You are on page 1of 20

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

References for 336 papers and books reporting concerns about the bias of industry funding on science. Additional material is available for download in these scribd collections:

1. Abraham J. (2002). The pharmaceutical industry as a political player. Lancet 360: 1498-502. %20Pharma%20Industry.pdf

2. Abraham,J. et al. (1999). Rethinking transparency and accountability in medicines regulation in the
United Kingdom. BMJ 318:46-7

3. Abramson J, Starfield B. (2005). The effect of conflict of interest on biomedical research and clinical
practice guidelines: can we trust the evidence in evidence-based medicine? J Am Board Fam Pract. 18(5):4148

4. Al-Marzouki S, Roberts I, Evans S, Marshall T. (2008). Selective reporting in clinical trials: analysis
of trial protocols accepted by The Lancet. Lancet 372:201.

5. Alsheikh-Ali AA, Qureshi W, Al-Mallah MH, Ioannidis JP. (2011). Public availability of published
research data in high-impact journals. PLoS One.6(9):e24357. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

6. Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, et al. (2003) Association of funding and conclusions in randomized
drug trials: A reflection of treatment effect or adverse events? JAMA. 290 (7): 921-8.

7. Anderson SJ. (2011). Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco
industry documents Tob Control. 20:ii20-ii28 doi:10.1136/tc.2010.041939

8. Angell M (2000). Is academic medicine for sale? N Engl J Med 342:15161518

9. Angell M (2006). Your Dangerous Drugstore, June 8, NY Rev Books, p38-40

10. Angell, M. (2005). The Truth About The Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What To Do
About It. London: Random House (ISBN 0375508465).

11. Anraku A, Jin YP, Trope GE, Buys YM. (2009). Survey of conflict-of-interest disclosure policies of
ophthalmology journals. Ophthalmology. 116(6):1093-1096.

12. Apollonio, DE and LA. Bero, (2007). The Creation of Industry Front Groups: The Tobacco Industry
and Get Government Off Our Back. American Journal of Public Health. 97(3): 419-27.

13. Ashford, N. (1995) Disclosure of Interests: A time for clarity Am J Indus Med 28 (5): 6112. 14. Austad KE, Kesselheim AS. (2011). Conflict of interest disclosure in early education of medical
students. JAMA. .306(9):991-2.

15. Avorn J. (2006). Dangerous deception--hiding the evidence of adverse drug effects. NEJM

16. Bailey CS, Fehlings MG, Rampersaud YR, Hall H, Wai EK, Fisher CG. (2011). Industry and
evidence-based medicine: Believable or conflicted? A systematic review of the surgical literature. Can J Surg. 54(5):321-6. _________________________________________________________________________________________ -1-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

17. Baird P. (2003). Getting it right: industry sponsorship and medical research. Can Med Assoc J 168

18. Baker CB, Johnsrud MT, Crismon ML, Rosenheck RA, Woods SW. (2003). Quantitative analysis of
sponsorship bias in economic studies of antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry. 183:498-506.

19. Barbour V (2010). How ghost-writing threatens the credibility of medical knowledge and medical
journals. Haematologica, 95(1): 1-2 doi:10.3324/haematol.2009.017426

20. Barnes DE, Bero LA. (1998). Why review articles on the health effects of passive smoking reach
different conclusions. JAMA. 279(19):1566-1570.

21. Baty P (2009) Academic made untrue declaration about full access to research material, GMC
finds. Times Higher Education. storycode=409013 Accessed 24 Sept 2011.

22. Becker A, Drter F, Eckhardt K, Viniol A, Baum E, Kochen MM, Lexchin J, Wegscheider K, DonnerBanzhoff N. (2011). The association between a journal's source of revenue and the drug recommendations made in the articles it publishes. CMAJ. 183(5):544-8. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

23. Begley CG & LM Ellis (2012). Drug development: Raise standards for preclinical cancer research.
Nature 483: 531533

24. Bekelman JE, Li Y, Gross CP. (2003). Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in
biomedical research. JAMA. 289:454-65.

25. Bell CM, Urbach DR, Ray JG, et al. (2006). Bias in published cost effectiveness studies: systematic
review. BMJ 332(699703):699.

26. Bernstein A. (2003). Toward effective Canadian publicprivate partnerships in health research. CMAJ

27. Bero LA, Rennie D. (1996). Influences on the quality of published drug studies. Int J Technol Assess
Health Care 12(2):209-37.

28. Bero, LA (2005). Tobacco industry manipulation of research. Public Health Rep. 120(2): 200208.

29. Beutels P. (2004). Potential conflicts of interest in vaccine economics research: a commentary with a
case study of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Vaccine 22:331222.

30. Bevan JC. (2002). Ethical behaviour of authors in biomedical journalism. Ann R Coll Phys Surg Ca

31. Bhandari M, Busse JW, Jackowski D, et al. (2004). Association between industry funding and
statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. CMAJ 170: 477-80.

32. Biagioli M (2000) Rights or rewards? Changing contexts and definitions of scientific authorship.
Journal of College and University Law 27:83108.

33. Blumsohn A (2006) Authorship, ghost-science, access to data and control of the pharmaceutical
scientific literature: Who stands behind the word? AAAS Professional Ethics Report 29 (3): 1-4.

34. Bodenheimer T (2000) Uneasy alliance: Clinical investigators and the pharmaceutical industry. New
Engl J Med 342: 1539-1544. _________________________________________________________________________________________ -2-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

35. Bourgeois FT, Murthy S, Mandl KD. (2010). Outcome reporting among drug trials registered in
ClinicalTrials.Gov. Ann Intern Med 153:158-66.

36. Braf J. (2010). Conflicts of Interest in Research -Towards a Greater Transparency. Perm J. 14(2):31

37. Brezis M. (2008). Big pharma and health care: unsolvable conflict of interests between private
enterprise and public health. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 45(2):83-9; discussion 90-4.

38. Brody H. (2010). Professional Medical Organizations and Commercial Conflicts of Interest: Ethical
Issues Annals of Family Medicine 8:354-358

39. Brown JR (2008). Politics, method and medical research Philosophy of Science 75 (5):756-766..

40. Brownell KD, Warner KE. (2009). The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and
millions died. How similar is Big Food? Milbank Q. 87(1):259-94.

41. Burch, T., N.Wander and J. Collin (2010). Uneasy money: the Instituto Carlos Slim de la Salud,
tobacco philanthropy and conflict of interest in global health. Tobacco Control 19(6):e1-e9

42. Campanario JM (1998) Peer review for journals as it stands today - Part I. Sci Commun 19: 181-211.

43. Campanario JM (1998) Peer review for journals as it stands today - Part II. Sci Commun 19: 277-306.

44. Chalmers, I. (1990). Underreporting research is scientific misconduct. JAMA 263(10), 14051408.

45. Chalmers, I. (2006). From optimism to disillusion about commitment to transparency in the medicoindustrial complex. J.R.Soc.Med (99):33741

46. Chan AW, Altman DG. (2005). Identifying outcome reporting bias in randomised trials on PubMed:
review of publications and survey of authors. BMJ 330:753.

