resolved by the Engineer. In case of conflict between the drawings and General Specification, the drawings shall govern, for conflict between the drawings and Particular Specification, the Particular Specification shall govern, and for conflict between the General Specification and Particular Specification, the Particular Specification shall govern. The works shall be carried out in accordance with the details shown in the Contract and no deviation will be allowed unless approved or directed by the Engineer.

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GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

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1.3 Abbreviations In this Specification the following abbreviations have the meanings hereby assigned to them: 1.3.1 Dimensions and Units 'mm' means 'cm' 'm' 'km' 'mm' 'cm' 'cm' 'm' 'ha' 'l' 'cc' 'm' 'g' 'mg' 'kg' 'tonne' 'N' 'kN' 'kcal' 'h' 'l/s' 'm/s' 'kg/cm' 'kg/m' 'C ' '%' '' 1.3.2 millimetre means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means

centimetre metre kilometre square millimetre square centimetre cubic centimetre square metre hectare or 10,000 square metres litre cubic centimetre cubic metre gram milligram kilogram 1,000 kilograms Newton kilo Newton kilocalorie hour litre per second cubic metre per second kilogram per square centimetre kilogram per cubic metre degrees Celsius per cent per thousand.

Standards and Organisations BIS BS ASTM AASHTO ACI ANSI ISO IEC NEN DIN USBR means means means means means means means means means means means Bureau of Indian Standards British Standards American Standard for Testing Materials American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials American Concrete Institute American National Standard Institute International Standard Organisation International Electro-technical Commission Dutch National Standards Deutsches Insitut fr Normung (German Institute for Norms) United States Bureau of Reclamation

1.3.3

Mechanical Abbreviations MSS BB BC BE BW ERW FF means means means means means means means Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry Bolted Bonnet Bolted Cap Bevelled End Butt Weld Electric Resistance Weld Flat Face

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FLGD GALV ISS LJ NPSH OS&Y PE rpm RF RJ SCRD SMLS SCH SW SO WN ST TFS UB LB PSB 1.3.4 means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means Flanged Galvanized Inside Screw and Steam Type Lap Joint Net Positive Suction Head Outside screw and Yoke type Plain End Revolutions per minute Raised Face Ring Joint Screwed Seamless Schedule Socket Weld Slip On Welding Neck Stellite faced Taylor Force Standard Union Bonnet Long Bonnet Pressure Seal Bonnet

Electrical Abbreviations L1 L2 L3 N ac dc A mA V kW kWH kVAr kVA MVA Hz SP SPN DP TP TPN SPSwN TPSwN MCB MCCB RCD MCC means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means means red phase yellow phase blue phase neutral alternating current direct current amp milliamp volt kilowatt kilowatt hour kilovar kilovolt amp megavolt amp hertz (cycles per second) single pole single pole and neutral double pole triple pole triple pole and neutral single pole and switched neutral triple pole and switched neutral miniature circuit breaker moulded case circuit breaker residual current device motor control centre

1.4 1.4.1

The Site Site Except where otherwise shown on the drawings or specified herein, the Site shall mean the extent of

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such public and private lands as is in the opinion of the Engineer necessary or practicable for the construction of the Works. The Contractor shall not use the Site for any purpose not required by the Contract. 1.4.2 Condition of Site Prior to carrying out any work the Contractor shall inspect the Site, in conjunction with the Engineer or his Representative to establish its general condition which shall be agreed and recorded in writing, and where, in the opinion of the Engineer or his Representative it is deemed necessary, by means of photography or video recording. These locations include: Contractor's site offices Workshop areas Routing of construction roads

Details recorded shall include the location of all boundary and survey beacons the conditions of buildings, surfaces, terracing (if any), ditches, watercourses, roads, tracks, fences, and other information relating to the Site and elsewhere which may be affected by the Contractor's operations. 1.4.3 Access to Site Prior to the commencement of any part of the Works, the Contractor shall make temporary access tracks including all necessary temporary diversions and bridge works to the part of the Site concerned, all to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor shall maintain such access tracks in a condition suitable for the safe and easy passage of plant and vehicles until they are no longer required for the purpose of the Contract. The Contractor shall make a record to be agreed by the Engineer of the conditions of the surfaces of any private lands or of any public cultivated or maintained lands over which access to the Site lies before use for access and he shall keep such surfaces in a reasonable state of cleanliness and repair during the execution of the Works. On the termination of the Contractor's use of such access he shall restore the surfaces to a condition at least equal to that obtaining before his entry on them. For the purpose of this Contract all road tracks, "rights of way", side walks and the like, which are not part of the permanent Works, but are required by the Contractor or the Engineer on or near the Site directly or indirectly in connection with the Works under the Contract, will be called Construction Roads. These roads will be regarded as Temporary Works. The Contractor shall construct all Construction Roads, which shall be of such a standard that they can be normally and safely used in all weather conditions. The Contractor is not entitled to any reimbursement for the use of the Construction Roads by others than the Employer, personnel and agents of the Engineer and the Contractor, provided that they use it with the approval of the Engineer and directly or indirectly in connection with the Works under the Contract. The Contractor shall erect and maintain along the site boundary at his own expense suitable and approved temporary fencing and gates to enclose areas of the Works to be carried out and other areas of land as may be necessary to implement his obligations under the Contract to the satisfaction of the Engineer. 1.4.4 Clearance of Site The Contractor shall maintain the Site in a neat, tidy, healthy condition. He shall control vegetation so as not to detract from the amenity and appearance of the neighbourhood of the Site.

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The Contractor shall clear also the areas of all borrow areas and other sources of materials, and the sites of all Temporary Works, offices, stores, workshops, camps, mess huts and other accommodation and shall dispose of all debris in an approved manner. The limits of the areas to be cleared shall be as indicated on the Drawings or as shall be defined by the Engineer. The Contractor shall at all times and in all respects take the necessary actions to protect the environment in and around the Site by adhering to the measures detailed in his Environmental Management Plan. The Contractor shall do his utmost to spare trees, vegetation, flora and the like. If the Engineer's Representative requires that individual trees, shrubs and hedges are to be preserved the Contractor shall do so and shall take all necessary precautions to prevent their damage. Upon completion of all work to be performed by the Contractor on any part of the Site otherwise than in connection with the care and maintenance of the Works, the Contractor shall clear the said part of the Site as specified in relevant Clauses of the Conditions of Contract. 1.4.5 Prevention of Surface Erosion The Contractor shall take particular care at all times to prevent surface erosion on the Site and elsewhere on land which may be affected by his operations and the Engineer may impose such reasonable limitations and restrictions upon the method of clearance and upon the timing and season of the year when clearance is carried out as the circumstances seem to him to warrant. 1.4.6 Care of Water The Contractor shall take care of water, whatsoever the source or cause may be in adequate manner to ensure that the Works specified are executed in a satisfactory dry and safe manner to the approval of the Engineer. Unless stated and specified elsewhere all measures dealing with care of water shall be considered as being Temporary Works. No claim by the Contractor for the costs of care of water will be accepted by the Engineer. After having served their purposes, the Temporary Works and plant shall be removed to the satisfaction of the Engineer. 1.4.7 Unauthorized Persons No unauthorized persons shall be allowed on the Site. The Contractor shall instruct all such persons to keep out and shall take steps to prevent trespassing in accordance with the General Conditions of Contract. 1.4.8 Advertising The Contractor shall not erect advertisements in any form within the Site or in adjoining ground without the approval of the Engineer.

1.5 1.5.1

Accommodation and Facilities on Site General For the duration of the contract, including the maintenance period, the Employer shall put at the disposal of the Contractor, free of charge, a site required for construction of the accommodation and facilities as mentioned in the following. The Contractor shall arrange for labour, materials and equipment to provide, install, construct and maintain all buildings, services, roads and the like which the Engineer, the Contractor and their principals, personnel and agents require on or near the site directly or indirectly in connection with the works. The Contractor shall be deemed to have submitted with his tender, drawings, a description, the

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number and the proposed location of the various types of buildings, yards and other site facilities which he will provide under the provisions of this clause. As soon as practicable but in any case not later than four (4) weeks after receipt by the Contractor of the letter of acceptance, the Contractor shall submit detailed drawings, specifications and all details of the location, the lay-out and the construction of buildings, roads, services, equipment, fittings, furnishings and everything to be provided, installed and constructed under the provisions of this clause for the approval of the competent authorities and of the Engineer (which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld) before materials are ordered or the works are put in hand. The Contractor shall be responsible for maintaining the facilities in good order and shall promptly implement repairs and improvements, if so requested by the Engineer. He shall keep the site free from all waste, garbage, stagnant water and the like. 1.5.2 Accommodation for the Contractor The Contractor shall provide, erect, construct and equip all offices, workshops, stores, sheds, loading and unloading facilities complete with all machines and equipment and all services, access roads and the like, required by him or his principals, employees or agents directly or indirectly for the construction or maintenance of the works. At the end of the contract period, the Contractor shall entirely remove from the site all accommodation and facilities, complete with all machines and equipment. 1.5.3 Offices for the Engineer's and Employer's Representatives The Contractor shall equip for the duration of the Contract and for three months after being granted the Certificate of Completion, for the sole use of the Engineer and the Employer and their principals, employees and agents the office space as described in the Particular Specifications. Unless agreed otherwise with the Engineer, at the end of the Contract period the Contractor shall completely remove the offices and all other equipment furnished by the Contractor under this Clause. 1.5.4 Site Laboratory The Contractor shall provide, erect, staff and maintain a site laboratory with testing equipment throughout the Contract period, at a location approved by the Engineer and as described in the Particular Specifications. At the end of the Contract period the Contractor shall entirely remove the laboratory from the site. All laboratory equipment as specified in the Particular Specifications shall be handed over to the Employer in good order, fair wear and tear excepted. 1.5.5 Power, Water, Sewerage, Drainage, Sanitary Provisions Where required by the Engineer, at or near the site, including all the facilities described in the SubClauses above, but not by way of limitation, the Contractor at his expense shall arrange for, provide, install and construct everything necessary to adequately ensure: the supply of potable or non-potable water, whichever is required, for construction, testing and domestic use and all other purposes; the supply of electricity and other sources of power and light; the drainage and the disposal of sewage; the drainage of surface and storm-water.

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1.5.6 Telecommunications The Contractor shall arrange for, provide, install construct and maintain adequate and sufficient means of telecommunication for the use of the principals, personnel and agents of the Employer, Engineer and Contractor on or near the Site. The detailed requirements for the equipment under this Clause for the Engineer's office are specified in the Particular Specifications The Engineer shall be allowed free use of the Contractor's Communication facilities. 1.5.7 First Aid Arrangements The Contractor shall provide and maintain at his own expense on the Site, adequate and easily accessible first-aid facilities for treatment in case of accidents during the execution of the Works under the Contract and such outfits as may be required in any relevant laws, bye-laws, ordinances and regulations for the time being in force. The places where these items are kept shall be prominently marked. A sufficient number of the Contractor's employees shall be fully qualified in first aid, so that such a qualified person is immediately available in case of accident at any time and at any place and the persons so designated shall be made known to all employees by the posting of their name and designated in a prominent position on the Site. Any order from the Engineer as to extension of or alternation to such first aid facilities or services shall be promptly carried out.

1.6

Programme of Works and Methods of Construction Further to the Conditions of Contract, the programme of Works shall include but not be limited to the following items: Proposed dates for starting and completing the construction of the various parts and stages of the Works. Proposed dates for procuring materials, mobilization of the main plant required to complete the Works. Proposed hours of Site works for Contractor's personnel. Proposed system of Contractor's access and work roads and Site plan.

The Contractor shall submit every four weeks six (6) copies of a detailed planning for the next period of 4 weeks describing the Work he intends to perform in that period. This planning must include the implementation of all the agreements made with the authorities which are involved and responsible for traffic, transport and existing services like water supply, power, telephone, fire fighting, drainage and such like. Any consent of the Employer to this planning will not exempt the Contractor of his responsibility to complete the Works within the time as agreed and stated in the Contract. The Contractor shall take the initiative to inform the local authorities in due time about his programme. The Contractor shall attend coordination meetings between the Employer and other authorities and shall supply all relevant information and data in his possession. The possible simultaneous construction of adjacent works under separate contracts may require the Contractor to adapt his planning to that of other Contractors. The Employer will inform the Contractor in due time about the conditions to be expected during the period of interference of work. Such adaptations as far as are required in the interest of and at the request of Employer shall not entitle the

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Contractor to additional payments. For any operations that may result in a safety hazard (eg deep excavation, pile driving, concrete casting of foundation etc.), the Contractor shall submit in writing the method statements for such operations for approval by the Engineer not less than 30 days prior to the planned commencement of such work.

1.7

Environmental Management Plan A detailed Environmental Management plan (EMP) shall be prepared by the Contractor and submitted to the Engineer for approval within 8 weeks of the receipt by the Contractor of the notification to commence the Works issued by the Engineer. The EMP shall include measures to be taken by the Contractor to mitigate and/or protect the environment against all impacts resulting from the execution of the Contract Works. The EMP shall reflect the standards for environmental protection specified by the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) or equivalent. As the EMP is a management tool for the Contractor's use, it shall present in detail how these measures should be operated, the resources required and the schedule of implementation. The plan should contain separate sections dealing with individual environmental aspects. The general format of the EMP shall be: 1. Objective 2. Work Plan 3. Implementation Schedule 4. Man-power Requirements 5. Monitoring Procedures The Contractor shall implement the EMP measures at the commencement of the permanent works activities. The costs of preparing, implementing and monitoring the EMP shall be deemed to be included in the Contractor's Bid Price.

1.8

Notice of Operations Further to the General Conditions of Contract, the Contractor shall not carry out any important operation without the consent in writing of the Engineer. The Contractor shall give full and complete notice in writing to the Engineer sufficiently in advance of the time of the operation, but not less than 48 hours, so as to enable the Engineer to make such arrangements as he may deem necessary for inspection.

1.9

Working Hours Subject to any provision to the contrary contained in the Contract, none of the Works shall, save as hereinafter provided, be carried out during the night or on locally recognised day of rest without the consent of the Engineer, except when work is unavoidable or absolutely necessary for the saving of life or property or for the safety of the Works, in which case the Contractor shall immediately advise the Engineer. Provided that the provisions of this Clause shall not be applicable in the case of any work which it is customary to carry out by multiple shifts.

1.10

Datum and Benchmarks All levels in the Contract Documents are given relative to Chart Datum. The definition of Chart Datum

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is given in the Particular Specification. Benchmarks and reference points will be provided by the Engineer on or near the Site in a sufficient number to enable in the opinion of the Engineer the setting out of the Works by the Contractor. The Contractor shall check the position and levels of the benchmarks and the coordinates of the reference points, and then shall be fully responsible for maintaining the same intact and accurate. Where it is necessary to move a benchmark or reference point because of the Works, the Contractor shall replace the benchmark or reference point to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor shall preserve all benchmarks and reference points and shall keep full written records of all amendments, corrections, and replacements of benchmarks and reference points available for inspection by the Engineer. The Contractor shall keep up to date a plan showing the position and elevations of all main benchmarks and coordinates of all main reference points and shall furnish to the Engineer, three copies of such plan and each amendment thereof.

1.11

Setting Out In amplification to the General Conditions, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, both the general and detailed methods of complete setting out of the alignments of the various structures, etc. and the calculations for curvatures and the various setting out dimensions thereby obtained from the position of the Works. At all times the Contractor shall give the Engineer notice sufficiently in advance but not less than 24 hours of his intention to set out. The method of surveying shall be to the approval of the Engineer. Field books and tabulated data shall be well maintained and made available for inspection and checking by the Engineer upon request.

1.12

Joint Measurement of Works In the event of the Contractor having to execute any work or provide any material with regard to which he intends to claim extras, or where works are to be covered up, he shall make arrangements to take measurements of the said works or material and shall inform the Engineer accordingly, giving a minimum of 48 hours notice. The Engineer will then join the Contractor for a joint survey. If these measurements are not taken jointly and recorded before the work will be executed, the Contractor's measurement will not be recognized by the Engineer. The fact that such joint measurements have been made will in no way bind the Engineer to recognise the claim. The Engineer shall at all times have access to the Contractor's diary and may daily check the progress of relevant works, but this shall in no way bind the Engineer to accept the claim nor the value of the work other than by joint measurement.

1.13

Documentation to be Provided During the course of the Contract the Contractor shall furnish three copies of each of the following contract records to the Engineer. Sub-orders for plant, materials and services. Except as otherwise approved by the Engineer, the Contractor shall employ only those specialist manufacturers or subcontractors declared in the Bid and sub-orders to them shall be confined to those for materials, plant and services in respect of which the Engineer's approval has been given. Three copies of each sub-order, (inclusive of supporting documents to which it may refer), and of any amendments thereto, shall be furnished to the Engineer immediately upon issue and each shall state clearly the Contract title and the item or drawing reference, or other means of identification.

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Monthly progress reports of work in hand under the Contract, at manufacturer's works and elsewhere. The reports shall be in an agreed format, shall be issued before the 14th of each month and shall give full details of progress with the Contract during the preceding month, including production status of drawings, manufacture, orders, stocks of materials, shipping, delivery, erection, testing and commissioning. Progress schedules, to the Engineer's requirements, indicating the planned dates of commencement and completion of installation for each portion of the works. These schedules, submitted at the Engineer's request, shall be furnished at agreed time intervals, such intervals to be not less than 14 days.

1.14

Returns of Labour and Plant The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer proper records at such time, intervals and in a form as the Engineer may direct, of every employee engaged on the Contract, specifying the number employed in the various classes of work and wages paid. The Contractor shall also from time to time, as required by the Engineer supply any other details of labour employed on the Works. The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer a monthly return showing full particulars on a form to be approved by him, of all items of plant including location and state of each and the sections of the Works on which they are employed. Plant return sheets, shall inter alia give information concerning production, idle time and shall specify causes of idle time. The Contractor shall also keep full records of all materials and other things brought on Site for carrying out the Works. The Contractor shall not destroy any of his records, time sheets, vouchers and the like on labour, Constructional Plant, materials and things before the end of the Contract and such records shall be available at any time for inspection by the Engineer and or by a competent Authority for compliance with the requirements of the Contract and of the local laws and regulations and in order to enable investigation by the Engineer of any claim by the Contractor.

1.15

Works Diary The Engineer will keep a diary on the Site in which all his remarks, instructions, decisions and the essential details of the Works shall be recorded. The Contractor shall assist in keeping the diary by supplying daily any information on the Works requested by the Engineer. If required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall read the diary within two days of each daily entry being made and shall sign each entry as having been read by him. The Engineer shall also sign the diary and hand a copy of the signed diary to the Contractor. If the Contractor does not agree with the diary written by the Engineer in either accuracy or completeness, he shall record his remarks in the space provided therein before signing the diary as having been read by him or shall detail his disagreement in writing to the Engineer not more than seven days after having read and signed the diary. Otherwise he shall be considered to be in agreement with the contents of the diary; however the facts stated therein shall not be by themselves be a ground for any claim for payment under the Contract.

1.16

Drawings and Documents Subject to the requirements of these Specifications the Contractor shall prepare the detailed design and Working Drawings necessary to execute the works. The calculations and Working Drawings shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to commencement of the relevant sections of the works on site.

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All dimensions in drawings, calculations and information furnished in connection with the Contract shall be expressed in metric SI units. All drawings shall be sized to designations A1, A2, A3, and A4. Sizes AO and above shall not be used. Each drawing shall carry the project title, the name of the Engineer, the Contractor and the Employer together with the drawing title and number and other relevant data, in the lower right-hand corner. The Contractor shall submit his drawings and documents to the Engineer for review or approval at least thirty (30) days prior to the execution of the work concerned with the said drawings and documents. Manufacturing drawings for items to be fabricated outside the country shall be submitted within one hundred twenty (120) days from the date of issue of the Notice to Proceed. The procedure for the submission, review and/or approval of drawings and documents shall be understood to be as follows; provided that the Engineer shall reserve the right to make any changes to such procedure during the course of the works when the Engineer deems necessary. When the Contractor is ready to have the Engineer review and/or approve certain drawings and documents, he shall submit three (3) copies of clearly, readable copies of the drawings and documents. Within thirty (30) days after receiving copies of the drawings and documents from the Contractor, the Engineer will return one copy marked with one of the following classifications, depending upon whether the drawings and documents are to be "approved" or "reviewed": Classifications of Drawings and documents for Review/Approval: 1 2 3 4 "APPROVED" "APPROVED EXCEPT AS NOTED-RE-SUBMITTAL NOT REQUIRED" "RESUBMIT AFTER CORRECTION" "NOT APPROVED"

Upon receipt of drawings and documents which have been marked as shown in 1 or 2 above, the Contractor may proceed with the work covered by such drawings and documents, making corrections if indicated there upon by the Engineer. Copies of all approved drawings shall be maintained at the Contractor's site office. When returned drawings and documents have been marked as shown in 3 above, the Contractor shall make necessary corrections and/or revisions to the drawings and documents in a timely manner and shall resubmit three (3) copies of revised drawings and documents to the Engineer. Any work done prior to the Engineer's approval of drawings and/or documents shall be at the Contractor's risk. The Engineer's approval of the Working Drawings, Contract Records etc., shall not relieve the Contractor of the obligation to meet the terms of the Specification and any of the plant which upon delivery to site is found to be incorrect or unsatisfactory, or which fails to perform its duty satisfactorily during commissioning or during the Defects Notification Period shall be replaced to the Engineer's satisfaction. The Contractor shall be responsible for any discrepancies, errors, or omissions in the drawings and other particulars supplied by him, whether such drawings and particulars have been approved by the Engineer or not, provided that such discrepancies, errors, or omissions be not due to inaccurate information or particulars furnished in writing to the Contractor by the Employer or the Engineer. The Employer shall be responsible for drawings and information supplied in writing by the Employer or the Engineer and for the details of special work specified by either of them. The Employer shall pay any extra cost reasonably incurred by the Contractor due to any alterations of the work necessitated by reason of inaccurate information so supplied to the Contractor.

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The As-Built Drawings for the pipe networks shall be on a scale of: 1:10,000 for overall layout and key plan of drawings. 1:2,500 1:1,000 for overall layout of new primary and secondary mains for new pipe installation with house connections and existing system

1:2,500 H,1:250 V for longitudinal sections 1:500 for house connections 1:50 for valve chamber details and details of connections to the existing pipeline system. or any other appropriate scale as per Engineers request.

As Built Drawings shall be drawn in compliance with the DJBs standard including symbols, lines etc. The As-Built Drawings shall state official names, if any, of each street and shall reflect on the as-built profiles the actual classification of soils. The Contractor shall also mark on the As-Built Drawings the location of all services found during the course of excavation and pipelaying works. Details of connections to the existing lines shall be shown clearly on the drawings. 1.17 Photographs The Contractor shall supply, each month, negatives and four copies of progress photographs, suitably inscribed, of a size not less than 250 mm by 200 mm of such portions of the Works, in progress and completed, as may be directed by the Engineer. The negatives and prints shall not be retouched. The negatives of the photographs shall be the property of the Employer and no prints from these negatives may be supplied to any person or persons without the authority of the Employer or the Engineer. The Contractor shall also provide photograph albums and mounts for mounting photographs.

1.18

Contractor's Responsibility for Design Subject to the requirements of this Specification the Contractor shall be responsible for the general and detailed design of the complete equipment to be provided and for the dimensions and arrangements of the various parts. The Contractor shall be responsible for checking the dimensions and installation conditions of the existing facilities and for the design of any modifications required. The design, construction and finish of the complete equipment supplied under this Contract shall be according to first class engineering practice and each item of equipment shall be in every way suitable for continuous operation over the full range of duties. The plant shall be as simple and maintenance free as possible.

1.19

Temporary Works The Contractor shall design at his own expense all Temporary Works he may require for the execution of the Works. He shall submit six (6) weeks in advance of any scheduled temporary work, detailed drawings and supporting calculations considered essential by the Engineer. Within four weeks after submission of the aforementioned drawings and calculations the Engineer shall comment or approve the relevant Temporary Works. Notwithstanding the approval by the Engineer of any design of Temporary Works, the Contractor shall remain responsible for their efficiency, safety and maintenance, and for all obligations in regard to such works specified or implied in the Contract until the removal of such works. Unless provided for in the Bill of Quantities expenditures whatsoever dealing with any Temporary Works shall be deemed to be covered by the other rates and prices in the Bill of Quantities and shall not be measured for payment nor be paid for under a separate item.

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1.20 Approval of Contractor's Proposals The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer 4 copies of the following documentation, giving details of his proposals for approval, within 4 weeks of the Contract Start Date. 1.21 Design and working drawings and data including calculation and erection information. All technical specifications of all plant and equipment proposed for the works. Details of dead and live loads imposed by each item of plant on its foundations.

Contractor's Staff The Contractor and any Sub-Contractor engaged upon the execution of the Works shall be deemed to employ, or to procure the employment of, staff skilled and experienced in works of a similar nature to the works and jointly and severally they shall be responsible for the provision of safe, reliable and efficient plant such as will ensure its precise and safe operation under all conditions, and shall provide all plant and services reasonably necessary for the complete setting to work and performance of the works whether or not specifically mentioned in the Specification, Bill of Quantities or indicated in the Drawings.

1.22 1.22.1

Assistance to the Engineer General The Contractor shall render such assistance with facilities, labour, constructional plant and materials as at any time may be required by the Engineer's representative directly or indirectly in connection with the works. The costs of such assistance shall be borne by the Contractor if such assistance is intended for or provided for or specified in the contract; if any assistance is required by the Engineer's representative which is not so intended and not provided for and not specified, then the cost of such assistance shall be borne by the Employer. The assistance to the Engineer's representative includes, but not by way of limitation, the items in the following sub-clauses.

1.22.2

Labour The Contractor shall provide the following personnel to be solely and permanently in attendance upon the Engineer and his principals, employees and agents: 4 competent men to act as messenger, chainman, sample collector, office assistant for cleaning and waste disposal etc. and the like; watchmen for laboratory and office for both day and night.

1.22.3

Surveying Equipment The Contractor shall provide and keep in sound condition and accurate adjustment on each Site under the Contract the surveying equipment as described in the Particular Specifications, for the sole use of the Engineer.

1.22.4

Protective Items The Contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer's Representative and his principals, employees and agents and such other persons as the Engineer authorises adequate protective items such as gumboots, waterproof top-coats, first-aid equipment, life-jackets, hard hats and other safety

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equipment as specified in the Particular Specification or, as required by the Engineer in connection with the Contract. 1.22.5 Transport The Contractor shall make available at the Commencement of the Works, maintain, repair, and keep in sound, safe running condition vehicles for the sole use of the Employer and Engineer, as specified in the Particular Specification. The vehicles shall be complete with spare parts, tools and the like. The Contractor shall provide all necessary materials including fuel and lubrication. The vehicles shall be driven by skilled and licensed drivers employed by the Contractor. The Contractor shall keep the vehicles insured during the Contract Period under a fully comprehensive motor insurance policy issued by a reputable insurance company. Both the policy and the insurer will be subject to the approval of both the Employer and the Engineer. The vehicles shall be kept permanently at the disposal of the Employer and the Engineer, their principals, employees and agents. During periods of maintenance or repair the Contractor shall make equivalent replacement vehicles available. Upon completion or termination of the Contract the vehicles will remain the property of the Employer.

1.23

Care of Public Utility Services For the purpose of these Specifications public utility services (hereinafter referred to as "public utilities") mean: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Water lines complete (incl. water meter boxes, valve boxes, fire hydrants etc.). Wire lines complete (telephone wires, poles etc.). Power lines, both high tension and low tension, complete (masts etc.). Cable ways. Street Lighting. Traffic Signals. Sewer lines complete (incl. manholes, overflows, siphons etc.). Drains, watercourse crossings. Fibre optic lines. All other (associated) utility appurtenances and things within the limits of the proposed construction works.

It shall be the Contractor's own liability and full responsibility to locate all existing utilities complete within the limits of the proposed construction work, and well in advance before starting any relevant construction works. No claims from the Contractor arising from incomplete information will be considered by the Employer. The Contractor shall accept full responsibility and shall allow in his Contract Price for the cost of any investigations arising from the requirements of this Clause and for any damage or interference with such utility services. The Contractor shall exercise greatest care during the progress of the Work to avoid damage to or interference with public utilities, and shall be responsible for any damage and subsequent damages caused by him or his agents directly or indirectly arising from anything done or omitted. If, in the Engineer's opinion, damage may be caused by the use of mechanical plant for excavation over or adjacent to services, the Contractor shall be required to excavate by hand in their vicinity. The rates in the Contract shall include for such hand excavation. Before excavations are carried out near utility services by means of mechanical plant, the Contractor shall carry out full and adequate preliminary investigations to locate utility services by means of hand-dug trial holes. The Contractor

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shall be responsible for the safe keeping and protection of any controllers, cables or other equipment connected with traffic light installations within the Site. At points where the Contractor's operations are adjacent to properties of railway, telegraph, telephone and power authorities, or are adjacent to other property, damage to which might result in considerable expense, loss or inconvenience, work shall not be commenced until all arrangements necessary for the protection thereof have been made. The Contractor shall co-operate with the owners or the authorities of any underground or overhead utility lines in their removal and rearrangement operations in order that these operations may progress in a reasonable manner, and that duplication of rearrangement work may be reduced to a minimum, and that services rendered by those parties will not be unnecessarily interrupted. In the event of interruption to water or utility services as a result of accidental breakage, or as a result of being exposed or unsupported, the Contractor shall promptly notify the proper authority or owners. He shall co-operate with the said authority in the restoration of service as promptly as possible. In no case shall interruption to water service be allowed to exist outside of working hours. Fire hydrants shall be kept accessible to the Fire Department at all times, and no materials shall be kept or stock piled within 5 meters of any fire hydrant. It shall be the duty of the Contractor to notify all utility companies, or authorities or other parties affected, and to endeavour to have all necessary adjustments of the public utility fixtures, pipelines, and other appurtenances within or adjacent to the limits of construction, made as soon as practicable. Adjustment in time for completion, because of delays suffered by the Contractor may be determined in accordance with the provisions of the Conditions of Contract. The location and extent of the subsurface structures and surfaces cannot with any definite assurance be predicted. The Contractor shall excavate and backfill sufficient exploratory trenches ahead of the Works to the satisfaction of the Engineer for the purpose of locating underground structures and utility services affecting the Works. The Contractor shall excavate by hand around existing structures and utility services in the subsurface. The Contractor shall subsequently survey these underground structures and utility services and shall plot the records in plan and section on detail drawings. The detail drawings shall be issued within reasonable time to the Employer for his approval to allow the Employer to use the detail drawings as an aid to check and/or relocate the position of the Permanent Works involved and to issue within reasonable time to all circumstances the relevant construction drawings. No delays will be taken into account by reason of failure or inability of the Contractor to issue the detail drawings in due time. Exploratory trenches, where required shall be backfilled immediately after their purpose has been accomplished and the Contractor shall maintain the surface in a satisfactory condition

1.24

Testing and Inspection The Contractor shall provide 3 copies of a test plan for both the factory and site tests and inspections, for the Engineer's approval. The plan shall consist of a logical step-by-step schedule indicating step, action and reaction. The plan shall be cross referenced to relevant sections of the Specification, Bill of Quantities, and British Standards (or equivalent where applicable), and shall state clearly the test method to be employed, the equipment to be used, the parameters to be measured, and the expected results. On satisfactory completion of the tests etc. the plan shall be completed with the results achieved and shall be retained for record purposes. The test plan may be sectionalized to suit the plant purchase and manufacturing arrangements, and programme. Each section of the plan shall be issued in draft at least 28 days before any testing, inspecting or commissioning takes place. The Engineer will notify his approval or otherwise within 14 days of receipt of the plan. Any portions of the plan which the Engineer disapproves shall be suitably

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modified before implementation of that portion of the plan. Final copies of the approved plan shall be available for the testing, inspections or commissioning. The Contractor shall carry out during manufacture all tests specified in the relevant Standards amplified as may be called for in the Specification and Bill of Quantities, and shall forward to the Engineer in triplicate duly certified copies of the test results and certification that the equipment and materials comply with the relevant Standards. Unless otherwise specified hereafter, the Contractor shall give not less than fourteen clear days notice in writing for the time, date and place of all impending tests so that the Engineer, or his representative may be present to witness such tests. The Contractor shall furnish test certificates in triplicate for all tests whether witnessed or not. As and when the Engineer is satisfied that any plant is in accordance with the Specification and has passed the prescribed workshop tests, he will notify the Contractor in writing to that effect. If after inspection or tests the Engineer decides that the plant concerned or any part thereof is defective or is not in accordance with the Contract, he may reject it by giving to the Contractor, within a reasonable time, notice in writing of his decision and the grounds upon which it is based.

1.25

Tests on Completion When the plant is completely erected on Site and ready for service, the Works shall be tested and commissioned under the Contractor's supervision and subjected to the prescribed Tests on Completion in the presence of the Engineer and of the Employer's staff to demonstrate that it is able to perform its specified duties satisfactorily under the approved system of operation and control and that the whole conforms with the Specification. Prior to the commencement of any site testing the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval schedules detailing the tests to be carried out in satisfaction of the Tests on Completion. On satisfactory completion of the tests on Completion the Contractor shall provide copies of the completed schedules for record purposes. Except where otherwise specified, each item of plant shall be subjected to a continuous twelve hour trial under normal working conditions, at varying heads, quantities, loads and speeds where applicable to establish correct and reliable functioning of the plant. The performance of each item of plant at its guarantee point shall be determined using pressure gauges, flow meters and electrical gauges. Electrical plant shall be tested in accordance with the Institution of Electrical Engineer's Regulations, for earth continuity, polarity and insulation resistance, and the Contractor shall supply the Engineer with three copies of the schedule of test results. The installation will not be accepted until such tests have been approved. Power consumption, discharge and suction and delivery pressures shall be measured where applicable. The Contractor shall supply all necessary instruments, gauges, meters and suitably qualified personnel to carry out the tests and the cost of these shall be deemed to be included in his tendered prices. Should any item of plant or process fail to comply with the performance guarantee, or fail to function correctly the Contractor shall modify or replace at his own expense such items as are necessary until the plant does meet the performance guarantees to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Four copies of all inspection and test certificates and records, shall be furnished to the Engineer immediately after each inspection or test.

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The Contractor shall instruct the Employer's operating staff and shall stand by the plant on a continuous basis whilst the trials are in progress. Should the plant breakdown during the trials, the Contractor will be given the opportunity to repair it and the trials shall start again. The take over date shall be agreed as the date upon which the successful trials started and the Engineer shall issue a Certificate of Completion so dated, when the Record Drawings have been approved and submitted.

1.26

Record Drawings Concurrent with the progress of work on Site the Contractor shall prepare all necessary drawings and diagrams of the "as-fitted"/"as-built" Works as may be required for record and for care, maintenance, repair, etc., purposes and these shall include but not be limited to: Arrangement drawings of each complete installation to a scale of not less than 1:50. Outline dimensioned drawings of each of the principal items of plant. Each shall carry or be accompanied by a schedule of fittings, instruments and components which shall include the maker's name, reference numbers, ratings and full particulars of all the component parts. Sectional drawings of each of the major items of plant with the parts named and numbered to facilitate maintenance and overhaul. These drawings shall also show the type of fit and running clearance for fitted and running parts and with them shall be included such detailed workshop drawings as may be necessary for the manufacture of replacement components during the working lifetime of the plant. Such electrical and operational diagrams as may be necessary. Cable schedules, diagrams and route sections for cable installations. Cable route plan of the Site and of each of the principal installations showing sections through the cable groups and trenches so that each cable etc in a group or trench may be readily identified. This information shall preferably be shown on a number of large scale drawings which shall be correlated by means of a small scale master plan.

The foregoing drawings may include those submitted and approved as Working Drawings and all shall be sized and set out according to the requirements for the Working Drawings. The Record Drawings shall be available for inspection by the Engineer or his staff at any time during the progress of the works. Any plant shall not be deemed to be ready for issue of the Completion Certificate until the Record Drawings have been furnished.

