Prajnaparamita

प्रज्ञा पारमिता

(A short notes on Prajnaparamita)
If there is any religion that would cope with modern
Scientific needs it would be Buddhism
Albert Einstein

Bikramshila Mahabihar
Simhakalpanagar
(Bhagwan Bahal, Thamel)

Legendary story of Lhasa Caravan
The Flying White Horse Avalokiteswora
Garud Bhagwan, Simhasarthabahu

Compiled by

Damodar Pradhan
Monumental Guide
Buddha Era 2552 Nepal Era 1132
Bikram Era 2068, 2012 A.D

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The Sanskrit word Prajnaparamita literally translated signifies this book as
"the Perfection of Transcendent Wisdom‖ (Perfect wisdom beyond ordinary
limits / Prajna - प्रज्ञा wisdom and paramita पारमिता perfect or perfection)
Prajnapramita is a central concept in Mahayana Buddhism and its practice
is believed to be the essential elements of the Bodhisattva Path. The
practice of Prajnaparamita is described in the Prajnaparamita Sutras, which
vary widely in length and written by different scholars. Tara and Prajnaparamita are both referred as mother of all Buddha, since Buddha is born
from wisdom.
The Dharma is classified as inferior and superior according to the disciple's
grade. In Buddhism the disciples are being classified into four different
stage of human being for example ordinary men; the stage of sainthood;
Saint and bodhisattvas. In Buddhism, Dharma is referred to the teaching of
Buddha, the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Noble Path, the three Marks
of Existence, and other guidelines. The main motif is to achieve the
freedom and liberation from suffering and understand the state of mind to
realize the supreme happiness, the natural joy and nirvana. The happiness
is classified as Ananda (Joy), Paramanda (Supreme Joy), Virmananda
(Absence of Joy), and Sahajanand (Natural Joy)
The Four Noble Truths (Sanskrit: चत्वारर आर्यसत्र्ानि catvari aryasatyani)
The Four Noble Truths are an important principle in Buddhism, classically
taught by the Buddha in the Dharmacakra Pravartana Sutra.
Four Noble Truths is referred to the state of mind Dukkha (Suffering),
Samudaya (the cause of suffering), Nirodha (free from suffering), Marga (a
way to end suffering). The Four Noble Truths are formulated according to
the ancient medical model as follows: 1) There is an illness
2) The diagnosis – there is a cause of illness
3) There is a possibility of a cure for the illness
4) There is treatment for the illness
(The prescription that can relieves the illness)
The basic teachings of the Four Noble Truths are:
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1) The First Noble Truth: Dukkha
Dukkha usually is translated as suffering. In life, we have illness, poverty,
disease, old age and death. We cannot keep what we like and avoid what
we do not like. It is universal truth that the happiness we do enjoy is
temporary and we do need to suffer.
.

2) The Second Noble Truth: Samudaya
The main cause of suffering is desire & illusions which is mainly because of
ignorance. Wanting life, death, pleasure and things all lead to suffering
.

3) The Third Noble Truth: Nirodha
Suffering can get stopped if we can get rid of the state of mind, desire,
cravings or hunger. There is a state of mind free from suffering if we can
develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to
eradicate greed, feeling of intense dislike, and delusion (a false belief or
opinion).
4) The Fourth Noble Truth: Marga
There is a way to end suffering, we must end our cravings. The Noble
Eightfold Path is the only noble way that leads to end the suffering (dukkha
or carving) and achieve self-awakening. It is also known as the Middle Path
or Middle Way.
The Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path can only work if a person chooses to apply it to their
lives, and takes full responsibility in following the steps. The Noble
Eightfold Path is a very systematic and methodical approach to solve the
problem of suffering in life, and achieving a state of wisdom, peace and
Nirvana. The programmer first develops character and personality, and then
develops ethical conduct and restraint which promote concentration.
Concentration and mindfulness help make the mind free from ignorance
and blossom into wisdom (access higher knowledge).
Wisdom brings a clear understanding of the truth about how things really
are. This leads craving and desire to end from the mind (detachment) that
brings freedom from suffering and the end of suffering brings Supreme
Happiness. The Noble Eightfold Path describes the teachings as a formula
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which is described in simple steps and includes both physical and mental
treatment for getting a end of suffering. The goal of the Noble Eightfold
Path is to bring a true understanding of the Four Noble Truths and deliver
their ultimate Teaching - the end of suffering. The Path develops character
and personality by showing the way to live a virtuous life, develop wisdom
and finally to attain the highest qualities of a human being and develop the
Buddhahood. This is the ultimate goal of the Eightfold Path and all eight
ways of practice must be followed in order to attain it. The Path is
specifically aimed at developing behavior, mind and knowledge and the
eight steps are divided into those three ways of practice that is Good
Conduct, Mental Development and Wisdom. It is the Noble Eightfold Path
that helps to realize happiness by understanding the Right Speech, Right
Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right
Concentration, Right Attitude and Right View.
Truth is found through the Middle Way by following Eightfold Noble Path as
stated below:
.

1) Right Viewpoint or right vision or Understanding
(samyag-dristi, samma-dristi)
Correct thought by avoiding sharp desire - extreme desire to acquire, the
wish to harm others and wrong views (thinking as if the actions have no
effect or say I have no problem so there is no ways to end suffering etc.)
Right view begins with the concept of knowledge with reference to
suffering, its origin, the main cause and the solution to get rid of suffering.
Birth, aging, sickness, death, sorrow, pain, grief, distress, and something
that causes extreme sadness are suffering. Not being able to obtain what
one wants is also suffering.
Wrong view arising from ignorance, is the precondition for wrong intention,
wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong
awareness of one's own existence (mindfulness), and wrong concentration.
The practitioner should use right effort to leave completely and finally the
wrong view and to enter into right view. Right mindfulness is used to clear
.

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Birth. It teaches to avoid lies. pain and deceit. (While having difference of opinion do not use harass speech?) Right intention can also be known as right thought. The way leading to the cessation of suffering is the noble eightfold path. sorrow. delusion. happiness and wisdom. tale bearing. samma-vaca) The power of speech is a unique gift of man. right conception. Ethical conduct is used primarily to facilitate mental purification. and to grow worse with unreasonable or wrong logic. Commitment to mental value or expressing moral approval or moral philosophy and correct speech . samma-samkalpa) Commitment to mental value or expressing moral approval or moral philosophy Correct speech: avoid lying. Right Speech is about controlling the abuse of speech and to control the words (while having difference of opinion do not use harass speech). Ethical conduct is used primarily to facilitate mental purification. right view becomes a route to liberation rather than an obstacle. pain. sickness. It is a power of speech that helps to bring harmony. harsh words and idle talk or rumor and practice speaking truth. right aspiration or the exertion of our own will to change. aging. right liberation. Correct understanding of right view will help the practitioner to discern the differences between right intention and wrong intention. Right intention (samyak . Not being able to obtain what one wants is also suffering. Correct understanding of right view will help the practitioner to understand the differences between right intention and wrong intention.one's path of the majority of unreasonable thinking and confusion. harass speech and idle talk or rumor. gentle words and sensibly and meaningful speech. right resolve. harass speech (while having difference of opinion do not use harass speech) and idle talk or rumor. Speak in a truthful way without harming others. right aspiration or the physical and mental effort to change our own will. right resolve.samkalpa. 3) Right speech (samyag-vac.avoid lying. Right intention. 2)Right Attitude. Right intention can also be known as right thought. lamentation. If it is abused it can bring ignorance. In this way. and despair are the different form of suffering. grief. right conception. 5|Page . distress. death.

living beings. Buddhist Teachings advise against harmful professions such as trading in weapons. 5) Right Livelihood: (samyag-ajiva. intoxicants and poison. Correct livelihood: try to make a living with the above attitude of thought. Avoid occupations that bring harm to oneself and others. directly or indirectly (to understand and develop genuine wisdom).Right speech deals with the way in which a Buddhist practitioner would best make use of their words. Right Action is concerned with what we do. Simple and healthy action. flesh. To understand the Law of Cause and Effect (Not to destroy any life. does not harm in any way oneself nor others. avoid action that would harm others. and teach against cunning. the practitioner should train oneself to be morally upright in one's activities. Try to 6|Page . 4. avoiding actions that damage ourselves and others. abusive speech. stealing and sexual misconduct. speech and actions to understand and develop genuine wisdom. productive citizen and bring social and economic progress. stealing and sexual misconduct. Understanding and developing profession does not harm in any way oneself nor others. Right Action is concerned with what we do. and lying. not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to oneself or to others. samma-ajiva) Right Livelihood shows the way for a person to choose the best way to become a useful. avoid action that would harm others. Try to make a living with the above attitude of thought. Understanding and developing profession does not harm in any way oneself nor others. cheating and gambling. hunting. avoid killing. not to steal or commit adultery) Simple and healthy action. and to get rid of divisive speech. avoiding actions that damage ourselves and others. As such. Right action (samyak-karmanta. Simple and healthy action. avoid action that would harm others. samma-kammanta) Right action can also be translated as right conduct. Avoid occupations of soldiering. avoid killing. avoid action that would harm others. Understanding and developing profession and genuine wisdom. speech and actions. Simple and healthy action. fishing.

