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**2D quantum gases: the static case
**

Jean Dalibard,

Laboratoire Kastler Brossel*,

ENS Paris

* Research unit of CNRS, ENS, and UPMC

Review article:

I. Bloch, J. Dalibard, W. Zwerger,

Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

arXiv:0704.3011

See also a very recent preprint:

L. Giorgetti, I. Carusotto, Y. Castin

arXiv:0705.1226

Low dimension quantum physics

High T

c

superconductivity

Quantum wells and MOS structures

also Quantum Hall effect, films of superfluid helium, …

Physics in Flatland

Peierls 1935, Mermin – Wagner - Hohenberg 1966

No long range order

at finite temperature

whereas this tends to a

finite value in 3D

in 2D:

The kind of order a physical system can possess

is profoundly affected by its dimensionality.

no real crystalline order

in 2D at finite T

1.

The 2D Bose gas:

Ideal vs. interacting

Homogeneous vs. trapped

The ideal Bose gas

In 3D: when the phase space density reaches , BEC occurs

The uniform case at the thermodynamic limit

In 2D: for any phase space density , the occupation of the various

states in non singular, and no BEC is expected.

Thermodynamic limit:

In 3D, BEC occurs when

In 2D, BEC occurs when

Does harmonic trapping make 2D and 3D equivalent?

What about interaction?

The ideal Bose in a harmonic potential

Bagnato – Kleppner (1991)

The density in the trap (semi-classical approach)

3D 2D

At BEC:

At BEC:

Note:

Adding interactions…

Interactions in « true 2D »: the square well problem

The scattering amplitude is a dimension-less

quantity that characterizes the scattering process

when

no Born approximation for low energy scattering in 2D

Scattering cross-section (length):

How a 3D pseudopotential is transformed in 2D

is the 3D scattering length associated to the 3D pseudopotential

is always positive: there is always a bound state in the 2D problem,

irrespective of the sign of the 3D scattering length

Petrov-Holzmann-Shlyapnikov

The relevant amplitude for experimentaly trapped 2D atomic gases

with

How a 3D pseudopotential is transformed in 2D (II) ?

The result can be recovered simply by taking the 3D

energy with trial wave functions

with

The 3D interaction energy:

The role of (weak) interactions on BEC in a 3D trap

Repulsive interactions slightly decrease the central density, for given N and T

For an ideal gas, the central density at the condensation point is

For a gas with repulsive interactions, one needs to put a bit more

atoms to obtain the proper

(semi-classical)

The simple shift due to mean field:

Note: In addition there is a shift of Tc due to complex non-mean field effects

Mean-field analysis: start from

The procedure similar to the 3D mean field analysis fails. Indeed,

where

The role of (weak) interactions on BEC in a 2D trap

One cannot make a perturbative treatment

of interactions around this point!

Repulsive interactions tend to reduce the density, which cannot be

infinite anymore at the center of the trap

Problem with 2D BEC in a harmonic trap (continued)

Treat the interactions at the mean field level:

However there is more than just (no) BEC in a 2D interacting gas…

where the mean field density is obtained from the self-consistent equation

Two remarkable results

• One can accommodate an arbitrarily large atom number.

• The effective frequency deduced from

tends to zero when

Similar to a 2D gas in a flat potential…

Holzmann et al.

Badhuri et al

2.

The superfluidity in a 2D Bose fluid

and the BKT mechanism

Existence of a phase transition in a 2D Bose fluid

T

0 T

c

superfluid normal

Berezinski and Kosterlitz –Thouless 1971-73

Nelson Kosterlitz 1977

Bound vortex-

antivortex pairs

Proliferation of

free vortices

Unbinding of

vortex pairs

algebraic decay of g

1

exponential decay of g

1

The KT mechanism for pedestrians

Probability for a vortex to appear as a thermal excitation?