1.27 1.27.1

Operation and Maintenance Manuals General The Contractor shall provide suitably bound operating and maintenance manuals for all plant installed within the works. The introduction shall include a general description of each works and its operation. The instructions shall be clearly written in the English language and shall be suitable for all staff categories who will need to use them. The manuals shall form the basis for training of the Employer's personnel and therefore the greatest importance will be attached to completeness and clarity of presentation. It is emphasised that a collection of standard pamphlets of a general nature accompanied by drawings and descriptive matters relating to the Plant as installed, will not be acceptable. In particular, information supplied by sub-Contractors and manufacturers employed by the Contractor, shall be coordinated into the comprehensive manual. Cross-referencing of descriptive matter, drawings and

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spare part lists must be complete. The Contractor shall submit for approval, duplicate draft copies of the operation and maintenance manuals. 1.27.2 Operating Instructions Operating instructions shall give a detailed description for all operations likely to be carried out during the life of the plant. The instructions shall cover the installation, refurbishing, commissioning, testing, operation and trouble shooting of the entire plant. Particular attention shall be given to matters of preventive maintenance. The instruction manuals shall describe the installation as a whole and shall give a step-by-step procedure for any operation likely to be carried out daily, weekly, monthly and at longer intervals to ensure trouble-free operation. Where applicable, fault location charts shall be included to facilitate tracing the cause of malfunctions or breakdown and correcting faults. A separate section shall be allocated for each type of equipment which shall contain all relevant information concerning the construction and operating principles of that item. 1.27.3 Maintenance Instructions Maintenance instructions shall include a list of all lubricants, charts showing lubrication, checking, testing and replacement procedures to be carried out at routine intervals to ensure trouble-free operations. Detailed instructions shall be provided to cover the procedures for disassembly, remedial repairs and assembly of individual items of plant. A spares schedule shall be included consisting of a complete list of itemised spare parts for all mechanical and electrical plant with ordering references and part numbers. Parts shall be identified on equipment sectional drawings. Any special maintenance tools shall be listed and detailed. A separate section of the manual shall be devoted to standard schedule sheets that can be used by the Employer's staff for recording routine maintenance tasks for all items of plant requiring servicing. 1.27.4 Minimum Inclusions The Operating and Maintenance Instruction Manuals which shall include but not be limited to (where applicable): Schedule of approved Record Drawings and documents. Detailed description of the plant and its method of operation, control and protection. Recommended operation and routine check procedures. Recommended care and maintenance routines together with the procedures for the repair and re-commissioning of major items of plant. Recommended emergency control procedures. Maker's descriptive literature and technical data sheets in respect of each item of the plant including the recommended installation, care, maintenance and overhaul instructions, parts lists etc, whereby the plant may be maintained correctly and whereby replacement spare parts, may be ordered without difficulty. Exploded views of all items of plant with each component and reference number cross referenced to the appropriate data sheet and spares schedule. Schedule of the principal items of plant and components showing the title, maker, maker's type reference, serial number, rating etc whereby reference to each is simplified.

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Test results and curves, including all electrical test data and reports.

Particular reference shall be made in the operating and maintenance instructions to the: Safety precautions and instructions to be taken when operating the plant; Pre-start check list; Bearings and moving parts which require special attention; Type of lubricants to be used, and lubrication intervals; Routine tests which are recommended to confirm that the plant is in good working order. Fault finding guide.

Two draft copies of the manuals shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval 2 weeks prior to the Tests on Completion. The Manuals shall be used for commissioning and test running under the Contractor's supervision during which time their content and accuracy will be checked. The final 3 copies of the Manuals, incorporating amendments and additions as instructed by the Engineer, shall be provided upon the satisfactory completion of the installation and testing of the Works, one month prior to the Completion Date.

1.28

Instruction of DJB Staff The Contractor shall be responsible for instruction of the DJB staff in operation and maintenance of the plant during the period of installation commissioning and testing.

1.28.1

General The Contractor shall provide On-the-job training (OJT) to the DJBs personnel. The OJT activities shall be based on the comprehensive Operation and Maintenance Manuals.

1.28.2

Training Methodology The OJT activity shall follow the step-by-step procedure of how to perform and accomplish a certain task in the most efficient and effective way. The Contractor shall organise the demonstration of how the task is to be done pointing out at each step the safety factors and possible hazards. The training process should be planned maintained and controlled in such a way that the Contractor will be able to assess the learning progress being made by the trainee. The trainees should be given enough time to practice by actually performing the tasks under the scrutiny of the Contractor. This practical component of OJT where the trainees actually perform the task should take not less than 50% of the training time. The Contractor shall coach and guide the trainee until the task and skill have been learned and mastered. The Contractor shall provide the Employer with training assessment reports on each trainee. The Contractor shall perform On-the-job training in the following areas whenever applicable: Operation and maintenance of workshop equipment; Operation and maintenance of vehicles; Operation and maintenance of laboratory equipment; Operation and maintenance of plant and equipment such as electric generators, pumping system, distribution and supply systems; Operation and maintenance of process equipment such as piping, pumps, filters, compressors, motors, and instruments; Operation and maintenance of safety equipment such as breathing and emergency relief equipment and fire extinguishers; Operation and maintenance of systems such as sewers, pipelines, drains, gauges and measuring instruments.

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The Contractor shall include for full instruction of staff appointed by DJB in accordance with the following specifications in the operation and maintenance of all items of plant and equipment installed under this Contract. The emphasis of such instruction shall be placed on preventive maintenance, the efficient running of the Pumping Stations, Valves, Tools, Equipment, Instrumentation and safety in the work place. 1.28.3 Schedule of Instructions The Contractor shall submit a complete Schedule of Instruction sessions which he intends to carry out, for the approval of the Engineer, six weeks prior to the programmed date for the issue of the Completion Certificate. The Schedule of Instructions shall contain the following information: Name(s) and qualifications of the Instructor(s) A synopsis of the content of each Instruction Period The duration of the Instruction Period Grades of Personnel from DJB who are required to attend

The Contractor in this respect shall allow in his Tender Price for an instruction period of three full working weeks (five day week) of on-site instruction after the date of issue of the Certificate of Completion. The timing of the Instruction Period is to be agreed between the Contractor and the Employer. The staff of DJB will be present during the installation and commissioning stages. They shall be encouraged to make themselves familiar with the Mechanical and Electrical Equipment being installed and shall be free to request explanations from the Contractor's staff on the various functions and the workings of the individual items of equipment both mechanical and electrical. This informal instruction and familiarisation period shall not constitute any part of the formal instruction period of four weeks which has been previously specified. 1.28.4 Seminar Room The Contractor will be advised by the Engineer of the exact location at which the Instruction Sessions shall be given. This location shall be in one of the offices in the Operational Zones buildings or alternatively in one of the site offices if these are still available at the time of Instruction. 1.28.5 Seminar Aids The Contractor shall arrange to provide suitable visual aids such as overhead projectors, blackboards, and "cut away" samples of plant equipment such as pumps and valves. It shall be a pre-requisite of these instruction sessions that plant operatives shall be equipped with the operating and maintenance manuals, and shall be given ample time to study these manuals prior to the commencement of the formal instruction period. Apart from the operating and maintenance manuals, a set of notes on each instruction session shall be given by the Contractor to each of the operatives attending the sessions. 1.28.6 Additional Instruction Periods during Defects Liability Period As part of this Contract the Contractor shall include in his price for Staff Training for a visit to site by suitably qualified personnel in his employment, every two months for the twelve month Defects Liability Period for the sole purpose of up-dating DJB Staff Training. The duration of these site visits in each case shall be not less than two working days, i.e., sixteen hours spent on the site. The appointed employee of the Contractor shall prepare a detailed report on the operation of the

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Plant under the following headings: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Introduction to Report Maintenance of all items of equipment supplied under this Contract Performance of operatives General comments on the overall operation of the Pumping Stations, Valves, Tools, Equipment, Instrumentation or other facilities provided under the Contract.

Under headings (ii) to (iv) inclusive, the Contractor shall report on any problems, existing or potential, arising under these headings, stating the reason why such problems are occurring and giving detailed proposals as to how any problems may be remedied. During the site visit, the Contractor's employee shall set aside a two hour period for discussion with the DJB staff in order to: (i) (ii) ascertain if they are having any particular problems with any of the plant or equipment supplied by the Contractor, or, if they need any additional instruction or up-dating of previous instruction in the operation and maintenance of any particular item of plant or equipment.

1.28.7

Programme of Formal Three Week Instruction Period The programme for the instruction sessions shall be in accordance with the following tables. The Contractor may have suggestions for some variations in the programme which the Engineer may consider, however, the period of instruction will remain a minimum of three weeks and no variation in the programme will be made without the prior approval of the Engineer. Morning sessions shall run from 8.00 am to 1.00 pm. The afternoon session shall run from 2.00 pm to 6.00 pm. Each session will have a 30 minute recess period.

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WEEK NO. 1 OF FORMAL INSTRUCTION
Day Monday Morning Instruction Period Introduction to the Chlorination Equipment, both Mechanical and Electrical, installed by the Contractor Use of sewer cleaning equipment, observing health and hygiene norms Afternoon Instruction Period Review of the various chlorination methods and basic water chemistry and microbiology. Occupational health and hygiene. Sewer cleaning and rodent control. Instructor Type Electrical/Mechanical Engineer Chemist/Biochemist Electrical/Mechanical Engineer Occupational Health Specialist Safety Officer

Tuesday

Wednesday

Safety in confined spaces. Emergency procedures. Review of laboratory equipment and methods of analysis to be employed. Calibration Bench operation and maintenance and factors affecting operation.

Use of sewer safety equipment. Basic First Aid. Laboratory Practical sessions.

Thursday

Chemist/Biochemist

Friday

Question & answer session on course to date or additional tuition if required on topics previously covered. Trainee Assessment.

Electrical/Mechanical Engineer Training Specialist

WEEK NO. 2 OF FORMAL INSTRUCTION


Day Monday Morning Instruction Period Description of all Mechanical Equipment installed under the Contract, outlining size, function, power consumption, etc., for every item. Pump Maintenance and use of spare parts for pumping equipment (classroom session) Afternoon Instruction Period Lubrication Schedule indicating types of lubricant, how to lubricate and when. Field demonstration on each item mechanical part Field demonstration of how to change an impeller, stator rotor, gland packing and other basic mechanical functions Instructor Type Mechanical Engineer Foreman Fitter

Tuesday

Mechanical Engineer Foreman Fitter or Manufacturer's representative Mechanical Engineer or Manufacturer's representative

Wednesday

Description, demonstration and advice on operation and maintenance of diesel powered generators (classroom and field session) Daily, weekly and monthly duties of Preventive Maintenance staff in maintenance of mechanical equipment. Simulation of breakdown of pumping station. Practical demonstration of appropriate procedures.

Part 1 - Safety in the workplace with mechanical equipment. Part 2 - Site pipework and valves: Description and methods of repair Record keeping. Methods, need for records, use of records.

Thursday

Mechanical Engineer Operation Maintenance Specialist Mechanical Engineer Training Specialist

Friday

Question & answer session on course to date or additional tuition if required on topics previously covered. Trainee Assessment.

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WEEK NO. 3 OF FORMAL INSTRUCTION
Day Monday Morning Instruction Period Introduction to Electrical Installation detailing domestic and motive power installations. Description of Control Panels installed. Explanation and instruction on wiring diagrams for each control panel installed with question and answer session. Description, demonstration and instruction on the operation and maintenance of the on-site generated power facility (classroom and field session) Introduction to and description of instrumentation and equipment installed. Afternoon Instruction Period Site tour of Control Panels installed under the Contract, the operation and maintenance of each control panel for general plant operatives. Demonstration of the use and interchangeability of control panel spare parts. Instructor Type Electrical Engineer

Tuesday

Electrical Engineer Foreman Electrician

Wednesday

Part 1 - Safety in the workplace with Electrical Installations Part 2 - Maintenance of Industrial A.C. equipment

Electrical Engineer Foreman Electrician or Manufacturer's representative

Thursday

Operation and maintenance of flow and level instruments installed. Daily, weekly and monthly duties

Electrical Engineer Foreman Instrument Technician or Manufacturer's representative As required

Friday

Leave free for revision of any aspects of the course which may be required by DJB staff (3 days notice will be given to allow provision of appropriate Instructor)

Question & answer session on course to date or additional tuition if required on topics previously covered. Trainee Assessment.

1.28.8

Video Tapes of Instruction Sessions The Contractor will include in his price for staff training for the engagement of a professional video taping service to record the Contents of the Instruction Sessions, including field demonstrations of plant operation and maintenance procedures. On completion of the formal instruction period, two sets of Instruction video tapes, suitably edited, shall be given to the DJB. The tapes shall be properly labelled as appropriate. The purpose of this exercise if to produce a training record to the DJB so that they may: Re-train existing operatives in certain areas; Run in-house refresher courses; Train new operatives;

1.28.9

Operation of Installed Plant during the Period of Instruction The Contractor shall include on his Contract Price for the cost of one full time operative and one full time supervisor on site to operate the installed plant for the duration of the three week training period, and for a further five weeks (Total 8 weeks), strictly for the purposes of operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment installed.

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PARAGRAPH 2 - MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP - GENERAL 2.1 General Requirements for Materials All materials, equipment and fittings for use in the Works shall unless otherwise permitted by the Employer, be new and unused at the time of inclusion in the Works and shall be in accordance with this Specification. All materials, equipment and fittings for use in the construction, completion and maintenance of the Works shall be supplied by the Contractor. Except as may be modified hereafter, all materials which form the subject of a Standard Code or Specification shall conform to the edition of that Standard Code or Specification current at the date of signing the Contract. All component parts of manufactured plant and equipment shall be new, unused, in current production and shall comply with the latest relevant Standard. In the case of items already imported into the country, the date of importation shall be no more than one year before the date of inclusion in the Works. All component parts shall be manufactured to strict systems of limits and complete interchangeability of similar parts shall be achieved. Where there is no recognised International Standard Specification the materials and workmanship used shall be entirely adequate for the purpose and shall not be installed without the written approval of the Engineer. Uniformity and inter-changeability of mechanical and electrical components and accessories which are common to different parts of the Works shall also be achieved as far as practicable. No materials to be incorporated in the Permanent Works shall have previously been used in the Temporary Works unless otherwise specified or agreed by the Engineer in writing.

2.2

Published Standards Wherever reference is made in the Contract to specific standards and codes to be met by the goods and materials to be furnished, and work performed or tested, the provisions of the latest current edition or revision of the relevant standards and codes in effect shall apply, unless otherwise expressly stated in the Contract. Where such standards and codes are national or relate to a particular country or region, other authoritative standards which ensure an equal or higher quality than the standards and codes specified will be accepted subject to the Engineer's prior review and written approval. Differences between the standards specified and the proposed alternative standards must be fully described in writing by the Contractor and submitted to the Engineer at least 28 days prior to the date when the Contractor desires the Engineer's approval. In the event the Engineer determines that such proposed deviations do not ensure equal or higher quality, the Contractor shall comply with the standards specified in the documents.

2.3

Proprietary Products Where a proprietary or brand name or the name of a supplier or manufacturer is indicated on the Drawings or in the Specification this is in respect of items which are not otherwise adequately described by recognised Standards. Alternative items based on recognised national Standard of the country of origin will be accepted provided that documented proof in the English language is submitted to the Engineer for his approval sufficiently in advance and showing that the alternative proposed is of equal or higher quality and performance than the specified item.

2.4

Approval of Equivalent Materials For any materials specified as equivalent to the required materials on the drawings or specification, whenever the Contractor desires to use the equivalent material he shall submit his request in writing to the Employer for approval in all cases. The Contractor shall use the equivalent materials only upon receipt of the approval. Using the materials without approval shall not be allowed. If the substituted material costs less than the specified materials the Contract Price shall be deducted at the amount

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equal to the price difference. If the substituted material costs higher than the specified materials no addition to Contract Price is allowed. If the quality of the substituted material is not lower than the quality of the specified material, the substituted material shall be considered as equivalent. If testing is required, the test shall be carried out by a reliable institute approved by the Employer. The Contractor shall be responsible for arrangement and all expenses for the test.

2.5

Samples In accordance with the provisions of Clause 36.1 of the Conditions of Contract, the Contractor shall as directed by the Engineer supply samples of materials to be incorporated in the Works. The samples required for approval shall be submitted by the Contractor in labelled boxes suitable for storage, and in sufficient time for testing, due allowance being made for the fact that if samples are rejected, further samples and testing will be required. Approved samples will be kept by the Engineer who will reject any materials not corresponding in character and quality with the approved samples.

2.6

Purchase of Materials At least thirty (30) days prior to purchase of each batch of material to be used in the Works the Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations of the material he intends to use, including present full manufacturers address, for approval by the Engineer. Following approval by the Engineer, the Contractor may place orders and shall submit to the Engineer triplicate copies of all orders placed.

2.7

Works Off-Site The Contractor shall give adequate written notice to the Engineer of the preparation or manufacture at a place not on the Site of any pre-constructed units or parts of units or materials to be used in the Works. Such notice shall state the place and time of the preparation or manufacture, quarrying or extraction and be given sufficiently in advance as to enable the Engineer to make arrangements which he may deem necessary for its inspection at any stage of the work, and not only when the units or parts are completed. Works off Site shall not commence without the prior approval of the Engineer. Any units or parts which are prepared or manufactured without such prior notice having been given to the Engineer may be rejected if the Engineer considers that inspection was necessary during the progress of the preparation or manufacture.

2.8

Certificates All manufacturer's certificates of test, proof sheets, mill sheets etc., showing that the materials have been tested in accordance with the requirements of the relevant Standard or other approved standard or this Specification, shall be supplied in the English language by the Contractor to the Engineer free of charge.

2.9

Transport and Storage, Care of Works The Contractor shall be responsible for the storage and security of all material delivered to site and installed and for all works executed until the Issue of the Certificate of Completion. Each item of plant or batch of material shall be securely packed and adequately protected and

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marked to avoid loss or damage in transit. All equipment shall be handled and stored in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Deliveries shall be kept to the minimum number possible and any items which are required to be built in or laid under structures shall be delivered to site in ample time to avoid delays.

2.10

Design for Maintenance The general mechanical and electrical design of the plant and particularly that of bearings, glands, contacts and other wearing parts shall be governed by the need for long periods of operational service without frequent maintenance and attention being necessary.

2.11

Means for Lifting All items of plant shall be provided with adequate means for lifting, and heavy covers and other similar components shall be drilled and tapped for lifting eyes. Parts having spigotted joints or otherwise likely to be difficult to separate shall be drilled and tapped for starting screws unless other easy means of separation are provided.

2.12

Suitability for Duty Except as otherwise specified or approved, all the plant shall be rated for continuous service under the most onerous duty conditions that may occur under normal circumstances and shall be effectively protected against damage in the event of overloading arising from the incidence of abnormal working conditions. All materials and equipment shall as a minimum be suitable for continuous exposure to tropical conditions including ambient temperatures up to 50C; relative humidity up to 95 %; and at altitudes from sea level to 1200m. Except as otherwise prescribed or approved, all apparatus and components thereof which comprise the works shall be of tried and proved design and construction which experience has shown to be entirely suitable for service according to the Contract.

2.13

Wearing Parts Parts subject to wear shall be indelibly marked with their part number and maker's name and address and be easily accessible. Provision shall be made for taking-up wear in bearings and other wearing parts and for easy replacement if adjustment is not practicable. If during the Defects Notification Period (Defects Liability Period) any parts show, in the opinion of the Engineer, signs of undue wear, corrosion or erosion they shall be replaced at the Contractor's expense notwithstanding that they may be working otherwise in a satisfactory manner.

2.14

Spare Parts Spare parts shall be interchangeable with the corresponding parts of the plant and each shall bear a corrosion proof label giving an adequate description for its rapid identification, including drawing number, part number, and maker's name and address. The Contractor shall provide updated pages of spare part manuals without charge for a period of one year after commissioning and handing over the installation.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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2.15 Keys The Contractor shall hand over all keys with permanent tags indicating the location of the matching locks to the Employer upon the acceptance of the Works. However, before the acceptance of the Works, all keys shall be in the custody of the Contractor. In no case shall the keys be duplicated. If any key is lost the Contractor shall replace the new lock at no cost to the Employer. 2.16 Access and Safety Protection The plant shall include such guards, hand-railing, access steelwork, walkways, etc, as may be required to meet the current relevant regulations for the safety of personnel and of the plant, and to afford adequate and safe access to all parts of it. All shall be of substantial design and construction.

2.17

Fixings The plant shall be provided with all necessary supporting steelwork, holding-down bolts, cleats, fixings, etc., whereby it shall be secured to the structures, the cost of them being included in the prices of the items with which they are associated.

2.18

Special Tools Any special tools required for adjustment and maintenance of plant shall be provided.

2.19

Resistance to Vermin All plant and equipment supplied under Contract shall be suitably resistant to or protected against termites and vermin. No organic materials shall be used and all seals, grommets, etc shall be made of neoprene or alternative suitable material.

2.20

Identification Labels Each item of plant and each sub-assembly for which spare parts may be required, shall have attached to it a non-tarnishable metal or equal approved form of plate showing clearly the manufacture's name, serial number and basic information as to rating, speed etc, in sufficient detail to allow the component or assembly to be readily identified in correspondence and when ordering spare parts. The foregoing information shall be secured by threaded screws and nuts or equal approved method. Self tapping screws or soft threaded rivets will not be accepted. Switchboards and control panels shall bear a title at the top and each component shall bear a smaller circuit title. Components on the doors shall be grouped as far as possible and each group or single component labelled to identify its purpose. Internal components and sub-components shall bear labels to identify them relative to numbers or letters shown on their circuit diagrams. All terminals shall be numbered with the terminal number or conductor ferrule number as appropriate to the wiring system adopted so that wires may be correctly reconnected without reference to drawings. Externals labels shall be engraved on white traffolyte or similar with black infill and shall be secured by non-ferrous screws. Internal labels may be similar to external labels or may be painted and varnished. Adhesive labels shall not be used.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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2.21 Resistance to Corrosion and Abrasion Where corrosion or abrasion of materials may be expected from contact with water or sediment or from any other cause, the Contractor shall supply suitably resistant materials. Any material showing signs of corrosion, or pitting before the expiry of the Defects Notice Period shall be replaced by the Contractor at his own expense with material to the Engineer's approval.

2.22

Welding Subject to further requirements described hereafter in the Specifications the following requirements apply to welding. In all cases where welds are liable to be highly stressed the Contractor shall supply to the Engineer before fabrication commences detailed drawings of all welds and weld preparations proposed. No welding shall be carried out before the Engineer has signified, in writing, his approval of the details proposed. No alteration shall be made to any previously approved detail of weld preparation without the prior approval of the Engineer. The Engineer shall be at liberty in any situation where there are highly stressed fusion welds to have them examined and other mechanical and non-destructive tests, including X-Ray tests, if required to be carried out. All welded components shall be stress relieved prior to machining.

2.23

Noise and vibration The Contractor shall make all reasonable efforts to reduce noise and vibration to a minimum. All rotating parts of the plant shall be statically and dynamically balanced so that they operate over all specified conditions without undue vibration.

2.24

Installation The Contractor shall provide all labour, supervision and tackle for receiving, unloading, storing and erecting the plant on site. The plant shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and shall be set and fixed in position true and level using any necessary packing pieces. All necessary templates for fixing the position of bolt holes etc shall be provided and the positioning, fixing and securing of holding down bolts etc shall be done in such a way that they cannot move or be affected in any way by the building-in operation. Holes in concrete not exceeding 25mm (1 in) diameter, if not formed during construction shall be cut as necessary by the Contractor with high speed rotational or impact drills in such a manner that the surrounding material shall not be damaged. The positions of such holes shall be agreed with the Engineer before cutting, however this does not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for accurate positioning of the holes. Structural steelwork shall not be drilled for fixings unless specified or specifically approved by the Engineer. The works shall include removal of existing plant, modification to existing plinths and all breaking out and reinstatement of building works, where necessary.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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2.25 Operation of Unsatisfactory Equipment If the operation or use of the materials or equipment proves to be unsatisfactory to the Engineer, the Employer shall have the right to operate and use such materials or equipment until they can be taken out of service for correction by the Contractor of such latent defects, errors, or omissions and for replacement in whole or in part, if correction is unsuccessful or not feasible.

2.26

Construction Equipment Construction equipment and tools to be used in the Works, i.e., concrete mixer, concrete vibrators, scaffolds etc., shall be in good and workable conditions. The Contractor shall provide such materials and equipment in sufficient quantities and in timely manner.

2.27

Labour and Skilled Technicians The Contractor shall provide sufficient number of labours and skilled technicians who are qualified and have experience in each trade of work in order to have the Works completed on time. If the Employer or its representative find that any employee of the Contractor is not qualified or behave improperly, the Employer shall have the right to direct the Contractor to replace that employee. The Contractor shall promptly make the replacement. Correction of work or time delay resulting from the replacement shall not be used for causes of claim or extension of the contract.

2.28

Materials to be Furnished Any materials shown or not shown on the drawings or specifications but necessary for construction of the Work in accordance with a good engineering practice shall be furnished by the Contractor.

2.29

Protection of the Works The Contractor shall ensure that items set up for building into the Works are not damaged or displaced from their correct position and alignment. Works and materials which may be adversely affected by rain, flood, heat, air-borne dust, humidity, or other climatic conditions shall be carefully protected.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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PARAGRAPH 3 - PIPELINE AND SEWERAGE WORKS

3.1

General Pipes, fittings and valves shall be of the diameter and class of material as specified or shown on the Drawings and their joints shall be completely watertight. All pipes, valves and pipe fittings shall conform to the relevant standards. The Contractor shall if required forward to the Engineer certificates showing that the materials have been tested and comply with the requirements of this Specification and the relevant Standard. Where the Contractor wishes to use a type of pipe not manufactured in the minimum internal diameter indicated in the Contract, he may substitute the next larger diameter manufactured subject to full compliance with the design requirements, clearance and cover. The Contractor shall not use pipes and fittings supplied by more than one manufacturer, for each material specified, without approval in writing by the Engineer. The manufacture of pipes, pipe fittings and accessories shall be open to inspection by the Engineer at the manufacturer's works Pipes shall be ordered in the maximum lengths available to minimize the number of joints. The Contractor shall be responsible for the supply of all materials in sufficient quantities and shall immediately prior to placing any order, especially for imported goods, ascertain the required quantities.

3.2 3.2.1

Materials Vitrified Clay Pipes and Fittings Vitrified clay pipes and fittings shall comply with the relevant provisions of BSEN295 or BS65. Pipes and fittings for sewerage and drainage shall be Class 200 to BSEN295 for pipes DN200 to DN350, and Class 120 for pipes DN400 and above. All pipes and fittings shall have spigot and socket flexible joints. Pipes for French Drains shall be unglazed perforated pipes to BS65.

3.2.2

Concrete Pipes and Fittings Unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes and fittings shall be of approved quality and in accordance with BS5911, Parts 100 & 110 respectively. Pipes may be purchased from an approved manufacturer or be constructed by the Contractor. All pipes and fittings shall have gasket type flexible joint of spigot and socket type unless otherwise specified or directed by the Engineer. If the Contractor decides to manufacture the pipes himself then concrete and reinforcement for the pipes shall comply fully with the relevant clauses in Section "Concrete Works". Concrete shall be Grade C25 unless otherwise approved or directed by the Engineer. Pipes shall be subject to rejection by reason of failure to meet any of the testing requirements. Pipe sections will also be rejected if found to contain cracks, damaged ends and other defects due to faulty manufacture, handling, transporting or placing. Notwithstanding the requirements and provisions of BS5911, no cracked reinforced concrete pipe, whether previously proof-load tested or otherwise, shall be incorporated into the Works. Similarly any reinforced concrete pipe found to have developed cracks in the tensile zones further to installation in the Works, shall be deemed not to have complied with the Specification.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Concrete jacking pipes shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS5911, Part 120, and, additionally, the Contractor shall ensure that the pipes can withstand the jacking loads to which they will be subjected during installation, without cracking or spalling. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a certificate stating the distributed jacking loads for which the pipe was designed and confirming that the pipes are suitable for jacking. 3.2.3 Prestressed Concrete Pipes and Fittings Prestressed concrete pipes and fittings shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS5178. Surface finish shall be assessed in accordance with and shall comply with BS5911, Part 100. Unless steam cured, no pipes or fittings shall leave the place of manufacture until they have been allowed to cure and mature under suitable conditions for a total period of not less than twenty eight (28) days. 3.2.4 Internal Coating of Concrete Pipes and Fittings Where stated on the Drawings all concrete pipes and fittings shall have an internal protective coating. This coating shall be Protection Epoxy Coal Tar 6500, or equal and approved. Application shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The concrete surface must be sound and all surface laitence shall be removed by wire brushing or sweep blast. Any blow holes shall be filled with Protecton Epoxy Filler 6290. The first coat shall be thinned with 10% Protecton Thinner 6950 and shall be brushed in to assist penetration. 3.2.5 Asbestos-Cement Pipes and Fittings Asbestos-cement pipes, joints and fittings for sewers shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS 3656. Asbestos-cement pressure pipes, joints and bends shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS 486. The type of joint to be used must be capable of taking up all loadings without any leakage. The type of joint shall be specified or approved by the Engineer. Asbestos-cement pipe and accessories shall not be coated. Cast iron joints and fittings shall be coated with bituminous composition. 3.2.6 Ductile Iron Pipes and Fittings Ductile iron pipes and fittings shall comply with BS 4772. Unless otherwise specified all joints will be of the "push fit type" with spigot and socket which shall be sealed with continuous rubber ring gaskets and feature a rotation capacity of at least 3. Gaskets shall be the sole elements depended on to make the joints watertight. All ductile iron pipes and fittings shall be coated both internally and externally. The external pipe surfaces shall be zinc sprayed before coating. Both pipes and fittings shall be coated with bitumen to BS 3416 type 1, Class A. 3.2.7 Steel Pipes and Fittings Steel pipes shall be of the diameter and thickness as shown on the Drawings and shall comply with BS3601. Steel pipes and fittings shall be coated both internally and externally with at least 2 layers of bitumen to BS3416 type 1, Class A. Unless otherwise specified steel pipes shall be jointed by mechanical flexible joints of the Viking Johnson type or equal approved, while joints to fittings,

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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structures, etc. shall be flanged with PN 16 flanges to BS4504. Pipes for cutting shall be clearly identifiable. They shall be supplied rounded throughout their length, and shall be used only as directed. 3.2.8 Unplasticized PVC Pipes and Fittings Unplasticized PVC pipes and fittings for sewers shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS4660 or BS5481. Unplasticized PVC pressure pipes and fittings shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS3505 and shall be of the class specified in the Contract. Unless specified otherwise joints for pipes and fittings shall be flexible mechanical joints complying with the requirements of BS 4346 Part 2. 3.2.9 Polyethylene Pipes and Fittings Medium density polyethylene (MDPE) pipes for sewer or pumped sewer use shall be coloured black. Pipes and fittings shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with United Kingdom Water Industry Specifications WIs 4-32-03 and WIs 4-32-04. Any necessary joints shall be made by Butt Fusion methods approved by the pipe manufacturer, unless detailed otherwise in the Contract. Fittings shall be pupped as necessary to achieve adequate clamping lengths. Medium density polyethylene (MDPE) pipes for water supply use up to nominal size 63 shall be coloured blue and shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS6572. 3.2.10 Pipe Bedding Material Granular bedding type 1 shall be broken stone or gravel, crushed brick or concrete, passing a 25mm sieve and retained on a 5mm sieve, thoroughly mixed with free draining coarse sand in the ratio of one part sand to two parts stone, gravel, brick or concrete. Granular bedding type 2 shall be broken stone or gravel, crushed brick or concrete, passing a 10mm sieve and retained on a 5mm sieve, thoroughly mixed with free draining coarse sand in the ratio of one part sand to two parts stone, gravel, brick or concrete. Alternatively, aggregates to BS882, Table 3, or other materials may be used, if in the opinion of the Engineer they have suitable characteristics. Pipe bedding to concrete pipes shall contain no more than 0.3% sulphate. Selected fill shall comprise uniform readily compactable material free from roots, organic matter, building rubbish, and excluding clay lumps retained on a 75mm sieve and stones retained on a 25mm sieve. 3.2.11 Manhole Covers and Frames Manhole covers and frames shall be of cast iron with a minimum square clear opening of 600mm x 600mm. Heavy duty covers shall be as Sewermaster NF12, or equal and approved. Medium duty covers shall be as Sewermaster NF20, or equal and approved. Light duty covers shall not be used in the Works. The Contractor shall ensure that guarantee rights are transferable to the Employer. Individual covers and frames shall be kept together at all times. All cover and frame recesses shall be greased immediately prior to insertion of the cover and upon completion of the Contract. Lifting keys shall be provided at the rate of two keys for every ten covers provided in each class.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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3.2.12 Gullies, Gully Gratings and Frames Pre-cast concrete gullies shall be un-reinforced and shall comply with the requirements of BS5911, Part 2. Glazed clayware gullies shall comply with the requirements of BSEN295. Gully gratings and frames shall comply with the requirements of BS497, Part 1. 3.2.13 Manhole Step Irons Manhole step irons shall be as NF210, or equal and approved. The Contractor shall ensure that guarantee rights are transferable to the Employer. 3.2.14 Manhole Ladders Manhole ladders shall be stainless steel ladders for vertical fixing, fabricated from grade 316/S31 steel complying with BS970, Part 1, or BS1449, Part 2. All ladders shall comply with the dimensional provisions of BS4211, Class A. Any manual welding shall be by the inert gas tungsten arc process. Filler rods and wires shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS2901, Part 2. All ladders shall be fabricated to site measurements and manufacture shall not commence until site measurements are confirmed by the Engineer. 3.2.15 Manhole Safety Chains Manhole safety chains shall be 6mm stainless steel short link chain. The stainless steel shall be grade 316/S31, complying with BS970, Part 1. Chain links shall be welded and have an internal length not exceeding 45mm, and an internal width of between 12 and 15mm. Welds shall be smoothly finished all round. Chain length shall be as detailed on the Drawings with one end securely attached to a 12mm diameter stainless steel eyebolt and the other end attached to a suitable stainless steel hook for attachment to a similar eyebolt. Any manual welding shall be by the inert gas tungsten arc process. Filler rods and wires shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS2901, Part 2. Each chain shall withstand a breaking force of 30kN and proof force of 15kN, when tested in accordance with Clause 7.3 of BS4942, Part 2. 3.2.16 Manhole Grab Rails Manhole grab rails shall be manufactured from 25mm diameter stainless steel bar. The stainless steel shall be grade 316/S31, complying with BS970, Part 1. Any manual welding shall be by the inert gas tungsten arc process. Filler rods and wires shall comply with the relevant provisions of BS2901, Part 2. 3.2.17 Marker and Indicator Posts Marker and Indicator posts shall be of vibrated pre-cast concrete conforming to the dimensions and patterns shown on the Drawings. The posts shall be provided with suitable holes for the attachment of name plates. All holes shall be free of obstructions and accurately positioned.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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3.3 3.3.1 Excavation of Trenches for Pipelines and Cables Excavation The excavation of trenches for pipelines shall at any one time be limited to lengths previously approved by the Engineer in writing. Except with the written approval of the Engineer, work on each approved length shall be completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer before work on any new length is commenced. Before commencing, the alignment of the pipeline shall be pegged out and approved. Trenches for pipelines and cables, unless specified otherwise, shall be restricted, up to a level 300mm above the crown of the pipe, to the maximum trench widths shown below. The Contractor shall submit details of pipe trench widths above this level to the Engineer for approval if these widths exceed the maximum specified below.
Nominal Pipe Diameter D (mm) Up to and including 600 Over 600 up to and including 825 Over 825 up to and including 1125 Over 1125 Maximum Trench Width (mm) D + 750 D + 825 D + 1250 D + 1350

Filling and protection to pipes shall extend fully to the sides of the excavation. All sheeting and supports shall be within the above stated widths. Should trench widths exceed those stated, the Engineer shall be entitled to order such additional strengthening and protection to the pipes as may be required because of the altered loading conditions and the Contractor, at his own cost, shall comply with any order from the Engineer in this respect. The Contractor shall provide and maintain an adequate support system for upholding the ground actually encountered and the safety of adjacent structures, buildings, or utilities shall not be affected. 3.3.2 Support System The support system to uphold the surrounding ground actually encountered shall include, inter alia, but not by way of limitation, all normal methods of temporary support including bracing, use of sheetpiling of steel, timber, concrete or such other materials as may be approved by the Engineer. Where any excavation is carried out near or under any existing structure or work liable to be affected by subsidence, the Contractor shall at his own expense prevent damage as a result of his work. All support systems shall be properly maintained until the Permanent Work is sufficiently advanced to permit it to be removed. The Contractor shall be responsible for any injury to the Works and for any consequential damage caused by or arising out the removal of the support system and any advice, permission or approval given by the Engineer relating to its removal shall not relieve the Contractor from his responsibilities under the Contract. No gaps or voids are permitted as a result of the removal of the support system. Gaps and voids shall be properly filled to the satisfaction of the Engineer with an approved sand-cement soil or other approved means. No separate payment or measurement for payment will be made for upholding the ground. Upholding the ground encountered shall be considered as incidental to the excavation operation and shall be performed by the Contractor at no additional cost.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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3.3.3 Dewatering The Contractor shall provide an adequate dewatering system to lower the existing ground water table below the level of the trench bottom and to keep the trench dry until pipes are assembled and back filled. If during the progress of the work the trench in part or in whole becomes flooded the Contractor shall immediately stop all relevant work until the trench is dry. The Contractor shall make good at his own cost all damages to the Temporary and Permanent Works caused by the flooding. Claims from the Contractor in this respect for delays, damages and consequential damages will be entertained by the Engineer or the Employer. No separate payment or measurement for payment will be made for dewatering and dealing with water to keep the trench in a safe and dry condition. Dewatering and dealing with water, shall be considered as incidental to excavation, and shall be performed by the Contractor at no additional costs.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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3.4 3.4.1 Pipelines Installation Installation of pipelines includes the supply, laying and jointing of pipes and fittings, construction of beddings and foundations, manholes and other structures in the line, testing, backfilling of trenches, surface restoration, disinfection and commissioning. Installation of pipelines shall in principle follow the recommendations of BS 8010 "Code of Practice for Pipelines". All plant, operation and haulage required from source of supply or store to bring the pipes, valves, etc., to their place of laying of fixing, including any unloading into temporary storage areas and any subsequent reloading for haulage to the place of laying shall be included in the supply of pipes and fittings. Whenever the Contractor is not engaged in laying pipes, pipe ends shall be effectively stopped with strong drumheads securely fixed to the pipes. The plugs may, with the Engineer's approval, be provided with small holes for drainage purposes, but water from the trench shall not enter the pipe. 3.4.2 Foundation Unless specified otherwise, pipelines shall be laid in trenches excavated in the ground. Unless unsuitable soil is encountered, trenches shall be excavated to the specified depth below the barrel of the pipe. Granular bedding for pipes shall be placed by spreading and compacting granular bedding material over the complete width of the pipe trench. Where pipes are jointed, bell holes of ample dimensions shall be formed in the bedding to ensure that each pipe is uniformly supported throughout the length of its barrel and to enable the joint to be made and inspected during testing. After pipelaying additional material shall be placed and compacted by hand rammer in 150mm layers equally on each side of the pipe. Where pipes are laid on granular beds in ground with high groundwater level, puddled clay stanks shall be constructed at 25m intervals at the mid point of an individual pipe. The stanks shall be 0.5m long and shall be recessed 300mm into the sides and base of the trench, and shall extend by a minimum of 150mm above the top level of the granular material. Pipes shall be laid on setting blocks only where a concrete bed or cradle is used. 3.4.3 Handling of Pipes The Contractor shall be responsible for the safe handling of all pipes, valves and pipe fittings. When loading, unloading, or otherwise handling, the greatest care shall be taken to avoid shocks likely to cause cracking, chipping or any other damage to pipes, valves or fittings or to their coatings. All pipes and fittings too heavy to be carried by hand shall be loaded and off-loaded only by means of a crane or any other approved lifting and handling device, with slings or hooks suitably padded. In this case recesses shall be dug beneath the invert to permit the slings or ropes to be properly withdrawn. Particular care shall be taken to ensure that sheeting and lining are intact before jointing pipes and fittings. No pipes shall be rolled into place for lowering. Before any piping is lowered into the trench, it shall be cleaned and examined for cracks, flaws etc. whilst hanging in the sling, and to see that no earth or foreign matter is within the pipe barrel or coupling. No protective cap, or disc or other appliance shall be removed permanently until the pipe or fitting that it protects is about to be jointed.