(The following last three aspects refer mainly to the practice of meditation) 6) Right Effort: (samyag-vyayama. This means that practitioners ought not to engage in trades or occupations which. In the practice of right mindfulness the mind is trained to remain in the present. In this factor. Samadhi: Samadhi is literally translated as mental concentration. samma-sati) The mind is deliberately kept at the level of bare attention. a detached observation of what is happening within us and around us in the present moment. and deeds. open. Avoid evil and unwholesome states of mind from arising 2. words. speech and actions to understand and develop genuine wisdom. to look carefully at the present 7|Page . Right Effort is earnestly doing one's best in the right direction which is fourfold.make a living with the above attitude of thought. and alert. it is achieved through training in the higher consciousness which brings the calm and collectedness needed to develop true wisdom by direct experience. the practitioners should make a persisting effort to abandon all the wrong and harmful thoughts. Avoid occupations that bring harm to oneself and others. without a thought for the difficulty or causing you to feel tired. and deeds. result in harm for other living beings. 1. Develop and perfect such states of mind already present Try again and again to make an effort to improve the belief (To continue a joyful belief even though it is difficult . Right mindfulness (samyak-smṛti. samma–vayam) Right effort can also be translated as right endeavor or try to do seriously or continually. The practitioner should instead be persisting in giving rise to what would be good and useful to themselves and others in their thoughts. Cause good and wholesome states of mind not yet present to arise 4. Overcome evil and unwholesome states of mind already present 3. either directly or indirectly. quiet. words.Perseverance) 7.

a detached observation of what is happening within us and around us in the present moment. They should be mindful and deliberate. Right Mindfulness focuses us on the truth about what is happening in the body. contemplating the present event. In the practice of right mindfulness the mind is trained to remain in the present. open. All judgments and interpretations have to be suspended. just registered and dropped. just registered and dropped. Right Mindfulness focuses us on the truth about what is happening in the body. The mind is deliberately kept at the level of bare attention.event. and alert. enabling to develop the mind that brings the strengths and freedoms including the clarity of mind and calmness to stay on the path of Good Conduct. Mental ability to see things with clear knowledge or the sense of one's personal or collective identity or awareness. All judgments and interpretations have to be suspended. practitioners should constantly keep their minds alert to phenomena that affect the body and mind. try to be aware of the "here and now" instead of "there and then" 8|Page . Right Concentration is a development of this attention. samyak-samadhi. Here. Right mindfulness also translated as right memory. not as they appear to be. but as they truly are. samma-samadhi Right knowledge is seeing things as they really are by direct experience. right awareness or right attention. or if they occur. mental feelings and thoughts etc. mental feelings and thoughts etc. making sure not to act or speak due to inattention or forgetfulness. Mental ability to see things with clear knowledge or the sense of one's personal or collective identity or awareness. try to be aware of the "here and now" instead of "there and then" 8) Right Meditation or Mindfulness. or if they occur. quiet. Right Concentration is a development of this attention. nor as the practitioner wants them to be. enabling to develop the mind that brings the strengths and freedoms including the clarity of mind and excited to stay on the path of Good Conduct.

through visual objects (kasina). The first to arise is right knowledge: this is where deep insight into the ultimate reality arises. This leads to cutting off the unclean thoughts by realizing the dharma and. The practice of developing Right View is to distinguishing between right and wrong. These two factors are the end result of correctly practicing the noble eightfold path. The last to arise is right liberation: this is where selfawakening occurs and the practitioner has reached the pinnacle of their practice. To realize the true nature of things the mind need to be steady and calm. Samadhi: mental discipline. it is achieved through training in the higher consciousness. good and bad that leads to a complete understanding of the Four Noble Truths. During the practice of right concentration. which arise during the practice of right concentration. The way to the end of suffering is to choose middle path by 9|Page . followed by right liberation. the practitioner will need to investigate and verify their right view. The eightfold Path is the teachings of the Prajnaparamita Sutra. which brings the calm and confidence needed to develop true wisdom by direct experience. Traditionally. finally self-awakening. Prajnaparamita Sutra is believed to be the highest form of Buddhist teaching. Samadhi is used to suppress the different kinds of confusion of mind to get enter into jhana.Correct concentration: to keep a steady. and through repetition of phrases (mantra). the practice of samadhi can be developed through mindfulness of breathing (anapanasati). meditation. In the process right knowledge will arise. Jhana is an instrument used for developing wisdom by cultivating insight and using it to examine true nature of phenomena with understanding and activities of thinking. concentration Samadhi is literally translated as "concentration". Right View is free from delusion and ignorance and moves very easily into deep wisdom. calm and attentive state of mind (universal emptiness) or the Natural Joy. clear sight and the ego disappear which leads to the stage of enlightenment and the ego gets disappear.

10 | P a g e . try to be aware of the "here and now" instead of "there and then". The practice of developing Right View is to distinguishing between right and wrong. sensations. These two factors are the end result of correctly practicing the noble eightfold path.Right liberation. The conscious mental activities are the main cause of ignorance related to the things truly occurs. utilizing the minimum requirements to have the livelihood. but as they truly are. The last to arise is right liberation: this is where selfawakening occurs and the practitioner has reached the pinnacle of their practice. The emotional cause is desire and a strong feeling of not liking something. To realize the true nature of things the mind need to be steady and cal. Right View is free from delusion and ignorance and moves very easily into deep wisdom. and without essential self. and mental processes. Right knowledge is seeing things as they really are by direct experience. Right Mindfulness focuses us on the truth about what is happening in the body. impermanent. good and bad that leads to a complete understanding of the Four Noble Truths. enabling to develop the mind that brings the strengths and freedoms including the clarity of mind and calmness to stay on the path of Good Conduct. Mental ability to see things with clear knowledge or the sense of one's personal or collective identity or awareness. which arise during the practice of right concentration. nor as the practitioner wants them to be. A result of Right Knowledge is the tenth factor . clear sight and the ego disappear which leads to the stage of enlightenment and the ego gets disappear.balancing the luxury and hardship. not as they appear to be. Right Concentration is a development of this attention. believed to be the highest form of Buddhist teaching. Buddhism has always been concerned with feelings. or three marks of existence: that all things are unsatisfactory. Correct concentration: to keep a steady. calm and attentive state of mind (universal emptiness) or the Natural Joy. The way leading to stop or make an end to the suffering is the noble eightfold path. The first to arise is right knowledge: this is where deep insight into the ultimate reality arises. emotions. The . mental feelings and thoughts etc.

Noble Eightfold Path can only work if a person chooses to apply it to their lives. The Noble Eightfold Path describes the teachings as a formula which is described in simple steps and includes both physical and mental treatment for getting a end of suffering. The programmer first develops character and personality and then develops ethical conduct and restraint which promote concentration. and takes full responsibility in following the steps. Middle Path. The Chinese traveler Faxian described images of Prajnaparamita in India as early as 400 BC. The goal of the Noble Eightfold Path is to bring a true understanding of the Four Noble Truths and deliver their ultimate Teaching . The eightfold Path is the teachings of the Prajnaparamita Sutra. Mental Development and Wisdom. develop wisdom and finally to attain the highest qualities of a human being and develop the Buddhahood. The Path develops character and personality by showing the way to live a virtuous life. This leads craving and desire to end from the mind (detachment) that brings freedom from suffering and the end of suffering brings Supreme Happiness. Prajnaparamita has been the subject of controversy since long and scholars are not able to trace its origin. The Noble Eightfold Path is a very systematic and methodical approach to solve the problem of suffering in life. Wisdom brings a clear under-standing of the truth about how things really are. peace and Nirvana.the end of suffering. choosing and balancing the luxury and hardship is the treatment for the problem of suffering in our lives. Concentration and mindfulness help make the mind free from ignorance and blossom into wisdom (access higher knowledge). Prajnaparamita Sutra is believed to be the highest form of Buddhist teaching. and achieving a state of wisdom. but all known existent images date from 800 or later. Buddhist scholars agree that 11 | P a g e .way to end the suffering is to choose middle path by balancing the luxury and hardship. mind and knowledge and the eight steps are divided into those three ways of practice. The Path is specifically aimed at developing behavior. This is the ultimate goal of the Eightfold Path and all eight ways of practice must be followed in order to attain it. which are Good Conduct. utilizing the minimum requirements to have the livelihood.

The Diamond Sutra (300 stanzas) also known as Vajrachedika Prajnaparamita Sutra and the Hridaya Prajnaparamita Sutra (Heart Sutra with 14 and 25 verses) belong to this period. 1) 100 B.D –This period is characterized by the restatement of the basic ideas in short sutras having verified and summaries.000 lines) c) Ashtadashashasrika Sutra (18. Conze: The Prajnaparamita Literature. (Edward.This period is characterized by the influence of the tantras. Adhyardhashatika Prajnaparamita Sutra (150 verses).) in India brought with him some of the manuscript and started translating 12 | P a g e .D. Tokyo 1978) Hsuan-tsang. . .000 line) b) Panchavimshasrika Sutra (25. the Chinese scholar after completing his study (645 A. The Reiyukai University.C. .D to 500 A. 2) 100 A D to 300 A D – In this period the basic text are being expanded including these three manuscripts were made: a) Shatasahasrika (100.000 lines) 3) 300 A.Prajnaparamita sutras represent the earliest layer of Mahayana sutra literature.D. . The circulations of the Prajnaparamita Sutra involved in three phases: a) Memorization of the basic text b) Systematic updating c) Interpretations that made the text live for succeeding generation. 4) 500 AD to 1200 A. Scholars distinguish the developments of the writing of the Prajnaparamita manuscript into four different phases: . The oldest text in this period is the Astashasrika Sutra or the Prajnaparamita in Eight Thousand Verses.D. evidences of magical elements in the sutras and their usage. . to 100 A. Diamond Sutra (300 stanzas) also known as Vajrachedika Prajnaparamita Sutra is widely used and is also popularly known as ―portable editions‖ of Prajnaparamita. . – Basic text elaboration: this period is characterized by the formation and composition of the basic text.