One has to calculate the vortex free energy E-TS and compare it with kT

R

ξ

Entropy:

Energy:

Free energy of a vortex:

BKT transition for pedestrians (2)

Free energy of a vortex:

Thermodynamic limit in 2D:

T

no free vortex

proliferation of free vortice

0

Superfluidity in 2 dimensions

A 2D film of helium becomes superfluid at sufficiently low temperature

(Bishop and Reppy, 1978)

s

h

i

f

t

o

f

t

h

e

o

s

c

i

l

l

a

t

i

o

n

p

e

r

i

o

d

(

n

s

)

T (K)

1.0 1.1 1.2

1.0

0

“universal” jump to zero of superfluid density at T = T

c

adsorbed

He film

Torsion

pendulum

Also Safonov et al, 1998: variation of the recombination rate in a H film

When does the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition occurs?

The result

is only a partial answer, because

is a quantity that depends on temperature and it is usually unknown.

Analytical calculation by Fisher & Hohenberg, Monte-Carlo by Prokof’ev et al

dimensionless

interaction strength

For our setup with Rb cold atoms:

This is not “universal” by contrast to the 3D result

3.

The critical point in an atomic 2D Bose gas

cond-mat/0703200

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger

B. Battelier, M. Cheneau, P. Rath, S. Stock

Nature 441, 1118 (2006)

Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 190403 (2005)

How to make a cold 2D gas?

Take a 3D condensate and slice it

superposition of a harmonic

magnetic potential

+

periodic potential of

a laser standing wave

2 independent planes with 10

5

Rb atoms in each

Why 2 planes? The crucial properties of a 2D Bose gas

sit in its coherence function

accessible in an interference experiment

other 2D experiments at MIT, Innsbruck, Oxford, Florence, Heidelberg, NIST, etc.

The trapping configuration: lattice + harmonic potential

We vary the temperature between 50 and 100 nK (2 to « a few » planes)

Tunnelling between planes is negligible. However adjacent sites may exchange

particles from the high energy tail of the distribution. This equalizes T and μ

z

Waist of the lasers along x: 120 μm

2D character of the gas: at center

Getting an interferogram for 2D gases

Time of

flight

z

x

y

imaging

laser

CCD

camera

x

z

Overlap between expanding planar gases

1, 91

20 40 60 80 100120

50

100

150

0

0.5

1

1.5

Interference fringes

Central bright component

Halo in the periphery

Bimodal fit:

Gauss + Thomas-Fermi

give info on numbers,

sizes, temperature …

Characteristic

of each gas

individually

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

0

20

40

60

80

I ntegrated optical density along z

Position along x

z

x

TF profile true BEC

Temperature extracted from

a gaussian fit of the pedestal

Transition in a planar atomic gas

We maintain a constant temperature

and vary the atom number

Apparition of a bi-modal distribution

above a critical atom number

0 50 100 150 200 250

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

ª

´

W

.

´

¯

³

ª

W.´

¯

³

0 50 100 150 200 250

N

c

= 85 000

Number of atoms

in the central

component (x 10

3

)

Total number

of atoms (x 10

3

)

Atom number calibrated

using 3D BEC

T = 92 (6) nK

Interference between two planar gases

x

z

Time of

flight

z

x

y

The “interfering” part

coincides with the

central part of the

bimodal distribution

Within our accuracy, onset of bimodality and interference agree

Bimodality and interferences

0 50 100 150 200 250

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

ª

´

W

.

´

¯

³

ª

W.´

¯

³

0 50 100 150 200 250

0

¢

[

W

´

±

g

´

³

¢

W

C

Ò

p

4

Þ

)

4

·

³

atoms in TF part of distribution

interference amplitude

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

a

t

o

m

s

i

n

t

h

e

c

e

n

t

r

a

l

c

o

m

p

o

n

e

n

t

(

x

1

0

3

)

I

n

t

e

r

f

e

r

e

n

c

e

a

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

(

a

r

b

.

u

n

i

t

s

)

Total number of atoms (x 10

3

)

T = 92 (6) nK

Variation of the critical atom number with T

5.3 larger than the ideal gas prediction

0 40 80 120

0

50

100

150

ideal gas

BEC in

Fit using

T (nanoKelvin)

C

r

i

t

i

c

a

l

a

t

o

m

n

u

m

b

e

r

(

x

1

0

3

)

Can it be the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition point?