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Suitable measures shall be taken to prevent flotation or other movement before the works are complete. 3.4.4 Jointing and Cutting All joints shall be flexible mechanical joints and comply with the relevant provisions of the appropriate British Standard and shall be made to the manufacturer's recommendations and the Specifications hereafter. Flanged joints shall be properly aligned before any bolts are tightened. Gaskets for flanged joints shall be of the inside-bolt-circle type. Jointing compounds shall not be used when making flanged joints except that to facilitate the making of vertical joints gaskets may be secured temporarily to one flange face by a minimum quantity of clear rubber solution. Bolt threads shall be treated with graphite paste and the nuts shall be tightened evenly in diametrically opposed pairs. Nuts shall be secured against loosening by vibration. Rubber joint rings for water mains and drainage purposes shall be Types 1 and 2 respectively, complying with the relevant provisions of BS 2494 and shall be obtained from the pipe manufacturer. Joint lubricants for sliding joints and used for jointing water mains shall not impart to water taste, colour, or any effect known to be injurious to health, and shall be resistant to bacterial growth and leaching. Unless specified otherwise joints having exposed mild steel components shall be cleaned and all loose rust shall be removed. The internal lining in a gap which has been left for the joint to be made shall be completed in accordance with the recommendations issued by the manufacturer unless specified otherwise. The external protection shall comprise bitumen applied to a thickness of not less than one millimetre onto the external surface of the joint, followed where appropriate by a spiral wrap of heavy duty glass fibre tape bonded with hot bitumen. For concrete pipes cut on the Site, yarn and mortar joints shall be made. In making the joints, the spigot shall be entered into the socket of the last pipe laid until it bears on the back face of the socket, and it shall be centred in the socket. Two turns of tarred yarn shall then be caulked into the back of the socket with a proper caulking tool and a stiff non shrink cement mortar shall be pressed into the joint to fill the socket completely and shall be bevelled off at 45 degrees from the outside edge of the socket. For closing lengths, it may be necessary to cut pipes of various materials. Pipes shall be cut by a method which provides a clean square profile without splitting or fracturing the pipe wall, and which causes minimum damage to any protective coating. Where necessary, the cut ends of pipes shall be formed to the tapers and chamfers suitable for the type of joint to be used and any protective coatings shall be made good. Where ductile pipes larger than 450mm diameter are to be cut to form non-standard lengths, the Contractor shall comply with the manufacturer's recommendations in respect of ovality correction to the cut spigot end. Methods of cutting of asbestos cement pipes shall limit the dangers to health from asbestos dust and particles and shall be approved by the Engineer. All offcuts, wipes etc., shall be disposed of by a method approved by the Engineer. 3.4.5 Connections to Sewers Where practicable all connections to sewers should be made at manholes or chambers. All connections direct to a sewer line shall be made by means of saddles or oblique junction pieces.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Pipe saddles to clay or concrete pipes shall be bedded in cement mortar and a mortar fillet formed to give cover of at least 50mm to the base of the saddle.

Pipe saddles to asbestos cement pipes shall be fixed with an approved epoxy resin adhesive. Pipe saddles to uPVC pipes shall be purpose made and shall either be a mechanical clip-on type or shall be fixed with an approved solvent cement. 3.4.6 Curves and Bends The pipes shall be laid in straight lines where possible. Curves of long radius shall be obtained by deflection at the joints. The deflection of the joints for this purpose shall not be more than 50% of the maximum deflection as specified by the pipe manufacturer for the relevant type of joint. Where a required change of direction cannot be obtained by deflection of the joints , prefabricated bends shall be used. Concrete thrust blocks shall be provided where ordered by the Engineer, indicated on the Drawings and at reducers, tee junctions, caps, etc. and curves or bends deflecting 11 degrees or more. The type and size of thrust blocks shall be in accordance with the Drawings or as approved by the Engineer. Concrete for thrust blocks shall be placed carefully against undisturbed earth or rock and shall in no case give less than 150mm of cover to the pipe. Concrete shall be grade C25. When casting thrust blocks, no couplings or joints shall be covered, and where timber shuttering has been used such timber shall be removed before backfilling. 3.4.7 Protection After excavation of the trench, placing and compacting the bedding, laying the pipe and concreting the thrust blocks the pipe must be surrounded by fill or concrete. The Contractor shall not cover up any pipe except uPVC pipe until it has been inspected, tested and approved. uPVC may be covered to a depth of 150mm to reduce thermal movement if immediate inspection and testing is not practicable. Unless otherwise specified the pipe surround for concrete and uPVC pipes shall be covered with clay or concrete tiles of at least 40mm thickness and compression strength of 5N/mm. The trench above the so finished pipe surround shall be filled with fill and shall be compacted flush with ground level. Where indicated on the Drawings, ordered by the Engineer and where pipes are surfacing or having less than the required ground cover of 750mm, pipes shall be surrounded by concrete grade C25. Pipes to be surrounded by concrete shall be supported by precast concrete setting blocks not less than 150mm deep covered with two layers of compressible packing of bitumen damp proof sheeting complying with BS743. Concrete shall be placed on one side of the pipe and carefully worked under the pipe without displacing the pipe. Then concrete shall be placed on both sides and on top of the pipe in one operation. The concrete cover shall at least be 150mm to the barrel of the pipe. Unless specified otherwise concrete shall not be reinforced and shall be interrupted over the full section at intervals not exceeding 8 metres by compressible filler. The interruptions shall coincide with the pipe joints.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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3.5 3.5.1 Manholes and Chambers General All manholes and chambers and the like shall be constructed from in-situ reinforced concrete or precast concrete units as indicated on the Drawings.

Manholes and chambers shall be substantially watertight. 3.5.2 Pre-cast Concrete Units Joints shall be made in such a manner that the jointing material fills the cavity. Any surplus material extruded inside the chamber shall be trimmed off and joints pointed on completion. The lowest chamber ring shall be bedded on and haunched with cement mortar. The remaining faces of joints shall be liberally coated with cement mortar prior to being fixed in position. Lifting holes shall be filled with cement mortar. The cover slab shall be bedded on the topmost ring with cement mortar. Where manholes are to have a concrete surround the concrete shall be grade C20 and the maximum height of a single pour shall be 2m. Each construction joint shall break joint with that of the unit by a minimum of 150mm. 3.5.3 Inverts and Benching Inverts and benchings shall be formed of the materials described in the Contract. Where there is no change in pipe diameter, the invert shall follow the gradient of the outgoing pipe. Where there is a change in diameter the incoming and outgoing pipes shall be laid soffits level and the invert shall slope evenly between the pipe inverts. Benching shall slope towards the main channel at a slope of 1 in 12 to a point 50mm above the sewer soffit and shall be vertical down to the pipe springings into the invert. Inverts and benchings shall have a Smooth Finish. 3.5.4 Setting Covers and Frames Frames shall be set to the required level on precast concrete cover frame seating rings. Frames shall be set to level bedded on cement mortar and haunched over the side of the frames with concrete grade C20. 3.5.5 Pipes into Structures A joint shall be provided as close as practicable to the outside face of any structure into which a pipe is built, compatible with satisfactory completion and structural movement of the joint. The pipes to be built in shall not exceed 600mm in length and shall be built in monolithically with the manhole. The pipe ends projecting beyond the manhole walls shall be encased in 150mm thick grade C20 concrete. The length of the next pipe away from the structure, termed rocker pipe, shall be within the length range 0.5m to 0.75m for pipes up to and including DN450, and within the range ** to 1.0m for pipes above DN450 up to and including DN750. A pipeline may be laid through a manhole or chamber and the pipe cut out to half diameter, if so required, provided that flexible joints are present not more than 600mm from the inner face of the wall, and adjacent pipes comply with the requirements of rocker pipes.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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3.6 3.6.1

Testing General As soon as pipes have been placed on their bedding and before backfilling they shall be tested for leakage. Before any testing, the Contractor shall ensure that the pipeline is anchored adequately and that thrusts from bends, branch outlets or from the pipeline ends are transmitted to solid ground or to a suitable temporary anchorage. Open ends shall be stopped with plugs, caps or blank flanges properly jointed. Testing against closed valves will not be permitted. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least one clear working day beforehand of his intention to test a section of pipeline.

3.6.2

Testing of Pressure Pipelines Gauges for testing pressure pipelines shall either be of the conventional circular type, not less than 300mm in diameter, calibrated in metres head of water, or shall have a digital indicator capable of reading increments of 0.1m head. Before any gauge is used the Contractor shall arrange for it to be checked independently, and a dated certificate of its accuracy shall be provided. Before testing, valves shall be checked and sealed, the sections of main filled with water and the air released. After having been filled, pipelines shall be left under operating pressure for the period of not less than 3 hours, so as to achieve conditions as stable as possible for testing. The pressure shall then be raised until the test pressure being 125 % times the maximum working pressure, as determined by the Engineer, is reached in the lowest part of the tested section, and the pressure shall be maintained at this level, by pumping if necessary, for a period of one hour. The pump shall then be disconnected, and no further water shall be permitted to enter the pipeline for a further period of one hour. At the end of this period the original pressure shall be restored by pumping and the loss measured by drawing off water from the pipeline until the pressure as at the end of test is reached again. The loss shall not exceed 2 litres per metre nominal bore per kilometre length per metre head (calculated as the average head applied to the section) per 24 hours. In addition to the tests on separate sections, the whole pipeline shall be tested on completion to the same procedure as that outlined for individual sections.

3.6.3

Testing of Gravity Pipelines For the purpose of this clause gravity pipelines are defined as pipelines which do not operate at an pressure above atmospheric pressure. Testing Gravity pipelines laid in open cut shall be tested after they are jointed but before any concreting or backfilling is commenced, other than such as may be necessary for the structural stability whilst under test. A further test shall be carried out after the backfilling is complete. The pipelines shall be tested by means of a water test and by visual inspection, in lengths determined by the course of construction, in accordance with a programme approved by the Engineer. The test pressure for gravity pipelines shall be not less than 1.2 metres head of water above the pipe soffit at the highest point and not greater than 6 metres above the lowest point of the section. The pipeline shall be filled with water and a minimum period of two hours shall be allowed for absorbtion, after which water shall be added from a measuring vessel at intervals of 10 minutes and

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the quantity required to maintain the original water level noted. Unless otherwise specified the length of pipeline shall be accepted if the quantity of water added over a 30 minute period is less than 0.5 litre per linear metre per metre of bore. Not withstanding the satisfactory completion of the above test, if there is any discernable leakage of water from any pipe or joint, the pipe shall be replaced and or the joint shall be re-made, as appropriate , and the test repeated until the leakage is stopped. Gravity pipelines and manholes shall be tested for infiltration after backfilling and removal of any temporary drainage. All inlets to the system shall be effectively closed, and any residual flow shall be deemed to be infiltration. The pipeline, including manholes, shall be accepted as satisfactory if the infiltration in 30 minutes does not exceed 0.5 litre per linear metre per metre of bore.

3.7 3.7.1

Restoration of Surfaces Classification The surfaces likely to be encountered, broken up and restored in the course of pipelaying are:Concrete roads and paths Surface treated service roads Normal asphalt and bitumen macadam roads Heavy duty asphalt and bitumen macadam roads

3.7.2

Contractors Damage If through the improper use of excavating machinery or plant, or through carelessness, or for any other avoidable reason the Contractor excavates trenches to greater widths than those specified, or if in the remaining parts of roads, tracks or footpaths, damage is done to surfaces by crawler tracks or wheels of heavy machinery, the Contractor shall be entirely responsible for the complete restoration of surfaces to the condition pertaining before the Contractor commenced his operations, or shall pay to the appropriate authority the certified cost of such repairs.

3.7.3

Settlement during Temporary Restoration The Contractor shall maintain a constant and careful vigilance over the temporary surfaces constructed by him and shall be responsible for their appearance and repair during a three months settlement period. As and when depressions occur in the temporary restoration these shall be promptly filled by the Contractor to a level flush with the adjacent surface and adequately sealed.

3.7.4

Temporary Restoration The filling of the trench shall be taken up to a depth of 450mm from the finished surface. From this level to within 125mm of the surface the filling shall be approved gravel or crushed stone of the following grading:

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Sieve Size Percentage by weight passing 100 85 - 100 45 - 100 25 - 85 8 - 45 0 - 10

75mm 37.5mm 10mm 5mm 600m 75m

The material shall be placed in layers not exceeding 200mm unconsolidated depth and shall be fully compacted to form a stable backfill. The top 125mm shall be road base material according to Specification. The surface shall be rolled with a vibrating roller and brought proud of the surface by approximately 50mm depending on the depth of the trench. 3.7.5 Permanent Restoration - Concrete Roads Existing concrete slabs shall be broken back at least 150mm beyond the edges of the excavation and their exposed faces shall be inclined between 10 and 30 degrees to the vertical. The limit of breaking out shall be delineated by straight sawcuts not less than 25mm in depth. Where the slab is reinforced the reinforcement shall be preserved so that it projects at least 150mm from the exposed face. The permissible deviation of irregularities in the surface of the trench backfill shall be 15mm. The level of backfill should be such that the new concrete slab is 50mm thicker than the existing. The exposed edges of existing concrete shall be clean, free from all cracked or loose material, and shall be painted with freshly made cement grout immediately before the new concrete slab is placed. Where excavation interferes with a joint in an existing slab, it shall be reinstated, as found, including any dowel bars, joint filler and sealing compound. Reinforcement which has been cut out shall be replaced with new reinforcement of mass not less than that removed, accurately cut and wired to existing reinforcement. Concrete shall be Grade C25. 3.7.6 Permanent Restoration - Other Roads Exposed edges of the existing carriageway shall be cut vertically to a uniform line consistent with the width of the trench. The depth of cut shall be equal to the combined thickness of wearing course and base course. The undisturbed road base should be exposed to a minimum width of 75mm. The temporary reinstatement shall be removed to the level of the formation of the existing road and the surface shall be well compacted. The sub-base, road base and subsequent courses shall be laid and compacted in accordance with the provisions of the Specification. Care shall be taken that the exposed edges of existing carriageways are treated with prime coats or tack coats, as appropriate, before laying of road base and subsequent courses.

3.8

Disinfection On completion of the hydraulic test on water mains, a foam swab shall be passed through the main for final cleansing sufficient times to achieve clear wash water. The mains shall then be filled with a chlorine solution of a strength sufficient for complete sterilization. The chlorine solution shall remain in the system for 24 hours after which the system shall be flushed till the out flowing water at all points has a chlorine content equal to that produced by the chlorination

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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equipment. After 24 hours samples of water in the system shall be taken and tested by an approved laboratory for compliance with the requirements of the Delhi Jal Board. If the results of such tests are not satisfactory sterilization shall be repeated until satisfactory results are obtained.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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PARAGRAPH 4 - CIVIL WORKS

4.1 4.1.1

Materials Fill Material General Fill material shall not contain brush, roots, organic or otherwise unsuitable materials. Fill material for incorporation in the Works shall, subject to the provisions of these Specifications, be obtained from excavation of the Permanent Works. As the work proceeds, the Engineer will continuously review the suitability of materials available from excavations as determined from the data furnished by the Contractor and such tests as the Engineer may deem necessary. The Engineer shall determine the suitability and placing of the materials in various portions of the work in accordance with the provisions specified herein. Such determination shall be based inter alia but not by way of limitation on approved information such as adequate soil tests and test results supplied by the Contractor. The Engineer will determine which tests shall be executed by the Contractor to determine the suitability of material for fill and backfill of structures. Unless otherwise specified or approved the material used for backfill and fill shall be excavated material of particle size not exceeding 100mm. Not more than 15% by weight of such material shall pass the 0.063mm sieve and not more than 3% by weight shall pass the 0.020mm sieve. Backfill against the Permanent works shall be selected, and free from boulders, cobbles, rock fragments and the like greater than 50mm nominal size, unless otherwise specified or approved.

4.1.2

Fill Material to be placed below Water The Contractor shall use approved durable materials. Durable materials in principle acceptable to the Engineer are: quarry run or quarry waste, rock, boulders, concrete or brick waste provided always that the stability of the fill material warranted, the material offers sufficient resistance against currents prevailing at the time of construction, has sufficient filter capacities to retain the fill material, would not cause harmful damage to the geo-synthetics of the slope protection works to be constructed subsequently and does not contain substances which may lead to contamination of surface and ground water.

4.1.3

Steel Sheet Piles Materials, type and size of sheet piles shall be in accordance with ASTM A 328-81 or as approved by the Designer. Details and thicknesses of sheet piling shall be as indicated on the Drawings. Maximum rolling margins shall be 4% above and 2.5% below the calculated masses. Sheet piles shall have the following properties: Phosphorus and Sulphur not more than 0.04%. Copper not less than 0.25%. Sheet piles shall meet the following specifications Tensile Strength not less than 40 kg/mm. Yield Point not less than 30 kg/mm. Elongation not less than 18%. The Contractor shall submit a list of sheet pile suppliers including technical information of the sheet pile, such as maximum tensile strength, yield point, chemical and physical composition, to the Engineer for approval prior to ordering. Prior to painting or coating, the Contractor shall clean the surface of sheet piles by sand blasting or other method approved by the Engineer. After cleaning it shall be coated with 3 coats of coal tar

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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epoxy. Each succeeding coating shall be applied after the preceding coat has been fully dried. Thickness of each coat shall not be less than 0.1 millimetre. 4.1.4 Cement Unless otherwise specified the cement used in the Works shall be ordinary Portland cement (OPC) complying with BS12 at the time of use. For the purpose of BS12, the Site shall be deemed to have a tropical climate. Where specified or ordered, sulphate resisting cement (SRC) shall comply with BS4027, and the provisions for samples, tests and test certificates specified above for Portland cement shall apply for sulphate resisting cement. The use of rapid hardening cement will not be permitted. All cement shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer and shall be delivered to the Site in sealed and branded bags or drums of the manufacturer. Each consignment of cement shall be accompanied by a manufacturer's test certificate showing that the cement offered has been tested and analyzed, including the date and the results of such tests and analyses and that the cement conforms in all respects with the relevant standards. 4.1.5 4.1.5.1 Aggregates for Concrete General Requirements Aggregates (fine and coarse) shall comply with BS882 and shall be mechanically graded and washed if necessary to produce a dense concrete free from voids and workable without excess of water. Coarse aggregates shall be of a maximum size suitable for the particular member consistent with workability and the spacing of the reinforcement and as specified. This will not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to obtain the strengths specified. As soon as possible after the Contract is let the Contractor shall obtain representative samples of sufficient quantities of aggregates which he proposes to use for the various grades of concrete and shall arrange for their testing in accordance with BS812. Should any of the samples not pass the tests the material represented shall not be used in the Works but other material shall be chosen and samples tested until satisfactory results are obtained. The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer that sufficient material corresponding to the satisfactory and approved samples will be available for the construction of the Works. Representative samples of every consignment of all aggregates delivered to Site shall be tested for sieve analysis, field settling tests and estimation of organic impurities in accordance with BS812. 4.1.5.2 Potential Aggregate - Cement Reactivity If so directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall carry out petrographic analyses in accordance with ASTM C33 and C295 on all aggregates proposed for use. Arising from such analyses the Engineer may require the Contractor to perform further tests in accordance with ASTM C289 and BRE Digest _ 35; also in accordance with ASTM C227 and C586 if the Engineer so decides after his examination of the results of the preceding tests. In the event that tests in accordance with ASTM C227 are called for, the cement used in the test shall have an alkali content (expressed as sodium oxide + 0.658 potassium oxide) greater than 0.8% by weight and the mortar bars shall have an aggregate/cement ratio by weight of 2.25:1.0. Depending on the results obtained the Engineer may decide to limit the alkali content (Na2O and K2O) of the cement to 0.6%.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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4.1.5.3 Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate shall either comprise natural quartz sand or shall be obtained by crushing clean granite or shall consist of natural sand obtained from fresh water river deposits or a combination thereof. Fine aggregate shall comply with Grading Zone 2 or 3 of BS882, or such other grading as may be approved by the Engineer. The total quantity of fine dust passing through a 200 mesh sieve in fine aggregate derived by crushing rock shall be determined by the method described in BS 812, and shall not exceed 8% by weight. 4.1.5.4 Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate shall comprise natural gravel or natural crushed rock obtained by crushing sound hard rock taken, from a source approved by the Engineer, complying with BS882, with the grading in accordance with Table 1. The flakiness index when determined by the method described in BS812 shall not exceed 30%. The individual pieces shall be roughly cubical or spherical in shape and have neither glassy or powdery surfaces. The aggregate crushing value of the coarse aggregate shall not exceed 45% when determined by the method described in BS812. 4.1.6 Water Water used in the Works shall be clean, fresh, potable water free from all deleterious matter, silt, organic matter, alkali, slate and other impurities. It shall comply with BS 3148. It shall be from a source approved by the Engineer. If available, a drinking water supply shall be used. If required by the Engineer, the water shall be tested in comparison with distilled water. Comparison shall be made by means of standard cement test for soundness, time of setting and mortar strength. Any indication of unsoundness, change in time of setting of plus or minus 30 minutes or more, a decrease of more than 10% in strength from results obtained with mixtures containing distilled water shall be sufficient cause for rejection of the water being tested. 4.1.7 Reinforcement Steel Mild steel reinforcing bars shall comply with BS4449 (Mild Steel Bars) and have a minimum yield stress of 250 N/mm. High tensile, high bond steel reinforcement bars shall comply with BS4461 or approved equal and have a minimum yield stress of 425/460 N/mm. Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with BS4483 and shall be plain wire welded mesh fabric of hard drawn wire complying with BS4482 or cold worked steel bars complying with BS4461. Records of manufacturer's tests in compliance with Clauses 12, 14 and 15 of BS4483 shall be available for inspection by the Engineer. All reinforcement shall be obtained from a manufacturer approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall have samples of the steel tested as specified by the Engineer by a testing authority nominated by the Engineer to prove that the quality is in accordance with the specifications. The costs of such tests will be borne by the Contractor. The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer a manufacturer's test certificate in respect of each batch of reinforcement delivered to Site together with the delivery note giving details of such consignment. Reinforcement steel shall be delivered firmly tied in bundles and shall not be bent. On the outside of all bundles shall be indicated, the manufacturer and the quality, the date of delivery at the Site and the length, diameters and number of bars.

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4.1.8 Tying Wire Tying wire for steel reinforcement shall be 1.6mm diameter finally annealed mild steel wire complying with BS1052. 4.1.9 Cover Blocks and Spacers for Reinforcement Cover blocks and spacers shall be of rust proof materials, as small as possible consistent with their purpose and of a shape approved by the Engineer. Concrete cover blocks shall be produced to the same specification as the structural concrete excepting that they shall be produced using a maximum 10mm aggregate size. 4.1.10 Geo-synthetics and Accessories

4.1.10.1 General All geo-synthetics shall be manufactured by and obtained from reputable manufacturers. The manufacturer shall have ample experience in the fabrication of the type of geo-synthetic specified. The manufacturer shall be certified to ISO 9001 or equivalent approved. Before ordering any quantity of geo-synthetic, the Contractor shall submit samples and test reports from an approved independent testing laboratory. Each 25m of geo-synthetic shall be duly marked by the manufacturer showing: manufacturer's name, type of geo-synthetic and manufacturing date. No geo-synthetics shall be used in the Works which were manufactured more then one year prior to arrival on Site. The Contractor shall order the geo-synthetics in quantities not exceeding the quantity that is likely to be placed in the Works. 4.1.10.2 Characteristics of Geo-synthetics Type 1 - The geo-synthetic shall be a woven polypropylene fabric, and comply with the following specifications: Tensile strength to ISO 5081 shall not be less than 40 kN/m warp, 40 kN/m weft. The permittivity to NEN 5167 shall not be less than 0.1 (s-1) Pore size O90 to NEN 15168 (dry sieving) shall be <300 micron Weight to ISO 3801 not less than 350 g/m Retain at least 80% of the minimum strip tensile strength after 500 hours exposure to UV radiation to ASTM G26-92. The life-time expectancy of the yarn (thermo-oxidation) shall correspond to yarn type b of NEN 5132. The geo-synthetic shall be manufactured in a minimum width of 5m.

Type 2 - The geo-synthetic type 2 shall be a non-woven needle punched fabric made from polypropylene continuous filament and comply with the following specifications: Mass to DIN 53854 shall not be less than 700 g/m Tensile strength to DIN 53857/2 shall not be less than 1000 N/5cm CBR-Test to DIN 54307 shall not be less than 2800 N. The permittivity to NEN 5167 shall not be less than 0.1 (s-1) Pore size 090 to NEN 15168 (dry sieving) shall be <300 micron Retain at least 80% of the minimum strip tensile strength after 500 hours exposure to UV radiation to ASTM G26-92.

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Type 3 (only used as earth-retaining layer at the back of retaining walls) - The geo-synthetic type 3 shall be a non-woven needle punched fabric made from polypropylene continuous filament and comply with the following specifications: 4.1.11 Stone Stone shall be the best of its kind and shall consist of angular pieces of hard, sound, durable rock free from flaws and soft, weathered or decomposed parts. The rock pieces shall be of approved sizes and free from fissures or visible joints which could lead to breakage during loading, unloading and use. The average bulk specific gravity shall be at least 2600 kg/m. The average stone weight of any grade of rock specified by a lower and upper limit weight shall not be less than the average of these limits. Not more than 2% of the stones of an arbitrarily chosen load shall have a weight lower than the lower limit as specified. The weighted average loss of material in the Sodium Sulphate Soundness test shall not be more than 10% by weight as per ASTM C88. The percentage of wear as determined by the Los Angeles Test shall not be more than 40 as per ASTM C535. Water absorbtion of rock material shall be maximum 6%. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer samples of the stone he proposes to use. If so required by the Engineer, he shall arrange for testing of stone to show compliance with these specifications. The Engineers approval shall be obtained before any order is placed or any stone quarried. 4.1.12 Concrete Blocks/Bricks for Slope Protection Works Concrete blocks and bricks shall be of standard size , hard, sound, square and clean. They shall conform to BS6073 and have a strength of 10 N/mm at 28 days age, and such blocks/bricks shall not be laid until 28 days old. The Contractor shall submit samples of blocks/bricks to the Engineer for approval and arrange strength tests required by the Engineer to be executed by a testing authority proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. 4.1.13 Clay Clay suitable for lining material shall be obtained from sources approved by the Engineer and shall conform with the following : Atterberg Limits : Liquid Limit : 0 - 60% Plasticity Index : 10 - 30% Linear Shrinkage : 0 - 10% Mass to DIN 53854 shall not be less than 300 g/m Tensile strength to DIN 53857/2 shall not be less than 500 N/5cm The permittivity to NEN 5167 shall not be less than 0.1 (s-1)

The permeability coefficient (k) of the material at maximum clay density as determined by the Proctor compaction test (standard test) shall be a minimum 10-6cm/s as determined in the laboratory to a method approved by the Engineer.

4.1.14

Geotextile Filter Fabric The material shall have resistance to chemical attack and experience no significant change to its physical, chemical or engineering properties under the influence of sulphates, chlorides, acids and alkalis in the forms and concentrations in which they are present in soils and ground-water to be

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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found in-place. The material shall have proven resistance against bacterial or other microbiological attack and shall perform according to its specifications at working temperatures between 5 and 45C. Temporary exposure during construction to temperatures up to 60C shall not permanently impair the material. Filter fabric shall be supplied in rolls of at least 5m wide and shall unless specified otherwise be lapped in both directions at 0.5m wide. Roll lengths of the fabric shall be such as to lay complete in one operation without jointing, each of the various sloping and horizontal lengths. The water permeability of the fabric shall be greater than that of the soil it is protecting while the mesh size shall be smaller than the sieve size passed by less than 10% of the soil particles. The tensile strength of the fabric shall be at least 2kN/5cm for both warp and weft. The weight of the fabric shall be at least 240 g/m. The Contractor shall demonstrate before use that the proposed material meets the Specification. Samples and laboratory test results shall be submitted for approval to the Engineer. 4.1.15 Sand and Gravel for Underdrain Filters Filter material shall consist of sand, gravel or crushed stone from approved sources. The material shall comply with the appropriate grading tabulated below and the size of the particles shall be carefully controlled so that foundation material is not washed through the sandfilter, or the sandfilter through the gravelfilter.
Sieve Size (mm) 20 10 2.3 0.6 0.15 0.075 % material passing Sand Filter --85 - 100 50 - 85 15 - 50 0 - 15 Gravel Filter 85 - 100 50 - 85 15 - 50 0 - 15 ---

The filter material shall further comply with the following requirements : D15 of filter material D15 of foundation material = 5 - 40

D15 of filter material D85 of foundation material 4.1.16 Gabions

= 5 or less

Gabions consist of wire netting baskets filled with stones on a prepared foundation and shall be in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Gabions baskets shall consist of wire netting, triple twisted, to form a hexagonal mesh of size 80 x 100mm, the longer dimension being measured along the principal axis. Box gabions are to have wire frames securely tied to the netting at the edges of the box. Gabions longer than 1.0m are to be divided equally by mesh diaphragms into cells the length of which shall not exceed one metre.

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All wire shall comply with the relevant sections of BS1052 and shall be galvanised in accordance with BS443. The minimum sizes of wire shall be: - Mesh - 2.7mm diameter - Frame - 3.9mm diameter - Binding - 2.2mm diameter The stone shall be of a size between 100 and 200mm and shall conform to the Specifications requirements. 4.1.17 Structural Mild Steel

4.1.17.1 Steel Unless otherwise specified all structural mild steel parts shall be manufactured from steel conforming to BS4360, Grade 43 A, or equivalent. The ultimate tensile stress shall not be less than 360N/mm and the yield stress shall not be less than 235N/mm. 4.1.17.2 Sections Steel sections can be cold formed, hot rolled or welded from steel plate. Steel sections shall conform to the dimensional tolerances as described in BS4 for hot rolled sections. Steel sections with a depth or width less than 300mm or any thickness less than 8mm shall not be fabricated by welding. 4.1.18 Nuts, Bolts and Welding Electrodes Unless specified otherwise, nuts and bolts shall have hexagonal heads, iso metric threads, shall comply with BS4190 and shall be of Grade 4.6. High strength friction grip bolts shall be of grade 8.8 or 10.9 and shall comply with BS4395. All bolts, nuts, washers shall be galvanised. Where bolting is incompatible with the material being fixed, suitable isolating washers and sleeves shall be used. All anchor bolts to be cast in concrete shall be not less than M16. Bolts for structural steelwork shall be not less than M12. Bolt lengths shall be sufficient to ensure that nuts are full-threaded when tightened in their final position. Welding electrodes for arc welding of grades of structural steel to BS4360, shall be low hydrogen type and shall comply with the requirements of BS639. 4.1.19 Steel Water Storage Tanks Sectional pressed steel tanks for both potable and untreated water storage shall be as manufactured by Braithwaite and Co. Structural Ltd. or similar and shall comply with either BS1564 or the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard D100-73. 4.1.20 Glass Reinforced Plastic Water Storage Tanks Sectional GRP tanks shall be constructed of panels manufactured by the Hot Press Moulding System with a sheet mould compound suitable for potable water. The panels shall consist of unsaturated polyester resin in accordance with BS3532 and shall have a minimum content of 30 % non-alkali glassfibre conforming with BS3417 or if appropriate BS3396 or BS3749. The water absorption of the finished panel shall not exceed 0.2%. The panels shall be insulated with 50mm thick rigid polyurethane foam to give a coefficient of overall thermal transmission of not more than 1kcal/m h C.