(Edward.C. Pancavimsatisahasrika and Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra 1) Trisatika Prajnaparamita Sutra 300 lines.No.2. the Diamond Sutra or Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra 2) Pancasatika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 500 lines 3) Saptasatika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 700 line the Bodhisattva Manjushree‘s Exposition of Prajnaparamita 4) Sardhadvisahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 2500 lines from the questions of Suvikranta vikramin Bodhisattva 5) Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 8000 lines 13 | P a g e . Sardhadvisahasrika. Astadasasahasrika. Truth is found through the Middle Way by following Eightfold Noble Path stated below: The Trisatika. 14.H. B. Hodgson collected Prajnaparamita from Nepal (1830 – 1840) written in Sanskrit was the first collection of its kind brought to Europe. It is a collection of the sixteen sermons – Dharma-deshana in four different places. utilizing the minimum requirements to have the livelihood.1952). Most of the manuscripts are in Sanskrit and are being originated and copied in Nepal.them into Chinese language. Pancasatika. Astasahasrika. a) Vulture Peak b) in Anathapindada‘s Park at Sravasti c) in Paranirmita vasavartin the abode of Gods and d) at the Snowy Heron Pond in the Bamboo Park near Rajgriha. He also translated ―The Great Prajnaparamita Text (worked between 659 and 663). Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita having Eight Thousand Verse is believed to be the oldest form of Prajnaparamita which is has been translated into Chinese language in 100 B. The way to the end of suffering is to choose middle path by balancing the luxury and hardship. Conze: The Composition of the Astashasrika Prajnaparamita. Bulletin of the School of Oriental & African Studies:–University of London Vol. Saptasatika.

with one head and two arms (sometimes more). East Java kept in the Pusat Museum that belong to thirteenth Century (13th Century). Some of 14 | P a g e .mudra) holding a Lotus and a book.paramita Sutra (25. In Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhism. the hands in the teaching gesture (dharmachakra . while Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (8000 lines) does not have any sect. Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations 2008) The Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita Hridaya in 14 line & 25 line) and Diamond Sutra (300 stanzas) are renowned throughout the world and have been translated into many languages and often been commented upon by scholars. Tantric versions of the Prajnaparamita literature were believed to have been in practiced as early as 500 AD.000 lines 7) Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 25. Leiden. (Williams. King of Nagas. Netherland) She is usually represented in yellow or white colour. The image found in Nepal has four hand holding rosary. she is described as the female consort of Adi-Buddha (first Buddha). Nepal and Tibet. Conclusion: Prajnaparamita teachings are held by some Tibetan Buddhists to have been conferred upon Nagarjuna by Nag raja.000 lines) have a connection with Dharmaguptaka sect. Paul.vajra).000 line) and Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (100. thunderbolt (symbolizing the emptiness. The oldest image of Prajnaparamita found until to-day is the stone sculpture from Sing sari.000 lines 8) Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita: 100. Tantric versions of the Prajnaparamita literature were produced from the year 500 CE. who had been guarding them at the bottom of the ocean. Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajn.000 lines Maha Prajnaparamita Sutra . or bowl (renunciation of material goods being a prerequisite to obtain wisdom). sword (to clean ignorance).6) Astadasasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 18. According to Joseph Walser. Images of Prajnaparamita deity are found throughout Southeast Asia. (Credit: Courtesy of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde.

From the collection of Indian Art Museum. Vietnam. Edward Conze in his book "The Short Prajnaparamita Texts . Regmi. Hong Kong. Sri Lanka. Dinesh Chandra. and Sri Lanka. Java. Sumatra. Bangladesh. and Bangladesh. Myanmar. Bali.the ancient manuscripts are in the collection of Museums around the world. Cambodia.Page 102) There are many Vihars in and around Kathmandu Valley where they do have collections of Buddhist manuscripts written by different scholars and are displayed during the holy month GUNLA . Cambodia.in Nepali . China. Most of the Scholars are of the opium that the oldest and authentic one is from Sri Lanka. Java. India. There are more Prajnaparamita manuscripts in other languages found in many South Asian Countries Tibet. Thailand.000 stanzas / shloka) from Copenhagen Royal Library. Purlekhana Paricaya VS 2048/ 1991 (Nepalese Paleography . according to merit the Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra are renowned throughout the world. In addition to these. Japan. Both have been translated into many languages and have often been commented upon. Kaiser Library and . Hong Kong. there is also other Prajnaparamita sutras such as the Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita Hridaya). highlights the origin of Ranjana Script from India. Thailand.August / September. 15 | P a g e . Korea. (Asha Archives). but most of the Scholars do believe the one from Sri Lanka is the oldest and is called the authentic collection as it is written in Pali script. Sumatra. Tibet. The following two collections are very important and authentic. China. Korea. Vietnam. which exists in both 14-line and 25-line versions. (Pali is the oldest script among other used in Buddhist Text). Japan. Bali.1973" writes. India. The Heart Sutra (smallest of its kind having only 14 Stanza in Sanskrit) is in New York Museum and the Perfection of wisdom in Tibetan Script (having 8. There are Prajnaparamita also written in other languages found in many South Asian Countries. Myanmar. There is Prajnaparamita manuscript also in the collection of National Achieve as well in Asha Saphu Kuthi. Berlin Dr. Regarding the shorter texts. The oldest Prajnaparamita manuscript (written during the period of Manipaldeva the king of Bengal 1020 AD) from the collection of Cambridge University is written in Ranjana script. –--.

The legendary Caravan to Lhasa leaded by Simhala Sarthbaha also does have main historical significance to its establishment. boarding for the students and shelter for the visiting monks. Bibliotheca Himalayan Series 2. Tibet and China also did mention about the glory of this temple during the 11th and 13th century. Rudra Varna Mahavihar is dated 216 NS/ 1105 AD and from Hiranya Varna Mahabihar is dated 336 NS / 1225 AD (Hem Raj Sakya and T. Kathmandu). Ratna Pustak Bhandar. Wolfgang. Thambahi) Vikramshila Mahavihar.R. 16 | P a g e . still lots of real facts are missing. as a teaching institute. After the introduction of Vajrayan cult a new kind of monastery known as bahal were constructed (with some lavish decoration) in the city settlement to accommodate the married monks living together with their family.National Library in Nepal. Thamel sounds to be more authentic and has more Stanzas (shlokas) and is nicely written with real golden ink (dated 344 NS / 1233 AD). Simhakalpanagar is the ancient name of Bhagwan Bahal. The oldest available document related to this temple is of the visits of Pundit Atisa from India in the early 11th century (1041 AD) . perching. Simhakalpanagar denotes it as a separate city or town. Originally Bahis were designed as a place for training. The Saharsha Prajnaparamita a rare collection of four volumes of highest Buddhist manuscript in this temple complex has a close relationship with Manjushree. Bahi is the old form of Nepalese monastery usually located in a peaceful place far from the city settlement and are made in a plinth little above the level of the ground and are constructed in a very simple form. Thambhi. Kathmandu page 6) Vikramshila Mahavihar (Simhakalpanagar.(Korn. Most of those collections are in small version/ volume but the one in Vikramshila Mahavihar. Prajnaparamita from Patan. copying the religious text. Vaidya. Mahavihar signify it to be a higher teaching institute same as a University. Thamel Kathmandu. Some of the travel records made by scholars from India. Thambahil signify it to be the monastery of high significance and pride. 1976 . 1970 Medieval Nepal: Colophons and inscriptions.The Traditional Architecture of Kathmandu Valley.

as we are left with few documents. He was the head pundit (Principal) of Nalanda University and was invited by Tibetan king to visit Tibet to teach and revive Buddhism. The legendary Caravan to Lhasa leaded by Simhala Sarthbaha also does have main historical significance to its establishment.42). (Chovar being the only exit for all rivers in Kathmandu Valley and the black soil found everywhere in Kathmandu Valley does testify it to be a lake earlier). Swayambhu Puran is one of the oldest manuscripts narrating the story of the evolution of Kathmandu Valley. Manjushree is the Bodhisattva of Divine wisdom representing the infinite and eternal wisdom of Buddha. Manjushree Bodhisattva is believed to have visited this place and meditated in Phulchoki (Phullichho) and Jamachho (Jatamatroccho).In this short article I am trying my best effort to high light some facts to make understand a common reader about this ancient temple complex: lots of investigation and research need to be conduct to identify its past glory. According to the legend Kathmandu Valley was a lake surrounded by mountains. On his way to Tibet he spent one year in Nepal (1041 . most of his time was spent in Than Bahi and is believed to have studied the Buddhist philosophy and has written books in Sanskrit.1054) and spent one year studying Buddhist philosophy during 1041 . A big lotus with thousand leaves blossomed in the center of lake that attracted visitors from around the globe. . The first historical important evidence of Than Bahi is the visit of Pundit Atisha Shrijana (982. Some of the travel record made by scholars from India Tibet and China also did mention about the glory of this temple during 11th and 13th century. 17 | P a g e . Manjushree holds a sword in his right hand and a book of perfection (Prajnaparamita) in the left hand. (But the name of Prajnaparamita is not mentioned by Atisha) The Saharsha Prajnaparamita a rare collection of four volume of highest Buddhist manuscript in this temple complex has a close relationship with Manjushree. He is believed to have drained the valley by cutting the edge of the hill with the divine sword. Kanakmuni Bodhisattva is believed to have thrown a lotus seed in the lake. still lots of real facts are missing.42 AD.