47. Chan AW, Hrobjartsson A, Haahr MT, Gotzsche PC, Altman DG. (2004). Empirical evidence for
selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles. JAMA 291:2457-65.

48. Chan AW, Krleza-Jeric K, Schmid I, Altman DG. (2004). Outcome reporting bias in randomized trials
funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. CMAJ 171:735-40

49. Chan AW, Upshur R, Singh JA, Ghersi D, Chapuis F, Altman DG. (2006) Research protocols:
waiving confidentiality for the greater good. BMJ 332:1086-9.

50. Chan AW. (2008). Bias, Spin, and Misreporting: Time for Full Access to Trial Protocols and Results.
PLoS Med. 5(11): e230.

51. Cherry, N. (2002). Motorola Funded Counter Research on Microwave DNA Damage NA_breakage.pdf

52. Chimonas, C; Z Frosch, DJ Rothman (2011). From Disclosure to Transparency The Use of Company
Payment Data. Arch Intern Med. 171(1):81-86. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.341

53. Cho MK, Bero LA. (1996). The quality of drug studies published in symposium proceedings. Ann
Intern Med. 124:485-9. _________________________________________________________________________________________ -3-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

54. Choonara I (2011). Editorial: Safety of new medicines in young children. Arch Dis Child 96:872-873
doi:10.1136/archdischild-2011-300450 .

55. Choonara I, Rieder MJ. (2002). Drug toxicity and adverse dug reactions in children a brief historical
review. Paed Perinat Drug Ther 5:1218.

56. Choudhry NK, Stelfox HT, Detsky AS. (2002). Relationships between authors of clinical practice
guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. JAMA 287(5):612-7

57. Clarke M. (2007). Standardising outcomes for clinical trials and systematic reviews. Trials 8:39.

58. Clifford TJ, Barrowman NJ, Moher D. (2002). Funding source, trial outcome and reporting quality:
are they related? Results of a pilot study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2(1):18.

59. Collier J, Iheanacho I.. (2002). The pharmaceutical industry as an informant. Lancet 360:1405-9.

60. Cook DM, Boyd EA, Grossmann C, Bero LA (2009) Journalists and conflicts of interest in science:
beliefs and practices. Ethics Sci Environ Polit 9:33-40

61. Cook DM, Boyd EA, Grossmann C, Bero LA (2007) Reporting Science and Conflicts of Interest in
the Lay Press. PLoS ONE 2(12): e1266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001266

62. Cosgrove L, Krimsky S (2012). A Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members' Financial
Associations with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists. PLoS Med 9(3): e1001190. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001190 %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001190

63. Damvik M, and Johansson, O. (2010) Health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields: a conflict
between the precautionary principle and environmental medicine methodology. Rev Environ Health. 25(4):325-33.

64. D'Arcy E, Moynihan R. (2009). Can the relationship between doctors and drug companies ever be a
healthy one? PLoS Med. 6(7):e1000075. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

65. Davidoff F, DeAngelis CD, Drazen JM, Nicholls MG, Hoey J, Hjgaard L, et al. (2001). Sponsorship,
authorship and accountability [editorial]. CMAJ 165(6):786-8.

66. Davidson RA. (1986). Source of funding and outcome of clinical trials. J Gen Intern Med 1:155-158

67. DeAngelis, C. and Fontanarosa, P. (2008). Impugning the integrity of medical science. JAMA

68. Deyo RA, Psaty BM, Simon G, Wagner EH, Omenn GS. (1997). The messenger under attack
intimidation of researchers by special interest groups. N Engl J Med 336(16):1176-80.

69. Deyo, RA. (2009). Marketing, Media, Wishful Thinking, and Conflicts of Interest: Inflating the Value
of New Medical Technology. Perm J. 13(2): 7176. .

70. Di Pietrantonj C, Demicheli V. (2005). [Conflict of interest in industry-funded medical research].

Epidemiol Prev. 29(2):85-95. [Article in Italian]

71. Dieppe PA, Ebrahim S, Martin RM, et al. (2004). Lessons from the withdrawal of rofecoxib. BMJ
329:8678. _________________________________________________________________________________________ -4-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

72. Diethelm D, McKee M. (2009). Denialism: what is it and how should scientists respond? European
Journal of Public Health 19 (1): 24.

73. Diethelm P, Rielle J, McKee M. (2004) The whole truth and nothing but the truth? The research that
Philip Morris did not want you to see. Lancet 36:49985006.

74. Djulbegovic B, Lacevic M, Cantor A, et al. (2002). The uncertainty principle and industry-sponsored
research. Lancet. 356:635-8.

75. Downie J, Thompson J, Baird P, Dodds S. (2005). The Olivieri case: lessons for Australasia. J Bioeth
Inq. 2(2):90-105.

76. Drazen JM, de Leeuw PW, Laine C, Mulrow C, DeAngelis CD, et al (2010). Toward more uniform
conflict disclosures--the updated ICMJE conflict of interest reporting form. N Engl J Med. 363(2):188-9. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

77. Drazen JM. (2002). Institutions, contracts and academic freedom. N Engl J Med 347:1362-3.

78. Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnaiz JA, Bloom J, Chan AW, Cronin E, et al. (2008). Systematic review of
the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. PLoS One 3:e3081.

79. Edmond G (2008) Judging the scientific and medical literature: some legal implications of changes to
biomedical research and publication. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 28: 523561.

80. EEA Issue report no 22. (2001). Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896
2000. TH-39-01-821-EN-C. pp 210.

81. Egberts TCG, Smulders M, de Koning FHP, et al (1996). Can adverse drug reactions be detected
earlier? A comparison of reports by patients and professionals. BMJ 313: 530-1

82. Egilman D, Howe S. (2007). Against anti-health epidemiology: corporate obstruction of public health
via manipulation of epidemiology. Int J Occup Environ Health.13(1):118-24.

83. Elliott C (2004) Pharma goes to the laundry: Public relations and the business of medical education.
Hastings Center Report 34: 18-23.

84. Engdahl, FW. (2008). The Seed Barons: How Big Ag, Big Oil and Big Government are hijacking the
worlds food supply. ACRES 38(6):

85. Ewart R, Lausen H, Millian N. (2009). Undisclosed changes in outcomes in randomized controlled
trials: an observational study. Ann Fam Med 7:542-6

86. Ezzet KA. (2003). The prevalence of corporate funding in adult lower extremity research and its
correlation with reported results. J Arthroplasty 18(Suppl 1):138-45.

87. Fanelli D. (2009). How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and metaanalysis of survey data. PLoS One 4:e5738.

88. Fava GA (2003). Conflict of interest and the credibility of medical journals. Epidemiol Psychiatr Soc

89. Fava GA (2008): Should the drug industry work with key opinion leaders? No. BMJ 336(7658):1405 _________________________________________________________________________________________ -5-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

90. Ferris LE, Fletcher RH. (2010). Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals: The World
Association of Medical Editors Position on a Challenging Problem. J Young Pharm. 2(2): 113115.