For a uniform system with our interaction strength, the KT transition is

expected to occur for

Local density approximation + gaussian density profile (as seen experimentally)

This factor 4.9 has to be compared with

the experimental factor 5.3: not bad…

4.

Quasi-long range order in a superfluid 2D Bose gas

Z. Hadzibabic, P. Krüger

B. Battelier, M. Cheneau, S. Stock Nature 441, 1118 (2006)

Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 190403 (2005)

Shlyapnikov-Gangardt-Petrov, Holtzman et al., Kagan et al.,

Stoof et al., Mullin et al., Simula-Blackie, Hutchinson et al.

Theory:

Polkovnikov-Altman-Demler

The superfluid phase investigated

using matter-wave interferometry

cold

hot

sometimes: dislocations!

Time of

flight

z

x

y

uniform phase 0

0

π

Dislocation = evidence for free vortices

fraction of

images

showing a

dislocation

0.5 0.75 1

10%

20%

30%

40%

temperature

control

(arb.units)

Similar results

at NIST

0 = full contrast

at center

1 = no contrast

at center

Investigation of the long range order:

The interference signal between and gives

x

z

0 x

integration

over x axis

D

x

z

z

integration

over x axis

z

x

integration

over x axis

z

integration distance D

x

(micrometers)

Contrast after integration

low T

0.4

0.2

0

0 30 60 90

large T

Integrated contrast:

average over many images:

Polkovnikov,

Altman, Demler

Investigation of the long range order (2)

fit by

D

x

(micrometers)

I

n

t

e

g

r

a

t

e

d

c

o

n

t

r

a

s

t 0.4

0.2

0

0 30 60 90

low T

large T

Just above the transition,

decays exponentially

Just below the transition,

decays algebraically like

0.75 1

0.50

0.25

temperature control (arb.un.)

0.5

Investigation of the long range order (3)

Polkovnikov, Altman, Demler

0.75 1

0.50

0.25

temperature control (arb.un.)

0.5

Red:

Orange :

Yellow :

The inhomogeneous density profile in the trap

High Temperature

Low Temperature

Region of integration

for measuring α

x

y

The 2D atomic Bose gas at present…

Several signatures of a Kosterlitz-Thouless cross-over have been identified

• Apparition of a bi-modal structure (superfluid core?)

• proliferation of vortices

• loss of long range order

One important remaining question:

direct test the superfluidity of the core

Good agreement with quantitative predictions of the KT mechanisms

The observed phenomena do not match the ideal Bose gas condensation

Lecture 2

2D Bose gases: the rotating case

Jean Dalibard,

Laboratoire Kastler Brossel*,

ENS Paris * Research unit of CNRS, ENS, and UPMC

Physics in a rotating frame

Hamiltonian in the rotating frame:

Same physics as charged particles in a magnetic field + harmonic confinement

Cylindrically symmetric trap

Stir at frequency (with a rotating laser beam for example)

potential in the xy plane:

z

Macroscopic quantum objects in rotation

Rotating bucket with superfluid liquid helium

Rotating nuclei

Neutron stars and pulsars

Superconductor in a magnetic field

Ω

1.

Bose gases in rotation

and vortex nucleation

Classical vs. quantum rotation

Rotating classical gas

velocity field of a rigid body

Rotating a quantum macroscopic object

macroscopic wave function:

In a place where , irrotational velocity field:

The only possibility to generate a non-trivial rotating motion is to

nucleate quantized vortices (points in 2D or lines in 3D)

Feynman, Onsager, Pitaevskii

Vortices in a stirred condensate

0 Ω

c

Ω

ω

Time of flight

analysis (25 ms)

imaging

beam

x 20

centrifugal limit

Cylindrical trap

+

stirring

ENS, Boulder,

MIT, Oxford

ENS: Chevy,Madison,Rosenbusch, Bretin

Nucleation of vortices:

a simulation using Gross-Pitaevskii equation

C. Lobo,

A. Sinatra,

Y. Castin,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,

020403 (2004)

The single vortex case

• Total angular momentum Nħ (i.e. ħ per particle) ?