which clearly indicates the high importance of Thambahi and the similarity of the name Vikramshila indicates the name might have been given by him. A historical evidence of the restoration of the temple in 408NS/1287AD by Hari Singh during the resign of king Parthvendra Mall is being mentioned in the Toran. . Simhala Sarthabaha is believed to have established Bhagwan Bahal and the entire daily rituals and activities during the festival are being controlled by the Pradhan family from Thamel. Nalanda. Almost all Vihars in and around Kathmandu valley are being managed by the community of priest family either by Bajracharya or Sakya (Gristha Bhishu) family but this Vihar is exceptional where Pradhan family do control the management to run the day to day activities as well as various rituals during festivals. Sanker Man 2027 VS in Kantipur Silalekh Suchi published by HMG National Archive page 125. Ratna Pustak Bhandar. 1976 (Text by Purnaharsha Vajracharya). India is believed to visit Nepal for advance study in Buddhism and Sanskrit in the early 13th Century. The brick paving and the restoration of the temple complex in Thambahi was done by Hari Simha during the reign of king Parthivendra Malla is also mentioned in one of the stone inscription kept in National Archive (The stone inscription no. a new Toran is kept now as a replacement). Rajvamsi.Darmashri Mitra. a renowned scholar from Vikramshila Vihar. He did study in Thambahi. Recent Archeological excavation in Nalanda got a new light about the existence of Vikramshila Vihar as one of the old teaching institution for higher study in Buddhism in the early first century BC. the semicircular wood archive kept in the main entrance of the temple. (It did have nice carvings of the image of Prajnaparamita which was stolen some 40 years ago. Traditional Architecture of Kathmandu Valley: by Wolfgang Korn.173). Both the Hindu as well as Buddhist temple has Gaju (the roof top) a kalash (water Pot) design but the main shrine of Thambahi has a chaitya and a metallic mirror on the roof. A banner of . We see Gaju on the roof tops of the religious buildings and temples. 18 | P a g e . and chaitya in the Buddhist temple. who believe themselves as the descendants of Simhala Sarthabaha.

found the auspicious moment already passed and was laminating.white cloth along with a metallic belt hangs down from the metallic mirror (Lucke. Tibetans did invade the temple and looted one volume which was recovered by the army and was deposited in Hanumandhoka Palace during King Pratap Mall‘s period.000 stanza. (The first three pages do have big script different than the remaining page). This is a legend but we have no evidence regarding how long it did took to write all the four volume. Karunamaya 1986 p 474) Saharsha Prajnaparamita The four volume of Saharsha Prajnaparamita manuscript in the collection of Thambahi is dated Nepal Sambat 344 Margasira Pratipada (1223 AD) is believed to have written by Jinashri Jnana and started by Manjushree. The date NS 344 (1223 AD) might be the date it was completed or the date mentioned by someone else? King Pratap Mall and Queen Lalmati after visiting this temple wrote three stanzas appreciating the holy manuscript Prajnaparamita. Jinashri is supposed to get inspired by Manjushree and found an auspicious moment to start writing the manuscript. Manjushree came forward and instructed him to start writing without any disturbances as he has already started writing from the auspicious moment. 512 in Vol. John K. Manjushree is believed to have started writing the first three pages with his finger. We have no idea regarding the total number of pages in the missing volume kept in Hanumandhoka. (NS 780 /1658AD) Pandit Hemraj Sakya in his Nepal Sanskritya Mulukha 1969 (Main entrance of the culture of Nepal) did mentioned this manuscript as Laksavati Prajnaparamita.864 total lines in the four Volumes. being used during rituals in Sweat Bhairav temple in Hanumandhoka There are 54. this clearly indicate to have 100. II. 506 in Vol. III and 497 in Vol. (27 lines in one page . but felt asleep. 19 | P a g e . IV).1. It is believed that there were in total five volumes of Manuscripts.nine lines in three rows) four volume containing 2032 page (517 pages in Vol. Some people used to speak to have seen a manuscript having more similarity in script. When he woke up.

it is hard to believe it being written long ago. The size of the page is rectangular nine inches by eighteen inches written in real golden ink. During the last day of the display of the manuscript the National (Royal) Kumari from Hanumandhoka is being carried on a chariot to Thambhil for viewing the manuscript and the head Priest from Hanumandhoka used to recite few lines from the first page and the last page in the presence of Kumari marking the end of reciting the holy manuscript Prajnaparamita. It is very interesting facts about numerology in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology that number nine plays a vital role. This used to be the only time when the manuscript is able to be view by public.500 lines making total 68. During GUNLAA. which looks like a print rather than a hand written manuscript as the character looks uniform and looking at the nice and bright prints. the main religious Text of Mahayan Buddhism. Sikkim and Bhutan come visit Thambahi to pay to view and pay respect to this holy manuscript as it is believed to have written by the divine lord of learning Manjushree. (Now a day‘s one can easily see it on paying fee that is used for the temple expenses).If we guess 500 pages in the missing volume it will add 13. . Manjushree: Legendary or Historical? In the first chapter of Kalachakra Tantra. India. Sharada Mandir Kashi 2003 20 | P a g e . (Boudha Darshan by Baldev Upaddhaya. the Buddhist holy months (ninth months of Lunar Calendar) the four volumes are given to the Bajracharya of four renowned Vihars of Kathmandu to recite from top to bottom and are paid for doing so.364 lines. it is mentioned that 600 years after Buddha a great scholar Manjushree will be born to get a new renaissance of Buddhist thoughts. This does not happen if we have eight lines with three rows even though nine lines with four rows do fulfill these criteria but the size do not look nice. this is clearly understood in the layout of the page with three row containing nine lines totaling twenty seven lines. Many devotees from China. this clearly indicates Manjushree to belong to the First century AD. Tibet. adding two and seven makes nine so each and every volume also do have the same count ending with nine.

Manjushree came forward and instructed him to start writing without any disturbances as he has already started writing from the auspicious moment. found the auspicious moment already passed and was laminating. The holy Satashasrika Pranjaparamita (100. Jinashri is believed to have inspired from his teacher Manjushree and found an auspicious moment to start writing the manuscript. a scholar and Monk from India (1st Century). is also written by a Buddhist Monk named Manjushree during the first century (Legendary History of Kathmandu by John Luck page 412) and Late Bhuvan Lal Pradhan also did mention the legendary Manjushree belong to the first century in the article ―Manjushree Legendary or historical‖ published in Nepali (Gorkhapatra 2048/2/11).000 verses 12 volumes in the Tibetan language) has been translated in ninth century by Jianshree Mitra. (The first three pages do have big script different than the remaining page). Subrenbodieg and Tibetan Monk Ye-Se-sde. When he woke up. (Bibliotheca Indica 19021913). Edward Conze in his book ―The Prajnaparamita Literature‖ (Manton The Hague 1960) did mention that Jianmitra did translate this text in Tibetan language during the early 9th century. The date 1223 AD/ 344 NS mentioned at the end of the Prajnaparamita manuscript from Vikramshila Mahavihar testify another historical Manjushree (a monk from Nalanda University. India) the teacher of Jinashri to belong to the 13th century. being written by Jianshri indicates another historical Manjushree to belong to the thirteen century (Jianshri was the disciple of Manjushree). 21 | P a g e . He felt asleep by the time and Manjushree is believed to start writing the first three pages with his finger. This is a legend .page 454 – 55.There is some confusion regarding the legendary and three historical Manjushree (The legendary Manjushree from Mahachin (China). The Buddhist text Saddharma Pundarika. 13 pages 69-71). The date 344 NS (1223AD) mentioned at the end of the manuscript from Bhagwan Bahal. Same quote is also given in Maryada No. Teacher of Jianmitra (Jinashri 9th Century) and teacher of Jinashri (from the Prajna-paramita manuscript written in the 13th Century). This clearly indicates Jianshree to belong to the ninth century signifying his teacher Manjushree also to belong to this period.

but may be taken provisionally as about 250 B. when Buddhism was first introduced into that island (a date that is not quite certain. Fah-hian who visited Abhayagiri in Sri Lanka (412 AD) recorded 500 representations of Bodhisattva in successive births. is believed to have collected 550 Jataka stories in Pali which were composed by the time of the council of Patna (held in about 250 BC). Nepal Sanskritya Mulukha 1969 (Main entrance of the culture of Nepal) We have no idea regarding the total page in the missing volume kept in Hanumandhoka). and everyday thoughts of the people. The Jatakas so constituted were carried to Ceylon in the Pali language. the story of the previous birth of Buddha is the oldest. (The Commentarial Introduction entitled Nidana Katha .Jataka Tales). The Jataka Atthavannand. 22 | P a g e . is previously belonging to the third or fourth century BC. Mahinda. and the whole tales were translated into the Singhalese language. the son of Asoka (in some text he is called on as the brother of Asoka). most complete. Translated from Pali text by Prof.C.). the five hundred and fifty Jatakas being contained in the twenty-two Nipatas. V.The Story of the linage. and retold into its present form in Ceylon in the fifth century AD in the Pali text has been edited by Prof.but we have no evidence regarding how long it did took to write all the four volume. Fausboll).000 Stanza--Pundit Hem Raj Sakya. The memoirs of the famous Chinese traveler. The Jataka Tales (Stories of the Buddha's Former Births) Jataka (Buddhist Birth Stories . and most important collection of folk-lore which contains a record of the everyday life. The date 1223 AD / 344 NS mentioned at the end of the manuscript might be the date it was completed or the date mentioned by someone else? King Pratap Mall and Queen Lalmati after visiting this temple (NS 780/ 1658 AD) during the festival did wrote three stanzas appreciating the holy manuscript Satashariska Prajnaparamita (Meaning 100. Fausboll of Copenhagen in . A Jataka Book is also found in the Anguttara Nikdya and in the Saddharma Pundarika.