91. Finucane TE, Boult CE. (2004) Association of funding and findings of pharmaceutical research at a
meeting of a medical professional society. Am J Med 117:842-5.

92. Flanagin A, Carey LA, Fontanarosa PB, Phillips SG, Pace BP, et al. (1998) Prevalence of articles with
honorary authors and ghost authors in peer-reviewed medical journals. JAMA 280:222224.

93. Friedberg M, Saffran B, Stinson TJ, Nelson W, Bennett CL.(1999). Evaluation of conflict of interest
in economic analyses of new drugs used in oncology. JAMA. 282:1453-7.

94. Friedman JH. (2009). Biased articles. Med Health R I. 92(3):70.

95. Friedman LS, Richter ED. (2004). Relationship between conflict of interest and research results. J
Gen Intern Med 19:51.

96. Fries J, Krishnan E. (2004). Equipoise, design bias, and randomized controlled trials: the elusive
ethics of new drug development. Arthritis Res Study 6:2505.

97. Fugh-Berman A (2005) The corporate coauthor. J Gen Intern Med 20: 546-548.

98. Fugh-Berman A and S Ahari (2007). Following the Script: How Drug Reps Make Friends and
Influence Doctors. PLoS Med 4(4): e150.

99. Fugh-Berman AJ (2010) The haunting of medical journals: how ghostwriting sold HRT. PLoS Med
7:e1000335. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000335

100. 101.

Gee, D. (2009). Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Towards realism and precaution with EMF? Pathophysiology. 16: 217231 Ghersi D. (2006). Issues in the design, conduct and reporting of clinical trials that impact on the quality of decision making. PhD thesis. School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney. Godlee F. (2011). Goodbye PubMed, hello raw data BMJ 2011; 342:d212 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d212 (Published 12 January 2011) Godlee, F (2009). We want raw data, now. BMJ 2009; 339:b5405 doi: 10.1136/bmj.b5405 Goldsmith JR. (1995). Where the trail leads...Ethical problems arising when the trail of professional work lead to evidence of cover-up of serious risk and misrepresentation of scientific judgement concerning human exposures to radar, Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. (5): 87-91. Gtzsche PC, Hrbjartsson A, Johansen HK, Haahr MT, Altman DG, et al. (2007) Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomized trials. PLoS Med 4: e19. doi:10.1371/journal. pmed.0040019 Gotzsche PC. (1989). Methodology and overt and hidden bias in reports of 196 double-blind trials of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. Control Clin Trials 10:31-56. Greco D, Diniz NM. (2008). Conflicts of interest in research involving human beings. J Int Bioethique. 19(1-2):143-54, 202-3.

102. 103. 104.




_________________________________________________________________________________________ -6-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

108. 109.

12 May 2012

Gruzuk M, Jones C (2003) CBC Marketplace: Inside the business of medical ghostwriting. Hahn S, Williamson PR, Hutton JL. (2002). Investigation of within-study selective reporting in clinical research: follow-up of applications submitted to a local research ethics committee. J Eval Clin Pract 8:353-9 Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Lohr KN, Gaynes BN, Carey TS. (2005). Efficacy and safety of second-generation antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Ann Intern Med. 43(6):415-26. Hardell L, Walker MJ, Walhjalt B, Friedman LS, Richter ED. (2007). Secret ties to industry and conflicting interests in cancer research. Am J Ind Med.50(3):227-33. Harrison-Woolrych M, Ashton J. (2011). Psychiatric adverse events associated with varenicline: an intensive postmarketing prospective cohort study in New Zealand. Drug Saf. 34(9):763-72. doi: 10.2165/11594450-000000000-00000. Healy D (2004) Shaping the intimate: Influences on the experience of everyday nerves. Soc Stud Sci 34: 219-245. Healy D, Cattell D (2003). Interface between authorship, industry and science in the domain of therapeutics. Br J Psychiatry 183:2227 Heath I. (2006). Combating Disease Mongering: Daunting but Nonetheless Essential PLoS Med. 3(4): e146. Hellander I. (2011). The deepening crisis in U.S. health care: a review of data. Int J Health Serv. 41(3):575-86. Henry D, Carless P, Fergusson D, Laupacis A. (2009). The safety of aprotinin and lysine-derived antifibrinolytic drugs in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 180(2):183-93. Epub 2008 Dec 2. Henry D, Carless P, Fergusson D, Laupacis A. (2009). The safety of aprotinin and lysine-derived antifibrinolytic drugs in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 180(2):183-93. Epub 2008 Dec 2. Henry D. (2010). Doctors and drug companies: still cozy after all these years. PLoS Med. 7(11):e1000359. Heres S, Davis J, Maino KJE, Kissling W, Leucht S. (2006). Why olanzapine beats risperidone, risperidone beats quetiapine, and quetiapine beats olanzapine: an exploratory analysis of head-tohead comparison studies of second-generation antipsychotics. Am J Psychiatry 163:18594. Hirschhorn N, Bialous SA, Shatenstein S. Philip Morris' new scientific initiative: an analysis. Tob Control. 2001 Sep;10(3):247252 Hong MK, Bero LA. (2002). How the tobacco industry responded to an influential study of the health effects of secondhand smoke. BMJ. 325(7377):14131416. Horner J, Minifie FD. (2011). Research ethics III: Publication practices and authorship, conflicts of interest, and research misconduct. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 54(1):S346-62. Epub 2010 Nov 16. Hurt RD, Ebbert JO, Muggli ME, Lockhart NJ, Robertson CR. (2009). Open doorway to truth: legacy of the Minnesota tobacco trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 84(5):446-56.




113. 114. 115. 116. 117.


119. 120.

121. 122.