• Is the phase pattern varying as e

iθ

?

• What is the shape of the vortex line?

• Can this line be excited (as a guitar string)? Kelvin mode

Questions which have been answered:

After

time-of-flight

expansion:

The intermediate rotation regime

The number of vortices is notably larger than 1.

MIT

Uniform surface density of vortices n

v

with

Coarse-grain average for the velocity field

However one keeps the rotation frequency Ω notably below ω

core size ξ << vortex spacing

The fast rotation regime

The centrifugal force nearly balances the trapping force.

The radius of the gas increases and the density ρ drops.

increases to infinity ???

The vortex spacing

The vortex core

decreases

Are there still vortices?

Do they still form a regular lattice?

cf. H

c2

field for a superconductor?

2.

The fast rotation regime:

Physics in the Lowest Landau Level

Landau levels for a rotating gas

When Ω = ω, macroscopically degenerate ground state

for the one-body hamiltonian (Rohshar, Ho)

m=-1

m=-2

m=1

m=0

m=0 m=2

Ω=0 Ω < ω

Hamiltonian in the rotating frame:

Isotropic harmonic trapping in the xy plane with frequency ω

Ω ≈ ω

2ω

0

-1

0

3

2

1

1

-2

LLL

Reaching the lowest Landau level

Assume that the z direction

is frozen, with a extension

z

Ω

This LLL regime corresponds to a: scattering length

Typically: N=10 000 atoms, ℓ

z

=0.5 μm, a =5 nm Ω > 0.99 ω

If the chemical potential and the temperature are much smaller than ,

the physics is restricted to the lowest Landau level

The lowest Landau level

General one-particle state in the LLL:

Polynomial or

analytic function

LLL

The size of the vortices is comparable to their spacing

Characteristic length scale

The atom distribution is entirely determined from the vortex position

Ground state in the mean-field LLL approximation

In the LLL:

Minimization of

only 1 parameter:

Aftalion, Blanc, Dalibard,

Phys. Rev. A 71, 023611 (2005)

Minimization of

-10 0 10 -5 5

-10

0

10

-5

5

A typical LLL solution

atom distribution

vortex

distribution

The distortion of the vortex distribution on the edges is essential

for producing a quasi-parabolic atomic density profile

1000 Rb atoms

Ω=0.99 ω

ν

z

= 150 Hz

also Watanabe, Baym, Pethick

Komineas, Read, Cooper

Sheehy, Radzihovsky

A. Aftalion, X. Blanc, and J. Dalibard,

Phys. Rev. A 71, 023611 (2005)

Radial distribution

Evaporative spin-up method (Boulder): first rotate the gas at a moderate

frequency and then evaporate of atoms with small angular momentum.

side view of the rotating BEC

V. Schweikhard et al., PRL 92, 040404 (2004)

How to reach the LLL experimentally

Limits of the mean field approach

When Ω increases even more than the LLL threshold, the number of

vortices N

v

increases and becomes similar to the atom number N

Total angular momentum: ( per particle)

0 1

mean-field region

LLL region

Note that for a 3D description of the binary collisions

It occurs for

the occupation of the various states in non singular. BEC occurs when Thermodynamic limit: Bagnato – Kleppner (1991) Does harmonic trapping make 2D and 3D equivalent? What about interaction? The density in the trap (semi-classical approach) 3D 2D Adding interactions… At BEC: At BEC: Note: .The ideal Bose gas The uniform case at the thermodynamic limit In 3D: when the phase space density reaches . BEC occurs The ideal Bose in a harmonic potential In 2D: for any phase space density . BEC occurs when In 2D. and no BEC is expected. In 3D.