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All material used for sealing shall be non-toxic synthetic rubber or plastic certified suitable for use with potable water. All fixing bolts, nuts and washers shall be stainless steel grade A2-70 to BS6105. Internal bracing or tie rods shall be stainless steel. External reinforcement where required may be galvanised steel of structural quality. 4.1.21 Aggregates for Roads and Pavement Structures The aggregate for pavements shall be crushed stone or crushed gravel. Before ordering or borrowing any materials, the Contractor shall have samples of his proposed materials tested as specified or as directed by the Engineer, by a testing authority nominated by the Engineer. 4.1.22 Road Base Course Road base material shall be obtained from approved borrow pits of natural occurring gravel. The percentage composition by weight of base aggregate shall conform, unless otherwise specified to the following gradation:
Sieve 40mm 6mm 1mm No. 200 Percentage passing 100 35 - 60 10 - 35 5 - 15

The material shall also fulfil the following requirements: Liquid limit: 20% Plasticity index : Soaked CBR: value not less than 80% 8%

The composite material shall be free from vegetable matter, lumps and other objectionable and deleterious materials or substances. Before the material is placed on the sub-grade it shall contain the amount of moisture equal to or slightly below the optimum necessary to ensure that the design density requirements are obtained when materials are compacted. The amount of moisture required shall be approved by the Engineer. 4.1.23 Asphaltic Surface Treatment Asphaltic material for binding course shall be rapid curing cut-back liquid asphalt, grade RC 2 (RC250), conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M.81. Asphaltic material shall be handled and stored in such a manner that the risks of fire and other hazards are eliminated. 4.1.24 Aggregates for Asphaltic Surface Treatment Aggregates shall consist of clean, crushed stone or crushed gravel of uniform quality, free from dust, clay, dirt and other deleterious matter and from excess of flat or laminated pieces. Aggregates shall have an affinity for bitumen such that when coated with bitumen, it shall pass a stripping test performed in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T.182. The aggregate shall have a percentage of wear not exceeding 40 when tested in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T.92 and, when subjected to five alternations of the sodium sulphate test for soundness, AASHTO Test Method T.104, it shall have a weight loss not greater than 12%. If satisfactory tests and service records of the aggregate are not available, the Engineer may direct that other tests shall be carried out to determine its acceptability for surface treatment. When crushed gravel is used, not less than 80% by weight of the particles retained on a No. 4 sieve shall have at least one fractured face.

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The grading of the aggregates shall fall within the limits specified in the following table:
Application First course Nominal size 0.5" (13 mm) Second course Nominal size 0.25" (6.5 mm) 19.1 mm 12.7 mm 9.5 mm 4.76 mm 2.39 mm 1.19 mm

100

90-100

0-40

0-8

0-2

100

100

100

70-90

0-15

0-13

4.1.25

Bituminous Prime Coat Asphaltic material shall consist of medium curing liquid asphalt grade MCO (MC30) conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M.82.

4.1.26

Bituminous Tack Coat Asphaltic material shall consist of rapid curing liquid asphalt grade RC 2 (RC 250) conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M.81.

4.1.27

Asphaltic Concrete

4.1.27.1 Asphaltic Material Asphaltic material shall be asphalt cement penetration grade 60-70 pen. conforming to the requirements of AASHTO M.20. Asphaltic material shall be stored and handled in such a manner that the risks of fire and other hazards are eliminated. Sufficient storage shall be provided to contain at least 7 days supply of asphalt to meet the programmed rate of production of asphaltic material. 4.1.27.2 Mineral Aggregates Mineral aggregates for asphaltic concrete shall consist of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler material, if required. 4.1.27.3 Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate shall be the material retained on an AASHTO No. 4 sieve and shall consist of hard, tough clean, mechanically crushed rock or gravel, free from decomposed stone, organic matter, shale, clay and any other substances which, in the opinion of the Engineer, may be deleterious to the mixture. The coarse aggregate shall contain less than 10% of flat, elongated, flaky pieces and shall have an affinity for bitumen such that when coated with bitumen it shall pass a stripping test prepared in accordance with AASHTO Test T.182. Coarse aggregate shall have a percentage of wear of not more than 40 at 500 revolutions determined by AASHTO Test Method T.96 and when subjected to 5 alternations of the sodium sulphate soundness test, AASHTO Test Method T.104 shall have a weight loss not greater than 12%. The amount of crushing of stone or gravel shall be regulated so that at least 80% by weight of the material retained on AASHTO No. 4 sieve shall consist of pieces with at least one mechanically fractured face. 4.1.27.4 Fine Aggregate Fine aggregate shall consist of natural sand, stone screenings or a combination of both, fine aggregate shall be clean and free from any substances which, in the opinion of the Engineer, may be deleterious to the mixture.

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4.1.27.5 Filler When the combined grading of the coarse and fine aggregates is deficient in material passing the AASHTO No. 200 sieve, mineral filler shall be added as required. The filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, slag dust, hydrated lime, or hydraulic cement. At the time of use it shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and be free from agglomerations. Filler shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M.17, including the following gradation.
Sieve size 0.60 mm(No. 30) 0.30 mm(No. 50) 0.15 mm(No. 100) 0.07 mm(No. 200) % passing (by weight) 100 95-100 90-100 70-100

4.1.27.6 Combined Mineral Aggregate The mineral aggregate then combined in the proportions required by the job-mix-formula shall have a sand equivalent value of not less than 50 as determined by AASHTO Test Method T.176. The combined mineral aggregate shall conform to the gradings shown in the following table:
Sieve Size 25 mm (1/1") 19 mm (3/4") 12.7 mm (1/1") 9.51 mm (3/8") 4.76 mm (No. 4) 2.38 mm (No. 8) 0.60 mm (No. 30) 0.30 mm (No. 50) 0.15 mm (No. 100) 0.075 mm(No. 200) Binder course 100 75-100 -45-70 30-50 20-35 5-20 3-12 2-8 1-4 Wearing course 100 100 80 70-90 50-70 35-50 18-29 13-23 8-16 1-10

The grading limits specified are based on materials of uniform specific gravity for the individual sizes. The gradings may be varied by the Engineer as necessary on the basis of the Marshall Test to obtain optimum stability and life of the completed Bituminous Binder Course or Bituminous Wearing Course. 4.1.28 Concrete Tile Pavement For the concrete tile pavement precast concrete paving tiles shall be used with sizes of 300 x 300 x 50mm and 300 x 150 x 50mm the latter size being for closer tiles. The tiles shall have sharp arises, provided that the edges of the top face shall have 5 x 5mm chamfers. The tiles shall be perfectly shaped, flat square and true to the specified dimensions with a tolerance of plus or minus 2mm. The tiles shall be cast with their top face down. The tiles shall not be coloured and shall all have the same uniform shade. The tiles shall not be cracked or chipped or in any other way damaged or have any other defects. The Modulus of Rupture of the tiles as determined in accordance with AASHTO Designation: T177-64 and with a span length of 200mm, shall be not less than 6N/mm provided that the tiles are tested 28 calendar days after their casting and immediately after having been soaked in water at room temperature for 48 hours.

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4.1.29 Reflectorised Paint for Road Markings Paint shall be reflectorised traffic paint or compound suitable for paved surfaces conforming to the requirements of AASHTO Designation M-248-14. Glass beads shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO Designation M-247-74 or a standard of approved type or a mixture of white pigment lacquer, resin and white sand in suitable proportion to give approved paint may be used. Powdered glass may be mixed with the paint as directed by the Engineer. The paint shall be supplied fresh and ready for use in sealed containers which shall be stored in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, the paint shall be applied without the use of thinners or other additions.

4.2 4.2.1

Earthworks Notice to be Given before Commencing Earthworks The Contractor shall give to the Engineer at least seven days written notice of his intention to commence earthworks on any part of the Site so as to enable the Engineer to be furnished with all ground levels and other particulars he may require for the purpose of measurement. The earthworks shall not be commenced until written approval has been received by the Contractor from the Engineer.

4.2.2

Earthworks to Lines and Levels The whole of the earthworks for the several parts of the Works shall be carried out to the dimensions and levels shown on the Drawings, or to such other dimensions and levels as may be ordered by the Engineer. Dimensions which are based on, or relate to, ground levels or chainages shall be referred to the Engineer before commencing earthworks at any location. For the purpose of the Specification the term ground level shall refer to the ground surface before the start of earthwork operations, but after the general clearance of the Site in accordance with the Specification.

4.2.3

Clearing Clearing shall consist of clearing and grubbing including the disposal of materials, of all areas within the limits designated on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Such clearing and grubbing shall be to the approval of the Engineer. Actual clearing and grubbing operations shall not start unless relevant pre-excavation surveys are completed. In areas designated to be cleared and grubbed the surface of the ground shall be cleared of all trees, stumps, down timber, logs, brush, under growth, heavy growth of grass or weeds, fences, minor structures, debris, and rubbish of any nature, natural obstruction or such materials which in the opinion of the Engineer are unsuitable for the foundation of embankments or other required structures including the grubbing of stumps roots and matted roots. All unsuitable materials shall become property of the Contractor and shall be satisfactory disposed of as approved by the Engineer. At the locations of future embankments and foundations of structures roots shall be removed to a depth not less than 0.5m below finished ground level. Holes resulting from clearing shall be filled with acceptable materials, moistened and properly compacted and conforming with the Specification.

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4.2.4 Demolition and Dismantling The Contractor shall demolish, dismantle and/or remove any miscellaneous existing structures, buildings or parts thereof which occupy or obstruct the Permanent Works, all as shown on the Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer. Unsuitable materials from demolishing and dismantling remain the property of the Contractor and shall be disposed of in a manner and at a location to the approval of the Engineer. Where partial demolition of structures is required the Contractor shall take the utmost care not to damage any part of the structure which is to remain in place. If any such damage may occur the Contractor shall repair and make good the damage at his own expense. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer holes or openings shall be backfilled with acceptable materials compacted and conforming with Clauses 0 and 0. 4.2.5 Stripping of Topsoil Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, this item shall consist of stripping the soil at the top of the original surface over a full depth of 150mm. Stripping shall be carried out, if deemed necessary by the Engineer, in the immediate areas to be occupied by the Works, including areas of excavation where material from excavation may be used in fill, areas to be occupied by Temporary Works, or any other areas as directed by the Engineer. Stripped topsoil shall be dumped in approved dump areas. Topsoil for reuse for covering of fill embankments, slopes of cuts, drains and the like shall be excavated and kept aside in approved dumping areas. In order to preserve the natural moisture content and general characteristics of materials which are to form foundations or are to be used as fill materials, stripping shall be carefully scheduled so that materials are not exposed to the extent that they may deteriorate prior to the relevant excavation or replacement of fill or structures. Such deteriorated areas must be restored, following the directions of the Engineer at the Contractor's expense. Should the Engineer require the Contractor to perform stripping in excess of the required full depth of 150mm, then such excess stripping shall be measured for payment and be paid for as excavation. 4.2.6 Relocation of Utilities The Contractor shall take at his own expense, any steps necessary to protect and safeguard any drains, pipes, cables and similar services encountered, already installed or to be installed, for the duration of the Contract in order to keep them in good working condition. Information as may be given in the Contract in relation to the present condition and character of the existing structures, roadways, embankments and the like and in relation to the dimensions of various parts of the existing structures, the position, extent and particulars of drains, pipes, cables and the like, is given without guarantee of accuracy and neither the Employer nor the Engineer will be liable for any discrepancy therein. It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to liaise, coordinate, follow up and obtain all information available from the Utility Authorities, regarding the positions and/or relocation of mains and services, and he shall make this information available to the Engineer's Representative as soon as he obtains it. All locating work shall be carried out four weeks in advance of execution of the work. The Contractor shall obtain all information and assistance available from the Utility Authorities for locating the mains and services, and shall agree with the Engineer's Representative any trial excavations which may be necessary to confirm or establish these locations. All costs for executing trial holes shall be deemed

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to be included in the Contractor's rates for excavation. The absence of such information shall not relieve the Contractor of this liability for the cost of any repair work necessitated by damage caused by him to such mains and services in the course of his work and for the cost of all losses arising from their disruption. Any temporary or permanent diversion and/or relocation of mains and services will only be permitted after agreement with the appropriate Utility Authority and the approval of the Engineer. 4.2.7 Excavation General Excavation shall consist of excavating, removing and satisfactory disposing of any material, regardless of the material encountered, for the several parts of the works.The Contractor's method of excavation shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. All materials from excavation remain the property of the Employer. For the purpose of these Specifications, excavation is distinguished between: Earth Excavation Rock Excavation

In order to assess the quantities of rock excavation to be paid for the Contractor will inform the Engineer about his intentions to execute any rock excavation and the Contractor will not execute these excavations without the approval of the Engineer. Prior to any rock excavation the Contractor will determine the level of the existing rock surface and this shall be agreed with the Engineer. Any excavation of material complying with the definition of rock excavation but excavated without the approval of the Engineer will be regarded as earth excavation and no claims of the Contractor on this matter will be accepted by the Engineer and all relevant clauses on earth excavation will become valid for this excavation. If the Contractor intends to use explosives, he shall submit his proposals in writing to the Engineer for approval. The Engineer may in his absolute discretion refuse approval if in his opinion the use of explosives is not warranted or the proposed methods are not to his satisfaction. Unless otherwise specified or directed suitable material from excavation shall be used for fill, backfill of structures, road embankment or other parts of the Works. Surplus material and material determined unsuitable by the Engineer shall be disposed of if so required by the Engineer, in spoildumps designated by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. No material shall be disposed of in spoil-dumps or otherwise, unless approved by the Engineer. Shortage of material caused by any unauthorised disposal of suitable material shall be made good at the Contractor's expense. Unless otherwise directed material suitable for fill which at the time of excavation can not be placed in its final position in the Permanent Works shall be stockpiled for later reuse. No measurement for payment nor payment will be made separately or directly for any stockpiling and subsequent reexcavation and rehandling of stockpiled material. If areas of excavation are not accessible for earthmoving equipment due to limited working space, traffic or any other reason, excavation shall be carried out manually. 4.2.8 Extent of Excavations The extent of excavations shall be the minimum practicable in the opinion of the Engineer for the construction of the Permanent Works or to the dimensions and levels shown on the Drawings, or to such other dimensions and levels as may be ordered by the Engineer.

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During the progress of the work it may be found necessary to vary the slopes or the dimensions of the excavations from those shown on the Drawings. The Engineer reserves the right to make any modifications of the slopes or the dimensions of the excavation. The Contractor shall not be entitled to any additional payment or allowance above the relevant Contract unit prices for the excavation by reason of such changes. 4.2.9 Slips, Falls and Excess Excavation The Contractor shall within the limits of the Contract be responsible for the stability of the excavations at all time, the Contractor shall be responsible for any injuries to the Works, or other consequential damages caused by or arising out of falls, slips, over excavations, erosion caused by wind or water or other injurious events. The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer that any section of open excavation will permit safe excavation without the use of supports, or shall, at his own expense, provide temporary supports, permitting excavation to be carried out safely. The Contractor shall take all possible precautions to prevent slips in excavations and to protect and support parts of Works which may be endangered. The Contractor shall regularly inspect excavations and shall perform at his own expense all types of remedial work throughout the time of duration of the Contract caused by whatever injurious event, and to ensure that all excavated surfaces are maintained in a stable and safe condition. Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer over-excavation performed by the Contractor for whatever reason or purpose will not be measured for payment, nor paid for. Any excess excavation, overbreak or slip beyond the limits of the specified excavation shall be remedied and made good at the Contractor's expense with such material and in such a manner as the Engineer may direct. When such voids, in the opinion of the Engineer, may affect the stability of the ground for the support of the work, or of the adjacent structures and services, the Contractor shall fill the void solid with concrete grade C15. 4.2.10 Support System The support system to uphold the surrounding ground actually encountered shall include inter alia but not by way of limitation all normal methods of temporary support including bracing, use of sheetpiling of steel, concrete or such other materials as may be approved by the Engineer. Where any excavation is carried out near or under any existing structure or work liable to be affected by subsidence, the Contractor shall at his own expense prevent damage due to his work. All support systems shall be properly maintained until the Permanent Work is sufficiently advanced to permit it to be removed. The Contractor shall be responsible for any injury to the Works and for any consequential damage caused by or arising out the removal of the support system and any advice, permission or approval given by the Engineer relating to its removal shall not relieve the Contractor from his responsibilities under the Contract. No gaps or voids are permitted as a result of the removal of the support system. Gaps and voids shall be properly filled to the satisfaction of the Engineer with an approved sand-cement soil or other approved means. No separate payment or measurement for payment will be made for upholding the ground. Upholding the ground encountered shall be considered as incidental to the excavation operation and shall be performed by the Contractor at no additional cost.

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4.2.11 Dewatering The Contractor shall provide an adequate dewatering system to lower the existing ground water table below the level of the expected formation and to keep the excavation dry until the Permanent Works are constructed and back filled. If during the progress of the work the excavation in part or in whole becomes flooded the Contractor shall immediately stop all relevant work until the excavation is dry. The Contractor shall make good at his own cost all damages to the Temporary and Permanent Works caused by the flooding. Claims from the Contractor in this respect for decays, damages and consequential damages will be entertained by the Engineer or the Employer. Dewatering and dealing with water, shall be considered as incidental to excavation, and shall be performed by the Contractor at no additional costs. 4.2.12 Excavations to be Kept Dry Unless otherwise approved, and such approval will only be given in exceptional circumstances, the Contractor shall keep the excavations for structures and pipelines free of water from whatever source, so that the Works shall be constructed in dry conditions. The destination and method of disposal of water from the excavations shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. 4.2.13 Excavation of Berms and Slopes The work under this item includes excavation to the true lines and grades as shown on the Drawings of berms and slopes, including trimming, haul and disposal of unsuitable material, all according to the Specifications. Excavated surfaces shall be neatly trimmed to a smooth and regular surface. Excavated rock surfaces shall be finished to the best practicable finish which in the opinion of the Engineer can be obtained by skilled use of the equipment approved for the use of rock excavation. Over excavation shall be made good in accordance with the Specification and shall be fully at the Contractors expense. Over excavation shall not be measured for payment nor paid for. 4.2.14 Excavation of Drains The Contractor shall excavate drains in straight lines and in smooth curves to the radii and dimensions shown on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. Side slopes and bottom of drains shall be constructed and neatly trimmed equal to the best practicable finish which in the opinion of the Engineer can be obtained by the skilled use of the earthmoving equipment approved for use in the excavation of the Works. 4.2.15 Excavation of Roads The work under this item includes excavation of roads and tracks to the dimensions shown on the Drawings including trimming and grading and all hauling of materials. The Contractor shall take due care that the excavated surface will be well drained and has the proper transverse slopes as indicated on the Drawings. The Contractor shall excavate in such a manner that during and after excavation proper drainage of the road and track is safeguarded at all times and that drainage from higher slopes along the road

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and track will not deteriorate the excavated surfaces. The Contractor shall finish the excavated surface to a smooth and regular surface and special care shall be taken to establish the transverse slopes in accordance with the Drawings. Over excavation shall be made good by the Contractor at his own expense and shall comply in all respects with the Specifications. Over excavation shall not be measured for payment nor paid for. 4.2.16 Excavation for Structures Excavation for structures includes removal and disposal of material, for all structural excavation. The Contractor shall be responsible for the stability of excavated slopes at all times. Haulage shall not be measured for payment nor paid for. The bottom and side slopes of excavation in soil against which concrete is to be placed shall be excavated accurately by hand to the elevations, dimensions, grades and slopes as shown on the Drawings. Foundation of structures shall be prepared in accordance with the Specification. Excess excavation shall be backfilled to the required levels with concrete grade C15, at the expense of the Contractor. Should the surface of excavations at foundation level become deteriorated through any cause whatsoever, then the Contractor shall further excavate all material which has in the opinion of the Engineer become unsuitable and he shall replace it at his own expense with such material and in such manner as the Engineer shall direct. In cases where excavation for structures constitutes rock excavation, the Contractor shall after approval of the Engineer extend the excavation to 250mm beyond the depth of footings and foundation as indicated on the Drawings. The Contractor shall then backfill the extended excavation to the required foundation levels with concrete grade C15. Extended excavation in rock and subsequently backfilling shall be measured for payment and paid for only when the extended excavation has been approved by the Engineer prior to the execution, and be measured and paid for in accordance with the specifications for rock excavation and backfill for structures respectively. 4.2.17 Tolerances for Excavation Unless otherwise specified hereinafter or elsewhere no point on the surface of the complete earthwork shall be more than +50mm and less than -50mm in distance from the designated surface. Within the above tolerances the surface shall have a smooth regular face. All to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Bed levels of drains shall not be higher, (tolerance 0), or more than 200mm lower than the correct level. 4.2.18 Preparation of Formation The work under this clause shall consist of preparing the foundation which is to receive compacted earthfill roads or structures or which requires preparation for other purposes as directed by the Engineer. All foundations shall be free of loose material, remoulded debris or other deleterious material, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Any foundation area shall be well graded for proper drainage and said grading shall be maintained at all times. Foundations, except where limited by structures, which are to receive fill or structures shall be scarified and loosened by means of a disc harrow or plough or other approved methods to a depth of no more than 200mm unless such loosening is not needed in the opinion of the Engineer. Scarifying shall be done approximately parallel to the centre line of the fill.

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If any unsound material occurs in the bottom of any excavation, the Contractor shall remove it on the Engineer's instruction and dispose of it to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Unless otherwise specified or ordered by the Engineer, the Contractor shall fill the voids so formed with concrete grade C15 or with suitable granular material to the approval of the Engineer. After removal of all unsuitable material, the entire foundation area shall be graded, moisture conditioned and thoroughly compacted to 95% of the standard maximum dry density as determined by the compaction control test as BS1377. The Engineer may direct at his discretion that unsuitable material for foundation shall be removed and replaced with suitable material of the same quality as the overlaying fill and treated as compacted fill. No payments will be made for removal and fill not previously approved or instructed by the Engineer. Where new embankments are to be placed on natural slopes or embankment slopes, benches shall be graded during the construction as directed by the Engineer on Site. If a foundation, which is to receive concrete structures is loosened or disturbed, it shall be compacted to 95% of the standard maximum dry density as determined by the compaction control test as BS1377. The period between completion of preparation of foundation and the construction of the overlaying works shall be kept as short as practicably possible. Embankments or structures placed on earth foundations not previously approved by the Engineer, will be removed and the foundation shall be prepared in the manner described in this Clause, at the expense of the Contractor. 4.3 4.3.1 Piling General Fabrication, welding, jointing, handling and driving of piles shall be in accordance with the relevant provisions of "Specification for Piling", published by the Institution of Civil Engineers, United Kingdom. Piling operations shall be strictly confined to the permitted working hours and periods. Ground vibrations and noise levels shall not exceed specified limits and the Contractor shall be responsible for taking measurements at the specified frequencies to confirm compliance. At least three weeks before commencing piling operations the Contractor shall submit his proposals in writing for the Engineer's approval. The proposals shall include details of the type of plant to be used, the methods of installation and extraction, the sequence of operations and monitoring, and the working periods. 4.3.2 Steel Sheet Piling Sheet piles shall be driven at the locations indicated on the drawings. The Contractor shall submit information on pile driving equipment, driving operation and operation sequence to the Engineer for approval prior to starting driving operation. Adjacent piles shall be interlocked by built-in slots. 4.3.3 Concrete Piling Concrete piles shall be reinforced concrete piles or prestressed concrete piles conforming to the requirements specified in the Particular Specification. If no requirement is specified, the concrete piles shall be in accordance with the Specification. Driving operations for each pile shall be carried out continuously until it reaches the required depth. If there is any problem causing interruption of the operation, the Contractor shall expedite remedial action and resume the operation as directed by the Engineer. For driving a long pile, the Contractor shall maintain a record of blow count for every pile and submit pile schedule, piling plan and pile driving record to the Engineer every day that pile driving operation has been carried out. If the pile
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loading capacity calculated by Hiley's Formula is less than that specified (using Factor of Safety = 3) the Contractor shall proceed on the work as directed by the Engineer. If the Particular Specification requires Pile Loading Test, the location of the test pile shall be as indicated by the Engineer. The method of test shall be as specified in the Specification, or if not specified, the test shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard Method for 1 test and ASTM Modified Method for 1 test. The Contractor shall submit detailed of test procedure to the Engineer for approval. The Contractor shall provide 1 engineer who shall supervise the test at all time. All test equipment shall be certified for their accuracy. The hydraulic jack used for the test shall be furnished with a calibration chart issued by an approved agency or institution. The calibration chart shall not be issued before more than 6 months the date of test. After the test the Contractor shall submit the test report to the Engineer not less than 5 copies. In general concrete piles shall be furnished in one length. Where necessary shorter piles may be allowed. Piles shall be connected by welding only. The Contractor shall submit detailed drawings for pile connection to the Engineer for prior approval.

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4.4 4.4.1 Backfill and Fill Fill Material General No fill material shall be placed in any of the Permanent Works until its foundation has been prepared as specified. Fill materials shall be handled, placed, spread and compacted in such a manner as to avoid segregation of the fill and to obtain a stable, homogeneous compacted structure. When organising his work, the Contractor shall take due account of the climatological conditions which may be expected in the area. Should placed material become unacceptable by any cause, the Contractor shall remove such material or shall process it until all specifications are met. Such work shall be performed at no additional cost to the Employer. 4.4.2 Fill Material under Structures Where fill is specified below structures and building floors, the material shall consist of durable gravel, broken stone, crushed concrete or sand with a particle size not exceeding 100mm. The grading of the material shall be such that there is no migration of fines into the fill. Fill material under structures shall further comply with all requirements of the Specification. 4.4.3 Placing and Compaction of Fill and Backfill The works to be carried out under this clause shall comprise the supply of all labour, materials and plant and of all works necessary for receiving, handling, processing, placing, spreading, compacting, wetting, trimming and quality control of fill material for compacted fill as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer and in accordance with the Specifications. Fill shall be spread by machine in successive horizontal layers of not more than 200mm loose depth. Longitudinal or transverse joints in any two successive layers shall be staggered by a minimum distance of 3 metres. Operations on earthwork shall be suspended at any time when satisfactory results cannot be obtained because of rain, or other unsatisfactory conditions of the field. The Contractor shall drag, blade, or slope embankments to provide proper surface drainage. The material in the layers shall be of the proper moisture content before rolling to obtain the prescribed compaction. Wetting or drying of the material and manipulation when necessary to secure a uniform moisture content throughout the layer may be required. The water content of all cohesive fill, shall be uniform throughout each lift of material prior to and during compaction. The Contractor shall control the water content of such fills between 2 percentage points below and 2 percentage points above the laboratory optimum water content as determined by the compaction test specified in BS1377. The Contractor shall take such precautions as may be necessary in the opinion of the Engineer to protect exposed faces against deterioration. Samples of all materials for testing, both before and after placement and compaction, will be taken at frequent intervals. From these tests, corrections, adjustments, modifications of methods, materials and moisture content will be made. Compaction operations shall be continued until the embankment is compacted to not less than 95% of the standard maximum dry density, at optimum moisture content as determined by the compaction control tests as BS1377. The Contractor shall compact the fill using approved compacting equipment. Such equipment shall include pneumatic rubber tyred rollers, tamping rollers and other approved compacting equipment. Side slopes shall be trimmed equal to the best practicable finish in the opinion of the Engineer, and may be obtained by the skilled use of earthmoving equipment approved for use in the embankment

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construction works. Where excavations have been supported and the supports are to be removed, these, where practicable, shall be withdrawn progressively as backfilling proceeds in such a matter as to minimise the danger of collapse, and all voids formed behind the supports shall be carefully filled and compacted. Only if this is not possible the supports should be cut off and left in the ground. Cut off level shall be approved by the Engineer. No fill materials shall be placed or compacted adjacent to concrete less than seven days after the placing of the concrete, without the written permission of the Engineer. 4.4.4 Fill placed below Water The fill material shall be placed to the positions and slopes indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer and in accordance with the method and sequence approved by the Engineer. If quarry run or quarry waste is used it shall be placed to ensure that the larger rock pieces are evenly distributed and the smaller rock pieces serve to fill the spaces between the larger rock pieces. Subject to the approval of the Engineer, materials may be dumped and tipped to the natural slope of the material and left untrimmed and un-compacted provided that the fill is built up to the dimensions shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer with material specified for the layer next overlying the fill. Material eroded by wave or current action or any other cause shall be made good before placing the layer overlying the containment bund. 4.4.5 4.4.5.1 Embankments General Embankments shall be constructed to the width, lines, levels, shape and cross-section as indicated on the Drawing and Specifications. During construction, the Contractor shall provide a diversion channel, to drain water at all times. If any embankment which has been inspected and approved subsequently suffers erosion or other water damage, the Engineer reserves the right to order the removal, replacement, reworking and compaction of such embankment. The finished embankment shall be compacted to a dry density not less than 95% of the maximum dry density as determined by STANDARD AASHTO laboratory test method. 4.4.5.2 Excavation Excavation shall be carried out only within the limits of the specified area unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. After excavation has been completed to the required depth and the base material obtained does not conform to the required standard or is unsuitable for embankment construction, the excavation area may be extended and any over excavation made up with suitable materials. 4.4.5.3 Embankment Placing Starting layers shall be placed in the deepest portion of the excavation. As placement progresses, layers shall be placed approximately parallel to the finished embankment grade line over the full width of the embankment. Embankment materials shall be placed in successive layers to the full width of the area and in such lengths as are suited to the compaction and watering methods appropriate to bring the moisture content sufficiently close to the optimum moisture content as determined from

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laboratory tests. The thickness of each layer shall be not more than 150mm (measured after compaction) and each successive layer shall be compacted to the required density. 4.4.6 Tolerances for Fill Unless otherwise specified hereinafter no point on the surface of the completed embankments shall be more than 50mm above the design level as shown on the Drawings and more than 50mm below this design level. Within these tolerances the surface shall have a smooth regular face all to the approval of the Engineer. 4.4.7 Control Testing of Fill Control testing shall be carried out by members of the Contractor's staff competent to perform the required tests. Additional testing may be carried out at the discretion of the Engineer. The Engineer may attend the tests and shall have access to all the test records and shall have the right to scrutinize and/or direct test methods and calculations. Test records shall be submitted in time to enable an adequate quality control and suitability investigation of fill sources. Test results and calculations shall be made on standard forms approved by the Engineer. Records shall be submitted in duplicate including, where applicable, field test position in plan and elevation. Control tests may involve some or all of the following tests carried out to specified standards and using approved suitable equipment. Test No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Test Standard

Moisture content BS1377 Test 1 Specific gravity BS1377 Test 6 Standard compaction BS1377 Test 11/ USBR Designation E11 In-situ density by sand replacementBS1377 Test 14 Permeability tests USBR Designation E13 Atterberg limits USBR Designation E7 Gradation Analysis USBR Designation E6 Bearing Ratio

For tests of density and moisture content of compacted fill, two adjustment measurements shall be made and the result at that location shall be taken as the average of the two computed dry densities and the average of the two moisture contents. As many control tests shall be carried out as necessary to establish procedures and to suit the variability of fill material, to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The rate of testing shall be determined by the Engineer. 4.4.8 Allowance for Settlement The Contractor shall make due allowance for consolidation and settlement of fill and compacted fill such that the levels and dimensions of the finished surfaces at the end of the Contract are within the tolerances specified. 4.4.9 Works at Borrow Pits If suitable fill material is not available from excavation the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to supply suitable fill material from borrow. The Contractor shall prepare and submit in detail for the approval of the Engineer his proposal for the use of borrow pits and shall give notice to the Engineer in writing at least one month before the proposed data of starting earthworks at the site of such borrow pit.

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The Contractor shall be responsible for locating and obtaining borrow areas and the necessary areas required for access roads, according to the relevant rules and regulations. Identification of the location of possible borrow areas shall be carried out sufficiently in advance of any excavation work to enable timely and proper soil investigations. The number and nature of soil and laboratory investigations shall be as decided by the Engineer and shall be carried out at the expense of the Contractor. No payment will be made to the Contractor for selecting and obtaining borrow areas. Borrow areas shall be cleared and grubbed and stripped as specified or directed by the Engineer in order to remove all surface unsuitable materials before excavation. The clearing and grubbing and the stripping operations shall conform with the specifications but shall not be measured for payment, nor paid for. The way in which the Contractor works the borrow areas shall be to the approval of the Engineer. The Contractor shall at his own expense construct and maintain access roads to the borrow areas. On completion of borrow operations, the borrow area shall be finished to a neat and uniform grade acceptable to the Engineer. Slopes shall be stable and uniformly finished. If required, drainage ditches shall be excavated to prevent stagnant water. If requested by the Engineer the Contractor shall refill the borrow area with spoil material or unsuitable earth material from dry or wet excavation as directed by the Engineer without any additional payment. All suitable material from borrow shall be used for fill immediately after transport to the location where it will be used in the permanent works. Should excavated fill material from borrow become unsuitable by any cause then the Contractor shall remove and replace it to the full satisfaction of the Engineer. Any such removal and replacement will be at the expense of the Contractor and no additional payments will be made for this. 4.4.10 Disposal of Surplus Material The Contractor shall transport and dispose of all excavated material not required for the Works. The locations proposed by the Contractor for disposing or storing excavated material, whether temporarily or permanently, shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. Deposits of surplus suitable material and unsuitable materials are referred to as "spoil-dumps". The Contractor shall compact, trim and drain spoil dumps as may be necessary to maintain them in a sightly and stable condition and to such levels and slopes as the Engineer shall direct. Placing material in spoildumps shall be such that it will not contaminate or otherwise render less efficient usable lands or interfere with natural drainage or access. Where required by the Engineer, drains shall be constructed to prevent the undesirable accumulation of water in or around spoil dumps. 4.4.11 Stockpiling Temporary deposits of the suitable material which is not required for immediate use are referred to as "stockpiles". The Contractor shall compact, trim and drain stockpiles as may be necessary to maintain them in a sightly and stable condition and to such levels and slopes as the Engineer shall direct. Stockpiled material shall if necessary be covered and sealed on the surface in wet periods to prevent washing out of the fines or other deterioration of material to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Should any stockpiled material become unsuitable for use as fill for any reason it shall be wasted at the Contractor's expense and replaced by material from approved borrow at the Contractors expense.

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4.4.12 Cleaning of Drains The work under this item comprises cleaning earth, concrete and blockwork drains, and includes culvert barrels, from all stones, earth, domestic waste and other materials in order to assure proper functioning of the drain. The Engineer shall direct which drains will be cleaned. Cleaning shall proceed until the drain's original cross section is restored. All removed material shall be dumped at approved sites.

4.5 4.5.1

Slope and Bottom Protection Works General Slope and bottom protection of embankments, ponds, channels, rivers and other waterways against erosion and scour shall consist of one or more layers of stones, bricks, concrete blocks or clay layers on a fabric filter, on a sand and gravel filter or set in cement mortar. The following types of protection shall be distinguished: - Stone Pitching Rip Rap Gabions Clay Lining

4.5.2

Mortar Mortar shall consist of cement and sand mixed in the proportion 1:3 by volume. No lime shall be added to the mortar. Water shall be added to just make the mix workable. Sand and water shall comply with the requirements of Clauses 0 and 0.