_________________________________________________________________________________________ -7-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Huss, A. Egger M. Hug K, Huwiler-Mntener K, and M Rsli1 (2007). Source of Funding and Results of Studies of Health Effects of Mobile Phone Use. Environmental Health Perspectives 115 (1): 1-4 Hutton JL, Williamson PR. (2000). Bias in meta-analysis due to outcome variable selection within studies. Appl Stat 49:359-70. Hyland K (1996). Talking to the Academy: Forms of Hedging in Science Research Articles. Written Commun 13: 25181 Impicciatore P, Pandolfi ni C, Bosetti C, et al. (1998). Adverse drug reactions in children: a systematic review of published case reports. Paed Perinat Drug Ther 2:2733. Is the universityindustrial complex out of control? Nature 2001;409:119. Jagsi, R; N Sheets; A Jankovic; AR Motomura; S Amarnath; and PA Ubel (2009). Frequency, Nature, Effects, and Correlates of Conflicts of Interest in Published Clinical Cancer Research. Cancer June 15 278391. Jang S, Chae YK, Majhail NS. (2011). Financial conflicts of interest in economic analyses in oncology. Am J Clin Oncol.34(5):524-8. Jannini EA, Eardley I, Sand M, and Hackett G. (2010). Clinical and basic science research in sexual medicine must rely, in part, on pharmaceutical funding?. J Sex Med 7:233137.;jsessionid=7A073D14827D0D878E69AB1E94B34C5E.d03t04 Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Debalini MG, Rivetti A, Demicheli V. (2009). Relation of study quality, concordance, take home message, funding, and impact in studies of influenza vaccines: systematic review. BMJ. 338:b354. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b354 Johnson DH, Horn L. (2010). Authorship and industry financial relationships: the tie that binds. J Clin Oncol. 28(8):1281-3. Jrgensen AW, Hilden J, Gtzsche PC. (2006). Cochrane reviews compared with industry supported metaanalyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs: systematic review. BMJ. 333(7572):782. Jrgensen AW, Jrgensen KJ, Gtzsche PC. (2010). Unbalanced reporting of benefits and harms in abstracts on rofecoxib. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 66(4):341-7. Jni P, Nartey L, Reichenbach S, Sterchi R, Dieppe PA, Egger M. (2004). Risk of cardiovascular events and rofecoxib: cumulative meta-analysis. Lancet. 364(9450):2021-9. Jureidini JN, McHenry LB, Mansfield PR (2008) Clinical trials and drug promotion: Selective reporting of Study 329. The International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 20: 73-81. Jureidini JN, McHenry LB. (2011). Conflicted medical journals and the failure of trust. Account Res. 18(1):45-54. Kane, L. 2001 Cellular Telephone Russian Roulette. Vantage Press. New York Kassirer J. (2004). On the Take: How Medicine's Complicity with Big Business Can Endanger Your Health. Oxford University Press (ISBN 0195176847) Kassirer JP, Angell M (1993). Financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research. N Engl J Med 329: 570571


127. 128.

129. 130.

131. 132.


134. 135.




139. 140. 141. 142.

_________________________________________________________________________________________ -8-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

143. 144.

12 May 2012

Kelch RP. (2002). Maintaining the public trust in clinical research. N Engl J Med 346:285-7. Kelly RE, Cohen LJ, Semple RJ, et al. (2006). Relationship between drug company funding and outcomes of clinical psychiatric research. Psychol Med 36:164756. Kennedy GE, Bero LA. (1999). Print media coverage of research on passive smoking. Tob Control. 8(3):254260 Kesselheim AS . (2011). An Empirical Review of Major Legislation Affecting Drug Development: Past Experiences, Effects, and Unintended Consequences. The Milbank Quarter. 89(3): 450502 Kesselheim AS, Lee JL, Avorn J, Servi A, Shrank WH, Choudhry NK. (2011). Conflict of interest in oncology publications: A survey of disclosure policies and statements. Cancer. doi: 10.1002/cncr.26237. [Epub ahead of print] Kesselheim AS, Mello MM, Studdert DM. (2011). Strategies and practices in off-label marketing of pharmaceuticals: a retrospective analysis of whistleblower complaints. PLoS Med. 8(4):e1000431. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000431. Epub 2011 Apr 5. Kesselheim AS, Murtagh L, Mello MM. (2011). "Pay for Delay" Settlements of Disputes over Pharmaceutical Patents. N Engl J Med Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print] Kesselheim AS, Studdert DM, Mello MM. (2010). Whistle-blowers' experiences in fraud litigation against pharmaceutical companies. N Engl J Med. 362(19):1832-9. Kesselheim AS. (2011). An empirical review of major legislation affecting drug development: past experiences, effects, and unintended consequences. Milbank Q. 89(3):450-502. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00636.x. Khan SN, Mermer MJ, Myers E, Sandhu HS. (2008). The roles of funding source, clinical trial outcome, and quality of reporting in orthopedic surgery literature. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 37(12): Kirkham JJ, Dwan KM, Altman DA, Gamble C, Dodd S, Smyth RMD, et al. (2010). The impact of outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials on a cohort of systematic reviews. BMJ 340:c365. Kjaergard LL, Als-Nielsen B. (2002) Association between competing interests and authors conclusions: epidemiological study of randomized clinical trials published in the BMJ. BMJ 325(7358):249. Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. (1992). Review articles and publication bias. Arzneimittelforschung. 42(5):587-91. Klesges, RC, Sherrill-Mittleman DA, DeBon M, Talcott GW,. Vanecek RJ (2009). Do we believe the tobacco industry lied to us? Association with smoking behavior in a military population. Health Educ Res. 24(6): 909921. Published online 2009 June 15. doi: 10.1093/her/cyp029 Korenstein D, Keyhani S, Mendelson A, Ross JS. (2011). Adherence of pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals to FDA guidelines and content for safe prescribing. PLoS One. 6(8):e23336. Epub 2011 Aug 17. %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023336 Korn D (2000). Conflicts of interest in biomedical research. JAMA 284:223437











155. 156.



_________________________________________________________________________________________ -9-

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

159. 160.

12 May 2012

Krimsky S Rothenberg LS (1998). Financial interest and its disclosure in scientific publications. JAMA 280:225226 Krimsky S, Rothenberg LS, Stott P and Kyle G. (1996). Financial Interest of Authors in Scientific Journals: A Pilot Study of 14 Publications. Sci Eng Ethic 2: 395410 Krimsky S., (2006). Publication Bias, Data Ownership and the Funding Effect in Science: Threats to the Integrity of Biomedical Research. In: Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and Distortion of Scientific Research (Ed. by W. Wagner and R. Steinzor). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p61-85. Krimsky, S. (2011). Beware of gifts that come at too great a cost. Nature. 474, 129. Krimsky,S. (2004). Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research? Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. (ISBN 0742543714) Kuehn, R.R. (2004) Suppression of Environmental Science, American Journal of Law and Medicine 30: 33369. Lacasse JR, Leo J (2010). Ghostwriting at elite academic medical centers in the United States. PLoS Med 7(2):e1000230. Lacasse JR, Leo J (2011) Knowledge of ghostwriting and financial conflicts-of-interest reduces the perceived credibility of biomedical research. BMC Research Notes 4: 27. Lagnado M (2002) Haunted papers. Lancet 359 (9309): 902. Landman A, Glantz SA. (2009). Tobacco industry efforts to undermine policy-relevant research. Am J Public Health. 99(1):45-58. Lathyris DN, Patsopoulos NA, Salanti G, Ioannidis JP. (2010). Industry sponsorship and selection of comparators in randomized clinical trials. Eur J Clin Invest. 40(2):172-82. Lenzer J. (2002). Alteplase for stroke: Money and optimistic claims buttress the brain attack campaign. BMJ 324:723-9 Lenzer J. (2002). Controversial stroke trial is under review following BMJ report. BMJ. 325(7373):1131. Lenzer J. (2006). Secret report surfaces showing that Pfizer was at fault in Nigerian drug tests. BMJ. 332(7552):1233. Lenzer J. (2010). Boehringer Ingelheim withdraws libido drug for women. BMJ. 341:c5701. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c5701. Lenzer J. (2011). Cigarette firms sue regulators over graphic warnings on packs. BMJ. 343:d5492. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d5492. Lenzer J. (2011). Pfizer settles with victims of Nigerian drug trial. BMJ. 343:d5268. Leo, J, Lacasse JR and AN Cimino (2011). Why Does Academic Medicine Allow Ghostwriting? A Prescription for Reform Soc 48:371375. Leopold SS, Warme WJ, Fritz Braunlich E, Shott S. (2003). Association between funding source and study outcome in orthopaedic research. Clin Orthop Relat Res. (415):293-301.