Interactions in « true 2D »: the square well problem How a 3D pseudopotential is transformed in 2D Petrov-Holzmann-Shlyapnikov is the 3D scattering length associated to the 3D pseudopotential The scattering amplitude is a dimension-less quantity that characterizes the scattering process Scattering cross-section (length): when with is always positive: there is always a bound state in the 2D problem. the central density at the condensation point is The result energy with trial wave functions can be recovered simply by taking the 3D (semi-classical) For a gas with repulsive interactions. for given N and T For an ideal gas. irrespective of the sign of the 3D scattering length The relevant amplitude for experimentaly trapped 2D atomic gases no Born approximation for low energy scattering in 2D How a 3D pseudopotential is transformed in 2D (II) ? The 3D interaction energy: The role of (weak) interactions on BEC in a 3D trap The simple shift due to mean field: Repulsive interactions slightly decrease the central density. one needs to put a bit more atoms to obtain the proper Mean-field analysis: start from with Note: In addition there is a shift of Tc due to complex non-mean field effects .

Repulsive interactions tend to reduce the density.The role of (weak) interactions on BEC in a 2D trap The procedure similar to the 3D mean field analysis fails. The superfluidity in a 2D Bose fluid and the BKT mechanism Unbinding of Bound vortexantivortex pairs vortex pairs Proliferation of free vortices . which cannot be infinite anymore at the center of the trap However there is more than just (no) BEC in a 2D interacting gas… Existence of a phase transition in a 2D Bose fluid Berezinski and Kosterlitz –Thouless 1971-73 Nelson Kosterlitz 1977 0 superfluid algebraic decay of g1 Tc normal exponential decay of g1 T 2. Indeed. Problem with 2D BEC in a harmonic trap (continued) Treat the interactions at the mean field level: where the mean field density is obtained from the self-consistent equation where Two remarkable results One cannot make a perturbative treatment of interactions around this point! • One can accommodate an arbitrarily large atom number. • The effective frequency deduced from tends to zero when Similar to a 2D gas in a flat potential… Badhuri et al Holzmann et al.

because is a quantity that depends on temperature and it is usually unknown. 1978) Torsion pendulum adsorbed He film When does the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition occurs? The result is only a partial answer.The KT mechanism for pedestrians Probability for a vortex to appear as a thermal excitation? One has to calculate the vortex free energy E-TS and compare it with kT BKT transition for pedestrians (2) Free energy of a vortex: ξ Thermodynamic limit in 2D: R Energy: Entropy: 0 no free vortex T proliferation of free vortice Free energy of a vortex: Superfluidity in 2 dimensions A 2D film of helium becomes superfluid at sufficiently low temperature (Bishop and Reppy. Monte-Carlo by Prokof’ev et al shift of the oscillation period (ns) 1.0 0 T (K) 1.2 dimensionless interaction strength For our setup with Rb cold atoms: “universal” jump to zero of superfluid density at T = Tc Also Safonov et al. 1998: variation of the recombination rate in a H film This is not “universal” by contrast to the 3D result . Analytical calculation by Fisher & Hohenberg.1 1.0 1.

How to make a cold 2D gas? Take a 3D condensate and slice it superposition of a harmonic magnetic potential + periodic potential of a laser standing wave 2 independent planes with 105 Rb atoms in each other 2D experiments at MIT. Florence. 95. Innsbruck. S. Cheneau. The critical point in an atomic 2D Bose gas Z. This equalizes T and μ 2D character of the gas: at center x imaging laser x . etc. Rath. P. Battelier. Lett. M. Oxford. Hadzibabic. Krüger B. NIST. However adjacent sites may exchange particles from the high energy tail of the distribution. Stock Phys. 1118 (2006) cond-mat/0703200 Why 2 planes? The crucial properties of a 2D Bose gas sit in its coherence function accessible in an interference experiment The trapping configuration: lattice + harmonic potential z Getting an interferogram for 2D gases CCD camera Time of z z flight y Waist of the lasers along x: 120 μm We vary the temperature between 50 and 100 nK (2 to « a few » planes) Tunnelling between planes is negligible. 3. P. Heidelberg. Rev. 190403 (2005) Nature 441.