247-94. p.Ramanujan. the number of Jataka stories could also be more or a little less.K. the aśvarāja ‗king of horses‘. The 547 Jatakas do not include the Mahagovinda Jataka. The Pali Jatakas and the Sanskrit Divyavadana ("heavenly stories") along with a sixteenth-century Sanskrit text Gunakdrandavyiha. being followed home by demons. The Asvaraja story relates the adventures of a caravan of merchants shipwrecked on an island of demons and rescued by a flying horse. Similarly some stories are repeated with the same name or with another. B. First published in 1895-1907) The Sanskrit version of the Simhala story in the Gunakdrandavyuh as found in Y. Simhala. the horse is presented as an incarnation of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteswora.3.Iwamoto. 1967. Cowell. devoted to Avalokiteswora narrates the story of The Flying White Horse and help made to rescue the five hundred merchants from the captivity of the Raksasi. pp. Simhala is crowned king and invades the island. 1 . which is mentioned in several early texts such as Nidana-katha and the Jatakatthakatha. The Simhala story continues this narrative to include the chief merchant. "Who Needs Folklore? The Relevance of Oral 23 | P a g e . Thus. who tries to get him back before seducing and eating the king.1877-96 which is translated into English language by Edward Cowell (Cambridge. (The Jataka: Stories of the Buddha's Former Births -The Goblin City page 164/165. In the 16th chapter of Gunakarandavyaha Simhsarthabahu is mentioned as one of the previous lives of Buddha and in one the Jataka Stories the name of the leader of the group of merchant is mentioned as Simhala who was the only member to get back to the other shore. 1895-1907) is the oldest collection of the Jataka Tales. The flying white horse is called Balaha in Jataka. vol. have been arranged. edited by E. (Khmer Mythology by Vittorio Roveda. the stories of Buddha‘s previous life. 65). The story of the horse Balaha was immortalized in stone at the Angkor monument of Neak Pean during the 12th century CE. /A. Bukkyo Setsuwa Kenkyu Josetsu (Kyoto: Hozokan. In the Karandavyuha Sutra.

Catalogue of the Indian Museum. p. Leipzig. Vietnam. Tibet. Japan. China. (See Khmer Mythology by Vittorio Roveda. Sri Lanka. London.1. Benoy K.Traditions to South Asian Studies‖. The story of the white flying horse is illustrated on the bas-reliefs of the temple of Borobudur in Java (Leemans. which may be related to Ravana‘s Asoka Garden as mentioned in the Ramayana. 1863) In all Jatakas from India. (Buddhism in Tibet by Emil Schlagintweit. He is shipwrecked along with his men on an island on which ogresses appear as beautiful women. Another name.Ratnadipa "because of the precious gems found there". was derived from the name of the legendary founder and first king of the island. but who eat their victims.: The Ajanta Caves) 24 | P a g e . Leide. as the Devine Lord Avalokiteswara. the leader able to get back home safely leaving behind all other members under the captive of the Rakshasi but there is nothing mentioned about the Leader of the Legendary Caravan. 1874) and on one side of a pillar in a Buddhist railing at Mathura. 1990) Hiuen Tsiang learned that Sri Lanka was known by several different names . Journal of the Pali Society 1888) from The Goblin City (Valahassa Jataka by Francis & Thomas page 189). South Asia Occasional Papers (University of Hawaii Vol. The story of the horse Balaha was immortalized in stone at the Angkor monument of Neak Pean (an artificial island with a Buddhist temple on a circular island in Cambodia) during the 12th century CE. Silangiri and the Sorrow less Kingdom. 65) The mural paintings in Cave no. Borobudur. is mentioned and the story ends with the only member. The prince escapes on a flying horse. page 389. the story of the rescue of five hundred merchants from the captive of Rakshasi by White Flying Horse. is a flying horse with people clinging to it (Anderson. One painting from Ajanta cave shows the pastimes of Prince Simhala‘s journey to Sri Lanka. (Behl. 17 of Ajanta Cave mention the story of Bhalaha horse as a form of Avalokiteswora helping the group of merchants from the Rakshisis. Indonesia. then later returns to the island to conquer it. Simhala.

This is the first scholarly study of the site which drew the global attention. The mural paintings in Cave no. One painting shows the pastimes of Prince Simhala‘s journey to Sri Lanka. and stayed here for fifteen years (629-645 AD). 1-2 . was transmitted across Asia from India to Japan. who visited India in the seventh century A. The Valahassa Jataka. A Japanese scroll painting belonging to the 13th century illustrating the Valahassa Jataka is in the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Jamkhedkar). (The Flying White Horse: Transmission of the Valāhassa Jataka Imagery from India to Japan by Julia Meech-Pekarik. Ajanta Cave No. as it is known in Pali. In this tale the five hundred merchant are called on as the disciples of Sakyamuni and the white flying horse as Bodhisattva. James Fergusson presented a paper at the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland in 1843. but who eat their victims.1981. He is shipwrecked along with his men on an island on which ogresses appear as beautiful women. They named it Ajanta after the name of the nearest village. In the tale the name of the island is mentioned as Ceylon city of Cannibalistic demons.In the travel account of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang. The prince escapes on a flying horse. did not mention about Ajanta cave.128) 25 | P a g e . In 1819 British officers of the Madras Army made a discovery of this magnificent site. 17 of Ajanta Cave mention the story of Bhalaha horse as a form of Avalokiteswora helping the group of merchants from the Rakshisis. 1895) . then later returns to the island to conquer it.P. page 111. D. 1) Valahassa Jataka in Japanese Literature. (Ajanta: Monumental Legacy by A. 17 has the largest number of paintings and murals than any of the other caves. the tale is known as Kannon-kyo (Kannon Sutra) in Japanese literature. (The Cave Temples of India: by James Burgess and James Fergusson. After a gap of twenty-five years. Article Published in Artibus Asiae Publishers Volume 49 n. It also contains more murals than any of the others. The name of the country of the five hundred merchant and the name of the leader are not mentioned.

Same story is mentioned in Jataka: The 26 | P a g e . 196. The chief of the traders got noticed the ladies as man eater goblins so he did request all member to flee from the city (Ceylon). (The Jataka: Vol. the divine lord is believed to get rescue the group of five hundred merchant in the form of a white flying horse. The name of the island is mentioned as Singhala and the group of five hundred merchants from India being rescued from the Rakshasis by Lord Avalokiteswora in the form of flying horse Balaha. II: Book II. Varma) 3) The Valahassa Jataka .503-511.H. published in 1888). (A Jataka Tale from the Tibetan: by H.196) the island Tambannidipa and Sirisavatthu is mentioned as a Yakkha city peopled by Yakkhinís who used to eat human flesh.Tibetan version. 3) Jataka Tale Translated from the Pali Literature (Dukanipata) In the Valahassa Jataka (No. translated from Pali. The same story is repeated by E J Thomas in his book Jataka Tales (No. No.B.D. Avalokiteswora. pp. 196 Valahassa Jataka Page 90-92). Only two hundred fifty members followed the chief and they were being helped by the white flying horse to cross the ocean. Rouse. In the history of Tibet called Rgyal-rabs-gsal-vai-me-lon (The mirror illustrating the lineage of the kings) Valahassa Jataka is mentioned in the sixth chapter.2) The Valahassa Jataka --. The Goblin City page 164-166 published by Cambridge University Press in 1916 and in The Illustrated Jataka & Other Stories of the Buddha. 1895. 196 Valahassa Jataka by C. Wenzel. by W. there was on the island of Lanka a goblin town called Sirisavatthu that was the home of she-goblins.(Indonesian version) Once upon a time. We find the story of a group of five hundred shipwrecked traders being rescued by five hundred shegoblins disguised as pretty nice looking young ladies. This is how the Jataka story ends with the rescue help made to the group of merchants by the flying white horse Balaha as one of the Buddha‘s previous life. This was composed in the early 17th century with the narrative description of the animistic life in Tibet from an ape and a rakshasi and the description of the linage of the ruling king ending Sronbtsan sgam-po and the further history of the country to the time of the writer.