4.5.3

Stone Pitching Stone pitching consists of one layer of stones embedded in mortar and set in a 20mm mortar bed which is either directly based on a prepared foundation or which is placed on a compacted sand bed or filter cloth. The stone pitching shall be provided with noses and kerbs along the edges. Concrete kerbs shall be used to lock up the bottom of sloping stone pitching. For the purpose of the Specifications the following nomenclature is used : Medium Stone Pitching Protection 150mm thick Heavy Stone Pitching Protection 300mm thick

Stone pitching protection shall be placed where indicated on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Before placing, the foundation which is to receive the protection shall be trimmed to true grade, and completed to the approval of the Engineer. Excavation and trimming shall be carried out manually if necessary to ascertain good workmanship. The Contractor shall not start any stone pitching before the foundation formations have been approved by the Engineer. Connections with existing work shall be carried out as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. All stone pitching shall be carried out in the dry. After acceptance of the foundation and immediately before the start of the stone protection a layer of sand with a compacted thickness of 100mm shall be placed and thoroughly compacted. All earthworks are to comply with the requirements of the Specification. Unless otherwise specified, the stone pitching shall be provided with one 40mm weephole for each m of protection. uPVC pipes shall be incorporated perpendicular to the stone pitched surface. A two

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layer granular filter or an undamaged piece of geo-textile fabric 400mm square shall be laid under each weephole. Wetted stone shall be set by hand on a 20mm layer of fresh mortar spread directly over the above mentioned sand layer. Timber profile boards shall be erected for all vertical movement joints up the slope. The profile boards shall extend the full depth of the pitching protection. All stones shall be properly cleaned and moistened with water from three to four hours before they are used by a method which will ensure that every stone is thoroughly and uniformly wetted. Stone shall not be placed during rains. Joints between the stones shall nowhere be larger than 50mm. Into the mortar of wide joints chips may be worked with the same quality as the stone pitching. All joints between stones shall be filled with mortar making sure that all voids and spaces are filled flush with the finished surface. The finished surface shall not depart more than 50mm from the true surface while the thickness of the stone pitching shall nowhere be less than the nominal thickness. Vertical movement joints shall be incorporated at 5m centres on all slopes. Joints shall continue in the floor as directed by the Engineer. All movement joints shall comply with the Specifications. Under the joint a layer of 0.5m wide geo-textile filter fabric shall be incorporated. All stone pitching shall be cured properly. Special shall be taken to ensure that curing water on sloping faces will not erode fresh mortar. 4.5.4 Rip Rap The works under this Clause shall consist of furnishing and delivery of natural stone of specified quality at Site and placing the same at locations and dimensions as specified on the Drawings or as instructed by the Engineer. The minimum individual weight of the stones shall be 5 kg and the average size shall be 150mm. As far as possible the works under this item shall be carried out in the dry. Rip-rap shall be immediately constructed following the completion and approval of the embankment, canal bed, or structure involved, unless otherwise specified by the Engineer. The stone shall be carefully placed, preferably by hand, to avoid loss of material of material or damage of the foundation or filter (granular or geo-textile). Upon completion of the protection the surface shall conform to the lines and grades as shown on the drawings. 4.5.5 Gabions Gabions consist of wire netting baskets filled with stones on a prepared foundation and shall be in conformity with the dimensions shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Prior to the construction of gabions all work necessary to receive the gabions shall be completed in conformity with the Specifications and to the approval of the Engineer. Prior to constructing any gabions, the Contractor shall build a sample gabion on Site for the Engineer's inspection and approval. All subsequent works shall conform to the approved sample and shall be built true to the lines and levels shown on the Drawings or as otherwise directed. Before placing in position, the gabions shall be stretched to their full size and shall be wired at all edges, save only that the distance between the ties shall never exceed 400mm. Each row of gabions shall be wired to the adjoining row at the top and bottom edges and at the corners. Where special shapes are required, the gabions shall be neatly cut and the edges shall be firmly wired together such that the joint coincides with an edge of the gabions wherever possible. On the inside of curves which are hidden from view the mesh may be crimped and securely wired to produce the required shape. Joints between gabions shall be uniformly staggered in adjacent courses to produce a regular pattern approved by the Engineer.

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Each gabion shall be carefully packed by hand with stones so placed as to minimise the volume of voids in the completed basket. The gabions shall be filled 25mm above the top so that the lid can be tightly stretched over the rock before wiring down. Adjoining rows of gabions shall first be partially filled to ensure that the sides of the mesh do not bulge. Care must be taken that the gabions do not distort during filling. 4.5.6 Clay Lining The work under this clause shall consist of the construction of a clay lining to embankments and bottom of waterways as indicated on the Drawings. The material shall be laid in horizontal layers of 150mm compacted thickness, scarified and watered to the optimum water content plus or minus 2% and compacted to a dry density of at least 95% of the standard maximum clay density. Good care shall be taken to ensure a proper connection between clay lining and embankment fill. The Contractor shall compact the clay lining with a vibrating sheep foot roller or other approved compacting equipment. Unless specified otherwise the testing and tolerances for clay lining shall comply with the requirements of the Specifications. The thickness of the lining shall nowhere be less than the thickness as specified on the Drawings. 4.5.7 Geo-synthetic Fabric Layers The surface on which geo-synthetics are placed shall be relatively smooth, free of obstructions, depressions and soft pockets. Depressions shall be filled with compacted material as directed by the Engineer. Placing of the geo-textile shall not start without approval by the Engineer. The geo-synthetic shall be placed loosely without wrinkles or folds, in case of geo-synthetic type 1 with the warp running down the slope. No joints in the geo-synthetic are allowed parallel with the direction of the current unless indicated on the Drawings. Seams perpendicular to the direction of the current shall be either lapped joints or seamed joints. Lapped joints shall not be less than 1.0 m with the top part facing downstream. Seamed joints shall be as specified. All seams must face away from the bank to allow for inspection and repair. A surplus of minimum 10 mm of geo-synthetic shall be provided at the seams to allow movement. Holding the geo-synthetic in position shall be by ballasting with sandbags. Pinning with steel pins or wooden pegs will not be allowed. After placing of the cover layer the geo-synthetic shall be keyed into the top of the bank. No cover layer shall be placed on top of the geo-synthetic without approval by the Engineer. No geosynthetics shall be placed in the Works which cannot be covered with protective elements the same day. In order to form mats of larger widths the Contractor may stitch geo-synthetics together with a prayer seam (single stitch). The stitch length shall not be more than 10 mm. The seam shall have a minimum strength of 20 kN/m. The yarn used for this seam shall comply with the following: Mass : min. 220 tex Diameter : min. 0.4 micron Tensile Strength : min. 140 N Elongation at Break : max. 20 percent Tests shall be carried out by an approved testing laboratory on samples taken from each quantity of 20,000 m of geo-synthetic. The samples shall be selected by a representative of the Engineer at the manufacturer's premises, unless the Engineer has allowed, in writing, the Contractor to select the samples himself. Notwithstanding the submission of reports to the effect that the geo-synthetic conforms to the Specification, the Engineer shall at all times be entitled to have additional samples of geo-synthetic tested if he suspects that the geo-synthetic does not conform to the Specification. The

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Engineer shall only select samples from ends of rolls or from already cut geo-synthetic. All geo-synthetics shall be transported, handled and stored fully in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and shall arrive on Site in their original wrappings. Products susceptible to UV degradation shall be wrapped to prevent UV exposure until immediately prior to usage. Unused portions shall be re-wrapped until usage. Geo-synthetics arriving on the site in containers shall be unpacked and stored until usage in locations or in a manner well sheltered from the sun. Sufficient ventilation below the shelter shall be provided so as to minimise the effects of high temperature thermo-oxidation.

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4.6 4.6.1 Concrete Work Storage of Cement Cement shall be stored off the ground and under cover, thoroughly dry and well ventilated, and in a manner approved by the Engineer. Cement in bags shall not be stacked more than 2m high. Each batch shall be stacked separately and be easily identifiable and used in the order of delivery. No cement shall be used which has been manufactured more than twelve (12) months prior to its proposed use on Site. 4.6.2 Testing of Cement After delivery on the Site, the Engineer may at any time require each consignment of cement to be subjected to any or all of the tests and analyses required by BS 12 at the expense of the Contractor. Cement which fails to comply with the Specifications when tested at any time, or which has deteriorated in any way, will be rejected and shall be removed from the Site without delay notwithstanding that the cement may have been passed previously as satisfactory. 4.6.3 Records and Returns of Cement The Contractor shall keep records of the cement, including inter alia: date of dispatch, date of delivery to Site, number of the consignment, batch number of the factory, type and quality, manufacturer, location of the storage, quantity, dates when use commenced and finished and the part of the Permanent Works or Temporary Works for which the cement has been used. 4.6.4 Storage of Aggregates The aggregates shall be stored on Site in bins or on a clean hard surface and kept free from all sources of contamination. The aggregates of different grading shall be kept separate and not allowed to mix before use. The stock piles shall be built in successive horizontal layers not exceeding one metre in thickness and in such a manner as to prevent segregation. Aggregates shall be so stored and handled to permit satisfactory sampling, moisture content measurement and temperature measurement on the materials. The Contractor's arrangements for storing aggregates shall be to the approval of the Engineer. If directed by the Engineer, the aggregates shall be protected against direct sunlight. 4.6.5 Additives Concrete shall be made from cement, aggregates and water as specified. Unless agreed by the Engineer or prescribed elsewhere in these specifications neither admixtures nor cements containing additives shall be used. Any admixtures, like air entraining agent, (super)plasticizer, accelerator, expanding agent, retarder or any other, shall be entirely at the expense of the Contractor. Their use, type, make quantity and method of application shall be to the approval of the Engineer and strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Tests required for obtaining such approval shall be carried out as specified by the Engineer by a testing authority nominated by the Engineer or at any other place approved by the Engineer. The tests unless agreed otherwise shall be done in the presence of the Engineer. The costs of such tests will be borne by the Contractor. 4.6.6 4.6.6.1 Concrete Mixes Quality of Concrete The ingredients shall be proportioned to give a workable dense concrete which can be thoroughly compacted without segregation.

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The characteristic strength of concrete is the 28 days cube strength, below which not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to fall. The maximum free Water/Cement Ratio (W.C.R.) is the highest permitted target mean free Water/Cement Ratio. The design of the concrete mixes, manufacture and testing procedures for all concrete shall be controlled by a qualified engineer experienced in the quality control of concrete production. Batching and production shall be under the continuous control of this engineer or a person approved by this qualified engineer. To deal with any problems arising from the production of concrete the qualified engineer shall always be readily available to assist. 4.6.6.2 Concrete Mix Design The Contractor shall design concrete mixes of the grades mentioned below and in accordance with the given requirements and relevant standards, in such a way that the effects due to temperature and shrinkage are minimized. The designed mixes shall be approved by the Engineer. However, this approval will not relieve the Contractor from his responsibilities under this Clause. The minimum cement content required in concrete to ensure durability under specified conditions of exposure shall be as below.
Plain concrete Reinforced concrete Prestressed concrete

Class of Exposure Nominal maximum aggregate size [mm] 40 20 40 20 40 20

kg cement/m of concrete Mild: protected against weather or aggressive conditions. To be used for building superstructures Moderate: buried concrete and concrete continuously under water. To be used for: - Civil Works superstructures - Substructures - Culverts - Roads - Piles and sheetpiles Severe: exposed to sea and brackish water or alternate wetting and drying or subject to heavy condensation or corrosive fumes. To be used for: - Conduits - Sewers, manholes, flap gates - Retaining walls 270 270 270 310 310 310 360 360 360 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 280 290 290 320 320 320 320 320 330

230

250

280

Superstructures are the structures above ground. Substructures are all below ground structures and all civil Works. Due allowance shall be made for the free moisture content in aggregates. Free moisture in aggregates shall be determined by the Contractor not less than twice a day for each material when concrete mixing is in progress. Alternatively, a method (direct or indirect)

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which indicates continuously and records control of water/cement ratio may be used.

Grade

Use

Maximum aggregate size (mm) 40 40 20 20 20 20

Maximum free W.C.R. 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Maximum cement content (kg/m)

Characteristic strength (N/mm)

Porous C15 C25 C35 C40 C45

Drainage Blinding Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete Precast Piles

380

3.0 15.0 25.0 35.0 40.0 45.0

The workability required for placement of concrete shall be determined by the Contractor and shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. Any necessary adjustment to concrete mixes necessary to improve workability must be approved by the Engineer in advance of concreting. Porous concrete shall be made without using fine aggregate. The grading of the coarse aggregate shall be not less than 95% weight passing a 19mm sieve and not more than 5% weight passing a 10mm sieve. All aggregate particles shall be coated with a film of cement grout. The porous concrete when placed shall contain no layers of laitence. 4.6.6.3 Concrete Mix Design - Underwater Concrete Underwater concrete shall possess high slump for good flow properties and a low susceptibility to segregation for adequate cohesion, and be of such consistency that it does not require compaction. Underwater concrete shall have a slump of 150 to 180mm, with the extreme limits of acceptability being 120 to 200mm. Maximum aggregate size shall be 20mm. The grading shall be continuous. A high sand/gravel ratio shall be adopted. The percentage of sand by weight shall lie between 42% and 45%. Sand from which the finest particle size fractions are absent shall not be used. Cement shall either be portland blast furnace cement of the Hochoffen type or type II (ASTM). The cement shall have a low rate of hardening. The amount of cement in the concrete mix shall be 325 kg/m. The amount of filler in the mix shall be 60 kg/m. An amount of 0.5% of bentonite by weight of the cement shall be added. The water-cement ratio shall be 0.53. Bleeding tests shall be carried out to the approval of the Engineer. Minimum strengths for underwater concrete shall be, top layer: 0 - 200 mm from concrete surface 10N/mm, and under top layer: > 200 mm from concrete surface 25 N/mm. 4.6.6.4 Trial Mixes Following the Engineer's approval of the mix designs, the Contractor shall prepare in the presence of the Engineer a trial mix of each designed grade of concrete, in sufficient time such that preparation and approval of trial mixes does not delay the commencement of concreting on the Works. Trial mixes shall be tested in a laboratory approved by the Engineer in accordance with the Clause "Testing of Concrete and Rejection".

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These trial mixes shall only cease when the Contractor has shown that the requirements of this Specifications have been met. No variations in the mix design shall be made without the prior approval of the Engineer. The Contractor shall not make any change in the source or nature of any agreed aggregate without first obtaining the agreement of the Engineer and subsequently shall submit preliminary samples of the aggregates to the Engineer. The Contractor shall, if required by the Engineer, prepare new designs and shall carry out new trial mixes and prepare further preliminary test cubes. Only mixes as approved by the Engineer shall be used for all concrete works on the Site. 4.6.7 Mixing Concrete All cement and aggregates shall be measured by weight in weight batching machines of an approved type. The machines shall be kept clean and in good condition and adjustment and shall be checked and adjusted for accuracy at regular intervals and when so required by the Engineer. Due allowance shall be made for the free moisture content in the aggregates, which shall be determined at least once a day or after change of weather conditions. Materials shall be weighted within 2.5% tolerances, inclusive of scale and operating error. The weight batching machine shall discharge efficiently so that no materials are retained. Concrete shall be mixed in mechanical mixers of an approved type. In no case shall the mixing of each batch of concrete continue for less than two (2) minutes. The capacity of the batching plant shall be such, that an uninterrupted delivery of concrete on Site is maintained. Every concrete mixing machine shall be fitted with the proper water measuring device which the Contractor shall maintain in proper adjustment and check and record at such intervals as the Engineer may require. Concrete which has commenced to set shall not be remixed, either with or without the addition of water. In no case shall such concrete be used in the Works. The entire contents of the mixer drum shall be discharged before recharging. The mixer drum shall be thoroughly cleaned out prior to changing the mix proportions for concrete of a different grade or on the cessation of mixing. The Engineer shall be given adequate notice before any concrete mixing is started. The following records shall be kept at the plant for each batch or truck load: -4.6.8 Grade of concrete Weights of aggregates and cement Amount of added water Mixing time Time at which the batch is discharged Type and amount of admixture, if any

Transporting Concrete Concrete shall be taken from the place of mixing to the place of deposition by methods and means which will prevent segregation or loss of the ingredients and which are sufficiently rapid to ensure that the concrete does not commence to set before it is compacted in its final position. Concrete may either be batched and mixed on Site or outside the Site and transported to it. When mixed outside the Site and transported to it, all requirements of the appropriate Standards shall be

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complied with in addition to all other requirements under these Specifications. Truck mixed concrete may be used with the prior approval of the Engineer provided that it complies with the Specification and with BS 1926, and that the water for the mix is added at the Site adjacent to the point of final deposit. 4.6.9 Placing and Compacting Concrete The Contractor shall give not less than 24 hours notice to the Engineer of his intention to concrete any section of the Works so that these sections may be inspected prior to concreting being carried out. No concreting shall be carried out without the approval of the Engineer. Immediately prior to placing concrete all formwork shall be cleaned with compressed air or water, or both, as the Engineer may require and all dirt, shavings and other foreign matter shall be removed. Concrete shall be handled, placed and compacted in such a manner that no segregation occurs and previously placed and compacted concrete is not disturbed. The height of any drop of concrete shall not exceed two metres. Design of chutes or other means of depositing, if used, shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval. On placing in its final position the concrete shall be carefully worked around and between all steel reinforcing bars and other embedded fittings. All concrete shall be compacted to the maximum possible degree before it commences to set. The surfaces of horizontal slabs shall be tamped to a true and even surface. All concrete, except when otherwise agreed by the Engineer shall be compacted with immersion vibrators. Vibrators shall be of adequate size and power and shall be subject to the Engineer's approval. Vibrators shall be maintained at all times in good working order and shall be operated by trained and experienced operators. The number of vibrators available for use during each period of concreting shall be to the approval of the Engineer, which will not be given if sufficient stand-by vibrators are not readily available in good working order. Placing of concrete will not be allowed unless adequate vibrators are available. Porous concrete shall not be compacted using vibration. During the concreting of all reinforced concrete members a skilled and competent steel fixer shall be in attendance on each concreting team and his duty shall be to ensure that the reinforcement and other embedded fittings are kept in their correct positions as the work proceeds. The placing of concrete shall be held in a vertical or horizontal stop and only in positions previously agreed with the Engineer. Concreting shall be carried out as a continuous operation with no breaks for lunch hours or other reasons with stoppage occurring only at the stop ends agreed with the Engineer. No placing of concrete against concrete surfaces already set except previously agreed construction joints is permitted. 4.6.10 Concrete Placed on Set Concrete Before placing fresh concrete on or against existing concrete, the face of the construction joints shall be free from latency, roughened to expose the aggregate and clean and free from water. All weak material shall be removed by thoroughly hacking. Immediately before the new concrete is poured the joint shall be thoroughly cleaned down and the hardened surface shall be covered with freshly made mortar, composed of one part by volume of cement to not more than two parts of sand to a depth of 10mm or with a freshly made cement paste to a depth of 5mm or the joint shall be formed by other approved method. Unless otherwise approved, construction joints shall not be stripped and prepared for subsequent pours until at least 48 hours have elapsed since the completion of the previous pour.

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4.6.11 Concrete Placed Underwater Where any concrete is to be placed in water, the Contractor shall submit detailed proposals to the Engineer and shall obtain his consent before commencing the work. Concrete shall be placed in water only by means of a bottom-opening watertight box or a tremie of a type approved by the Engineer. Bottom-opening boxes shall not be opened until they are resting on the work, and the lower ends of tremies shall always be kept below the surface of freshly placed concrete. No construction joints will be permitted in the concrete placed under water except when approved by the Engineer. Fully mixed concrete may be transported by suitably equipped, non-agitating trucks provided that satisfactory degree of uniformity as prescribed in ASTM C94, section 11, is obtained. Containers mounted on such truck shall be steel, smooth, watertight, provided with covers for protection against weather, and equipped with gates permitting accurate control of discharge. Rehandling shall be avoided. Free fall in handling shall be less than one metre. Chutes shall not be used without approval. Conveyance of the complete concrete mix from mixer to place of deposition shall take place within 45 minutes to prevent segregation or loss of ingredients. Concrete shall not be placed in running water or allowed to fall through water. The Contractor may submit an alternative method for the placing of underwater concrete. The submittal shall include seven copies of a detailed description of the method in which the experience or knowledge of the Contractor is shown. 4.6.12 Concreting in Unfavourable Weather The Contractor shall not place concrete during dust storms or rain, or when the air temperature is more than 40C. When the air temperature exceeds 30C the Contractor shall not place concrete without the written approval of the Engineer. The temperature of the concrete mix shall not exceed 30C at the time of placing and shall not exceed 34C during setting. 4.6.13 Curing Concrete Until it has thoroughly hardened, concrete shall be protected from the harmful effects of wind, sun, temperature and variations of temperature, premature loading or deflection or impact, aggressive ground-water and any other adverse causes. Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, exposed concrete surfaces shall be kept continuously moist after casting for not less than 7 days. Surfaces, shall be covered with thick hessian or sand or other material as may be approved by the Engineer, which shall be in continuous contact with the concrete and which shall be kept wet to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Curing operations shall in general begin immediately following placement. All curing procedures shall be approved in advance by the Engineer. If curing membranes are proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer they shall be applied in conformity with the manufacturer's instructions. They shall be applied to unshuttered surfaces within 1 hour of concrete deposition at the surface.

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4.6.14 Precast Concrete All materials and workmanship for precast concrete shall comply with the relevant requirements of the Specifications. The casting of the precast units or precast sections to be assembled to units, shall be carried out on specially prepared casting beds which will inter alia prevent any distortion or des-alignment of the moulds during and after concreting and which are to be constructed under a roofing so as to be fully protected from the direct rays of the sun and from the rain. Each precast unit or section shall be cast in one continuous operation and no construction joints shall be allowed except if approved by the Engineer. The casting bed shall be adequately supported to prevent any settlement which might cause cracking of the concrete. If the slab or beam is to be stressed on the casting bed, provision shall be made for the elastic shortening of the concrete under prestress and for the transfer of dead weight after stressing. The pile shall not be moved until after the stressing has taken place. At the ends of the elements a recess shall be formed around each tendon to allow cutting off the tendon and filling the recess with grout so that the cover to the end of the tendon is not less than 20mm. Side forms shall be removed as soon as possible after the concrete has set to avoid shrinkage cracks. All formwork shall be removed in such a way as to ensure no damage is done to the concrete. Coils of wire or strand shall be obtained from the manufacturer in sufficiently large diameters to ensure the wire or strand running off the coils is straight. Wires, strands, or bars shall be accurately positioned and maintained in position, both vertically and horizontally as shown on the Drawings. All cutting to length and trimming of ends shall be done by suitable mechanical means. Ordinary reinforcement steel shall comply with the specifications as described. The mould of the precast units or sections shall be struck in such a sequence and after such a period as to ensure that the units or sections are not subject to risk of damage or distortion, as approved by the Engineer. Save insofar as otherwise specified the time and methods of lifting, storing and transporting the precast units or sections shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be such that the units or sections will be protected from severe shocks, that they shall not be damaged and that no undue stresses will occur. In general, units shall not be moved until 7 days have elapsed after casting and a minimum cube strength of 20 N/mm has been obtained. An accurate record shall be kept of every precast unit or section which shall be clearly marked as specified by the Engineer. The Contractor shall specify loads from handling and installation (driving), including calculations to show precast items are capable of taking these loads.

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Tolerances applicable to precast units are given below:

Cross section in any direction Dimension up to 500 mm 500 - 700 mm Straightness or deviation from intended line Dimension up to 3 m 2m-6m 6 m - 12 m over 12 m Tolerances 6 mm 9 mm 12 mm 15 mm Tolerances 6 mm 9 mm

4.6.14.1 Precast Reinforced Piles and Sheetpiles Precast reinforced concrete piles and sheet piles shall be constructed with concrete grade C45, as far as the Drawings do not indicate other grades. Side forms may be removed at any time not less than 24 hours after completion of the placing of concrete but the entire pile shall remain supported for at least 7 days and shall not be subjected to any handling stress until the concrete has been in place for 21 days or such reduced time as the Employer may decide as a result of satisfactory tests provided by the Contractor. Reinforcement shall be assembled before placing in the mould and all hoops and links shall be firmly wired into position. The ends of helical reinforcement shall be firmly secured. Spacers shall be of an approved pattern. Reinforcement shall be bent and fixed as shown on the Drawings, subject to the approval of the Engineer. Main reinforcing bars shall be supplied in single lengths. Splicing is not allowed. 4.6.14.2 Precast Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Piles Precast prestressed concrete piles shall be constructed with the concrete grade as indicated on the Drawings. Steel shall comply with BS4757. Prestressing shall conform to BS3617 or AASHTO M 203-70 or ACI standard 318-77. The piles shall be cast in a horizontal position. Special care shall be taken to place the concrete so as to produce a pile free from any air pockets, honeycomb or other defect. Concrete shall be placed continuously and shall be compacted by vibrating. The forms shall be slightly overfilled, the surplus concrete screeded off, and the top surfaces finished to a uniform, even texture similar to that produced by the forms. After a pile has been cast, the date of casting, reference number, length and, where appropriate, the prestressing force shall be clearly inscribed on the top surface of the pile and also clearly and indelibly marked on the head of the pile. In addition, each pile shall be marked at intervals of 250mm along the top 3m of its length before being driven. Piles shall present true, smooth, even surface free from any surface blemishes. Tensioning shall be carried out only in the presence of the Engineer unless prior permission has been granted the Contractor by the Engineer to proceed without the supervision of the Engineer. As used here the word "tendon" shall be defined as any single prestressing element used to apply prestressed forces to the concrete. For pre-tensioning this shall be each strand or straight wire. All tendons to be stressed in a group shall be brought to a uniform tension of

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approximately 500 kilograms per tendon prior to being given their full tension. After this initial stressing the group shall be stressed to a total tension as required on the Drawings by means of hydraulic jacks or other approved appliances equipped with gauges graduated to read directly to one percent of the total load applied, and calibrated to measure accurately the stress induced in the steel. The induced stress shall be measured by elongation of the tendons and checked by gauge pressure. The results obtained shall be within five (5) percent of each other. Means shall be provided for measuring the elongation to an accuracy of one millimetre in twenty meters of length between jacking heads. In the event of apparent discrepancies of more than five percent between stresses indicated by gauge pressure and elongation, the entire operation shall be checked carefully and the source of error determined and corrected before proceeding further. Independent references shall be established adjacent to each anchorage to indicate any yielding or slippage that may occur between the time of initial stressing and final release of the tendons. After strength requirements are attained, the tension in the tendons shall be gradually and simultaneously released and the tendons cut off as required in such a way as to prevent shock. It shall be the Contractor's responsibility to transfer the prestress safely and to the Engineer's satisfaction in all respects. 4.6.14.3 Testing and Rejection The process of manufacture shall be inspected by the Engineer at the manufacturing plant where the Contractor purchases reinforced concrete piles, pipes box conduits or at the casting site of the Contractor. The Engineer reserves the right to inspect and to test the piles, pipes and box conduits after delivery to the Contractor's stockyard or to the work-site whichever is preferred by the Engineer. The testing of the pipes shall be carried out, in the presence of the Engineer, according to the relevant test as described in the British Standard or equivalent as approved by the Engineer. Piles, pipes and box conduits shall be subject to rejection on account of failure to meet any of the testing requirements. Pipe sections also may be rejected if found to contain cracks, damaged ends and other defects date to faulty manufacture, handling, transporting or placing.

4.6.15

Testing Concrete and Rejection To ensure adequate quality control of mixes on the Site the Contractor shall take samples of each quality of concrete in accordance with the recommendations and the requirements of BS1881. Samples for compression tests may be taken at the mixing plant and/or at the point of placing before, during or after consolidation in the forms, all as directed by the Engineer. Unless otherwise required by the Engineer the number of samples taken for the compression tests will generally not be less than 3 cubes for 28 days test, preferably from different batches, per shift and pour for each mix of concrete for that shift or pour. A record of the tests identifying them with the parts of the works executed shall be kept by the Contractor and the Engineer. Slump tests shall be carried out by the Contractor in accordance with BS1881 at all times and when the test cylinders or cubes are prepared. Temperature tests must be taken at the point of placing when required by the Engineer. The Contractor shall provide full time on Site a suitably trained and fully experienced engineer who shall be responsible for the quality control of all concrete works. He shall supervise all concrete mixing and placing and be responsible for sampling, testing and recording of the results as required by this Specification.

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All sampling, transporting and testing will be undertaken by the Contractor at his own expense. Any batch of concrete, not yet placed or recently placed, which in the opinion of the Engineer does not comply with the Specifications shall be rejected and dumped to waste without trying to recondition the concrete. If the results of the works cylinder/cube tests indicate that any part of the concrete cast falls below the standards specified the Contractor shall take all steps required by the Engineer to replace the defective concrete or parts thereof with concrete fully satisfying the conditions of the Specification. Concrete shall be considered non-compliant with the Specification if the following criteria are not met: (a) Water-cement ratio - Where assessment is by observation of the batching or by autographic records, the water-cement ratio shall be not more than 105% of the required value: where assessment is by analysis tests on fresh concrete, the water-cement ratio shall be not more than 110% of the required value; the quantity of concrete considered not to comply is as defined in respect of cube strength. Content of cement - Where assessment is by observation of the batching or from autographic records the content of cement shall be not less than 95% nor more than 105% of the required amount; where assessment is by analysis tests on fresh concrete, 90% and 110% respectively; the quantity of concrete considered not to comply shall be as defined in respect of cube strength; Workability - The workability shall be such what the concrete is suitable for the production of the Works. Cube Strength - When both the following conditions are met the concrete complies with the specified compressive strength: i) the average strength determined from any group of four consecutive test results shall exceed the specified characteristic strength by not less than 0.5 times the "current margin"; and each individual test result shall be greater than 85% of the specified characteristic strength.

(b)

(c)

(d)

ii)

The "current margin" shall be 6 N/mm. If only one test result fails to meet the second requirement ii), then that result shall be considered to represent only the particular batch of concrete from which those cubes were taken. If the average strength of any group of four consecutive test results fails to meet the first requirement i), then all the concrete in all the batches represented by all such results shall be deemed not to comply with the strength requirements. For the purpose of this Section the batches of concrete represented by a group of four consecutive test results shall include the batches from which samples were taken to make the first and the last pairs of cubes in the group of four, together with all the intervening batches. When the results of tests on fresh concrete are available before the concrete is cast and the concrete does not comply with the requirements specified or approved, then the batch of fresh concrete shall be rejected and removed from the Site or (if permitted by the Engineer) used for ancillary purposes. Any concrete which does not meet the criteria for compliance will be rejected by the Engineer and the structures shall be demolished and removed from the Site.

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4.7 4.7.1 Reinforcement General The Contractor shall supply to the Engineer a manufacturer's test certificate in respect of each batch of reinforcement delivered to Site together with the delivery note giving details of such consignment. Notwithstanding such certificate the Engineer may require the Contractor to carry out further tests in an independent laboratory on samples obtained from steel delivered to Site. In case of differences of the findings, the findings of the independent laboratory will overrule the results as given in the manufacturer's certificates. Reinforcement steel shall be stored in racks, clear off the ground and shall be protected from rusting, damage and oil or other deleterious matter. 4.7.2 Working Drawings and Bending Schedules Reinforcement shall be strictly in accordance with the Drawings and Specifications or as directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall prepare all additional Working Drawings and bending schedules as are required for proper execution of the Works. The bending schedules shall show all dimensions, sizes, numbers and weights of all reinforcement used in the Permanent Works. These will be submitted for approval to the Engineer. Steel supports, etc. shall not be included. 4.7.3 Splicing and Concrete Cover to Reinforcement Steel The splices of reinforcing bars and their location shall be as directed or specified or approved by the Engineer. The concrete cover to reinforcement shall, save insofar as otherwise shown on the Drawings, specified or directed by the Engineer, at any location meet the values shown for that location in the following table:
Location Indoor Concrete Works (dry) Outdoor Concrete Works (wet) Concrete against soil or submerged Minimum Cover (mm) 25 35 40

4.7.4

Cutting, Bending and Fixing of Reinforcement Steel All bending shall be in accordance with BS4466 save insofar as otherwise specified. The bending of the steel reinforcement shall be carried out with approved plant and shall be carried out so as not to injure the material. No heating will be allowed to facilitate bending and no welding of steel reinforcement shall be permitted without the approval of the Engineer. Bars which have become bent shall not be straightened or rebent for incorporation in the Works without the Engineer's approval. Cutting of reinforcement by heat (flame torch) will not be permitted. Only cutting by grinding or shearing is permitted. All reinforcement shall, immediately prior to being placed, be free from loose mill scale, loose rust, oil, grease, dirt or other foreign matter and shall be maintained in that condition up to the time of concreting. All reinforcement shall, prior to the placing of concrete be securely fixed in position by tying intersections with ample lashings of tying wire, by attaching adequate spacer blocks and by provision of any other approved supports necessary to ensure that it is not displaced during

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concreting or vibrating. Reinforcement shall be inspected and approved by the Engineer before any concrete is placed. Such approval will not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities in connection with the work. Braces and supports which are to be left in position shall be of concrete or steel and shall be of an approved design. The ties, links or stirrups connecting the bars shall be taut so that the bars are properly braced. The inside of any curved parts shall be in contact with the bars around which they fit.

4.8 4.8.1

Formwork General Requirements The Contractor shall supply, design, erect, strike and remove the formwork and be entirely responsible for its stability and safety to carry the wet concrete and all incidental loadings and protect the concrete from damage and distortion during placing, compaction, setting and curing. Formwork shall be of timber or metal or plastic and shall include all temporary supports. The Contractor shall design all formwork and hand over calculations and drawings to be approved by the Engineer. All joints in formwork between, individual boards and between adjoining shutters, shall be mortar-tight and shall remain mortar-tight under the effect of the vibration necessary to give full specified compaction. The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that the deflection of sheathing does not exceed 1/200th of the span between supports (and in any case shall not exceed 5 mm) and is of sufficient rigidity and strength to prevent distortion due, to pressure from the liquid concrete or other loads incidental construction. It shall be so constructed as to give the finished concrete the dimensions shown on the Drawings and of a material capable of providing the surface finish specified. Except where otherwise specified all exposed edges of concrete in the Permanent Works shall have a chamfer. If no size is specified, the chamfer shall be 20mm by 20mm. The Contractor shall when so directed by the Engineer form the soffits of the beams and slabs to a camber. The amount of camber and the method of obtaining same shall be agreed with the Engineer. The formwork for beams and slabs shall be designed in such a way that the forms of the sides of beams and soffits of slabs can be struck, first, leaving the shuttering to beam soffits and the supporting props in position. Soffits of beams shall be given a camber as shown on the Drawings, or as specified by the Engineer. Formwork shall be so constructed as to prevent the loss of any liquid mortar from the wet concrete. All wedges used must be nailed so as to prevent slipping or displacement during compaction. No ties whatsoever shall pass through any concrete members designed to be a part of a watertight structure. The use of wires passing through the concrete for purpose of securing the formwork in position shall not be permitted for any concrete structure. No plugs, bolts, wire ties, holdfasts or any other appliance whatsoever, for the purpose of supporting the shuttering or reinforcement, shall be fixed permanently into the structure so that they have less cover than the reinforcement or in any way impair the strength or appearance of the work, nor shall they be placed in such a manner that damage to the work would result in the removal of the same at the time of striking the shuttering. All formwork is to be thoroughly cleaned of any old concrete or any other deposits. Immediately before concreting it shall be thoroughly hosed down with water, temporary openings being provided to permit the escape of sawdust, shavings etc. with the water. Removable panels shall be provided as may be necessary for cleaning out or for access during concreting. Immediately before concreting starts, the interior of the forms shall be cleared of all rubbish and the faces in contact with concrete shall be clean and thoroughly wetted with clean water or treated with a composition mould oil approved by the Engineer.