Overlap between expanding planar gases z 1. temperature … TF profile true BEC Number of atoms 120 in the central 100 component (x 103) 80 60 T = 92 (6) nK Nc = 85 000 Total number of atoms (x 103) 50 100 150 200 250 Atom number calibrated using 3D BEC Temperature extracted from a gaussian fit of the pedestal 40 20 0 0 Interference between two planar gases z Time of flight Bimodality and interferences atoms in TF part of distribution interference amplitude 100 80 y x x T = 92 (6) nK 60 40 20 0 0 The “interfering” part coincides with the central part of the bimodal distribution 50 100 150 200 250 0 Total number of atoms (x 103) Within our accuracy. sizes. onset of bimodality and interference agree Interference amplitude (arb. 91 1.units) z Number of atoms in the central component (x 103) 120 .5 Transition in a planar atomic gas We maintain a constant temperature and vary the atom number Apparition of a bi-modal distribution above a critical atom number Integrated optical density along z 80 50 1 60 100 40 0.5 20 150 20 40 60 80 100120 0 x Interference fringes Central bright component Halo in the periphery Characteristic of each gas individually 0 0 Position along x 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Bimodal fit: Gauss + Thomas-Fermi give info on numbers.

Lett. Simula-Blackie. M. Kagan et al.9 has to be compared with the experimental factor 5... the KT transition is expected to occur for 150 Critical atom number (x 103) Fit using 100 Local density approximation + gaussian density profile (as seen experimentally) 50 ideal gas BEC in 0 0 40 80 120 T (nanoKelvin) 5.Variation of the critical atom number with T Can it be the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition point? For a uniform system with our interaction strength. Holtzman et al. Mullin et al. Polkovnikov-Altman-Demler . Hutchinson et al. 95..3: not bad… The superfluid phase investigated using matter-wave interferometry cold hot 4. 1118 (2006) y x sometimes: dislocations! Theory: Shlyapnikov-Gangardt-Petrov. P. Krüger B. 190403 (2005) Nature 441. Battelier. Stoof et al. Stock Phys. Cheneau.3 larger than the ideal gas prediction This factor 4. Quasi-long range order in a superfluid 2D Bose gas z Time of flight Z. Rev.. Hadzibabic. S.

2 Investigation of the long range order (3) Polkovnikov. decays algebraically like 0. Demler large T 0 0 30 60 90 Dx (micrometers) fit by low T large T Just below the transition. Altman.75 1 temperature control (arb.units) 0 = full contrast at center 1 = no contrast at center z 0 x x Investigation of the long range order (2) Integrated contrast Integrated contrast: average over many images: x integration z over x axis integration over x axis integration over x axis z 0. decays exponentially 0.) 0.5 0.2 z 0 0 30 60 90 integration distance Dx (micrometers) z Contrast after integration 0.25 temperature control (arb.4 low T 0.75 1 Dx . Altman.4 Polkovnikov.un.5 0.50 Just above the transition.Dislocation = evidence for free vortices π 0 Similar results at NIST Investigation of the long range order: The interference signal between and gives uniform phase 0 fraction of images showing a dislocation 40% 30% 20% 10% 0. Demler 0.

ENS Paris * Research unit of CNRS.50 Red: Orange : 0.un.25 temperature control (arb.5 0. ENS.) Region of integration for measuring α The 2D atomic Bose gas at present… Several signatures of a Kosterlitz-Thouless cross-over have been identified • Apparition of a bi-modal structure (superfluid core?) • proliferation of vortices • loss of long range order x Yellow : 0. Laboratoire Kastler Brossel*.75 1 The observed phenomena do not match the ideal Bose gas condensation Good agreement with quantitative predictions of the KT mechanisms One important remaining question: direct test the superfluidity of the core Low Temperature Lecture 2 2D Bose gases: the rotating case z Physics in a rotating frame Cylindrically symmetric trap potential in the xy plane: Stir at frequency (with a rotating laser beam for example) Hamiltonian in the rotating frame: Jean Dalibard.The inhomogeneous density profile in the trap High Temperature y 0. and UPMC Same physics as charged particles in a magnetic field + harmonic confinement .