162. 163. 164. 165. 166.

167. 168.


170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176.


Levinson DR. National Institutes of Health: Conflicts of interest in extramural research (OEI-0306-00460) Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2008 Jan. _________________________________________________________________________________________ - 10 -


Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Lewis S, Baird PA, Evans RG, Ghali WA, Wright CJ, Gibsons E et al. (2001). Dancing with the porcupine: rules for governing the universityindustry relationship [editorial]. CMAJ 165(6):7835. Lexchin J (2005) Implications of pharmaceutical funding on clinical research. Ann Pharmacother 39: 194-197. Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark, O. (2003). Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ 326:1167-70. Licurse A, Barber E, Joffe S, Gross C (2010). The impact of disclosing financial ties in research and clinical care: A systematic review. Arch Intern Med 170(8):675-682. Liss H. (2006). Publication bias in the pulmonary/allergy literature: effect of pharmaceutical company sponsorship. Israel Med Assoc J 8:4514. Liu JP. (2007). Rethinking statistical approaches to evaluating drug safety. Yonsei Med J. 48(6):895900. Lo B. (2010). Serving two mastersconflicts of interest in academic medicine. N Engl J Med. 362(8):66971 Lundh A, Barbateskovic M, Hrbjartsson A, Gtzsche PC. (2010). Conflicts of interest at medical journals: the influence of industry-supported randomised trials on journal impact factors and revenue - cohort study. PLoS Med. 7(10):e1000354. Epub 2010 Oct 26. Maisch, D. (2010). The Procrustean Approach: Setting Exposure Standards for Telecommunications Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation. A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Doctor of Philosophy from University of Wollongong. Mamudu HM, Gonzalez M, Glantz SA. (2011). The Nature, Scope and Development of the Global Tobacco Control Epistemic Community. Am J Public Health. 101(11): 2044-2054 Mangano DT, Miao Y, Vuylsteke A, et al. (2007). Mortality associated with aprotinin during 5 years following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. JAMA;297:471-9.

180. 181.



184. 185. 186.





Marcovitch, H. Barbour, V. Borrell, C. Nylenna, M (2010). Conflict of Interest in Science Communication: More than a Financial Issue Croat Med J. 51(1): 715. 191.Markowitz, G. and Rosner, D. (2002). Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. University of California Press.

192. 193.

Marshall E. (2000). FDA halts all gene therapy trials at Penn. Science 2000;287:565-6. Martinson BC, Anderson MS, de Vries R. (2005). Scientists behaving badly. Nature 2005;435:737-8. iframe=true&width=100%&height=100% Matheson A (2008) Corporate science and the husbandry of scientific and medical knowledge by the pharmaceutical industry. BioSocieties 3: 355382. Matheson A. (2011). How Industry Uses the ICMJE Guidelines to Manipulate Authorship-And How They Should Be Revised. PLoS Med. 8(8):e1001072. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

194. 195.

_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 11 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

196. 197.

12 May 2012

Mathews, A. (2005). Ghost story: At medical journals, writers paid by industry play big role. Wall St. J., Dec. 13:A1, A8. Mathieu S, Boutron I, Moher D, Altman DG, Ravaud P. (2009). Comparison of registered and published primary outcomes in randomized controlled trials. JAMA 302:977-84 McGauran N, Wieseler B, Kreis J, Schler YB, Klsch H, Kaiser T. (2010). Reporting bias in medical research - a narrative review. Trials. 11:37. McHenry L (2010). Of Sophists and Spin-Doctors: Industry-Sponsored Ghostwriting and the Crisis of Academic Medicine Mens Sana Monogr. 8(1): 129145. McHenry LB, Jureidini J (2008) Industry-sponsored ghostwriting in clinical trial reporting: a case study. Accountability in Research 15(3): 152167. McPartland, JM. (2009). Obesity, the Endocannabinoid System, and Bias Arising from Pharmaceutical Sponsorship. PLoS ONE. 4(3): e5092. Medicines Health Regulatory Agency. Orciprenaline sulphate (Alupent): withdrawal due to unfavourable benefit-risk profile. Drug Safety Update 2009; 3:6. Medicines Health Regulatory Agency. Rimonabant: European suspension of marketing authorisation. Drug Safety Update 2008;2:8. Medicines Health Regulatory Agency. Rosiglitazone: recommended withdrawal from clinical use. Drug Safety Update 2010;4:S1. Melander H, Ahlqvist-Rastad J, Meijer G, Beermann B (2003) Evidence b(i)ased medicine selective reporting from studies sponsored by pharmaceutical industry: review of studies in new drug applications. BMJ 326: 117173. tool=pubmed Mello MM, Clarridge BR, Studdert DM (2005) Academic medical centers standards for clinicaltrial agreements with industry. New Engl J Med 352: 2202-2210. Mendelson TB, Meltzer M, Campbell EG, Caplan AL, Kirkpatrick JN. (2011). Conflicts of interest in cardiovascular clinical practice guidelines. Arch Intern Med.171(6):577-84. Michaels, D. Monforton C and P Lurie (2006). Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard. Environ Health. 5: 5. Michaels, D. (2005). Doubt is their product. Scientific American. 292(6): 96-101. Miller, K. (1992) Smoking Up a Storm: Public Relations and Advertising in the Construction of the Cigarette Problem 19534 Journalism Monographs No. 136, December Mintzberg H. (2006). Patent nonsense: Evidence tells of an industry out of social control. CMAJ 174(4) Mirowski P, Van Horn R (2005) The contract research organization and the commercialization of scientific research. Soc Stud Sci 35: 503-534. Miser WF. (2006). Finding truth from the medical literature: how to critically evaluate an article. Prim Care.33(4):839-62, vi. Moffat B (2011) Responsible authorship: why researchers must forgo honorary authorship. Account Res 18(2): 7690.





202. 203. 204. 205.




209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214.

_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 12 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

215. 216.