B. volumes 1 . Ceylon is mentioned as the Goblin City and the leader of the group of merchant is mentioned as Simhala who was the only member able to get back to the other shore (The Jataka: Stories of the Buddha's Former Births edited by E. 8) The adventure of the Merchant Simhala is also mentioned by Professor Siegfried Lienhard with a description of a long scroll Painting 11. (The Cave Temples of India by James Fergusson and James Burgess 1895 and Ajanta and Ellora: Cave Temples of Ancient India Pushpesh Pant) .Sankt. Professor Siegfried Lienhard also did mention about this Scroll painting in his paper ―A Nepalese painted Scroll Illustrating the Simhalavadan‖ (Nepalica 4 Sankt 49-53 Editors Prof. proceedings of an an Int‘l. Varma and A Jataka-Tale from the Tibetan by H. B. Wenzel (The Goblin City.The Goblin City page 164/166) 6) Jataka Tale from The Tibet by H. Published in the Heritage of Kathmandu Valley. N.55 meter wide with 80 frames each with the legend / story of Simshartha Bahu (Text in Nepali Script & the language Newari) from the collection of Museum of Indian Art. 503—511) 5) Goblin City (Jataka Story: the Flying White Horse) In the Jataka: Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. Berlin. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland page 503-511) 7) Jataka Story from Ajanta Cave Cave 17 has the largest number of paintings in its premises. 27 | P a g e .Illustrated Jataka & Other Stories of the Buddha by C. Among the finest are a vast panel depicting Simhala‘s shipwreck and encounter with a man-eating ogress and also of a lady admiring herself as she gazes intently into a mirror.44 meter long and 0. Cowell. Conference in Lubec June 1985) 9) Indonesian Valahassa Jataka . Micheals . First published in 1895-1907 under the title . Wenzel (The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland pp.3. Augustine VGH Wissenschaflaverlage Page 51-53).Gulschow & A.

Two hundred merchant followed their leader and were helped by white flying horse to cross the ocean. there is a town called Sirisavatthu inhabited by the yakhsa women. in the island of Ceylon (Tambapaṇṇidipa). during the period of king Simhakesari from Simhakalpa a son named Simhala was born to a wealthy merchant Simhaka. The abode of rakshasis is mentioned as Tamradvipa and Simhala was able to escape from the island on a magic white horse living behind all other members under the captive of the Rakshasis. Five hundred merchant‘s ship wrecked near the town of yaksha woman. Lewis in his Ph. 1984). Lewis mentions the name of the leader of the group of the merchant leading to Lhasa as Simhalasarthabahu. the yakhsa went to the house of torture.Once upon a time. When the head Yakhsa came back the leader merchant noticed her body cold so he thought her to be a yakhsa. killing several men there and prey on them.D. Professor Todd Lewis in his article published in the Journal of Religion mention about a stupa in Lhasa known as Simsharthabahu Chorten and a shrine in Jokhang dedicated to his wife' that Newar traders honor as the 28 | P a g e . The story ends with the story of Bodhisattva born into the world as a white horse flying from Himalayas to Ceylon and two hundred and fifty merchant as the disciple of the Buddha. Todd T. . In Popular Buddhist Texts from Nepal: Narratives and Rituals in a Newar Merchant Community (Columbia University: Ph. when their husband was asleep. Newar-Tibetan Trade and the Domestication of "Simhala sarthabahu Avadana" mention about Simhala Sarthabahu as the leader of the five hundred merchants. (Page 135-160) In Simhala Avadana it is mentioned. Later in the evening. 10) Simhalasarthabahu Avadana Todd T. Dissertation.D. Dissertation. son of the Merchant Simhaka from the town of Simhakalpa in Jambudvipa. Next morning he spoke to his friends flee because they were being under the captive of the yakhsa. All five hundred merchants were rescued by five hundred yakhsa and they were living as husband and wife. Simhala was selected as the leader of the group of five hundred merchants who were on a sea-voyage.

he became the leader or say chief of the Army so got a new name Garuda and once he became the king again called Garudjuju. 2. But the story popular among Pradhan. The main image of Bhagwan Bahal known as Garujuju or Garud Bhagwan. Phil. After all royal family being killed. a Newar Buddhist family from Thambahi is different than the Jataka Tales. Kathmandu Upatyakaka kehi sanskritic chhirka mirka 2047.Phil. This is how Simhala the leader of the Caravan got a new name Simhala Sarthabaha (also called upon as Simhsartha bahu).some notes on the culture identity of Kathmandu valley in Nepali p. page 150.form of Jatika Ajima (Newar-Tibetan Trade and the Domestication of Simhala Sarthabaha Avadan. Thambahi is dedicated to the raksasi wife of Simhala Sarthabaha known as Jatika Ajima. 72) In Newar Buddhist traditions Ajima is known as child eating carnivorous Rakhishi being converted to Buddhism by Lord Buddha and is given the duty to take care of the children. Thangka painting. Bhuvan Lal.33 No. The small shrine outside the Bikramshila Mahavihar. in some of the early texts as well as in the poem from Kalidasa in the early 11th century. is believed to be the image of Simhsarthabahu. and Scroll painting) being displayed in the main court of 29 | P a g e .2006 page 187-201 c) Jataka Stories in Theravada Buddhism (D. Most of the prominent Newar viharas have temples dedicated to her (Ajima). Thesis Oxford University 2008) Simhala Sarthabaha Sarthabaha is used to identify the leader of the merchants. (Garuda meaning the chief of the Army who is able to handle the war and Juju the king see Pradhan. Vol..Buddhist studies Review 23/2 . 11) Dr. Thesis Cardiff University 2004) b) The story of the Horse king and the Merchant Simhala in Buddhist text . source History of Religions. The Poubha (Wilampau. published by the University of Chicago Press 1993) . Naomi Appleton: a) Seduced by Sansara saved by a flying horse: A study of the Asvaraja and Simhala Stories (M.

While crossing river the river they encountered an accident and were being rescued by five hundred young and exceptionally beautiful ladies. this is how he got a new name Simhala Sarthabaha. a group of five hundred young businessmen left for a caravan to Lhasa. According to the legend (a non-historical or unverified story). He was instructed to go to the north side of the city to check a big compound surrounded by tall walls like a well. The hero of the story is regarded as a bodhisattva and a large gilded image of him is enshrined in one of the Kathmandu's oldest Buddhist temples in Thambahi. during the holy months of Gunlaa narrates the legendary story of the Voyage to Lhasa. as their leader. as Sarthabaha is called for the leader of the group of merchant. Than Bahil: An Ancient Centre for Sanskrit Study. The Legendary story of the Lhasa Caravan A copy of ancient wall hanging (Poubha. One day Simhala Sarthabaha was given the sight of Lord Avalokiteshwora (Karunamaya) while in meditation and worship. they did not thought of returning back home. a merchant with rich knowledge. 30 | P a g e . Indologica Taurinensia 7. Wilampau. being led by Simhala Sarthabaha. All members of the caravan were busy doing business and were enjoying with the young ladies as their wife. (Puma Harsha Bajracarya. Walking through dense forest they came across river Brahmaputra. Simhala sarthabaha used to worship the family God Avalokiteshvara (Karunamaya) daily. The group did selected Simhala. where they used to throw the skeletons. In the dream the Devin Lord Avalokiteshwora told him that they are being under captive of the devils (The man eater) and told him to leave the city as soon as possible as it was a bewitched Island. Thangka painting. Scroll painting) narrating the story of the legendary caravan to Lhasa is being displayed in the main courtyard of Bhagwan Bahal during the festival of the holy month Gunla the ninth months according to the Nepali Lunar Calendar. dating back to the 11th century. 1979: 62-64).Thamel.

The horse instructed all them to get a ride and warned them not to look behind while crossing the river and enchant the Triratna Mantra. so was able to get back home leaving behind all his friends under the captive of the wretched women (she devil). Simhala Sarthabaha did worship the divine Lord and a flying horse appeared. He was no more able to find anybody but the human skeleton scattered all over the palace court yard. When the she devils wok up. where they were not forbidden to visit. and did not forget to enchant the Mantra of Triratna. Simhala Sarthabaha was the only person who did not look behind. He got convinced himself about the dream after visiting the northern side of the city. He went there and was able to climb a tree. All members except Simhala Sarthabaha looked behind and were under the captive of the she devils and were taken back to the other side of the river. they could not find the young merchants sleeping next to them. Next day when the palace door did not opened Simhala Sarthabaha entered the palace climbing through a ladder. The chief devil. wife of Simhala Sarthabaha followed him and disguised as a young and exceptionally beautiful lady came to the court with a baby on her lap claiming herself to be the wife of Simhala Sarthabaha. He made the plan to get an escape from the evil eyes of the damsels whom they mistakenly thought of their beloved wives. They left their home in the middle of the night when their wives were fast asleep and came close to the Brahmaputra River. He could not found any of the Royal family members in the palace as all 31 | P a g e . In the middle of the night she called all her companions and started killing the members of the Royal family and the staff. He was able to get convinced his friends about the instruction of the divine Lord and made a plan to live the bewitched land as soon as possible. and saw lots of human skeletons behind the tall walls.Avalokiteshwora also did promise to help them cross the river. The king then kept her in the palace as he was attracted with the exceptional beauty of the lady. They were flying across the river and started laminating and requesting them to return back home. Simhala Sarthabaha did try to convince the king that she is a man eater and denied to accept them as his wife and son.

she also made a proposal least there be no openings in the rooftops of the buildings. Bhuban Lal. the protector Goddess (Jatika Ajima). His wife also is honored as a divine god Ajima. This is how he got a new name Garud literally meaning army chief and later on was able to become the king and called Garudjuju. Even these days the sticky water (Jati) is being poured to the image of Ajima (Jatika Ajima). Page 82) Simhala Sarthabaha donated land and is believed to have established Thambahi in his home town.were being killed and eaten by the she devils. With the Devin sword he is believed to have killed all the Dankinis except his wife who did beg pardon for her life. Later on with his spiritual power and intellectual knowledge. before reaching the rice bowl to Garud Bhagwan. She spoke to have the first one thinking herself as senior so this is how she got the sticky water (Jati). Simhala Sarthabaha was nominated as the leader of the community as all members of the Royal family were killed by the she devil. This is why even today the Pradhans from the locality do not have open rooftops in their houses. Kathmandu Upatyeka ka Chirka Mirka.the first. he gained popularity as a form of Divine God – Dipankara Garud Bhagwan. before reaching the rice bowl to Garud Bhagwan. 2047. with the wealth he earned from Lhasa (the traders usually bring Gold from Tibet). This is why even today the Pradhans from this locality do not have open roof-tops in their houses. 32 | P a g e . She was then asked which portion of the rice she wants to have. (Pradhan. She has made a vow to protect the entire community. This is how even today the sticky water (Jati) is being poured to the image of Jatika Ajima. After being pardoned from her life she is being ordered to make a solemn vow to protect the entire community and in return she also made a proposal to protect the community least there be no opening in the roof top of the buildings. Later on being the chief of the army was able to become the king and got coroneted to the thrown so called Garud juju. middle or the last. He found the human skeletons scattered around the palace and saw the she devils sleeping around the courtyard.