Bretin Time of flight analysis (25 ms) x 20 imaging beam The only possibility to generate a non-trivial rotating motion is to nucleate quantized vortices (points in 2D or lines in 3D) Feynman. Pitaevskii Ω 0 Ωc ω centrifugal limit . MIT. Onsager. Boulder. Oxford Rotating a quantum macroscopic object macroscopic wave function: In a place where . quantum rotation Rotating classical gas velocity field of a rigid body Cylindrical trap + stirring Vortices in a stirred condensate ENS.Macroscopic quantum objects in rotation Rotating bucket with superfluid liquid helium Ω 1.Madison. Neutron stars and pulsars Bose gases in rotation and vortex nucleation Superconductor in a magnetic field Rotating nuclei Classical vs. irrotational velocity field: ENS: Chevy.Rosenbusch.

ħ per particle) ? • Is the phase pattern varying as eiθ ? • What is the shape of the vortex line? • Can this line be excited (as a guitar string)? Kelvin mode The intermediate rotation regime The number of vortices is notably larger than 1. The vortex core increases to infinity ??? decreases Uniform surface density of vortices nv with The vortex spacing Are there still vortices? MIT Coarse-grain average for the velocity field Do they still form a regular lattice? cf. The radius of the gas increases and the density ρ drops.Nucleation of vortices: a simulation using Gross-Pitaevskii equation The single vortex case After time-of-flight expansion: C. Rev. Lett. A. Phys. Sinatra. However one keeps the rotation frequency Ω notably below ω core size ξ << vortex spacing The fast rotation regime The centrifugal force nearly balances the trapping force. 92. Y. Lobo. Castin.e. Hc2 field for a superconductor? . 020403 (2004) Questions which have been answered: • Total angular momentum Nħ (i.

Ho) Reaching the lowest Landau level z Assume that the z direction is frozen. The fast rotation regime: Physics in the Lowest Landau Level Ω=0 -2 1 m=-2 m=0 m=2 Ω<ω 0 -1 2 1 0 3 Ω≈ω m=-1 m=1 m=0 2ω LLL When Ω = ω. a =5 nm .Landau levels for a rotating gas Isotropic harmonic trapping in the xy plane with frequency Hamiltonian in the rotating frame: ω 2. macroscopically degenerate ground state for the one-body hamiltonian (Rohshar.99 ω Polynomial or analytic function The size of the vortices is comparable to their spacing The atom distribution is entirely determined from the vortex position Typically: N=10 000 atoms. General one-particle state in the LLL: This LLL regime corresponds to a: scattering length Ω > 0. with a extension The lowest Landau level Characteristic length scale Ω LLL If the chemical potential and the temperature are much smaller than the physics is restricted to the lowest Landau level . ℓz=0.5 μm.

Aftalion. Baym. Dalibard. 040404 (2004) Note that for a 3D description of the binary collisions . A 71. Rev. the number of vortices Nv increases and becomes similar to the atom number N It occurs for Total angular momentum: ( per particle) mean-field region side view of the rotating BEC LLL region 0 1 V. Blanc. X. 023611 (2005) A. Phys. PRL 92. Rev. Radzihovsky only 1 parameter: Aftalion. Blanc.. 023611 (2005) How to reach the LLL experimentally Evaporative spin-up method (Boulder): first rotate the gas at a moderate frequency and then evaporate of atoms with small angular momentum. A 71. Phys.Ground state in the mean-field LLL approximation Minimization of A typical LLL solution 10 1000 Rb atoms Ω=0. Read. Pethick Komineas. Schweikhard et al. Limits of the mean field approach When Ω increases even more than the LLL threshold. Dalibard.99 ω νz = 150 Hz 5 0 -5 In the LLL: atom distribution -10 vortex distribution -10 -5 0 5 10 Radial distribution Minimization of The distortion of the vortex distribution on the edges is essential for producing a quasi-parabolic atomic density profile also Watanabe. and J. Cooper Sheehy.

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