12 May 2012

Moffatt B, Elliott C. (2007). Ghost marketing: pharmaceutical companies and ghostwritten journal articles. Perspect Biol Med. 50(1):18-31. Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, Montori V, Gotzsche PC, Devereaux PJ, et al. (2010). CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ 2010;340:c869. Moher D. (2007). Reporting research results: a moral obligation for all researchers. Can J Anaesth 54:331-5. %2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000217 Moncrieff J. (2003). Clozapine v. conventional antipsychotic drugs for treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a re-examination. Br J Psychiatry 183:1616. Montaner JSG, O'Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT. (2001). Industry-sponsored clinical research: a double-edged sword. Lancet 358:1893-5. Montedori A, Bonacini MI, Casazza G, Luchetta ML, Duca P, Cozzolino F, Abraha I. (2011). Modified versus standard intention-to-treat reporting: are there differences in methodological quality, sponsorship, and findings in randomized trials? A cross-sectional study. Trials. 12:58. Montgomery JH, Byerly M, Carmody T, et al. (2004) An analysis of the effect of funding source in randomized clinical trials of second generation antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Control ClinTrials 25:598-612. Montgomery JH. (2006). Industry funding and author-industry affiliation in clinical trials in psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry. 163(6):1110-1; author reply 1111. Morgan S, Barer ML, Evans RG. (2000). Health economists meet the fourth tempter: drug dependency and scientific discourse. Health Econ 9:659-67 Morin K, Rakatansky H, Riddick FA, Jr, et al. (2002). Managing conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical trials. JAMA. 287(1):7884. Moses H, Braunwald E, Martin JB, Thier SO. (2002). Collaborating with industry choices for the academic medical center. N Engl J Med 347:1371-5. Mowatt G, Shirran L, Grimshaw JM, Rennie D, Flanagin A, et al. (2002) Prevalence of honorary and ghost authorship in Cochrane reviews. JAMA 287: 2769-2771. Moynihan R (2008). Key opinion leaders: independent experts or drug representatives in disguise? BMJ 336(7658):1402-1403. Moynihan R. (2011). Is journalism the drug industry's new dance partner? BMJ; 343:d6978. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6978. ijkey=27baa0b874bbe6ad72d1b6f2c87f35a96e2e4248&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&linkType=FULL &journalCode=bmj&resid=343/nov02_1/d6978 Muggli ME, Hurt RD, Becker LB. (2004). Turning free speech into corporate speech: Philip Morris' efforts to influence U.S. and European journalists regarding the U.S. EPA report on secondhand smoke. Prev Med. 39(3):568-80. Muggli ME, Hurt RD, Blanke DD. (2003). Science for hire: a tobacco industry strategy to influence public opinion on secondhand smoke. Nicotine Tob Res. 5(3):303-14. Muggli ME, Lee K, Gan Q, Ebbert JO, Hurt RD. (2008). "Efforts to Reprioritise the Agenda" in China: British American Tobacco's Efforts to Influence Public Policy on Secondhand Smoke in







223. 224. 225.


227. 228.




_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 13 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

China. PLoS Med.5(12):1729-69. tool=pubmed

232. 233.

Mundy, A. (2001) Dispensing with the Truth: The Victims, the Drug Companies, and the Dramatic Story behind the Battle over Fen-Phen. New York: St. Martins Press. Nassir Ghaemi, S. , Shirzadi, A. Filkowski, M. (2008). Publication Bias and the Pharmaceutical Industry: The Case of Lamotrigine in Bipolar Disorder Medscape J Med 10(9): 211. Nathan DG, Weatherall DJ. (2002). Academic freedom in clinical research. N Engl J Med 347:1368-71. Nelkin, D. (1995) Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology, rev. edn. New York: Freeman. Ngai S, Gold JL, Gill SS, Rochon PA (2005) Haunted manuscripts: Ghost authorship in the medical literature. Account Res 12: 103-114. Nissen SE, Wolski K. (2007). Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes [published correction appears in N Engl JMed. 357(1):100]. N Engl J Med. 356(24):2457-2471. Nissen, S. E. (2010). Setting the RECORD straight. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(12):11941195. Okike K, Kocher MS, Mehlman CT, et al. (2007). Conflict of interest in orthopaedic research. An association between findings and funding in scientific presentations. J Bone Joint Surg Am 89:608-13. Olivieri, N. (2006). A response from Dr. Nancy Olivieri CMAJ February 28, 2006 vol. 174 no. 5 doi: 10.1503/cmaj.1060039. Parry PI (2011). The paradigm shift from marketing-based medicine to evidence-based medicine. Pearce N. (2008). Corporate influences on epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol. 37(1):46-53. Pearce N. (2011). Epidemiology in a changing world: variation, causation and ubiquitous risk factors. Int J Epidemiol. 40(2):503-12. Perlis CS, Harwood M, Perlis RH. (2005). Extent and impact of industry sponsorship conflicts of interest in dermatology research. J Am Acad Dermatol 52:96771. Perlis RH, Perlis CS, Wu Y, Hwang C, Joseph M, Nierenberg AA. (2005). Industry sponsorship and financial conflict of interest in the reporting of clinical trials in psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry. 162(10):1957-1960. Pitrou I, Boutron I, Ahmad N, Ravaud P. (2009). Reporting of safety results in published reports of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 169(19):1756-61. Polyzos NP, Valachis A, Mauri D, Ioannidis JP. (2011). Industry involvement and baseline assumptions of cost-effectiveness analyses: diagnostic accuracy of the Papanicolaou test. CMAJ. 183(6):E337-43. Epub 2011 Mar 14. tool=pubmed Procyshyn RM, Chau A, Fortin P, JenkinsW. (2004). Prevalence and outcomes of pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials involving clozapine, risperidone, or olanzapine. Can J Psychiatry 49:6016.

234. 235. 236. 237.

238. 239.

240. 241. 242. 243. 244.





_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 14 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Psaty B, N Weiss and C Furberg (2006). Recent Trials in Hypertension: Compelling Science or Commercial Speech? JAMA 295(14): 17046 ijkey=5b0d7230e8219230756e4d67f35714bc06752fa4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha Psaty BM, Kronmal RA (2008). Reporting mortality findings in trials of rofecoxib for Alzheimer disease or cognitive impairment: a case study based on documents from rofecoxib litigation. JAMA. 299(15):1813-7. Psaty, B. M. (2009). Conflict of Interest, Disclosure, and Trial Reports. JAMA. 301(14):14771479. Qureshi J, Sud A, Vakil N. (2012). Funding source and conflict of interest disclosures by authors and editors in gastroenterology specialty journals revisited. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04989.x. [Epub ahead of print] Rampton S, Stauber J. (2002). Research funding, conflicts of interest, and the meta-methodology of public relations. Public Health Rep. 117(4):331-9. Rampton, S. and Stauber, J. (2001) Trust Us! Were Experts! How Industry Manipulates Science and Gambles with your Future. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Ray WA, Stein CM. (2008). The aprotinin story Is BART the final chapter? N Engl J Med 358:2398-400. Rennie D, Yank V, Emanuel L (1997) When authorship fails: A proposal to make contributors accountable. JAMA 278: 579-585. Rennie D. (1999). Fair conduct and fair reporting of clinical trials. JAMA1999; 282 (18): 1766-8. Reveiz L, Chan AW, Krleza-Jeri K, Granados CE (2010). Reporting of methodologic information on trial registries for quality assessment: a study of trial records retrieved from the WHO search portal. PLoS One. 5(8):e12484. Rheingold, P.D. (1998). Fen-phen and Redux: a tale of three drugs. Trial 34 (1): 78-82. Ridker PM, Torres J. (2006). Reported outcomes in major cardiovascular clinical trials funded by for-profit and not-for-profit organizations: 20002005. JAMA 295:22706. Rochon PA, Gurwitz JH, Simms RW, Fortin PR, Felson DT, Minaker KL.(1994). A study of manufacturer-supported trials of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of arthritis. Arch Intern Med. 154:157-163. Rochon PA, Sekeres M, Hoey J, Lexchin J et al (2011). Investigator experiences with financial conflicts of interest in clinical trials. Trials. 12:9. Rose SL, Krzyzanowska MK, Joffe S. (2010). Relationships between authorship contributions and authors' industry financial ties among oncology clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 28(8):1316-21. Roseman M, K Milette, LA Bero, JC Coyne, J Lexchin, EH Turner, BD Thombs. (2011). Reporting of Conflicts of Interest in Meta-analyses of Trials of Pharmacological Treatments. JAMA 305(10): 1008-17. Ross JS, Mulvey GK, Hines EM, Nissen SE, Krumholz HM. (2009). Trial publication after registration in ClinicalTrials.Gov: a cross-sectional analysis. PLoS Med 6: e1000144.