44 meter long and 0.2. Paubha paintings (Thanka painting. Baidyo Boayagu The ninth months of Lunar calendar (it starts from the dark moon night of Festival of light) so called GUNLAA is being celebrated as the holy month by the Newar Buddhist community in Kathmandu Valley. Nepalica 4 Sankt. during the holy months of Gunlaa narrates the legendary story of the Voyage to Lhasa. scroll painting. Professor Siegfried Lienhard did published an article introducing a painting 11.The main image of Bhagwan Bahal which is known as Garujuju or Garud Bhagwan. Wilampau). images of different God and Goddess.Chicago Journal. is believed to be the image of Simhala Sarthabaha. History of Religion volume 33 no. June 1985 edited by Niels Gutschow and Ayiel Michaels. being leaded by Simhala Sarthabaha. A copy of ancient wall hanging being displayed in the main court of Thamel. Professor Todd Lewis also published a paper on the localization of Simhalasarthabahu Avadana . Even today Pradhans from Thambahi do not visit Lhasa as they believe themselves the descendant of Simhala Sarthabaha because they are scared of being attracted by the she devils as revenge. Berlin (Heritage of the Kathmandu Valley: Preceding of an Int‘l Conference in Lubek. 1987 page 49-53).55 meter wide with 80 frames each with legend story text in Nepali script and the language Newari illustrating the Simhala avadan from the collection of The Museum of Indisan Art. in some of the early texts as well as in the poem from Kalidasa in the early 11th century. traditional clothing‘s are displayed in the courtyard of Buddhist shrines Baha and Bahi and is called Baidyah Boayagu. During this festival antiques. November 1993. page 135-160 (Tib-Trade and Domestication of Simhalsarth Avadan) Garuda Bhagwan (Garudjuju) Sartha Baha is used to identify the leader of the merchants. 33 | P a g e . Images of Dipankar.

during the holy months of Gunlaa narrates the legendary story of the Voyage to Lhasa. Simhala Sarthabaha is believed to have established Bhagwan Bahal and the entire daily rituals and activities during the festival are being controlled by the Pradhan family from Thamel. who believe themselves as the descendants of Simhala Sarthabaha. The monastery in Itubahal is believed to have established by Bhashkardeva (NS 165-167 / 1045-1047 AD) and later on got renovated by Kesh Chandra brother in law of Simhsarthabahu (Bhaskardeva sanskarita Kesh Chandra krita parabrata Mahavihar from the stone inscription of Itumbahal). Simhala Sarthabaha is mentioned as one of the previous life of Buddha in the 16th chapter of Gunakarandavyaha. being led by Simhala Sarthabaha. In one of the chronological history (Bansabali) from Kaiser Library the story of Lhasa caravan was mentioned during the reign of King Gunakamadeva (NS 107-110/ 987-990 AD) and in some writings he is mentioned as to belong to the period of Singhketu descendent of Gunakamadeva. Atisha the renowned scholar from Vikramshila Vihar did spent one year (1041/42 AD) in Nepal before departing to Tibet. most of his time was spent in Thambahi but he did not mentioned about Garud Bhagwan and Prajnaparamita. is believed to be the image of Simhala Sarthabaha.The Poubha (scroll painting) being displayed in the main court of Thamel. Kathmandu Upatyakaka kehi sanskritic chhirka mirka -some notes on the culture identity of Kathmandu valley in Nepali p. We can thus conclude that Simhala Sarthabaha belong to a period after Bhashkardeva (NS 165-167 / 1045-1047 AD) or after Kalidasa (early 11th century) 34 | P a g e . After all royal family was killed he became the leader or say chief of the Army so got a new name Garuda and once he became the king again called Garudjuju. The main image of the Bhagwan Bahal is known as Garujuju or Garud Bhagwan. 2047. 72). (Pradhan. Bhuvan Lal. This is how Simhala the leader of the Caravan got a new name Simhala Sarthabaha later called upon as Simhala Sarthabaha.

When his wife gave birth to a beautiful son. Simhala left Simhakalpa in the company of five hundred merchants. The rakshasi entrusted with the task 35 | P a g e . When all his friends were thus drugged to sleep. This place was the abode of rakshasis. Simhala Sarthabaha is believed to be the first merchant to establish trade in Tibet. On seeing the merchants. There is a chorten (Temple) in Zhugong near Lhasa called Simhsarthabahu Chorten and a shrine of his wife in Jokhang that contain the image of his wife. Simhaka named him Simhala. They do not visit Lhasa as they were scared of getting revenge by the she-devil from Lhasa. he asked his father for permission to go away on a sea-voyage. Each rakshasi took one of his friends home. and the Merchant Simhala in Buddhist Texts) by Naomi Appleton Once upon a time a wealthy merchant named Simhaka used to live in the capital city of Simhakalpa ruled by king Simhakesari.Chhong meaning Trader. Tsongpon meaning Leader of Traders. the rakshasis devoured them. After visiting many places the merchants sold all their goods and made huge profits. (Newar Tibetain Trade and the Domestication page 152) Simhala Avadana (The Story of the Horse-King. Simhaka was afraid of losing his beloved son and was not willing to send him for the voyage. made love to him and they lived as husband and wife. Both Simhala Sarthabaha is given equal honor as the form of Devin God by the Tibetan people calling him the Jewel Trader Bhagwan (Chhong Nurbu Saange or Tsongpon Norbu Sangpo . On their way back they reached a place called Tamradvipa. fed him. Nurbu meaning Jewel and Saange or Sangpo meaning Bhagwan). all the rakshasis took beautiful female forms and entertained the merchants. who believe themselves as the descendants of Simhala Sarthabaha. They all took with them abundant merchandise.Simhala Sarthabaha is believed to have established Bhagwan Bahal and the entire daily rituals and activities during the festival are being controlled by the Pradhan family from Thambahi. After finishing his education.

After being denied by Simhala.of devouring Simhala fled when he took out his sword. his parents requested him to forgive his wife. Simhala told the king who she was and requested him to expel her. the rakshasi went to the palace claiming her as the wife of Simhala and the child as his son. From Tamradvipa. When Simhala came back home. he raised a powerful army and invaded Tamradvipa. she was giving them so may. She met a merchant from Madhya Desa. She came to the house of Simhala with a very handsome child. Simhala came to Jambudvipa. Simhakesari ordered Simhala to accept her as his wife. The king of Simhakalpa. But the king was attracted by her beauty and kept her in the palace. She promptly fell at his feet and said I am the daughter of the king of Tamradvipa and was married to Simhala. The merchant was impressed by her story and promised to help her. She told them that they should stop claim over Simhala instead of giving them one. 36 | P a g e . Simhala then told him that she was a rakshasi. On assuming the throne. The rakshasi in the form of a very beautiful young lady followed him. When king Simhala with his army marched upon . He blamed Simhala for not accepting the innocent girl. Then he searched the entire palace but could not find any of the royal family members. The rakshasi followed him there also. greatly resembling Simhala. In the morning people saw vulture‘s rooming around the place. He left me as he thought me to be inauspicious. The ministers and the people decided to offer the crown to Simhala. Simhala then escaped from the island on a magic white horse. While crossing the ocean the ship encountered an accident. From Jambudvipa Simhala returned to Simhakalpa. Simhala then revealed the true nature of the innocent young girl. The rakshasis entered the palace and started killing the king and his family. During diner the rakshasi mixed sleeping doses everyone including the king felt asleep. Simhala entered the palace climbing through a ladder. She told Simhala's father the same old story. She then invited her rakshasi friends to come and join in the feast. The crown was then offered to Simhala who accepted it on the condition that the people would obey him without question.