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Surfaces of formwork may prior to placing of the steel reinforcement be treated with an approved nonstaining mould oil. Diesel, mineral or engine oil shall not be allowed for this purpose. No mould oil shall come in contact with reinforcement or construction joints. Care shall be taken that when formwork is re-used its surface shall be smooth and clean. All formwork shall be inspected and approved by the Engineer prior to concreting. This approval, however, shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his responsibilities. All embedded items shall be accurately positioned in accordance with the Drawings and securely fixed before concreting starts. All holes, chases, ducts, mortices, keys, chamfers and the like shall be provided for and formed before concreting starts. Only if approved, the Contractor may form holes and mortices for building in bolts or other items. Cutting or drilling holes and the like shall not be permitted unless specified on the Drawings or expressly approved by the Engineer. Unless otherwise approved, top shuttering shall be provided for concrete upper surfaces where the slope exceeds one vertical in three horizontal. 4.8.2 Removal of Formwork All formwork shall be removed without shock or vibration to the concrete. The responsibility for the safe removal of the formwork shall rest with the Contractor. Any work showing signs or damage through premature loading shall be entirely reconstructed at the Contractor's expense. Formwork shall be removed without shock or vibration. Unless accepted otherwise by the Engineer formwork shall not be removed until the characteristic cube strength is 10 N/mm2 or twice the stress to which it will then be subjected whichever the greater, provided that such earlier stripping will not result in unacceptable deflection due to shrinkage, creep, etc. The cubes shall be stored as far as possible under the same conditions as the structure. Removal shall proceed only if the concrete has attained sufficient strength to support its own weight and any constructional or other loads likely to come upon it. If any loading in excess of the design load is anticipated, approved props shall be provided after removal of shuttering to ensure that the constructional loads of the floor is shared by the floor below it. The props to the beams and slabs of a floor shall not be removed until the floor above the floor in question is strong enough to support itself and any constructional or other load likely to come upon it. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum periods before striking formwork shall be as follows:
Columns, sides Beams, sides Beams, soffits Walls, sides Suspended slabs, soffits 7 days 7 days 14 days 7 days 14 days

No soffit formwork shall be removed before the concrete has also reached the design 28 days strength as specified. No formwork or supports shall be removed without the approval of the Engineer. Any holes left in the concrete (e.g. as a result of the use of formwork ties) shall be properly filled flush with an approved mortar. 4.8.3 4.8.3.1 Surface Finishes Ordinary Finish An ordinary finish shall be such a finish as results from the use of formwork with well-fitting
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cleanly sawn boards with sharply cut well squared joints. A formed concrete surface specified to have an Ordinary Finish, shall be regular and free from projecting fins or indentations but may be slightly rough and the marks of joints, knots and the like may be visible. Save insofar as otherwise specified, an Ordinary Finish is required for surfaces which will not normally be visible. 4.8.3.2 Smooth Finish A Smooth Finish shall be such a finish as results from the use of planed boards or plywood or steel shuttering in a good condition. A formed concrete finish specified to have a Smooth Finish, shall be free from board marks, fins, indentations, bulges and any other blemishes and offsets. The pattern of formwork panels shall be regular and not obtrusive. An unformed concrete surface specified to have a Smooth Finish, shall be screeded and subsequently neatly finished with a steel float true to line and level and shall be of equivalent quality as a formed surface with a Smooth Finish. Save insofar as otherwise specified, a Smooth Finish, is required for surfaces which will normally be visible. 4.8.3.3 Broomed Finish Where a broomed finish is specified the unformed concrete surface shall be screeded true to line and level and after the initial set of the concrete it shall be swept with a stiff broom in the specified direction. A broomed finish shall be of equivalent quality as a smooth finish. A test area shall be broomed at the start of the work and when a surface texture acceptable to the Employer has been obtained it stall be used as standard for the rest of the Works. 4.8.3.4 Floor Finish Concrete shall be placed and well tamped and shall then be screeded to finish grade. Floors which are to be pitched to drains or other outlets shall be accurately pitched to avoid pockets. Floors receiving a screed or other floor finish shall be wood floated and if so directed while set but still green brushed with a stiff bristle brush to obtain a key. Other floors shall be steel floated. Floating shall be executed so as not to bring excess laitence or fine material to the surface.

4.9 4.9.1

Joints Polythene Sheeting Polythene damp proof sheeting underlay to paving and floors or used to separate concrete elements shall be 1000 gauge polythene and laid with 150mm laps unless otherwise stated.

4.9.2

Construction Joints Construction joints shall be made where indicated on the Drawings, where indicated by the Engineer, and where proposed by the Contractor if approved by the Engineer.

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The details and positions of construction joints shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before any concreting takes place. They shall be located such that, in conjunction with the programme for concreting, the effects of shrinkage and temperature are minimized. Where long lengths or large areas of work are to be concreted and where in the opinion of the Engineer it is practicable, the Contractor shall so arrange his programme of construction that concrete is two weeks old before new concrete is placed against it. Reinforcement shall run continuously through construction joints. The Engineer may direct the placing of additional reinforcement by means of hairpins or similar type of reinforcement in construction joints which are not indicated on the Drawings. Construction joints shall be watertight. They shall be formed in straight lines with rigid shuttering perpendicular to the principal line of stress and as far as practicable at points of least shear. They shall be the plain butt type unless otherwise specified or approved. Unless otherwise approved, construction joints shall not be stripped and prepared for subsequent pours until at least 48 hours have elapsed since the completion of the previous pour. 4.9.3 Movement Joints Movement joints shall be made where indicated on the Drawings, where directed by the Engineer and where proposed by the Contractor if approved by the Engineer. Details and position of movement joints shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before any concreting takes place. 4.9.3.1 Movement Joint Filler Movement joint fillers shall be of the sizes and formed in the positions shown on the Drawings. They shall consist of bitumen impregnated fibreboard or polystyrene complying with BS3837 or a similar material approved by the Engineer. 4.9.3.2 Joint Sealer Joint sealant shall be as shown on the Drawings or another type approved by the Engineer. Sealant shall be applied according to the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. Bitumen will not be allowed as sealant except for joints permanently under water. 4.9.3.3 Waterstops Waterstops shall be of the sizes and profiles as shown on the Drawings or as indicated by the Engineer, and be fixed in the position as shown on the Drawings. The methods of building in and jointing waterstops shall be to the approval of the Engineer. All construction and movement joints which are required to exclude water under pressure from one side shall be provided with approved type waterstops. Waterstops shall be obtained from manufacturers approved by the Engineer and shall be stored, fixed and jointed strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. They shall be fabricated into the longest practicable units complete with angles and junctions at the manufacturer's works and shall be continuous throughout the structure below highest water level and where shown on the Drawings. The Contractor's proposals for jointing waterstops on Site shall be to the approval of the Engineer. Rubber joints shall be vulcanized. The waterstop shall be carefully maintained in the position shown on the Drawings and properly protected from damage and the harmful effects of light and heat during all stages of construction. The concrete shall be carefully compacted under and around the waterstop so as

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to leave no cavities and in such a manner that deformation or displacement of the waterstop does not occur. 4.9.3.4 Dowel Bars Where dowel bars are to be provided through movement joints they shall be of mild steel plain round bars with sawn cut ends and complying with BS4449. In expansion joints the part of the bar to be free to move shall be encased in a rigid metal sleeve and fitted with a chamber compressible with grease or other material approved by the Engineer. The free end of the dowel bar shall be coated with an approved bitumen bond breaking compound. The diameter of the sleeve shall be the minimum necessary to allow free sliding movement of the bar after concreting.

4.10

Repair of Concrete After formwork has been struck the surface of the concrete shall be left untouched until inspected by the Engineer. Any minor defects and blemishes in the concrete, such as minor areas of honeycombing or bulging, which in the opinion of the Engineer can be satisfactorily repaired and do not affect the safety or functioning of the relevant section of the Works, shall be promptly made good by the Contractor at his own expense by means of cutting out, grinding, grouting, guniting or other measures. Staining or discolouration shall be washed out or cleaned by other means. Such remedial works shall be carried out to the extent and in a way and by means as approved by the Engineer.

4.11

Testing of Concrete Water Retaining Structures After cleaning water retaining structures, and as far as practicable before any earth filling is placed against the outside wall faces, the structure shall be filled with water at a rate approved by the Engineer. After allowing a period of three days, the water level shall be recorded and the water shall be allowed to stand for a period of seven days, during which the total permissible drop, after allowing for evaporation and rainfall, shall not exceed 1/500 of the average water depth of the full structure or 10mm whichever is the less. Notwithstanding the satisfactory completion of the above test, any leakage visible on the outside faces of the structure shall be stopped.

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4.12 Tolerances The tolerances, which are the permissible deviations from the established lines, grades and dimensions are specified in the following table. When tolerances are not stated in the Drawings for any individual structure or feature thereof, permissable deviations will be interpreted in conformity with the provisions of this Clause. Concrete work that exceeds the tolerance limits specified will be rejected and shall be corrected or removed and replaced as ordered by the Engineer at the Expense of the Contractor.
Structure or part of structure 1 Complete structures Variation from established alignment Variation from established level Variations from the plumb or the specified batter in the lines and surfaces of columns, piers, walls and in arrises ; Exposed Backfilled Variation in cross-sectional dimensions of columns, piers, walls, slabs, beams and similar parts ; Minus Plus Variation from the plumb level in sills and side walls for gates and similar watertight joints Tolerance

15mm 15mm

10mm per 3m 20mm per 3m

5mm 10mm

1mm per 1m

4.13 4.13.1

Repair of Existing Concrete Dewatering and Cleaning All repair work to existing concrete shall be carried out in the dry. The Contractor shall dewater the structures concerned and thoroughly clean the surfaces to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

4.13.2

Identification of Repairs After cleaning the concrete from any foreign matter the Contractor shall survey the exposed surfaces and make an inventory of the repair work necessary, distinguishing the types of defects as described in this Section and he shall submit the inventory of proposed work to the Engineer for approval. In a joint survey by the Engineer and the Contractor the inventory will be discussed and the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to make modifications in the inventory of proposed work after which modifications the Engineer shall approve the inventory for execution. The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with three (3) signed copies of the inventory of proposed work and after approval the Engineer shall sign these copies and return one (1) signed copy to the Contractor. The Contractor will execute the work accordingly and in accordance with these Specifications.

4.13.3

Materials For all mortars, grouts, resins and other products described in this section, the Contractor shall propose the products he intends to use in the Works and shall submit to the Engineer for approval full information on these products. All products shall have no adverse effects on potable water. Products named elsewhere in this section are an indication of the standard type and workmanship of goods which are satisfactory to the Engineer. The Contractor may use named products or equivalent other products after the approval of the Engineer in accordance with the Specifications, Conditions of Contract and with the manufacturers specifications. All materials used for repair shall comply with the relevant sections of Clause 3.2 of this Specification.

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4.13.4 Types of Defects For the purpose of repairs to existing concrete the following defects shall be distinguished: Cracks 1 up to 3mm wide Leaking Cracks 1 up to 3mm wide Cracks 3 up to 20mm wide Defective Concrete as loose, broken or honeycombed concrete Deteriorated Joints Voids under Concrete Slabs

4.13.4.1 Repair of Cracks 1 up to 3mm wide The Contractor shall repair cracks in structural concrete by injection with an appropriate injection resin. When the cracks are dry an epoxy resin of low viscosity shall be used. In other cases injection shall be done with a low viscosity polyurethane resin. The Contractor shall first blow, clean, oil free compressed air through the crack before any resin is injected in order to remove to the maximum extent possible any dust or grit that may obstruct the flow. When the crack is cleaned, a superficial seal will be applied at the surface of the member by using a fast setting material such as any appropriate polyester resin, in which injection nipples are fixed at intervals. The most satisfactory spacing of the injection nipples shall be found by experience, but will usually be less than the estimated depth of the crack. The most suitable pressure for injection the resin shall also be determined by experience. Injection shall be by the Nitokit epoxy resin injection system or similar approved. Epoxy injection resin of low viscosity shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. No injection shall be carried out without the approval of the Engineer. 4.13.4.2 Repair of Leaking Cracks 1 up to 3 mm wide Repair by Injection The Contractor shall inject leaking joints with waterstops in structures with a suitable polyurethane injection resin, which shall be of low viscosity and shall react with water to fill all cavities in and adjacent to the joint. Injection shall continue until all leaks are stopped. To relieve the water pressure if necessary, drain pipes shall be fixed into the remaining concrete so that the water can discharge freely. After the injection material has hardened, the drain pipes shall be cut off or removed and the remaining holes will be plugged one by one with a very quick-setting material that can be held in place by hand until it has set. The Contractor shall submit for approval to the Engineer the method of injection, material and equipment he proposes to use. The Engineer may at his discretion instruct the Contractor to modify his proposals. No injection will be done without the approval of the Engineer. Repair by Lining Concrete slabs or walls featuring leaks due to cracks and other small porosities of the concrete shall be waterproofed by application of a internal lining. Slabs subjected to variable direction of water pressure shall not be repaired with this method but only with the method described in Clause "Repair by Injection".

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The lining shall be applied only on the inside of water retaining structures so that the lining is compressed between water and concrete. The lining shall be an epoxy resin and or cement based sealant. The material shall have a durability of 10 years or more and provide a watertight and easy to clean surface. The material shall be capable of bridging and filling 3 mm wide cracks under the operating water pressures. Particular care shall be taken to ensure all concrete surfaces are completely free from algae, oil, dust, grease, corrosion and any other deleterious matter, and that the concrete surface is prepared in accordance with the lining manufacturer's requirements, before application of the lining. 4.13.4.3 Repair of Cracks 3 up to 20mm wide The Contractor shall clean the crack from all dirt and other foreign matter and roughen the surfaces mechanically. After cleaning the crack with oil free compressed air the surfaces will be primed with Nitobond AR primer or approved similar. All exposed reinforcement shall be thoroughly cleaned from any loose rust or other foreign matter. Exposed reinforcement shall be primed with Nitoprime Zincrich primer or approved similar, to prevent further corrosion. If the reinforcement has broken or deteriorated too far the crack must be repaired as described in Clause "Repair of Defective Concrete". Then the crack shall be filled with a suitable watertight non shrink grout as Renderoc TC or approved similar and cured directly after application with a curing agent. 4.13.4.4 Repair of Defective Concrete When concrete has broken out, has become loose, shows honeycombing or any other similar defects, it shall be removed and the affected member reconstructed to its original section. The Contractor shall remove all loose or deteriorated concrete until only sound material is encountered. Concrete shall in any case be removed to 25mm behind any exposed reinforcement. All exposed reinforcement shall be thoroughly cleaned from any loose rust or other foreign matter. Exposed reinforcement shall be primed with Nitoprime Zincrich or approved similar, to prevent further corrosion. If the reinforcement has broken or deteriorated too far, new reinforcement shall be placed. To accommodate this reinforcement, holes shall be drilled in which the new rebars are fixed with an epoxy resin. Another option shall be to break out the surrounding sound concrete till sufficient lap length has been acquired to accommodate the new rebars. If neither of these options is suitable, an external steel or concrete bracing shall be constructed. The final solution to be applied shall be determined by the Engineer. Particular care shall be taken to ensure all exposed concrete surfaces are completely free from laitence, oil, dust, grease, corrosion and any other deleterious matter. Laitence shall be mechanically removed by high pressure water blasting, grit blasting or a combination of both. The edges of the repair area shall be sawn or cut to a depth of 10mm to avoid feather edging. All concrete surfaces shall be in a saturated surface dry condition prior to priming. Priming shall be carried out with Nitobond AR or approved similar after which the broken out

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area will be repaired with a suitable watertight non shrink grout approved by the Engineer. Immediately after finishing the repair the mortar shall be cured with an curing agent. 4.13.4.5 Repair of Deteriorated Joints At contraction, construction or movement joints where the filler and or sealant has deteriorated, replacement is required. The Contractor shall replace both the joint filler and sealant. He shall cut out and remove the existing joint filler and sealant and clean the joint from vegetation, sediment and other foreign matter. The edges of the concrete shall be square. If edges have broken up to 10mm deep the new joint filler shall be placed deeper. Broken edges from 10 to 30mm shall be cut square to give a square but wider joint. At edges broken deeper than 30mm the concrete shall be broken back for at least 25mm behind the nearest reinforcement and recast. After clearing and squaring up the recess in the concrete the joints shall be filled with flexible filler and or sealant. This shall comply with the requirements as described in Clauses 0 and 0. Only in movement joints may an alternative construction be used. In this case a vacuum tube of butyl rubber shall be placed in the joint and the voids left over shall be filled with butylene putty. The vacuum tube and butylene putty shall be of quality approved by the Engineer. 4.13.4.6 Repair of Voids under Concrete Slabs During repair of cracks or joints in otherwise sound slabs, it may be found that hollow spaces, exist behind or under the slabs. In such cases and where indicated by the Engineer the Contractor shall fill the voids with a suitable cement based grout. Dependent on the type of joint, grouting shall be carried out either before or after completing other repair works on the joints or cracks. If the voids are not accessible through at least 10mm wide joint rebates then holes shall be drilled through the concrete slab, with a maximum distance between successive holes of 700mm centre to centre. The voids shall be grouted through the holes. The grout will be subject to the approval of the Engineer and shall be of a suitable viscosity. The area to be grouted and working method will be proposed by the Contractor to the approval of the Engineer; or as instructed by the Engineer. No drilling or grouting shall be carried out without the approval of the Engineer.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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4.14 4.14.1 Steel Work General The work under this Clause shall include as far as is necessary the design of connections and other details, fabrication, manufacture, inspection and testing, delivery to Site, unloading and where necessary storage at Site, complete erection, testing on completion and setting to work, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contract also includes the supply of spare parts, tools for carrying out normal maintenance and all instruction manuals and Drawings. The plant is required to be complete in all respects as specified herein , and shall include all items of machinery, fittings, equipment, etc. necessary whether such items are specifically referred to in the Contract or not. The steelwork shall be complete in all respects, including all materials, parts , etc., so as to provide a complete and satisfactory installation. Everything necessary for the erection, operation and maintenance of the equipment shall be included, all temporary and permanent supports, foundations and anchor bolts shall be provided. 4.14.2 Standards for Materials and Workmanship Unless otherwise approved, steel and other metalwork shall comply with the following British Standard Specifications: BS4 BS153 BS639 BS709 BS916 BS1083 BS1775 BS1856 BS2642 BS4395 BS4360 BS5950 Structural Steel Sections, Part 1, Hot-rolled sections; Steel Girder Bridges; Covered Electrodes for the Manual Metal-arc Welding of Mild Steel; Methods of Testing Welds; Black Bolts, Screws and Nuts; Precision Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and Nuts; Steel Tubes for Structures; Metal-arc Welding of Mild Steels; Arc Welding of Carbon Manganese Steels; High Strength Friction Grip Bolts; Weldable Structural Steels; Structural Use of Steelwork in Buildings.

Fabrication and erection on Site shall be to the same standards as specified for work off Site. 4.14.3 Sizes and Dimensions Where steel and other metalwork has been specified in metric units the equivalent in Imperial units (feet/inches) may be substituted providing that the alternative members are not inferior to those specified. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval the details of all such alternatives proposed. The dimensions given on the drawings are based on available information or design. The Contractor shall be responsible for checking actual dimensions of gates, structures, etc., either existing or after construction against the dimensions given on the drawings. 4.14.4 Samples and Test Certificates Steel bars, plates and sections shall be ordered in sufficient lengths to enable the Engineer to select samples from any bar, plate or section for testing. The Contractor shall, when requested by the Engineer, supply manufacturer's test certificates for steel to be used in the Permanent Works. Samples from bolts or nuts selected by the Engineer shall be provided and tested. All testing shall be done in a laboratory proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. All testing shall be at the expense of the Contractor.

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4.14.5 Working Drawings and Method Statement Before fabrication commences the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval design calculations, working and shop drawings of the steel and other metalwork to be supplied under the Contract. He shall also submit to the Engineer for approval a detailed method statement describing the fabrication methods to be used. The Contractor shall be responsible for the correctness of his shop details and for shop fittings and site connections. 4.14.6 Fabrication

4.14.6.1 Welding Welding shall be metal-arc welding complying with the requirements of BS1856 or BS5135, as appropriate. All welds shall be continuous unless specified otherwise. All fillet welds shall approximate to the thickness of the thinnest member to the joint. All parts shall have the edges accurately prepared to the appropriate profile for welding. Welding shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and competent supervisor and only certified welders qualified in this class of work in accordance with BS4872 shall be employed. Welding procedures shall be such that residual stresses are minimal and that distortion is avoided. All fillet welding shall be tested by ultrasonic, crack detection, or other approved means. For all items of steelwork the Contractor shall allow for the cost of adequate radiograph examination of the welds. The welds and positions to be examined will be indicated by the Engineer. 4.14.6.2 Bending No straightening or flattening by bending or use of heat shall be carried out without approval of the Engineer and, if so approved such straightening or flattening shall be carried out as specified by the Engineer. 4.14.6.3 Cutting Shearing or cropping shall only be allowed for cutting of strips and plates less than 12mm thick. Hand flame cutting will not be permitted. Irregularities as a result of cutting shall be removed by welding and grinding. 4.14.6.4 Holing All holing shall in principle be carried out by drilling unless approved otherwise by the Engineer. Holes may be punched provided that : punching is carried out before assembly the total thickness of the material to be punched is not more than 15mm the holes are punched 3mm less in diameter than the required size and reamed to the full diameter;

In other cases punching shall not be permitted. All holes for bolts shall be 2mm more in diameter than the nominal bolt size unless higher tolerances are approved by the Engineer. All holes shall be free from burrs.

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Holes drilled at wrong positions shall be filled by welding and redrilled at the appropriate position. Holes less than 5mm out of specified position may be reamed to suit. 4.14.6.5 Bolting All nuts and screws shall be securely fastened, to prevent loosening due to vibration, by means of spring washers, lock nuts, split pins or any other approved means. Between all nuts and steelwork at least one normal washer must be used. If deemed necessary by the Engineer, washers shall be placed both under the nut and the bolt head. Stainless steel bolts, nuts and washers shall be used for holding all renewable parts and all parts made of stainless steel. High strength friction bolts shall be tightened to the requirements of BS 4604. The Contractor shall have a torque wrench at Site for tightening and checking of bolts at all times. 4.14.6.6 Marking of Parts Steel and other metalwork shall be uniquely and indelibly marked to indicate position and direction in which it is to be fixed. 4.14.7 Works Erection If required by the Engineer, the steel and other metalwork shall be temporarily assembled at the place of manufacture for inspection by the Engineer and, if considered necessary, for testing before delivery. 4.14.8 Site Erection Before any work on erection is begun on the Site, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval the methods he proposes to use for the erection of the steel and other metalwork and shall make any arrangements and take any precautions directed by the Engineer. Notwithstanding these requirements the entire responsibility for the adequacy of the Temporary Works shall rest with the Contractor. The Contractor shall fix the steel and other metal work complete and shall provide and erect all temporary staying and bracing necessary for carrying out the Works. The Contractor shall be responsible for the accuracy of setting out of all steel and other metalwork. He may use shop details and other necessary drawings prepared by the supplier. The approval of the Engineer for any such drawings shall not relieve the Contractor of responsibility for the correct fitting of all material. Unless specified otherwise, all bases shall be positioned 50mm or as shown on the drawings above the concrete foundations on levelling nuts. Thereto every base shall feature at least 4 anchor bolts. Stanchions shall be plumbed and levelled by adjusting the levelling nuts and then be tightening the closing nuts. The space between the baseplate and concrete shall be filled with a free flowing non shrink grout with a 28 days strength of at least 25 N/mm.

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4.15 4.15.1 Water Storage Tanks General The works under this clause comprise the construction and renovation of potable water storage reservoirs both at ground level or elevated. For the purpose of these specifications the following tanks are distinguished : welded steel tanks sectional pressed steel tanks concrete tanks

All types of tanks shall be watertight, have no adverse effects on potable water and need only minimal maintenance after construction or rehabilitation. 4.15.2 Steel Water Storage Tanks

4.15.2.1 General Steel storage tanks shall be supplied with all ancillary pipework and valves, and for elevated tanks, a suitable support structure. The tanks shall be obtained from a reputable manufacturer, experienced in the particular field. Unless otherwise specified, the foundation shall be designed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. The Engineer will give the Contractor the required information necessary to make the foundation design except for dead weight loadings from any plant or equipment within the Contractor's supply. The supply shall include design calculation report and shop drawings for approval by the Engineer, fabrication, painting, storage where necessary, delivery to Site, construction of the foundation, erection and commissioning and testing. All steel tanks shall comply with all relevant requirements of the Specifications. The concrete for foundations shall be grade C25. For painting of steel the relevant requirements of Specifications apply, except for the interior of the tanks which shall receive one coat zinc-rich or another compatible primer to a minimum dry film thickness of 0.25mm and subsequently 2 coats of bitumen complying with BS 3416, Type 1, Class A. 4.15.2.2 Supervision of Erection of Steel Tanks If instructed by the Engineer the Contractor shall provide the services of a skilled erection supervisor from within the company manufacturing the tank, whose qualifications shall be to the approval of the Engineer. 4.15.2.3 Design of Supporting Tower for Steel Water Reservoirs The water tank tower and its foundations shall be designed by the Supplier. The tower shall include access ladders and all inlet, overflow and outlet pipework and shall support the tank when filled to its upper lip. The tower and its foundations shall be designed to withstand the worst combination of dead load, imposed load and wind load that might reasonably be expected to be applied during construction and operation. Imposed loads shall be calculated in accordance with BS6399: Part 1; 1984. The weight of water contained in the tank and pipes shall be regarded as an imposed load. Wind loading shall be calculated in accordance with CP 3: Chapter V: Part 2; 1972 using the following parameters:

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Topography factor S1 = 1 Ground roughness factor S3 as for category 3 (small towns, outskirts of large cities) Statistical factor S3 = 1.0 Basic wind speed V = 45 m/s (3 second gust at 10m above ground level)

The design of structural elements shall comply with BS449, BS8110 and BS8004. The structure shall be adequately stiffened or braced against sway and the horizontal deflection caused by works or by the effects of unbalanced vertical loads. The minimum horizontal force considered acting in any direction at any level shall be not less than 1 % of the total vertical load above the level; even where no wind loads or other horizontal loads are applied. Provisions shall be made for the effects of this minimum nominal load. Unless otherwise indicated the deflection of members shall be in accordance with the standards listed above. The deflection of members supporting the tank structure shall be compatible with the design of the tank and shall not exceed 1/750 of their span. The horizontal deflection of the tower under wind loading shall not exceed 1/400 of the tower height. 4.15.3 Glass Reinforced Plastic Water Storage Tanks

4.15.3.1 General Sectional GRP storage tanks shall be supplied with all ancillary pipework and valves, and for elevated tanks, a suitable support structure. The tanks shall be obtained from a reputable manufacturer, experienced in the particular field. Unless otherwise specified, the foundation shall be designed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. The Engineer will give the Contractor the required information necessary to make the foundation design except for dead weight loadings from any plant or equipment within the Contractor's supply. The supply shall include design calculation report and shop drawings for approval by the Engineer, fabrication, painting, storage where necessary, delivery to Site, construction of the foundation, erection and commissioning and testing. Sectional GRP tanks for both potable and untreated water storage shall be as manufactured by Braithwaite and Co. Structural Ltd. or equal. The concrete for foundations shall be grade C25. 4.15.3.2 Supervision of Erection of GRP Tanks If instructed by the Engineer the Contractor shall provide the full time services of a skilled erection supervisor from the tank manufacturer, whose qualifications shall be to the approval of the Engineer. 4.15.3.3 Design of Supporting Tower for GRP Water Storage Tanks The water tank tower and its foundations shall be designed by the Supplier or the Contractor in accordance with the requirements specified. 4.15.4 Reinforced Concrete Tanks Reinforced concrete tanks shall be constructed as indicated in the Drawings. The concrete shall be watertight. All joints shall thus be provided with suitable water stops. Upon completion the tank shall be tested for watertightness and comply with requirements of the Specifications.

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4.15.5 Disinfection of Tanks After testing for water tightness the reservoirs shall be pumped dry. After the pumping and the completion of the installation, the bottom side of the roof slab, the topside of the foundation floor and all walls contacting water shall be brushed with sodium hypochlorite. Mud, silt and dirt shall be brought to the deepest part or washout in each compartment and removed. For the execution of the works the labourers shall be provided with clean overalls and rubber boots and be equipped with a face mask. After cleaning the reservoirs shall be filled with potable water with the addition of sodium hypochlorite with a strength of 15 %. A total amount of hypochlorite (15%) shall be added till a chlorine content of the water of 40mg/l has been obtained. Then a period of testing of 2 x 24 hours shall be respected. After this period the water shall be removed and the reservoir shall be filled again with potable water and emptied again. A bacteriological test to the approval of the Engineer shall then be executed. Only after approval of the test results may the reservoirs be put in service.

4.16 4.16.1

Protection and Painting of Metal Painting Unless otherwise specified all iron and steelwork shall before painting be blast cleaned. Blast cleaning shall be dry blasting using metallic grit or other silica free abrasive. The grade of cleanliness after blasting shall conform to grade SA 2 according to Swedish Standard SIS 05-59-00; 1967. Care shall be taken to blast clean bolt holes and other penetrations. Before coating, all dust shall be removed from the surface. The first layer of coating shall be applied within one hour after blast cleaning. If the relative humidity is more than 75% this time shall be reduced to half an hour. Field welds shall be cleaned of welding slag and have sharp edges rounded off before applying coating. Blast cleaning and application of all coats shall be done where the structural steel is fabricated. All workshop painting shall be carried out under cover and remain so until the paint has fully cured. Workshop painting shall be carried out by high pressure airless spray. The methods of painting shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and instructions. For steel in continuous contact with water or exposed to permanent humid conditions Coating System A shall be used: Blast cleaning to SA 2; One coat of two-pack zinc rich epoxy primer with a minimum dry film thickness of 25 micron within the specified time (0.5 or 1 hour); Two coats of two pack high build coal tar epoxy paint, each coat with a minimum dry film thickness of 200 micron to be applied within 48 hours after priming.

For all other steelwork the Coating System B shall be used : Blast cleaning to SA 2; One coat of two-pack zinc rich epoxy primer with a minimum dry film thickness of 25 micron within the specified time (0.5 or 1 hour); One or two coats of two pack high build epoxy coating pigmented with micaceous iron oxide, with a total minimum dry film thickness of 150 micron. Two coats of two pack epoxy enamel of a colour to be specified with a minimum dry film thickness of 50 micron per coat.

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If the steelwork is concealed one coat of enamel can be omitted. 4.16.2 Galvanising Galvanising of steelwork is to be carried out as described in this Clause and is indicated as Coating System "C". Steelwork to be galvanised shall be cleaned from all weld spatters, slag, mill scale and other contaminants. Removal of corrosion products and surface treatment immediately before galvanising shall be done by pickling. Pickling shall be done in a solution of hydrochloric acid. The acid shall then be neutralised after which the steelwork shall be washed and dried. Finally the steelwork shall be dipped in the galvanising bath. Unless otherwise specified all steelwork shall be hot dip galvanised according to BS 729 with a minimum deposition rate of 460g/m, after completion of all welding, drilling, grinding or trimming of the metal. Hand railings and other big steelwork items may be galvanised in sections. The galvanised surface shall be smooth and free from slag and other impurities. All parts shall be passivated after galvanising in order to minimise discoloration. Any damage to galvanising due to transport or installation shall be made good at the Contractor's expense by a method approved by the Engineer. Where galvanised items have been cut or damaged on site, the Contractor shall immediately make good the damage to the galvanising or to the cut edge by means of an approved zinc-rich cold galvanising paint. The paint shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and to the approval of the Engineer. Repairs to damaged items shall only be carried out with the express permission of the Engineer. If galvanised surfaces as per system "C" or manufacture-galvanised surfaces of sheet, wire, doorframes, etc. are to be additionally painted this shall conform the requirements of this Clause, indicated as Coating System "D". Galvanised surfaces shall be passivated or weathered before painting with an approved etch primer (other than a mordant containing copper), which shall be a two pack primer applied in accordance with manufacturers instructions. After drying the etch primer surface shall be thoroughly rinsed with clean fresh water and allowed to dry. The finish shall consist of two coats of two pack epoxy enamel (colour approved by the Engineer) with dry film thickness 50 micron per coat.

4.17 4.17.1

Roads and Pavements Road Construction All access roads and hardstanding areas shall be constructed on layers of aggregate road base to the levels and lines shown on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. All earthworks for roads shall generally be in accordance with the requirements of the Specifications of the Specification. For the purpose of this clause the following definitions apply : Embankment Subgrade Base Course A structure of compacted fill material within the roadway, between excavated or original ground and the base course. Top section of the foundation or formation or embankment on which the base course is placed. The structural layer of material immediately beneath the pavement.

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Binder Course Wearing Course The first subsequent layer of an asphalt pavement except the uppermost layer. The upper most layer of an asphalt surface course, which constitutes the finished road surface.

4.17.2

Types of Pavement Structures The following types of pavement structures shall be distinguished for the purpose of these Specifications. Every structure consists of stripping, clearing and grubbing, excavation and/or compacted fill embankment, and preparation of subgrade. The structure above the subgrade changes for each type of road.

Grade 1 2 Track

Designation

Structural Build Up - 150mm base course - 200mm base course - asphaltic Surface Treatment -250mm base course -bituminous prime coat -40mm asphaltic concrete wearing course - 300mm base course -bituminous prime coat - 50mm asphaltic concrete binder course -bituminous tack coat -30mm asphaltic wearing course -200mm specified fill -concrete tiles 300 x 300 x 50

Service Road

Normal Road

Heavy Duty Road

Foot Path / side walks

4.17.3

Grade and Alignment Control Grade and alignment control stakes shall be supplied, set out and maintained by the Contractor subject to checking by the Engineer in order that the work shall conform to the lines, grades and cross-sections shown on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. The stakes shall be set in rows on and parallel with the centre-line of the roadway and spaced so that string lines may be stretched between them but in no case more than 10m apart.

4.17.4

Curves and Transitions Curve radii, superelevation profiles and vertical and horizontal transitions will be given by the Engineer on Site.

4.17.5

Materials and Plant for Roads and Pavement Structures The aggregate for the pavements shall be crushed stone or crushed gravel. Before ordering or borrowing any materials, the Contractor shall have samples of his proposed materials tested as specified or as directed by the Engineer, by a testing authority nominated by the Engineer. The Contractor shall submit his proposed methods for constructing the pavement bases for approval by the Engineer. The proposals shall include but not be limited to the following details: Plant and labour to be employed; Materials to be used, including proposed grading limits, mix proportions and the like; Methods for transporting, laying, spreading and compacting the materials.

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The Contractor shall carry out field trials with the proposed materials and plant to test the suitability of the materials, the plant and the workmanship. The aforesaid testing shall be completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer before commencing construction of any pavement base and in such good time that no delay is caused to the Works. The working methods, plant, materials, mix proportions, and the like so approved, shall not be varied without prior instruction from the Engineer. The Engineer may at any time require the Contractor to alter mix proportions in accordance with the Specifications. Save in so far as otherwise approved by the Engineer, all services and structures, if any, shall be laid and constructed and all backfilling shall be carried out prior to the construction of the pavement bases. The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for the supply of materials for road construction including payments for any compensation or other payments whatsoever required for access to and occupation and use of borrow pits and quarries for any materials. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his proposed sources of materials, together with details of locations, sizes, owners of proposed borrow areas and quarries. He shall also submit his proposed method of working, including all measures to eliminate damage or nuisance to persons or property, together with his proposed method for reinstating such borrow areas and quarries. The Contractor shall not commence work on any borrow area or quarry before the Engineer's written approval has been obtained. Before abandoning any borrow area, it shall be drained, levelled and topsoiled and the sides battered to approved slopes all to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The cost of all operations detailed under this Clause shall be deemed to be included in the tendered rates and prices. Embankment shall be constructed as compacted fill with fill material as specified. 4.17.6 Sub Grade Preparation of the sub-grade shall be carried out to the requirements of the Specifications unless superseded by the requirements of this Clause. The sub-grade shall be compacted to such levels and slopes as will permit the base course to be constructed to the required thickness and specified finished levels. The sub-grade shall be compacted by approved rollers so that the density of the top 150mm shall be not less than 98% of the maximum dry density as obtained in BS1377:1975, Test No.12. The finished surface of the sub-grade shall not vary at any point by more than 10mm from a 3m straight edge. The level of any point on the finished surface shall not deviate by more than 15mm from the finished level of the pavement less the specified thickness of the pavement and base construction. If any areas are found to fail the above mentioned requirements, such areas shall be scarified, reshaped and recompacted as specified.