251. 252.



255. 256. 257. 258.

259. 260.






_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 15 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Ross, J., Madigan, D., Hill, K., Krumholz, H. (2009). Pooled Analysis of Rofecoxib PlaceboControlled Clinical Trial Data: Lessons for Post-Market Pharmaceutical Safety Surveillance Arch Intern Med 169(21): 1975-85. Safer DJ (2002). Design and reporting modifications in industry-sponsored comparative psychopharmacology trials. J Nerv Ment Dis 190:583592 Saloojee Y, Dagli E. (2000). Tobacco industry tactics for resisting public policy on health. Bull World Health Organ. 78(7):902-10. Samet JM, Burke, TA. (2001). Turning Science Into Junk: The Tobacco Industry and Passive Smoking. Am J Public Health. 91(11): 174244. Sarewitz, D (2012). Beware the creeping cracks of science. Nature 485: 149 (10 May 2012) doi:10.1038/485149a Schafer A (2004) Biomedical conflicts of interest: A defence of the sequestration thesis Learning from the cases of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy. J Med Ethics 30: 8-24. Schafer A (2007). Science Scandal or Ethics Scandal? Olivieri Redux. Bioethics 21 (2) : 111-15 Schick S and S Glantz (2005). Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke Tob Control. 14(6): 396404. Schloss B, Gulati P, Yu L, Abdel-Rasoul M, O'Brien W, Von Visger J, Awad H. (2011). Impact of aprotinin and renal function on mortality: a retrospective single center analysis. J Cardiothorac Surg. 6:103. Schneeweiss S, Seeger JD, Landon J, et al. (2008). Aprotinin during coronary-artery bypass grafting and risk of death. N Engl J Med 358:771-83. Schott G, Pachl H, Limbach U, Gundert-Remy U, Lieb K, et al. (2010) The financing of drug trials by pharmaceutical companies and its consequences: part 2: a qualitative, systematic review of the literature on possible influences on authorship, access to trial data, and trial registration and publication. Dtsch Arztebl Int 107: 295301. Schott G, Pachl H, Limbach U, Gundert-Remy U, Ludwig WD, Lieb K. (2010). The financing of drug trials by pharmaceutical companies and its consequences. Part 1: a qualitative, systematic review of the literature on possible influences on the findings, protocols, and quality of drug trials. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 107(16):279-85. Schrag B, Ferrell G, Weil V and TJ Fiedler (2003). Barking up the wrong tree? Industry funding of academic research. A case study with commentaries. Science and Engineering Ethics 9(4): 569582, DOI: 10.1007/s11948-003-0050-9 Schulman KA, Seils DM, Timbie JW, Sugarman BA, Dame, LA, Weinfurt, et al. (2002). A national survey of provisions in clinical-trial agreements between medical schools and industry sponsors. N Engl J Med 347(17):1335-41. Shah RV, Albert TJ, Bruegel-Sanchez V, Vaccaro A, Hilibrand A, Grauer J. (2005). Industry support and correlation to study outcome for papers published in Spine. Spine 30:1099-104.


268. 269.

270. 271.

272. 273.








_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 16 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Shaw AD, Stafford-Smith M, White WD, et al. (2008). The effect of aprotinin on outcome after coronary-artery bypass grafting. N Engl J Med 358:784-93. Sheikh, A. (2000). Publication ethics and the research assessment exercise: reflections on the troubled question of authorship. J. Med. Ethics (26):422-6. Singh S, Loke YK, Spangler JG, et al (2011). Risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with varenicline: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ 183:135966 ijkey=13912c721eece053108e8dbfa4dd60f36827f9a1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha Sinha I, Jones L, Smyth RL, Williamson PR. (2008). A systematic review of studies that aim to determine which outcomes to measure in clinical trials in children. PLoS Med 5:e96. Sismondo S (2009) Ghosts in the machine: publication planning in the medical sciences. Soc Stud Sci 39: 171198. Sismondo S, Doucet M. (2010). Publication ethics and the ghost management of medical publication. Bioethics. 24(6):273-83. Sismondo S. (2007). Ghost management: how much of the medical literature is shaped behind the scenes by the pharmaceutical industry? PLoS Med. 4(9):e286. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040286 Sismondo S. (2008). How pharmaceutical company funding affects clinical trial results: causal structures and responses. Soc Sci Med 66(9):190914 Sismondo S. (2008). Pharmaceutical company funding and its consequences: a qualitative systematic review. Contemp Clin Trials. 29(2):109-13 Skolnick, A. (1998). Drug firm suit fails to halt publication of Canadian health technology report. JAMA 280(8):683-4. Smith EA, Malone RE. (2009). Philip Morriss Health Information Web Site Appears Responsible but Undermines Public Health. Public Health Nurs. 25(6): 554564. Smith R (2005) Medical journals are an extension of the marketing arm of pharmaceutical companies. PLoS Med 2: e138. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020138. Smith R (2006) Lapses at the New England journal of medicine. J R Soc Med 99: 380382. Smith R. (2001). Maintaining the integrity of the scientific record [editorial]. BMJ 323:588. Smith R. (2005). Medical journals are an extension of the marketing arm of pharmaceutical companies. PLoS Medicine 2:e138 Smyth RM, Kirkham JJ, Jacoby A, Altman DG, Gamble C, Williamson PR. (2011). Frequency and reasons for outcome reporting bias in clinical trials: interviews with trialists. BMJ. 342:c7153. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c7153. Spielmans GI, Parry PI (2010) From evidence-based medicine to marketing based medicine: evidence from internal industry documents. J Bioeth Inquiry 7: 13-29. Spurling GK, Mansfield PR, Montgomery BD, Lexchin J, Doust J, Othman N, Vitry AI. (2010). Information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians'




285. 286. 287.