Professor Todd Lewis of the college of Holy Cross in Massachusetts. The island was then colonized by Simhala and was called Simhaladvipa after him. 1993. most of his time was spent in Thambahi but he did not mentioned about Garud Bhagwan nor the Holy Sahashra Prajnaparamita manuscript from Bikramshila Mahabihar. Thambahi. (Bhaskardeva sanskarita Kesh Chandra krita parabrata Mahavihar from the stone inscription of Itumbahal) We can thus conclude that Simhala Sarthabaha belong to late 11th Century a period after Kalidasa (early 11th century) or Atisa (1041 AD) and Bhashkardeva. the rakshasis surrendered to him and agreed to leave the island. 2. USA also published a paper on the localization of Simhala Sarthabaha Avadana. volume 33 no.Tamradvipa. the legendary story of Lhasa Caravan being leaded by Simhala Sarthabaha. The monastery in Itubahal is believed to have established by Bhashkardeva (NS 165-167 / 1045-1047 AD) and later on got renovated by Kesh Chandra brother in law of Simhala Sarthabaha. (1047 AD) 37 | P a g e . (Tibet Trade and Domestication of Simhalasarth Avadan Chicago Journal. page 135-160) Atisa the renowned scholar from Vikramshila Vihar did spent one year (1041/42 AD) in Nepal before departing to Tibet. Conclusion The Jataka Tale definitely speak of the story of the Divine Lord Avalokiteshwora as a white flying horse and the help rescue of the five hundred merchants but the name of the Globin City populated by the man eating ogresses is still not clear – Is it Lhasa or Ceylon (Sri Lanka)? Gunakarandavyuha and Simhala Sarthabaha Avadan and the legendary story narrated in the scroll painting from Thambahi along with the image of Garuda Bhagwan has a strong support to identify the name of the Globin City to be Lhasa not Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Simhala Sarthabaha as the leader of the legendary Lhasa voyage. History of Religion.

Niels Gutschow Bijaya Basukala (Illustrator) The Nepalese Caitya David Snellgrove. 1986 Buddhism in Nepal. India Conze. 1971. 1893 Indian Pundits in the land of Snow Asiatic Society of India David J Kalupahana. 2005. Indo Tibetan Buddhism Deba Priya Barma. 1970. The Festival of Nepal. Reference books (For further studies) Anderson. Badriratna. Kathmandu Bhikhu Sudarshan Simshartha Bahu wa Kabir Kumar ya bakhan Chattopadhyaya. Buddhist Thoughts in India Preliminary Note on Prajnaparamita Manuscript Journal of Royal Asiatic Society Dass. Delhi Bajracharya. Alka 1967. Edward. Atisha and Tibet. Mary M. Legends of Kathmandu Valley 38 | P a g e . 1987. Sarat Chandra. A History of Buddhist Philosophy David N Gellner.A garland of Gold to you the listener! A garland of flowers to you the story teller! Now may these stories go to heaven? And when it is time to retell them Comeback immediately again! This is the traditional way of closing the story telling in Nepal. Rebuilding Buddhism: The Thervad Movement in 20th Century David N Gellner. 2007. Atisha Dipankar Srijana: Eye of Asia Kesar Lal.

History of Buddhism in Nepal Regmi Dilli Raman.Study of Saddharmamala 39 | P a g e . Karunakar Buddhist tradition and Culture of Kathmandu Valley Vajracharya.Buddhist Monasteries of Nepal: A survey of the Baha and Bahis of Kathmandu Valley ----. Shrestha. Inscription of Ancient Nepal Sakya Hem Raj. Rajendra.Nepal Sanskritya Mulukha (Main entrance of Nepalese culture) 1969 ---. 1979 ---. ----. Lichhavikalin Abhilekh.Syambhu Maha Chaitya. S. Dhana Vajra. Nepalese Manuscripts Newari/ Sanskrit Lopez.Legendary History of Kathmandu Lienhard Siegfried. 1098NS Dr. INAS Kathmandu 1973 Vajracharya.Karunamaya: The cult of Avaloketesvara 1980 ----. ---. Heritage of Kathmandu Valley Vajracharya. Don Jr. Pratapaditya.Legge. G P (Editor) 1963 Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 1989. The Arts of Nepal Paul.History of the Country & People (1st edition 1877) Yoshizaki Kasjumi.Ratna Kaji. Ceylon Pal. Gautam. Uma editor. 1987. 1974. 1988. Williams. 1983 Nepal . Newa Vijnana: Journal of Newar Studies Vaidya. Ratna Bahadur Gurumandalarachana va Prajnaparamitaya artha sahitam (in Nepal Bhasha) NS 1095/1974 AD Vajracharya. (edit) 1997. Daniel ed. John K. Dr. Atisha‘s Journey to Tibet Malalasekera. Mahayana Buddhism Ram. Yen Deya Chaitya Wright. James in association with Max Muller prepared the scared books of the East Series 50 volume published between 1879 and 1891 Locke.

Jogmuni Bajracharya Astasaharika Prajnaparamita 1888.000 lines) Cambridge University Preliminary note on Prajnaparamita Manuscript E. Conze.000 lines) Edited by N Dutta 1934 Heart Sutra (14 lines) is the shortest form of Prajaparamita Text Perfection of Wisdom in 8.1 Dasasahasrika Prajnaparamita 1941 S Konow.000 lines (India visit 629-45).Kathmandu Valley as a Water Pot.000 verses) translated from Pali in the Tibetan language during 9th century by Subrenbodieg. Berkley 1979) Adhyardhasatika Prajnaparamita Translated in many languages are in the collection of Libraries around the globe. 2011) Satashasrika Prajnaparamita (100. Tibetan Monk Ye-Se-sde and Jian Shree Mitra . Mittras in the Bibliotheca Indicia Vol. 82 (Issue 1-2 page 32-36. Pancavimsatishasrika Prajnaparamita (25.disciple of Manjushree (Bibliotheca Indica 1902-1913) 40 | P a g e . Kurokami Library. The Perfection of Wisdom (25.Hsuan Tsang describes about Satashriska Prajnaparamita with 100. Japan Books related to Prajnaparamita (The Korean Buddhist Canon: A descriptive Catalogue edited by R. Astadasasahasrika Pranjaparamita (18. R.000 lines 3 Volume) edited by Bidyabinoda (Memoirs of the Archeological Survey of India No. Oxford 1912 Prajnaparamita Sutra. Lanceaster.---.000 lines written in Tibetan script E Conze (Trans) Prajnaparamita Bhabanopadesh Ratnakarshanti Teacher of Atisa Dipankar Prajnaparamita Rdaya Sutra (Heart Sutra) edited by E Conze Prajnaparamita Rdaya Sutra (Heart Sutra) edited by M Muller.32 & 69) 1927 Astadasasahasrika Prajnaparamita 1082 NS. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society Vol. OSLO (trans. from Tibetan) Patashashrik Prajnaparamita --. Kumamoto.

000 lines during his visit to India and Nepal 659-663 AD The Prajnaparamita Literature 1960 Edward Conze. T. by Prof.Jataka Tales H. Rhys Davids 2) A Jataka Tale from the Chinese translation by Samuel Bell 1880 3) The Jataka or the stories of the Buddha's former births in 6 Vol. Thomas 9) JatakaTales by Ellen C Babbill 10) The Jataka Tales of Anterior Births of Gotama Buddha (six vol. Manton. Francis and E. Jataka tales translated from Pali text. 2008) Hsuan Tsang describes about The Perfection of Wisdom with 100. Fausböll's edited and translated into English by T. J. Speyer 7) Jataka (six volumes): translated by Bhadanta Ananda ausalyayana.Edward Conze (Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Vol.The Composition of the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita -.) Oxford 11) Jataka: The Illustrated Jataka & Other Stories of the Buddha by C. 8) Ancient Tales of Wisdom . Varma 12) Stories of Buddha: being selection from the Jataka translated and edited by Caroline A F Rhys Davids 1989 13) The Jataka Story in Japan 1999 Anita Khanna 41 | P a g e . 1880 (Jataka Thavannana -The oldest collection of Jataka Folklor by V. 14 Issue 2 / 251-262 page. Edward Byles (Valahassa Jataka) Pali text Society London 1895 4) The Ocean Stream of Story C H Tawney's translation of Katha Sarit Sagar by Somdev 5) Jataka: A Tale -Tell vision of Buddhism by Professor E B Cowell 6) Jatakamala by J.B. The Hague Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita 1881 edited by M Muller Oxford Books related to Jataka Stories 1) Buddhist birth-stories. Cowell.W. 24 Dec. S.

Writing the Prajnaparamita and Sanghata Sutra is a project of Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition Inc. has now completed the first volume of the Prajnaparamita and is 3/4 of the way finishing the second volume.000 verses of the Prajnaparamita (12 volumes) and has been working on this for the last 10 years. Pushpesh Pant 5) Ajanta Monumental Legancy by A P Jainkhedkar 6) Guide to the Ajanta Paintings Latest News! Ven. USA. S Vinekar MD. 102-217 P.com 42 | P a g e . Lama Zopa Rinpoche is the founder chairperson of FPMT (Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition Inc. a Kopan monk who has been tirelessly working on this project. USA. NJ Middlesex 4) Ajanta and Ellora: Cave Temples of Ancient India. N. Tsering. CA 95010 fpmtnorthamerica@gmail. USA) and the Int'l head quarter is located in California. Lama Zopa Rinpoche is extremely pleased with the quality and dedication of his work. of the Prajnaparamita! Ven.14) 365 Jataka Tales & other Stories Books related to Ajanta (For further study) 1) The Ajanta Caves: Ancient Paintings of Buddhist India by Benoy K. 1840 – 414st Ave. Tsering is writing out the 100.O. Ramakrishna 3) Ajanta.C. Behl 2) Ajanta Caves: History and Mystery P. Box 295 Capitol. Brunswick.

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