4.17.7

Base Course After excavation from an approved source, and processing and mechanical blending if necessary, the material shall be stockpiled. Stockpiles shall be located at a distance of not less than 15 metres from the right-of-way limits of the roads. Unless otherwise approved in writing, the stockpiles shall be formed in layers having a maximum

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thickness of 0.5m and to a total height of 4m. It shall contain not more than 1,000m or the quantity needed for the job, whichever is smaller. Removal of material from stockpiles for placement on the grade shall be done by side excavation along nearly vertical faces over the full depth of stockpiles. The use of a clamshell type bucket for loading material on trucks or the use of pan type scrapers for moving stockpiled material to its final position, as base course, will not be permitted. No material shall be added to the stockpile after the stockpile has been sampled for approval. Material from approved stockpiles shall be placed on the grade for this item. The presence of any over-size particles in a stockpile will be a cause for rejection of the entire stockpile. No material shall be taken for use from any stockpile until the stockpile has been sampled, tested, and approved in writing by the Engineer for placement on the sub-base. Approval of a stockpile for placement on the sub-base shall not relieve, in any degree, the full responsibility of the Contractor to furnish, in its compacted position, a base course of granular materials, the final condition of which shall conform to all the requirements of the specifications for this item. In the event that the Contractor uses plant or procedures resulting in material of uniform quality conforming to these specifications at a rate satisfactory to the Engineer and that satisfactory samples for tests can be obtained, the requirements for stockpiling may be waived. Prior approval of the Engineer shall be obtained and the work shall be done in accordance with such conditions as may be imposed in the approval. Such waiver shall only remain in force as long as a satisfactory material is produced. The spreading of any layer shall be carried out with spreader equipment approved by the Engineer. Material shall be spread to such thickness that after compaction the maximum depth of the layer shall be 150mm. Stockpiling shall not be permitted on the roadway. No segregation of large or fine particles will be allowed when it is spread, and it shall be well graded with no pockets of fine material. Water shall be added in such quantities that the moisture content is within the proper limits for satisfactory compaction. The entire surface shall be rolled either with pneumatic tired rollers or smooth steel wheel rollers to achieve a dry density of at least 98% of the maximum given in the British Standard compaction test. For heavier compaction, vibratory, or when more efficient types of approved compaction equipment are used the minimum number of passes required on all portions of each layer shall be determined by the Engineer after appropriate field tests have been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of such equipment. In limited areas, where the use of a roller is impractical, approved vibrating plate compactors shall be used to compact the material. The surface of the finished base at any point shall not vary more than 10mm above or below the true grade. The base course at any location shall be compacted, finished and completed to the above tolerance and approved by the Engineer before any succeeding course is placed at all locations. Any depressions or holes shall be rectified to the satisfaction of the Engineer. In all cases, the base course shall be so thoroughly compacted that it will not wave under the roller. The layer of the base course shall not be laid in excess of 150 linear metres without being compacted. No traffic or hauling other than those necessary for bringing material for the next course shall be permitted on this course. If sub-base and base course granular material are churned up through any reason whatsoever, the Contractor shall, at his own expense, remove such mixtures and replace them with newly selected approved granular material. The base shall be finished to the lines, levels and sections as shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer and the finished surface shall not depart from the true surface in any direction by more than 6mm when checked with a straight edge 3 metre long or a camber board. If the departure from the true surface shall exceed 6mm, the Contractor shall scarify, reshape, water as necessary and recompact such areas to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

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The average thickness of the base shall not be less than specified. The thickness of the base at any point shall not be less than the specified thickness minus 12mm. The Contractor shall include in his rates for the digging of trial pits, and making good same, to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The method and procedure for obtaining samples of the base course and storing and testing them in order to check the materials and workmanship for compliance with the Specifications shall be as specified and/or as directed by the Engineer. Unless specified otherwise the Engineer will require the following tests to be carried out in the Site Laboratory for the granular crushed stone base: Grading Los Angeles Abrasion (AASHTO-T-96) maximum 50 Liquid Limit (AASHTO-T-90) maximum 25 Plasticity Index (AASHTO-T-90) maximum 6 Sand Equivalent (AASHTO-T176) maximum 25 Linear Shrinkage Dry Density Moisture Relationship In Situ Dry Density California Bearing Ratio

In order to test the quality of the completed base, the Contractor shall, when and where directed by the Engineer, have samples taken for laboratory testing or in-situ tests carried out on the completed base course. In total not less than approximately 1 sample or test shall be taken per 1,000m of base constructed provided that, if defects are proved, the Contractor shall have such a larger number taken as are directed by the Engineer. Should the result of any test fail to meet the requirements of the Specifications, the Engineer may under the provisions of the Contract and with the concurrence of the Employer order the base covered by the particular test to be removed from the Works. The Contractor may, if he disputes the results of such test, arrange to have confirmatory tests made on and/or samples taken from the section of the base in dispute, all at his own expense. Such tests shall be carried out by an agreed authority having suitable test facilities. If such tests show results in compliance with the Specifications, the base shall be deemed to be satisfactory; but if the test results do not comply with the Specifications, the Engineer may under the provisions of the Contract direct the Contractor to cut out and make good the defective work to such an extent as the Engineer considers necessary. 4.17.8 Asphaltic Surface Treatment Stockpiling of aggregates will be permitted only where agreed by the Engineer. A separate stockpile shall be made for each nominal size of aggregate at each location. Sites for stockpiles shall be cleared, graded and drained, and if necessary in the opinion of the Engineer, shall be surfaced with a 100mm layer of natural gravel or crushed rock. The bottom 50mm layer of aggregate shall not be used in the work and contaminated aggregate shall be reprocessed until it is acceptable. The equipment to be provided shall include a power broom, a power blower, a drag boom, a bitumen distributor having a pressurised spray bar, self-propelled pneumatic-tyred rollers, aggregate spreader, and an adequate number of trucks and equipment for heating the asphaltic material. Steel wheeled rollers may be used to supplement the pneumatic-tyred rollers only when specifically approved or directed by the Engineer. Plant and equipment shall comply with the following requirements: The distributor shall have pneumatic tyres of such size and pressure that the load produced on the road surface shall not cause any rutting and shall be so equipped, maintained and operated that asphaltic material may be applied uniformly over variable widths with uniform pressure and controlled rates.

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The power broom shall be a rotary towed or self-propelled device specifically designed for sweeping road surfaces. The drag broom shall be capable of distributing unevenly spread aggregate without disturbing the particles freshly bedded in the binder. Pneumatic-tyred rollers shall be self-propelled machines, with smooth treads, of sufficient loading to force the aggregate firmly into the asphaltic material without crushing the cover material. Steel-wheeled rollers where permitted, shall be light, two axle tandem rollers of such loading that stone chippings will not be crushed. Aggregate spreaders shall be capable of spreading a uniform layer of cover aggregate of the specified size. Heating equipment shall be capable of producing uniform heating to the required temperature without damage to the asphaltic material. An approved instrument for temperature measurement with an accuracy of 3 % shall be provided. Means shall be provided to drain completely the heating tank or tanks. Suitable fire-fighting equipment and material shall be conveniently available to the heating equipment at all times when heating is in progress. Spraying and spreading shall not be carried out when the weather conditions are, in the opinion of the Engineer, likely to adversely affect surfacing operations. Such conditions may include, but shall not necessarily be limited to rain, low temperatures, and sand storms. Prior to application of binder (RC-250), loose dirt and other objectionable material shall be removed from the surface by means of a power broom or blower or both. If this does not provide a uniformly clean surface, additional sweeping shall be done by hand, using stiff bass or similar brooms. Sweeping shall extend at least 200mm beyond each edge of the area to the sprayed. Adherent patches of objectionable material shall be removed from the surface by steel scraper of other suitable method and where the Engineer so directs, the scraped area shall be washed down with water and hand broomed. No application of asphaltic material shall be undertaken until the surface has been cleaned to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Asphaltic material (RC-250) shall be applied by a distributor at a rate of: 1st Coat 2nd Coat 1.20 to 2.00kg/m 0.80 to 2.00kg/m (av.1.60kg/m) (av.1.20kg/m)

or as directed by the Engineer. Where the use of the distributor is not practicable for the application of small areas, the Engineer may agree to the use of hand-spray equipment attached to the distributor. Quantities of asphaltic materials in excess of requirements shall not be heated, nor shall such materials be held at temperatures within the range of application temperatures for periods in excess of ten hours. Any asphaltic material which has been heated for an excessive period of time or which has been overheated shall be rejected. The area to be sprayed with asphaltic material (rapid curing cutback asphalt) shall be limited to that which can be covered with aggregate at the specified rate within 15 minutes of the time of spraying or such shorter period as the Engineer shall direct.

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During all applications, the surface of adjacent structures and trees shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred. Building paper or other protective material shall be spread on the surface at the start and end point of each spray application so that flow through the nozzles may be started and stopped on the paper and all nozzles shall operate properly over the entire length being treated. Immediately after use, the protective material shall be removed and disposed of in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer. The distributor shall commence moving at a sufficient distance in advance of the start of the application to ensure that the speed for correct application is attained at the commencement of spraying and shall maintain this speed until past the finishing point of the application. Provision shall be made for 10%, or such other percentage as may be determined by the Engineer, of the rated capacity of the distributor tank to be retained in the tank at the completion of each run, so as to avoid air entrainment with the delivery system and provide for any minor excess in the rate of application. After each application, the quantity of material sprayed shall be checked against the area covered, and any necessary adjustments shall be made to ensure that the specified or ordered rate of application is maintained in subsequent runs. Spraying shall cease immediately if any defect develops in the spraying or spreading equipment and it shall not recommence until the fault has been rectified. Before the asphaltic materials are applied, sufficient cover aggregate shall be in trucks at the site of the work to provide the full cover for the area to be sprayed. The application of the aggregate shall proceed immediately after application of asphaltic material commences and shall be completed with 15 minutes of the completion of spraying or such smaller period of time as the Engineer shall direct. The aggregate shall be spread uniformly over the asphaltic material by means of an approved aggregate spreader at a rate as directed by the Engineer, within the following range: 1st Coat 2nd Coat 50 - 70 m/m 80 - 100 m/m

Any bare or insufficiently covered area shall be re-run by the mechanical spreader or covered by hand as necessary to give uniform and complete coverage. Any aggregate spread in excess of the rate specified or ordered shall be scattered and evenly distributed or otherwise removed and stockpiled as directed by the Engineer. Immediately after spreading to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the aggregate shall be rolled with one or more pneumatic tyred rollers or, if permitted by the Engineer, by steel tyred rollers, until the aggregate is firmly embedded in the asphaltic material. Where required to ensure an even distribution of aggregate, the surface shall be broom-dragged after the initial rolling except that if the drag broom has any tendency to dislodge aggregate particles bedded in the binder, the Engineer may direct that drag brooming shall be discontinued, and that light hand brooming shall be substituted. Rolling shall be continued, as directed by the Engineer, for as long as is necessary to ensure a thorough incorporation of the aggregate into the binder (rapid curing cut-back asphalt). Immediately after the binder has hardened to the stage at which, in the opinion of the Engineer, no more aggregate can be pressed into it by rolling, any remaining loose particles shall be removed from the shoulder. If, after spreading, the aggregate is found to contain moisture and weather conditions are suitable for drying, the Engineer may allow rolling of the aggregate to be deferred for a short time to permit the moisture to evaporate, providing that satisfactory adhesion of the binder to the aggregate is obtained. If the Engineer considers that the adhesion of the binder to the aggregate is unsatisfactory, he shall reject the work and direct that no further work be carried out until the conditions improve.

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The second course of surface treatment shall be started by applying second layer of rapid curing cutback asphalt at the specified rate over the first course of surface treatment. Prior to the starting of the second application of rapid curing cut-back asphalt, the surface shall be cleaned in an approved manner taking care that embedded cover aggregates of the first course are not dislodged. After the application of binder at the approved rate, the cover material shall be spread at the specified rate and the process shall continue as in case of first course of surface treatment. The Contractor shall protect the work from damage until such time as the surface treatment has developed sufficient strength to carry normal traffic without disturbance of the aggregate. Where it is necessary to allow early use of the new work to facilitate the movement of traffic, vehicles may be allowed to run on the work after rolling is completed, provided that vehicles are controlled to such slow speeds that no displacement of aggregate occurs. No traffic shall be permitted to pass the working area during the application of asphaltic material nor shall traffic be permitted to encroach upon the edge of asphaltic material until such time as it is covered with aggregate. 4.17.9 Bituminous Prime Coat Prime coats shall be applied only when the surface to be treated is dry. No application shall be made when the weather is foggy or rainy and the atmospheric temperature is below 10C. The Engineer's decision in ascertaining the weather conditions shall be final. The equipment to be provided by the Contractor shall include a power broom and blower, bitumen distributor having a pressurised spray bar and equipment for heating asphaltic material. The distributor shall be pneumatic-tyred and shall be so designed and equipped as to distribute the bituminous material uniformly on variable widths of surface at readily determined and controlled rates. The distributor shall be equipped with a separate power unit for the pump and full circulation spray bars. The spray bar on the distributor shall be controlled by a man riding at the rear of the distributor in such a position that operation of all sprays is in this full view. Hand spraying equipment shall also be fitted. All measuring equipment on the distributor should have been recently calibrated and an accurate and satisfactory record of such calibration be supplied to the Engineer. If after beginning the work, the distribution of asphaltic material is found to be in error, the distributor shall be withdrawn from the work and calibrated in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer before proceeding with the work. Immediately before applying the prime coat, the full width of surface to be treated shall be cleaned with a power broom or blower as appropriate, to remove all dirt, and other objectionable material, where required by the Engineer. Immediately prior to the application of the primer, the surface shall be lightly sprayed with water but not saturated. Asphaltic material shall be applied by the distributor and the rate of application of the liquid asphalt shall be 1.5 kg/m or as directed by the Engineer. Asphaltic material shall be applied at a temperature within the range of 38C to 60C. The prime coat shall be left undisturbed for a period of at least 48 hours, and shall not be opened to traffic, so that it will not be picked up by the wheels of passing vehicles. The Contractor shall maintain the prime coat until the succeeding layer of pavement has been placed. Care shall be taken that the application of bituminous material is not in excess of the specified amount; any excess shall be blotted with sand or similarly treated. All areas inaccessible to the distributor shall be sprayed manually using the device for hand spraying from the distributor. The surface of structures and trees adjacent to the area being treated shall be protected in such manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred.

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4.17.10 Bituminous Tack Coat Tack coats shall be applied only when the surface to be treated is dry. No application shall be made when the weather is foggy or rainy and the atmospheric temperature is below 10C. The Engineer's decision in ascertaining the weather conditions shall be final. Equipment shall conform in all respects to the provisions under Clause "Materials and Plant for Roads and Pavement Structures - General". Immediately before applying the tack coat, the full width of the surface to be treated shall be cleared of loose and foreign material by means of power broom or blower as appropriate, supplemented as necessary by hand sweeping. Asphaltic material shall be applied by the distributor and the rate of application shall be 0.5kg/m or as directed by the Engineer. Asphaltic material shall be applied at a temperature within the range of 77C - 94C. Care shall be taken that the application of asphaltic material is not in excess of the specified amount, any excess material shall be blotted by sand or similarly treated. All areas inaccessible to the distributor shall be treated manually using the device for hand spaying from the distributor. The surface of structures and trees adjacent to the area being treated shall be protected in such a manner as to prevent their being spattered or marred. Traffic shall be kept off the tack coat at all times. The tack coat shall be sprayed only so far in advance of the surface course as will permit it to dry to a "tacky" condition. The Contractor shall maintain the tack coat until the next course has been placed. 4.17.11 Asphaltic Concrete At least thirty (30) days before he intends to start production of asphaltic concrete, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer in writing with a Job-Mix-Formula and grading. No asphalt concrete mixture shall be placed until a Job-Mix-Formula has been submitted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. Laboratory samples shall be prepared and tested in the Site laboratory according to the requirements of ASTM 1559 (Marshall Test) and, to be acceptable, the results shall meet the following criteria:
Binder Course Stability in (kg.min) Flow in mm Air voids in total mix (%) Voids filled with asphalt cement (%) Number of blows each end 600 2.0 - 4.0 3-8 60 -75 75 Wearing Course 600 2.0 - 4.0 3-5 70 - 80 75

After the finalisation of the Job-Mix-Formula the materials shall have tolerances within the following units. Material passing No. 4 or large sieve = 5% Material passing No. 10 sieve and retained on No. 200 sieve = 4% Material passing No. 200 sieve = 1.5% Asphalt cement = 0.3% Materials shall be mixed in a mixer machine having arrangements for heating the materials. The heated ingredients shall be combined in such a manner as to produce a mixture which, when emptied, has a temperature between 135C and 163C and is within 10C of the temperature stated in the Job-Mix-Formula. The maximum mixing time shall be limited, as directed by the Engineer, to

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avoid undue changes in the characteristics of the bituminous binder. The bituminous binder shall be extracted from samples, as directed by the Engineer, in accordance with AASHTO Test Method T.164. The mixed material shall be placed in a 50mm thick compacted layer in the case of binder course after the base is primed for about 46 hours. The wearing course 30mm thick shall be placed just after tack coat is sprayed over previously prepared binder course in accordance with these specifications and the levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the drawings. No longitudinal joints shall be left exposed at the end of any day's work. At transverse joints, old work shall be cut to a vertical edge before laying new material against it and the vertical face shall be painted with hot bituminous binder. Longitudinal joints shall be staggered transversely by not less than 300mm in relation to any longitudinal joint in the course immediately underneath. After laying, the material shall be uniformly compacted by rolling in a longitudinal direction from the sides to the centre of the roadway, overlapping on successive passes by about half the width of the rear roll. Rolling should be delayed long enough after laying to permit the layer to be compacted by the rolling equipment without pushing or tearing. The mixture shall be compacted at a temperature within the limits of 107C - 135C and to a density not less than 97 % of the Marshall Test density of the mixture sampled at a point appropriate to the location and tested in the Site Laboratory. The number, type and condition of rollers shall at all times be sufficient to compact the mixture to the required density while it is still in a workable condition. Rolling trials shall be carried out by the Contractor until the Engineer is satisfied that the equipment provided and procedures adopted by the Contractor are capable of producing a surfacing course meeting the requirements of the Contract. Such procedures shall thereafter be maintained until the Engineer directs otherwise. Such laid and/or compacted materials as, in the opinion of the Engineer, is not suitable to be incorporated in the works, shall be removed and disposed of in a manner acceptable to the Engineer. The equipment provided for rolling the surface courses shall include, tandem roller and self-propelled pneumatic-tyred rollers on which the tyre pressures can be quickly adjusted during rolling operations and which weights can be adjusted between 9 and 20 metric tons. Sections of the newly finished work shall be protected from traffic of any kind until the mixture has cooled to approximately ambient air temperature. Traffic shall not normally be permitted on the newly laid surface within twelve hours after completion of the layer, except with the authorization of the Engineer. Rollers and other equipment not in operation shall not be allowed to stand on the surface and spillage or leakage of fuels from equipment into the surface courses shall be prevented. After final rolling and before opening the surface to traffic, the Contractor shall cut samples from the finished work for testing in the Site laboratory. Samples shall not be less than 250mm square, except that, for measurement of the field density only, cores with a minimum diameter of 100mm cut by an efficient coring machine will be acceptable. Samples shall be taken of the mixture for the full depth of the course from the locations directed by the Engineer. Samples for density measurement shall be obtained in sets of two cut from the same location. One set shall be taken for each day or fraction of a day that the plant operates or if the output exceeds 100 metric tons per day, then at the rate of one per 100 metric tons or part thereof shall be taken. Samples for analysis and other tests shall be taken from the surface courses when the Engineer so directs and shall in any case be taken whenever a substantial change is made in the job-mix-formula. Where samples have been taken from the surface course, fresh material shall be placed in the holes and compacted and finished to match the quality of the surrounding surface course.

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Page - 106
The surface of the completed surface course shall not deviate more than 3mm under a 3m long straight edge when laid parallel to the centre line of the surface course, nor more than 3mm from a template laid transversely across the surface course. Surface courses shall not be placed when the weather conditions are, in the opinion of the Engineer, likely to adversely affect the material. Such conditions may include, but will not necessarily be restricted to, rain, low temperatures, or sand storms. 4.17.12 Concrete Kerbs The relevant provisions of the Specifications shall apply for concrete of kerbs. The concrete shall be grade C25. Raised and flush kerbs shall be precast in sections of 1 (one) metre length. The kerbs shall be constructed on the finished compacted base course surface in accordance with the details as shown on the Drawings. Kerbs and gutters shall be constructed to the lines and levels shown on the Drawings within the following tolerances: Alignment Level Dimensions 5mm 5mm 5mm

The kerbs shall have a Smooth Finish. All edges shall be edged with a radius of approximately 5mm. The kerbs and gutters shall be cured for at least 7 calendar days after casting. Joints, 10mm wide filled with approved sand fill material shall be constructed in flush kerbs at maximum intervals of 5 metres and at such other places as the Engineer may require. All joints shall be perpendicular to the line and grade of the kerb. 4.17.13 Reflectorised Paint for Road Markings The road markings (centre-line marking, edge marking, stop-lines, letters and symbols on the road) shall be placed at locations, to lines and levels as shown in the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer. Application shall be by mobile sprayers, either hand-propelled or self-propelled, as acceptable to the Engineer. The road surface shall be dry, and free of mud or other extraneous matter. The material shall be laid in intermittent lines or continuous lines of 1.5mm thickness using an approved pressure spray unit as directed by the Engineer. The finished lines shall be free from "Ruggedness" on the carriageway. The upper surface of the lines shall be level, uniform and free from streaks. The material, when tested by the approved method, shall show little or no indentation at 80C. The Contractor shall control the traffic in such a manner as to protect the freshly marked surface from damage. The traffic control shall be so arranged as to give minimum interference to the travelling public. Signs, barricades, flagmen and control devices shall be supplied by the Contractor and a system of spaced warning flags or blocks shall be used to protect the fresh markings until they have dried. If any of the lines, stripes or markings become blurred or smeared by the traffic, or fail to have a uniform satisfactory appearance whether day or night, they shall be corrected by the Contractor at his own cost.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 107
4.18 4.18.1 Sidewalks and Other Paved Areas Reinforced Concrete Sidewalk Construction methods for embankment, subbase and base course, and pavement as specified in shall be used for reinforced concrete side walk, where applicable. 4.18.2 Stone Surfaced Tile Sidewalk Materials and construction of embankment and bases shall be as specified. Embankment and bases shall be compacted to not less than 95% dry maximum density per AASHTO Standards. The tiles shall be gravel surfaced tile, sized 400 x 400 x 50 mm or other sizes as shown on the Drawings. Joints between each piece of tile shall be sealed with sand cement mortar, ratio 1:1, and shall be treated to match with the sidewalk surfaces. Joint lines shall be perpendicular to concrete kerbs. 4.18.3 Paving Block Sidewalk Materials and construction of embankment and bases shall be as specified. Embankment and bases shall be compacted to not less than 95% dry maximum density per AASHTO Standards. Paving block shall have the pattern as specified and shall be constructed as follows: (1) (2) (3) Level sand bedding to the required slopes, allowing for settlement after compaction. Lay paving blocks to form an interlocking resistance between the blocks. After the paving blocks have been laid in place, sand shall be placed over the blocks and swept to fill the gaps between the blocks. Plate vibrator shall be applied to compact sand in the gaps.

4.18.4

Concrete Tile Pavement The relevant provisions of the Specifications shall apply for concrete of tiles. The concrete shall be grade C25. Before ordering any tiles the Contractor shall have samples tested, as specified by the Engineer, by a testing authority nominated by the Engineer. No tile shall be laid within 8 weeks after its casting. The tiles shall be laid on a base of fill of at least 200mm thick. The fill shall be brought to true profile and level immediately before laying the tiles thereon. The tiles shall each be supported on their whole area by the fill material and after the tiles are laid the difference in height between the top edges of any 2 adjoining tiles shall not be more than 1mm. The tiles shall be laid tightly against each other in stretcher bond or in a pattern as specified by the Engineer. During the Period of Maintenance the Contractor shall inter alia replace any tiles showing any cracks or any other damage or defects with tiles complying with the Specifications and lay again in accordance with the Specifications any tiles displaced due to settlement or otherwise.

4.18.5

Hot-Asphaltic Sidewalk Materials and construction of embankment and bases shall be as specified. Embankment and bases shall be compacted to not less than 95% dry maximum density per AASHTO Standards. Hot asphaltic surface shall meet the respective requirements of the Specifications.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 108
Application of hot asphaltic surface may be by manual means or by paver. Where stone overlay is specified, stone shall be washed gravel, dry and of the colour specified. The gravel shall be laid on the still hot asphalt at the rate of 3.5 kg/m2 and using a roller or a vibrator to embed the gravel in the asphalt. The roller or vibrator used shall be clean and free from stains of asphaltic material from the previous side walk construction. 4.18.6 Limit of Construction and Allowable Tolerances Sidewalks and paving shall be constructed to the full width and length with the provision of spaces for tree planting or grassing and indicated on the drawings and in the particular specifications. After construction is completed, levels along the line parallel to the centre line of the side walk shall not deviate more than 10mm every 3.00 m. The elevation shall be deviated from the specified elevation not to exceed 10mm. The allowable tolerances stated above shall not apply to ramp or bending sections. 4.18.7 Other Requirements In the laying of the end rows of stone tiles or paving blocks it may be necessary to cut the tiles or the blocks to fit the available spaces. The cutting shall be done by a hydraulic spitter. Upon completion of sidewalk or paving construction, the gaps between the tiles/blocks and concrete kerbs, manhole walls, building walls and at any locations shall not be more than 10mm wide. Where concrete kerbs or gutters are constructed in the same contract, the construction of concrete kerbs and gutters must be complete before the construction of side walk is started.

4.19 4.19.1

Fencing and Walls Fences and Gates Fencing shall be in 2m high galvanised barbed wire link fencing supported at 3m intervals by concrete posts with four strands of barbed wire as shown on the Drawings. The fencing shall be erected with adequate tension supports and straining posts. It shall all generally comply with BS1772 Part 1 : 1972. Gates shall be of the best quality available employing mild steel hollow tubes for frame and infilling, and before the order is placed the Contractor shall submit for the approval of the Engineer drawings of the gates he proposes to supply. Gates shall be complete with locking drawer bar, stops and padlock with three keys.

4.19.2

Existing Boundary Walls and Fences Where repair of existing boundary walls and fences is shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, the repairs should be compatible with the existing sections of wall or fence deemed by the Engineer to be in good condition. This refers to all types of wall and fence construction.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 109
PARAGRAPH 5 - BUILDING WORKS

5.1 5.1.1

Materials Precast Concrete Blocks Precast concrete blocks shall be manufactured to BS6073. Blocks shall be either hollow or solid and the thickness of the blocks shall be as indicated in the Drawings. The standard face dimensions shall be 390mm x 190mm. The blocks shall have a minimum compressive strength of 3.5N/mm. Specially sized and specially shaped blocks shall be used as closer, fittings, lintels and the like where specified. All blocks shall have a dense, even surface and a density of not less than 1700kg/m. The Contractor shall submit samples of blocks for every batch brought to the Site to the Engineer for approval. The Contractor shall arrange strength tests required by the Engineer to be executed by a testing authority approved by the Engineer.

5.1.2

Mortar Mortar for both masonry and blockwork shall be cement mortar consisting of one part of ordinary Portland cement complying to BS12 to four parts of sand by volume, mixed with just sufficient water to make the mixture workable. No lime shall be added to the mortar. Natural sand shall be used in cement mortar unless otherwise approved. The sand shall be obtained from sources approved by the Engineer and shall comply with the requirements of BS1200. When tested in accordance with BS812 the grading of the sand shall be within the limits given in Table 1 of BS1200. Plasticisers, air entraining agents or other additives may be used in the mortar subject to the approval of the Engineer.

5.1.3

Damp-proof Courses in Walls Damp-proof courses in walls shall be bituminous damp-proof course to BS743 weighing not less than 3.8 kg/m lapped 75mm at all joints and bedded in mortar whilst the mortar is still wet.

5.1.4

Timber Timber shall be unused timber of the best quality obtainable, well seasoned, perfectly dry and free from disease, splits, radial cracks, long loose or dead knots or other imperfections and shall be of a clean surface. For carpentry work timber shall be Mahogany, Opepe, Black Afara, Agba, or other approved and shall comply with the requirements of BS940. For joinery work, timber shall be African Mahogany, Idigbo, Iroko, or other approved and shall comply with the requirements of BS1186. The timber shall have a maximum moisture content of 15% at the time of delivery to the Site. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer certified copies of the Grading and Inspection certificates issued by the Accredited Government Timber Inspector of the country of origin to cover each consignment of graded timber.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 110
5.1.5 Chipboard and Plywood Chipboard shall be of certified termite-proof grade and approved manufacture and each sheet shall bear a distinguishing mark or title to this effect. Plywood shall comply with BS 6566 and shall be grade 3 veneer both sides with type MR bonding. 5.1.6 Nails and Screws All nails and screws shall comply with BS1202:1974 and BS1210:1963. 5.1.7 Timber Glue Glue shall comply with BSEN301 and shall be classification WBP of the resorcinol-formaldehyde (CRF) or phenol-formaldehyde (PF) type, and shall be used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 5.1.8 Flush Doors Internal flush doors shall be solid cored and shall be covered on both sides with selected tropical veneer quality plywood suitable for polishing and complying with BS459, Part 2. Doors shall be hardwood lipped on all edges. Adhesives shall have properties equal to either Type B100 or C100 in accordance with BS1204. External flush doors shall be solid cored and shall be covered on both sides with selected tropical veneer external quality plywood suitable for polishing. Flush Doors are to be obtained from a manufacturer, approved by the Engineer. 5.1.9 Metal Door Frames Door frames are to be 18 gauge sheet steel dipped in one coat of best quality anti-corrosive paint, fitted with two five-knuckle steel hinges, three adjustable fixing lugs, and three rubber buffers in rebate of lock jamb. 5.1.10 Metal Windows and Doors

Steel windows of all types shall be rust-proofed, shall have received one coat of metal primer at the manufacturer's works and shall be supplied with coupling transomes, coupling mullions, and all necessary hinges, fasteners, locks, catches etc.. 5.1.11 Louvred Windows

They shall consist of louvre blades fitted between a pair of parallel channel frames fabricated from aluminium alloy, each fitted with the requisite number of tension clips and mounted on forged alloy bearing in embossed housings on the frames. Bearing shall be rivetted to heavy gauge operating bars complete with flush lever handle and lock. Weather-seal strips shall be provided at hand and cill. Glass for louvre blades shall be cut exactly square to the dimensions specified by the louvre frame manufacturer. The edges of the blades shall be cut perfectly straight and then be ground to produce a smooth slightly rounded edge and the blade firmly secured in the clips of the louvre holder.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 111
5.1.12 Roller Shutter Doors

5.1.13

Ironmongery Ironmongery shall be from an approved source. Samples shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before ordering.

5.1.14

Suspended Ceilings Suspended ceilings shall be from an approved source. The whole shall be fixed by a specialist company, nominated by the Contractor and subject to the approval of the Engineer.

5.1.15

Aluminium Sheet Roofing Corrugated aluminium sheet roofing shall be from an approved source. Longspan sheets shall be 22 swg in thickness, with Alucrome or plain stucco embossed finish in 800mm widths, 75mm pitch, 20mm deep.

5.1.16

Asbestos Cement Sheet Roofing Asbestos cement corrugated sheets for roofing shall be to BS960, Part 3. The asbestos cement fittings shall be to BS690, Part 6 to suit the specified sheets. Formed asbestos eaves filler pieces to match the sheet profile shall be made of heavy duty 6mm thick asbestos cement. Hook bolts and drive screws shall comply with BS1494, Part 1. Hook bolts and nuts shall be 8mm diameter of zinc coated steel with diamond curved washers for 10/3 corrugations and plastic washers complying with BS4255, Part 1 Clause 8 and of Class 3 hardness. Drive screws shall be of 14 gauge zinc coated steel with steel and plastic/bitumen washers as described above. Subject to the foregoing, the types, sizes, materials and finishes of all fastenings shall be supplied and used as recommended by the sheet manufacturer.

5.1.17

Metal Roof and Wall Sheeting Trapezoidal type sheeting, including flashings, copings and the like, for roofing and wall cladding shall be a hot dip galvanised steel substrate with zinc coating mass G 350 to BS 2989:1982. It shall be coated on both sides with British Steel Corporation Colour coat RP 200 or approved similar bonded to the sheeting, as a protection against corrosion and a type and quality approved by the Engineer. With a span of 1.0m the sheeting shall be able to bear without plastic deformation, assuming a safety coefficient of 1.8: a uniformly distributed load of 1.0kN/m. a concentrated load of 1.5 kN at midspan.

The deflection of the sheeting with a span of 1.0m and a concentrated load of 1.5kN at midspan shall be less than 10mm. The sheeting and the fixings thereof shall be able to safely withstand uplift forces from wind of 1.0kN/m with a span of 1.0m. The sheeting shall not be scratched, stained, distorted or have any other defects. The sheeting shall without any maintenance and under the local conditions not be adversely affected by corrosion.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 112
5.1.18 Clear Sheet Glass All glass shall be free from waves, specks, bubbles, smokes, wanes or other imperfections. Glass shall comply with BS952 and shall be transparent type of ordinary quality (OQ) sheet glass as in Clause 4 of BS952 and of 4mm thickness but for louvred glazing of 5mm thickness. Glass made by the float process and equivalent to this standard will be acceptable. In all windows and doors in sanitary rooms and where specified elsewhere ground glass (opaque quality) shall be used. 5.1.19 Fixed Metal Louvres Metal louvres built in walls for cooling purposes shall be anodized aluminium or galvanised steel. Overall dimensions shall be as indicated on the Drawings. The louvre blades shall be of such design as to prevent rain from entering. Frame and louvre blades shall be fixed rigidly to each other and be of the same material. Louvres shall be equipped with anchors or holes for fixing before any coating is applied. Louvres shall be provided with sandtrap and mosquito mesh. 5.1.20 Sandtex Textured Finish Sandtex textured finish shall be obtained from an approved source. The finish shall be applied to cement/sand rendered surfaces strictly in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. 5.1.21 Insulation Board Insulation board shall be Celotex insulation board, 12mm thick, with "V" joints, in 600mm x 600mm tiles. 5.1.22 Precast Terrazzo Tiles Precast terrazzo tiles shall be 300 x 300 x 25mm, manufactured from an approved source. 5.1.23 Ceramic Tiles Ceramic tiles shall be of first quality, true to shape, and free from blemishes. Floor tiles shall be 200 x 200 x 9mm, skirtings shall be 200 x 100 x 9mm, and wall tiles shall be 150 x 150 x 6mm. 5.1.24 Plastic Pipes for Hot and Cold Water Services Plastic pipes for hot and cold water services shall be ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) pressure pipe and fittings, complying with the relevant provisions of BS5391, Part 1, and BS5392, Part 1, with solvent welded joints and fittings, installed and fixed in accordance with manufacturer's printed instructions. 5.1.25 Stop Valves Stop valves shall be to BS1010 and shall be of all gunmetal construction with union tails for connection to ABS pipework. 5.1.26 Draw-off Taps Draw-off taps shall be chromium plated or natural finished gunmetal high pressure screw down easy clean pattern, threaded for union, with crutch handles as BS1010, fitted with hose union.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 113
5.1.27 Water Storage Tanks Storage cisterns shall comply with BS417; Part 2 Grade A. Cisterns shall be supplied complete with inlet connection and ball valve, overflow connection with pipe, outflow connections, and drain connection with gate valve. Water storage tanks shall be of glass reinforced plastic as manufactured by 'Durapipe',or other similar approved, to sizes indicated on the Drawings, complete with mosquito proof and close fitted cover secured to the tank. Ball float valves shall be suitable for use with the storage cisterns specified. 5.1.28 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipes Soil, waste and vent pipes shall be of the highest grade to BS5255 or shall be cast iron pipe with B spigot and socket joints to BS416. PVC pipe shall be jointed with solvent welded fittings. Jointing shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's printed instructions. Soil pipes shall not be less than 110mm nominal diameter. Vent pipes shall be not less than 50mm nominal diameter while waste pipes shall not be less than 35mm diameter. 5.1.29 Sanitary Appliances Sanitary appliances shall generally comply with BS6465. WC suites shall comprise a black plastic ring seat, a white vitreous china pedestal WC pedestal pan and UPVC flushpipe. Flushing shall be hand-operated from a 9 litre plastic cistern with plastic ball valve to BS2456. The overflow pipe shall discharge into the pan. Wash-hand basins shall be white vitreous china (635 x 475mm) to BS1188, with concealed fixing brackets and bolts, fitted with 13mm hot and cold chrome plated pillar taps, complete with trap, waste and overflow assembly to BS3380. Taps shall comply with BS1010, Part 2 and shall be chromium plated, brass type of approved local manufacture. Taps for wash-basins shall be pillar taps with spray outlet. Sinks shall be provided with a "swan neck" swivel outlet. Where hot water services are provided, taps shall be a combination tap assembly. 5.1.30 PVC Tiling and Skirting Vinyl floor tiles shall be heavy duty flexible PVC based complying with BS 3261 -Part 1 : Type A in approved colour. Tiles shall be size 250 x 250 x 3mm thick and skirting shall be 125 x 250 x 3mm thick fixed in line and location using adhesives strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

5.2 5.2.1

Blockwork Walls Storage of Materials Blocks shall be loaded and unloaded by hand and not tipped, and shall not be used until 4 weeks after casting unless otherwise approved in writing by the Engineer. All blocks shall be handled carefully from manufacture to laying and properly stacked in position convenient for the work. They shall be kept free from standing water and protected from rain, mud and contamination by other materials. Sand shall be stored separately on clean hard dry standing and protected from contamination. Cement shall be stored off the ground under cover and away from damp, and in such a manner as to enable it to be used in rotation in order of delivery.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 114
5.2.2 Mortar Mixing All materials shall be accurately gauged by gauge boxes and mechanically mixed to a uniform consistency. Mortars shall be used within 1 hour of the addition of cement after which they shall be discarded. Re-tempering of mortar will not be permitted. Gauge boxes and mixers shall be kept clean. 5.2.3 Blockwork All blockwork unless otherwise specified shall comply with the recommendations of BS8000, Part 3 (Code of Practice for Masonry). All surfaces on which blockwork is to be built shall be cleaned of any foreign matter influencing the bond between the surface and blockwork. The use of chipped or defaced blocks will not be permitted in any facework. All work shall be built uniform, true and level, with all perpends vertical and in line, all cross joints shall be solid, filled with mortar in every course as the work proceeds. All blocks shall be clean before placing and shall be moistened with water for at least 3 hours before using by a method which will ensure that each block is thoroughly and uniformly wetted. No work shall rise more than one metre above the adjoining works and such risings are to be properly raked back. No blockwork shall be carried up higher than 1.5m in one day. Joints in walling to be plastered or rendered shall be raked out 10mm deep to form a key. All cross (vertical) joints shall be filled by well buttering the ends of the block with mortar and then sliding it against its neighbour. Blockwork of single block thickness shall be laid in stretcher bond, and blockwork of double block thickness in alternate courses of headers and stretchers. No broken blocks will be accepted except where necessary for bonding. Alternate courses of load bearing block walling at intersection shall be carried through the full thickness the adjoining wall. Course heights shall not vary throughout the building and each course shall be level and set out so that bed joints occur in line with sills, lintels and other features. Hollow blocks shall be filled with grade C25 concrete where indicated on the Drawings. 5.2.4 Protection and Curing When constructing masonry or blockwork in unfavourable weather and in protecting the finished work, the Contractor shall observe the same instructions as are specified for concrete work. All blockwork, including pointing, shall be cured by keeping the wall wet or moist with a method approved by the Engineer. 5.2.5 Non Load-bearing Walls All walls which are not load-bearing shall not be brought up to final finished level until the construction of any reinforced concrete roof slabs has been completed and the roof finishes have been installed. 5.2.6 Ties to Concrete Structures Ties at junctions with reinforced concrete work shall be of the 'butterfly' type to BS 1243 and shall be cast into the concrete at such centres to be in line with the centre of the depth and width of mortar joints. 5.2.7 Movement Joints Movement joints shall comply with the requirements for movement joints in concrete work as described in these specifications.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 115

5.3 5.3.1

Carpentry and Joinery General Timber shall be stacked in such manner as to prevent warping and to have all elements readily available for inspection. All timber shall be subject to inspection on Site piece by piece by the Engineer who shall reject such timber which is not to the specified quality. Any portion of timber that warps or develops shakes or other defects shall be replaced. Timber shall in principle be sawn to scantlings of the required dimensions at least one month before use.