290. 291.


293. 294. 295. 296.



_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 17 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:

12 May 2012

prescribing: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2010 Oct 19; 7(10):e1000352. Epub 2010 Oct 19.


Stauber, J.C. and Rampton, S. (1995) Toxic Sludge is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press. Steinman MA, LA Bero, MM Chren and CSLandefeldm (2006). Narrative Review: The Promotion of Gabapentin: An Analysis of Internal Industry Documents Ann. Intern. Med. (145):284-93 Stelfox HT, Chua G, ORourke K, Detsky AS. (1998). Conflict of interest in the debate over calcium-channel antagonists. N Engl J Med. 338:101-106. Stern JM, Simes RJ. (1997). Publication bias: evidence of delayed publication in a cohort study of clinical research projects. BMJ 315:640-5. Stern S, Lemmens T. (2011). Legal remedies for medical ghostwriting: imposing fraud liability on guest authors of ghostwritten articles. PLoS Med. 8(8):e1001070. Epub 2011 Aug 2. Stocking SH and LW Holstein (2009). Manufacturing doubt: journalists' roles and the construction of ignorance in a scientific controversy Public Understanding of Science. 18 (1), 2342 Stocking, S.H. and Holstein, L.W. (1993) Constructing and Reconstructing Scientific Ignorance: Ignorance Claims in Science and Journalism. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 15(2): 186210. Swaen G, Meijers J. (1988). Influence of design characteristics on the outcome of retrospective cohort studies. Br J Ind Med. 45:624-9. Taylor PL. (2009) Scientific Self-RegulationSo Good, How Can it Fail? Science and Engineering Ethics 15:3, 395-406 Teuscher A, Berger W. (1987). Hypoglycaemia unawareness in diabetics transferred from beef/porcine to human insulin. Lancet 1987; ii: 382-85. The PLoS Medicine Editors (2006). PLoS Medicine and the Pharmaceutical Industry. PLoS Med 3:e329 The PLoS Medicine Editors (2009) Ghostwriting: the dirty little secret of medical publishing that just got bigger. PLoS Med 6: e1000156. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000156. Thompson DF (1993). Understanding financial conflicts of interest. N Engl J Med 329: 5736. %20of%20Interest.pdf Thompson J, Baird P, Downie J. (2001). The Olivieri Report: the complete text of the report of the independent committee of inquiry commissioned by the Canadian Association of University Teachers. Toronto: Lorimer.. Tong EK, England L, Glantz SA. (2005). Changing conclusions on secondhand smoke in a sudden infant death syndrome review funded by the tobacco industry. Pediatrics. 115(3):e356-66. Tong EK, Glantz SA. (2007). Tobacco Industry Efforts Undermining Evidence Linking Secondhand Smoke With Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation 116:1845-1854.








307. 308.

309. 310.





_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 18 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Tsai AC, Rosenlicht NZ, Jureidini JN, Parry PI, Spielmans GI, Healy D. (2011). Aripiprazole in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a critical review of the evidence and its dissemination into the scientific literature. PLoS Med. 8(5):e1000434. Epub 2011 May 3. Turner C, Spilich GJ. (1997). Research into smoking or nicotine and human cognitive performance: does the source of funding make a difference? Addiction. 92:1423-6. Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R. (2008). Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med 358:252-60. Ula H, Binbay T, Alptekin K. (2008). [Financial conflict of interest in clinical psychiatry studies: a review]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg.19 (4):418-26. [Article in Turkish] Ula H, Binbay T, Alptekin K. (2008). Financial conflict of interest in clinical psychiatry studies: a review. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 19(4):418-26. modul=article&id=670 Vom Saal F, Hughes C. (2005) An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Level Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment Environ Health Perspect 113: 92633. Von Elm E, Rollin A, Blumle A, Huwiler K, Witschi M, Egger M. (2008). Publication and nonpublication of clinical trials: longitudinal study of applications submitted to a research ethics committee. Swiss Med Wkly 138:197-203 Von Elm, E. and others (2004) Different Patterns of Duplicate Publication: An Analysis of Articles used in Systematic Reviews JAMA 291: 97480. Wager E, Mhaskar R, Warburton S, Djulbegovic B (2010) JAMA Published Fewer IndustryFunded Studies after Introducing a Requirement for Independent Statistical Analysis. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13591. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013591 Wang AT, McCoy CP, Murad MH, Montori VM. (2010). Association between industry affiliation and position on cardiovascular risk with rosiglitazone: cross sectional systematic review. BMJ. 2010 Mar 18;340:c1344. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c1344. Whittington CJ, Kendall T, Fonagy P, Cottrell D, Cotgrove A, Boddington E. (2004). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet 363(9418):13415. Wieseler B, McGauran N, Kaiser T. (2010). Finding studies on reboxetine: Drug studies: a tale of hide and seek. BMJ 341:80914 c4942 Wieseler B, McGauran N, Kaiser T. (2010). Finding studies on reboxetine: a tale of hide and seek. BMJ ;341:80914.[No abstract] Wilkes MS, Doblin BH, Shapiro MF. (1992). Pharmaceutical advertisements in leading medical journals: experts' assessments. Ann Intern Med. 116(11):912-9. Williams, Simon J., Gabe, Jonathan and Davis, Peter (2008) The sociology of pharmaceuticals: progress and prospects. Sociology of Health and Illness, 30(6): 813-824. ISSN 0141-9889 Williamson PR, Gamble C, Altman DG, Hutton JL. (2005). Outcome selection bias in metaanalysis. Stat Methods Med Res 14:515-24.











326. 327. 328.



_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 19 -

Conflict of interest arising from industry funding:


12 May 2012

Wislar, J., Flanagin, A., Fontanarosa, P., and DeAngelis, D. E. (2009). Prevalence of honorary and ghost authorship in 6 general medical journals. Sixth International Congress on Peer Review and Biomedical Publication. Woloshin S, Schwartz LM. (2006). Giving legs to restless legs: a case study of how the media helps make people sick. PLoS Med. 3(4):e170. Epub 2006 Apr 11. Worrall, J. (2002). What evidence in evidence-based medicine. Philosophy of Science, 69, S316 S330. Yaphe J, Edman R, Knishkowy B, Herman J. (2001). The association between funding by commercial interests and study outcome in randomized controlled drug trials. Fam Pract. 18:5658. Yerger VB. (2011). Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective. Tob Control. 20 Suppl 2:ii29-36 Zuckerman JD, Prasarn M, Kubiak EN, Koval, KJ. (2004). Conflict of interest in orthopaedic research. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 86-A: 423-8. Volume=86&page=423


333. 334.



There are some EMF-related Scribd collections which may be of interest (Electrosmog and wildlife) (Electrosensitivity) (Electrosmog and male fertility) (The precautionary principle) (EMF related bibliographies) If you are not a member of, please consider supporting some of their petitions. You can also suggest campaign ideas:

_________________________________________________________________________________________ - 20 -