5.3.2

Timber Preservation All joinery and structural timber shall receive preservative treatment to BS 4072 to the tropical proofing scheme. The preservative shall be a water-borne copper/chrome/arsenic composition applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and BS 5268 : Part 5. Before treatment the timber shall be of the correct moisture content specified and free from surfaces moisture and dirt. Treatment shall be carried out after all cutting and shaping is completed and care shall be taken to avoid damage to surfaces of treated timber in subsequent handling. Where timber is supplied treated with preservative and nevertheless subsequently cut, shaped, drilled or damaged, the surfaces exposed by such cutting, shaping or drilling shall be liberally coated with the same type of preservative well brushed in. After treatment timber shall be carefully open-stacked in a well ventilated covered place to ensure complete evaporation of surplus solvent of the preservative before incorporation in the work. Records of the preservative treatment and a certificate of compliance with the above BS shall be kept by the Contractor.

5.3.3

Nails and Screws In all surfaces to be painted nail heads shall be punched and screws screwed below the surface and filled with leadless filler.

5.3.4

Finished Sizes Sawn timber shall be the full size required. The sizes given in the Bills for wrought carpentry are the nominal sizes; 3mm will be permitted off the nominal dimensions for each wrought face.

5.3.5

Workmanship All joinery shall comply with BS5268; "Structural Use of Timber". Carpenter's and joiner's work shall be framed and put together in a workmanlike manner with a sufficient number of nails of adequate size to maintain the work. All necessary notching, halving, nogging, etc. shall be carefully executed and bearing surfaces shall be in proper contact. All forms of joints shall be such to transmit safely the loads and stresses to which the timber will be subjected and shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Beams, purlins and structural timbers are to be in lengths as long as possible. Where joints are unavoidable in beams or purlins they shall be properly scarfed and bolted and where practicable be placed at points of support. Scarfs, unless otherwise directed, are to be of a length equal to twice the depth of the element, provided that the adjacent timbers are continuous. Wall plates shall be halved

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 116
at angles and joints in length if otherwise unobtainable in one piece. Joiner's work shall be framed up as soon as possible and kept carefully stacked clear of the ground and protected until required. It shall not be glued and wedged or dowelled until immediately before being required for use. Door frames, etc. shall have full mortice and tenon joints with hardwood dowels or wedges, glued and cleaned up. The quality of workmanship shall comply with BS1186, Part 2 and shall be generally in accordance with that of the samples of joinery to be indicated by the Engineer on the Site. 5.3.6 Check before Priming The priming specified shall not be carried out until the prepared timber has been Inspected and approved by the Engineer, but shall be done before the final assembly and fixing. 5.3.7 Defects If in 12 months from completion any shrinkage, warping or winding should occur or any other defect appear in any of the joinery which is attributable to defective materials or workmanship, such defective work is to be taken down and replaced to the Engineer's approval. Should any other work be affected by the removal and replacement thereof it shall also be made good at the Contractor's expense.

5.4 5.4.1

Doors and Windows General All doors and windows both interior and exterior shall be completely weatherproof and waterproof in a tropical climate. The Contractor shall assemble one finished prototype of each component, fitted with ironmongery for approval of the Engineer before any repetitive production, or fixing of prefabricated frames commences. Unless specified otherwise all window and door openings in blockwork walls shall be spanned by suitable reinforced concrete lintels.

5.4.2

Fixed Windows Unless otherwise specified fixed windows shall consist of single sheet glazing in timber, metal or plastic frames of approved quality.

5.4.3

Glazing All glass shall be cut accurately to fit the rebates and all glazer's work shall be carried out in the best approved manner and in accordance with BS6262 "Code of Practice for Glazing for Buildings". Putty for glazing to rebates shall be completely waterproof and obtained from a manufacturer approved by the Engineer. Glass shall be well bedded and back puttied, sprigged in where necessary, and carefully and evenly pointed, trimmed, and cleaned off. The putty shall not extend beyond the sight line of the pane.

5.4.4

Fixing of Doors and Windows Where joinery is to be plugged the plugs shall be hardwood cut, on the twist, dovetailed hardwood fixing blocks cast in-situ or "Rawlplugs" as may be directed.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

GENERAL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CIVIL WORKS

Page - 117
Door and window frames shall be secured with expansion fastener bolts (Hilti or equivalent) or cranked galvanised iron cramps 25 x 3 x 178mm girth with one end turned up, drilled countersunk for screwing to back of frame, the other end fishtailed for building in as detailed. Door and window frames shall be secured with at least 3 cramps per side or as detailed, spaced generally at 600mm centres for bedding into joints solidly in mortar. All window and door frames shall be accurately fixed in their openings. The joints between frames and walls shall be made wind and watertight with approved materials. 5.4.5 Ironmongery All moving parts of joinery components are to be fixed with equal tolerance spaces all round. Hinges, etc., are to be fitted in perfect alignment, locks and fastenings are to engage properly in their striking plates or sockets without clatter. Screws for fixing ironmongery shall be of the same metal as the hardware. On completion all joinery shall be adjusted and ironmongery oiled and the whole shall be in perfect working order. Removable ironmongery, except hinges, shall be removed for painting and refixed prior to the final coat of paint or on completion as ordered by the Engineer. Locks are to be fixed where shown in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. All external door locks shall have three keys, and all internal locks two keys. All keys must differ unless the Engineer instructs to the contrary, in writing. All locks and moving parts are to be oiled and left in perfect working order and all keys shall be properly marked and labelled and delivered up to the Engineer as required. All timber doors shall be fitted with an approved pattern combined mortice lock and latch complete with aluminium lever handles. In addition double doors shall have barrel bolts fitted top and bottom to one leaf. 5.4.6 Lamination Toilet doors in contact with water splashing on internal faces, shall be laminated with PVC 1.5mm thick Formica sheet or equivalent, press applied with glue strictly in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

5.5 5.5.1

Roofing and Wall Cladding Metal Roof and Wall Sheeting All ancillary items necessary for fixing the sheeting, protecting it against corrosion, making the joints leakproof and the like shall be adequate for their purpose, shall not cause corrosion of the sheeting and shall be of a type and quality approved by the Engineer. Roof and wall cladding shall be supplied with a supplier's test certificate confirming that the sheeting complies with all relevant standards and the Specifications. Storage and handling of the sheeting and ancillary items shall be carried out in compliance with the instructions of the manufacturer and in such a way that the sheeting and ancillary items will not be in any way damaged or adversely affected. All sheeting and ancillary items shall on delivery at the Site be immediately inspected by the Contractor for embedded cinders, scratches, surface abrasions, stains, indentations, distortions or any other defects and the Contractor shall ensure that sheeting which arrives in a wet condition shall be thoroughly dried before storing. All sheeting shall be kept absolutely dry during storage and free from contact with other materials except polythene sheeting. All necessary measures shall be taken to prevent mechanical damage of the sheeting and moisture between the sheets to avoid staining. The Contractor shall, when laying the sheets, use the oldest stock first.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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The Contractor shall place and fix the sheeting and take all measures necessary to prevent corrosion and to obtain an adequately fixed leakproof roofing and cladding as specified by the supplier and approved by the Engineer. The laps shall be such as the Contractor considers necessary to guarantee a leakproof roofing and cladding, provided that the end laps shall be at least 200mm for the roofing and 150mm for the vertical cladding and that the side laps shall be at least one corrugation. The ribs of the roofing shall form straight lines from ridge to eave perpendicular to the ridge and the ribs of the cladding shall form straight perpendicular lines. All holes in the sheeting shall be drilled and such drilling shall be carried out from the top or outside, taking all measures necessary to avoid any burrs or discing of the sheet. Notwithstanding any adverse local conditions, the Contractor shall be solely and entirely responsible for the roofs and cladding being leakproof, and he shall submit to the Engineer at the end of the Period of Maintenance a written guarantee made out in the name of the Employer in which the Contractor undertakes to repair and make good at his own expense any leakage of the roofing and cladding. Such guarantee shall be given for a period of 10 years commencing at the end of the Period of Maintenance. 5.5.2 Asbestos Roof Sheeting Fixing holes shall be drilled in the crown of corrugations of roofing sheets and in the trough of corrugations of wall cladding sheet. Holes for bolts or screws shall be drilled 2mm oversize in diameter, and not less than 4mm from edges of sheets and fittings. Roof and wall cladding end laps between sheets shall be 200mm. Roof and wall cladding side laps between sheets shall be one and a half corrugation away from the prevailing wind. Sheets shall be fixed at the eaves and end laps with at least 3 fastenings per sheet width. At intermediate purlins sheets shall be fixed at supports with at least 2 fastenings per sheet width. Side laps shall be seam bolted at 300mm centres. At end laps the distance between the end of the overlapping sheet and the fastening shall not be less than half the lap. Packing pieces shall be located at every crown fixing point. Fixing shall commence at the eaves. 5.5.3 Bituminous Roofing of Slabs Unless otherwise specified bitumen felt roofing shall be applied to flat concrete roofs. The bitumen felt roofings shall consist of two layers comprising one layer fine granule surfaced bitumen glass fibre felt and one layer of fine granule surfaced bitumen felt. The first layer is a bitumen coated glass base felt type 3B complying with CP 144:Part 3. This layer shall be continuously bonded to the primed cement and sand screed in hot bitumen. The nominal mass shall be 1.8kg/m exclusive of wrapping or accessories. Then a layer of bitumen coating shall be applied before the second layer of bitumen felt is placed. The second top layer shall be bitumen saturated and coated fibre base felt type 1B which shall be surfaced with a bitumen dressing compound and mineral aggregate as described in CP 144:Part 3. The nominal mass shall be 1.4kg/m exclusive of wrapping or accessories. All laps shall be placed breaking joint and minimum 50mm wide. All necessary upstands, flashings, skirtings, etc. shall be provided. All exposed felt at upstands and gutters shall be painted with reflective aluminium paint. Down spout channel shall be of precast reinforced concrete made in size and dimension shown in the drawing, placed in position and fixed into parapet opening sloping outwards using waterproof mortar and sealed with mastic, lined with waterproof bituminous flashing. The whole waterproofing shall be guaranteed up to 5 years against any leakage.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Page - 119
5.5.4 Aluminium Sheet Roofing Sheets shall be laid with double corrugation side laps, strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

5.6 5.6.1

Plumbing Installations General All materials and workmanship shall be of best quality and comply with the relevant British Standards among others BS6465; Part 1 for sanitary appliances and BS 6700 for Water Supply, where applicable. The Contractor shall submit full details together with drawings of his proposals for approval of the Engineer before commencing the work and shall carry out all tests and inspections of the finished work as may be considered necessary by the Engineer and specified below. Unless specified otherwise all piping on walls and ceilings shall be exposed.

5.6.2

Coupling Unions Coupling unions shall be installed at reasonable intervals on vertical and horizontal pipe runs to facilitate erection and dismantling of the pipework without interference to the structure. Similar union connections shall be provided for connecting the pipework to all valves, cisterns, electric heaters, etc.

5.6.3

Valves Stop valves shall be located in connections to every single structure or building or where indicated on the Drawings. Chambers shall be of concrete grade C25. Minimum inside dimensions for stop valve chambers shall be 300 x 230mm x 600mm deep. The chambers shall be provided with hinged cast iron covers and frames of local manufacture to the approval of the Engineer. Cast iron covers and frames shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements of BS497, and shall generally fall into the following categories: Heavy duty Medium duty Light duty For trafficked areas; For footpaths; For domestic purposes or other places where they do not have to carry wheeled traffic.

Covers and frames shall be fixed in the positions shown, the frames will be solidly bedded in cement mortar so that the covers when in position are flush and even with the adjacent surfaces. Where shown or directed frames shall be bedded on one or two courses of blockwork in cement mortar. All frames shall be greased before the cover is placed in position. 5.6.4 Overflow Pipes Overflows to water storage tanks and WC cisterns shall be in PVC tubing as specified for service pipes. Overflow pipes shall be visible externally, and shall incorporate a vertical drop of 300mm as a sand barrier. They shall project 60mm beyond and discharge clear of the wall face. All external overflow pipes shall be painted and fitted with a mosquito proof filter.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Page - 120
5.6.5 Soil, Waste and Vent Pipes All waste and soil pipes shall be vented at roof-level and provided with gully traps at ground level. Waste pipes shall be fixed at least 25mm clear of finished wall surfaces with PVC brackets. Fixing intervals shall be 0.5m horizontally and 1.2m vertically, except that 50mm pipes shall be fixed at 0.6m intervals horizontally. Where soil waste and vent pipes pass through roofs they shall have a uPVC roof terminal and be positioned to enable the roof finish to be suitably weatherproofed. The vent shall terminate with a balloon guard to the approval of the Engineer. 5.6.6 Sanitary Appliances All connections of sanitary fittings shall be made by a trap with a water seal (siphon) of not less than 50mm depth and all traps shall be of the removable bend type. Connections to water-closets and floor mounted soil fittings shall be made by using the correct sized socket for the outlet of the fitting. 5.6.7 Pipework and Fittings Bends shall be used where practicable in preference to elbows. Square elbows will not be accepted for soil, waste and vent pipes. Pipework shall be fixed to walls using approved pattern plastic brackets for screwing into walls or concrete. The brackets shall be such that the pipe is held 15mm clear of the finished wall surface. Brackets shall be fixed at regular intervals appropriate to the pipe diameter in order to ensure that the pipe is securely fixed to the wall. Pipelines shall be straight except at changes of direction which shall be made using standing fittings. Piping shall be as straight and direct as possible forming right angles with or parallel to wall and other piping. Eccentric reducing sockets shall be used (to facilitate air venting and draining) where changes of diameter are made in runs of normally horizontal pipework. Pipework shall be installed to permit even fluid flow, draining and dismantling of the system. The expansion and contraction of pipelines shall be taken up in the geometry of the layout. Pipes passing through walls, partitions and ceilings shall be provided with pipe sleeves. Sleeve sizes shall allow for the free movement of the pipes. Sleeves passing through finished surfaces or exposed to view shall be flush with the surface of the partition through which they pass and they shall be provided with suitable end covers of approved pattern and finish. All services shall be laid to drain with a minimum cover of 600mm unless otherwise shown on the Drawings. All piping and fixtures shall be adequately protected during construction. All cut pipes shall have ends reamed and be free from burrs. Pipes carrying cold water for drinking purposes shall be located so as not to be liable to solar or other heat gain or alternatively shall be effectively insulated from such gain. All necessary precautions shall be taken to prevent waterhammer and should it occur it shall be rectified. All piping shall be so installed that there is a clearance of at least 25mm between the finished covering and adjoining work. All pipes at or in the ceilings shall be hung from the construction above and as close as possible to bottom of slab, beam etc. All risers shall be plumb and true, neatly spaced

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Page - 121
and parallel to walls and other pipes. All pipes shall be so arranged as to be accessible for repairs and replacement without disturbing adjacent work. Central valves shall be located to give complete regulating control of all systems, plumbing fixtures and other equipment. All valves shall be easily accessible and no valves shall be installed with handles pointing down. All pipes shall be quite free of each other and easily accessible for their full length where in ducts. In no instance whatsoever, are any pipes to be fixed behind other pipes and all shall be easily accessible from access openings. Access panel openings shall be suitably located at all stop taps on service lines and at inspection openings on bends and junctions in suitable locations to allow rodding of all waste and soil lines. Particular attention shall be given to the location of inspection openings to soil pipes to closet pans to ensure adequate accessibility. The Contractor, before installing any of his work, shall see that it does not interfere with clearances required for finish columns, pilasters, partitions and walls, as shown on the Drawings and details. If any work is so installed and if later develops that such details of design cannot be followed, the Contractor at his own expense shall make such changes in his work as are directed by the Engineer and as will permit the installation of the architectural work shown on the plans and details. Runs and locations of piping are shown on the Drawings. The Contractor shall be responsible for the correct setting out of the PVC piping sleeves for pipes through walls and floors and locations of PVC pipe brackets and the like, and shall prepare the required Working Drawings which shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to starting any construction work. 5.6.8 Rainwater Pipes and Gutters All rainwater pipes and gutters shall be asbestos cement pipe or uPVC pipes to BS 4576. Jointed and fixed in accordance with the manufacturer's printed instructions. All rainwater pipe shall be perpendicular and fixed to the wall with approved brackets. 5.6.9 Testing of Waste and Soil Pipes Immediately after the pipes are laid and jointed but before haunching with concrete (where required) and the filling is done, they shall be tested by the Contractor. All lengths of waste and soil pipes shall be tested for water tightness by water pressure as described below. If for any reason an adequate supply of water for this purpose is not available a suitable air pressure test may be used. a. Initial testing: - After the completion of laying and jointing of the plumbing system it shall be tested to locate leakage connections or faulty installation with any one of the following procedures: Water test: - For this test all the openings in pipes shall be adequately plugged and the pipelines shall be filled with water. By operating a force pump with pressure gauge, a test pressure of 0.05N/mm shall be applied. After the pump has been stopped the pipelines shall be inspected for any visible leak. This test shall be performed in convenient segments. Air test: - For air test the openings shall be closed and an air pressure of 0.05N/mm shall be injected in the system for at least 15 minutes after which the pipeline shall be inspected for any leak.

b.

Final testing: - The same procedure as given under "Initial Testing" shall be followed after the plumbing system is complete in all respects.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Page - 122
5.6.10 Testing of Water Supply Pipes Water systems shall be tested by the Contractor in the following manner: Individual testing: - In initial testing, pipes shall be tested individually over a test bed consisting of saddles, thrust plate and force pump with a pressure gauge. The thrust plate shall be strong enough to resist a pressure equivalent to double the test pressure i.e. 0.7N/mm. The pipe shall be placed over the test bed with one end inserted into the thrust plate groove and other plugged watertight and to pump forcing water with pressure. The pump shall be operated to build up the required pressure of 0.35N/mm in the pipe. After the test pressure is attained the pump shall be stopped and the pipe shall be observed for 15 minutes for any drop in pressure and any visible leaks. Any pipe showing leaks or pressure drop beyond 0.035N/mm shall be rejected and removed from the Site. Progressive testing: - Tests shall be made after roughing in and before walls ceiling and floors are finished. Water under pressure shall be used. All the openings in the installation shall be closed and a pressure of 0.35N/mm shall be developed in the system with the help of a bond force pump. After the required pressure has been obtained and the pump has been stopped, pipes shall be inspected by eye or ear for any leak or any pressure drops on the gauge. The test shall be performed in convenient segments during the course of the work and provision of sufficient plugging tees and valves in the pipe line shall be made available for the purpose at the cost of the Contractor. The Contractor shall submit a time schedule for such tests. Final test: - The test shall be made with the same pressure of 0.35N/mm after the fixtures have been installed and the system is completed.

All pipelines shall pass the above described tests to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

5.7 5.7.1

Rendering and Other Finishes Plastering and Rendering Before plastering or rendering is carried our all joints shall be raked out to depth of 10mm, the surface of the wall cleaned and all foreign matter removed. External rendering shall be applied in two coats of cement/sand mortar of mix Type II, Table 1 BS5262 with a wood float finish to a minimum overall thickness of 20mm. Plastering to internal walls and ceiling surfaces shall be applied in two coats to a minimum overall thickness of 20mm as follows: Undercoat Finish : : cement/sand - Type II, Table 2 BS5492 anhydrous gypsum plaster to BS1191 : Part 2, Class C with smooth finish.

Undercoats shall be thoroughly applied, straightened and scratched and brought to a true surface. Finished surfaces shall be left true, even and free from blemishes and all corners shall be finished true, vertical and even and carried out at the same time as adjacent wall surfaces. Retempering or reconstitution of mixes will not be permitted after the initial set has taken place.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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Page - 123
5.7.2 Granolithic Floor Screed Granolithic screed shall be to BS8204, Part 2, grade AR1 and shall comprise a 1:1:2 mix. The screed shall be laid evenly, true to the thicknesses and profiles shown on Drawings, while the concrete substrate is still green. The screed shall be worked and trowelled to a hard, uniform surface while still green. Surface hardening shall be effected by the application of a solution, composed volumetrically of one (1) part sodium silicate to four (4) parts clean water, seven to fourteen days after laying. The solution shall be sprayed through a rose and evenly spread with a mop. A second application composed volumetrically of one (1) part sodium silicate to three (3) parts clean water shall be made in the same manner twenty four hours after the first application. The final application composed volumetrically of one (1) part sodium silicate to two (2) parts clean water shall be made in the same manner twenty four hours after the second application. After the final application any unabsorbed silicate left on the surface shall be washed of with clean water. 5.7.3 In-situ Terrazzo Paving and Skirtings In-situ terrazzo paving shall be composed of two and a half (2) parts 6mm marble chippings of approved colour, and one (1) part white or coloured cement. The whole shall be rolled and trowelled to a dense even surface and shall be rubbed down at completion to a polished surface free from holes, blemishes and stains. The paving shall be laid in 1m bays, separated by 6 x 31mm ebonite strips. 5.7.4 Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles Glazed tiles shall be soaked in clean water and brushed on the underside with a cement slurry, twenty four hours before fixing. They shall be laid on a bed of cement mortar (1:3) and pointed afterwards with accurate and straight joints. 5.7.5 Ceramic Floor and Skirting Tiles Tiles shall be soaked in clean water and brushed on the underside with a cement slurry, prior to laying. They shall be laid on a bed of cement mortar (1:3), using coloured cement and pointed afterwards with accurate and straight joints. 5.7.6 Roofing Tiles Roof tiles and skirtings shall be Portland cement tiles for exterior roof surfaces. Cement tiles shall be made with standard quarry aggregates of an abrasive hardness to the approval of the Engineer. The tiles and skirtings shall be 300 x 300 x 20mm thick unless otherwise stated, and shall have smooth and even surfaces, square edge and sharp arises. All tiles shall be black colour with quality to a sample approved by the Engineer. Where roof tiles are laid on concrete fill the surface shall be swept and cleaned of all waste materials and shall be thoroughly wetted. A layer of slurry of neat cement and water shall be applied to the area to be paved prior to the laying of the bed. This slurry shall be brushed into the surface immediately before laying the cement bed. The tiles shall be thoroughly soaked in clean water before laying. Tiles shall be laid with continuous joints and bedded in a cement and sand (1:6) screed or backing not less than 30mm thick and pointed or grouted with cement slurry to match the tiles. Tiles shall be

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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accurately cut and fitted to all thresholds, openings, projections, etc.. The finish shall be perfectly true, level and cleaned off on completion of the work to the satisfaction of the Engineer. 5.7.7 Protection of Tiling After tiles have been laid, they shall be covered immediately to give complete protection from dirt and damage during all subsequent stages of the work. The Contractor will be required at his own expense to remove any tiles which have been stained or damaged before completion of the work and shall replace them with new ones.

5.8 5.8.1

Painting and other Coatings General Unless otherwise specified, the workmanship and quality of materials for painting shall comply with BS6150; "Code of Practice for Painting of Buildings" and BS5493; "Code of Practice for Protection of Iron and Steel Structures Against Corrosion".

5.8.2

Paints The Contractor shall submit certificates from an approved manufacturer giving the guarantee that the paint offered conforms with the relevant standards (e.g. BS5493), the Specifications, is suitable for the local climate and compatible with the surface of application. The manufacturer and types of paint shall not be changed unless prior written approval is obtained from the Engineer. The Contractor shall use the advisory services of the paint manufacturer. Should any such advice conflict with these Specifications, the Contractor shall obtain written instructions from the Engineer before proceeding with the work. The paint manufacturer shall be allowed to inspect and check the preparation and painting during all stages of the Contract and to report to the Engineer. All coats of paint for a coating system shall be compatible with each other and shall be of the same manufacturer unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Each consignment of paint shall be delivered in containers sealed by the manufacturer, accompanied by a certificate guaranteeing that the paint conforms to relevant Standards and Specifications. The date and results of tests and analyses performed during manufacturing shall be attached. The capacity of the containers shall not exceed 0.03m. The name of the manufacturer, type of paint, batch number, special storage conditions, etc. shall be clearly shown on each container. Containers shall remain unopened, apart from necessary sampling, until required for use and used in order of delivery. Paint shall retain its properties during storage at Site and any paint which fails in this respect shall not be allowed to be used in the Works. Paint not used within the period specified on the containers or within 12 months of the date of manufacture, whichever is the less, shall be replaced. Livered, gelatinized, or otherwise deteriorated paints shall not be used.

5.8.3

Testing of Paint Before ordering any materials for painting the Contractor shall have samples thereof tested, as specified by the Engineer, by a testing authority, proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer, to establish that the painting system is capable of withstanding any handling or site conditions that are likely to occur. Test pieces shall be painted by the Contractor, separately for each type of paint. If the Engineer so requires samples from the containers shall be taken and tested at any time after the delivery at the Site.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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5.8.4 Preparation and Maintenance of Surfaces Preparation of the initial surface of the material to be coated shall be as described in the relevant material related clauses. Immediately before any coat is applied the whole of the surface to be painted shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dust, loose paint or grease by washing down with fresh clean water and as necessary brushing with a bristle brush. The Contractor shall examine all surfaces before applying any coats. No paint shall be applied to wet, acid, alkaline, damp, rough or greasy surfaces. No coating shall be applied to any surface before the Engineer has inspected the cleaned and prepared surface. 5.8.5 Painting Workmanship and Conditions All works shall be carried out by skilled labour experienced in the use of materials specified. All paints shall be thoroughly mixed until homogenous and, if necessary, be strained free from skins, lumps or sediment. Thinners and driers may only be added to enable the paint to comply with the specified application or drying requirements. Thinners and driers shall be compatible with the paint and shall not be used without approval of the Engineer and paint manufacturer. To prevent loss of adhesion and solvent entrapment the paint manufacturer's instructions shall be followed particularly in respect of minimum and maximum periods between coats and temperature range for application. The methods of application of paint shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer and be in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Where spoiling of adjacent surfaces is likely to occur, and in case of paints containing lead, no spraying shall be permitted. If brush or roller painted surfaces are not smooth, they shall be rubbed down and dusted off to obtain a smooth and matt surface to which the next coat will firmly adhere. Paint film shall not have excessive or uneven thickness and the finished surface shall be free of defects. The final coat shall be smooth and free from defects, including those showing through from preceding coats. Rags, brushes and tools used in the preparation and painting of surfaces shall be cleaned with white spirit or a thinner as approved by the Engineer. At the end of every working period paints with a limited "pot life" shall be discarded and not be mixed with fresh paint. Fitting such as ironmongery, switches, electrical fittings, etc. not required to be painted shall be removed before the painting process is commenced and refitted after completion of painting. After each coat is applied the Contractor shall, in presence of the Engineer, test the paintwork. The maximum dry film thickness shall not exceed the minimum figure specified for the particular class of protection by more than 20%. The Contractor shall be responsible for the provision of all equipment for testing the protective coatings and shall remedy all defects to the Engineer's satisfaction. The Contractor shall take measures to prevent that any paint coat in any way at any stage is damaged. If not withstanding such measures a paint coat is damaged, the Contractor shall immediately repair such damages to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Painting work shall not be exposed to direct sunlight. Prepared, primed or undercoated work shall not be left exposed for an undue period before completion of the painting process.

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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5.8.6 Protection and Painting of Softwood The painting of softwood is divided in two categories: visible softwood joinery and carpentry concealed softwood joinery System "E" System "F"

All softwood shall receive preservative treatment with water-borne preservative in accordance with BS4072 to the tropical proofing scheme. Softwood surfaces which will be visible and painted shall be cleaned, scoured and dusted down to a smooth surface. Holes, cracks and blemishes in exposed surfaces shall be stopped with putty, and knots shall be treated with an approved knotting. Priming shall be done with a solvent based woodprimer complying with BS5358. After priming the surface shall again be scoured and dusted down. Then the surface shall be painted with one undercoat and two gloss finishing coats of compatible oil based paints. The first finishing coat shall be rubbed down on interior surfaces before the top coat is applied. Softwood used for concealed or non painted joinery shall be primed with one coat immediately after fabrication and preservation. The primer shall be lead-based complying with BS 2523. Holes, cracks and blemishes in exposed surfaces shall be stopped with putty, and knots shall be treated with approved knotting. Contact surfaces with brick masonry or concrete shall be given a second coat of primer. 5.8.7 Protection of Hardwood The protection of hardwood shall be according to coating system "G". All hardwood joinery shall receive preservative treatment with water borne preservative in accordance with BS4072 to the tropical proofing scheme. Hardwood surfaces shall not be painted, but shall be treated with water-repellent penetrating varnish of exterior grade and gloss finish. 5.8.8 Protection of Wood in Water Unless approved otherwise, timber for use in water or soil shall be treated according to coating system "H". The timber shall be treated in a mixture of one part creosote to one part crude fuel oil to give a final absorbtion of 0.054 m/m of timber. The timber shall be completely immersed in a bath of cold mixture which shall then be heated to a temperature of approximately 117C, and kept at this temperature for 40 minutes after which it shall be removed and stacked for drying. 5.8.9 Protection and Painting of Concrete, Plasters and Blockwork Concrete, plaster, blockwork and other cementitious surfaces shall be painted according to coating system "J". The surfaces of concrete, rendering, plaster and blockwork which are to be painted shall be allowed to dry out after completion and shall then be treated with a fungicidal wash. Subject to the approval of the engineer the fungicidal wash may be omitted if the first or priming coat of paint to be applied incorporates suitable fungicide. The surfaces shall subsequently be painted with 2 coats of acrylic emulsion. 5.8.10 Colours Colours shall be as directed by the Engineer, generally with reference to BS4800. Sample areas shall be prepared as required by the Engineer to ascertain colour, finish and workmanship and such areas shall be removed as directed. Where two or more coats of paint with the same colour are specified, the undercoats shall be tinted to differentiate between the coats. The final coat shall not be tinted.

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5.8.11 Rehabilitation of Existing Painting Where re-painting of existing surfaces is shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, the surfaces should be prepared as stated in Clause "Preparation and maintenance of surfaces". If there is any sign of deterioration of underlying materials, existing coatings shall be completely

removed by a method so as not to do any further damage to the underlying material and as approved by the Engineer. Subsequent surface preparation and painting shall follow the requirements as for painting of new work as described in the clauses above.
5.8.12 Summary of Coating Systems In the following table all coating systems as described in Clause "Painting and other Coatings" have been summarized.

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System

Application for steel in contact with water, soil or exposed to humid conditions

Description - Blast cleaning to SA 2.5 - One coat of two-pack zinc rich epoxy primer with a minimum dry film thickness of 25 micron - Two coats of two pack high build coal tar epoxy paint, each coat with a minimum dry film thickness of 200 micron to be applied within 48 hours after priming Blast cleaning to SA 2.5 One coat of two-pack zinc rich epoxy primer with a minimum dry film thickness of 25 micron One or two coats of two pack high build epoxy coating pigmented with micaceous iron oxide, with a total minimum dry film thickness of 150 micron Two coats of two pack epoxy enamel of a colour to be specified with a minimum dry film thickness of 50 micron per coat.

for other steel structures

for steel in special conditions and cast in concrete

- Removal of slag, scale and other impurities - Pickling in hydrochloric acid, neutralising, washing and drying - Hot dip galvanizing in accordance with BS 729 For freshly galvanised surfaces, passivation and or weathering Cleaning and degreasing One coat of two pack etch primer Two coats of two pack epoxy enamel of a colour to be specified with a minimum dry film thickness of 50 micron per coat. Preservative treatment conform BS 4072 to the tropical proofing schedule Cleaning, scouring and dusting down One coat of solvent based woodprimer conforming to BS 5358 Scouring and dusting down One oil based undercoat Two oil based gloss finishing coats of a colour to be specified

for galvanised steel

for softwood carpentry - visible

F G H J

for softwood joinery - not visible

- Preservative treatment conform BS 4072 to the tropical proofing schedule - One coat of lead or red lead/red oxide based woodprimer, Two coats on contact surfaces to blockwork or concrete - Preservative treatment conform BS 4072 to the tropical proofing schedule - Water repellent penetrating varnish exterior grade - full gloss - Immersion in hot (117C) mixture of 1:1 creosote-fuel oil for 40 minutes - One coat of primer or undercoat for cement surfaces with incorporated fungicide - Two coats of acrylic emulsion of a colour to be specified

for hardwood - visible

for wood in water or soil for cementitious surfaces as concrete, blockwork and rendering

DELHI WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE PROJECT (DWSSP) WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION IMPROVEMENT CONTRACTOR CAPITAL WORS

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