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Tugas Supply Chain Management

By: Eric J. Nrp: 26409054

Drivers of supply chain performance
First we define each driver and discuss its impact on the performance of the supply chain: Facilities are the places in the supply chain network where product is stored. Assembled, or fabricated. The two major types of facilities are production sites and storage sites. Inventory is all raw materials, work in process and finished goods within a supply chain. Inventory is an important supply chain driver because changing inventory policies can dramatically alter the supply chains efficiency and responsiveness. Transportation entails moving inventory from point in the supply chain transportation can take the form of many combination of modes and routes, each with its own performance characteristics. Transportation choices have a large impact on supply chain responsiveness and efficiency Information consists of data and analysis concerning facilities, inventory, transportation and customers throughout the supply chain. Information is potentially the biggest driver of performance in the supply chain as it directly effects each of the other drivers information present management with the opportunity to make supply chains more responsive and efficient

A framework for strcturing drivers

The goal of a supply chain strategy is to strike the balance between responsiveness and efficiency that results in strategic fit with the competitive strategy. Most companies begin with a competitive strategy and then decide what their supply chain strategy ought to be. The supply chain strategy determines how the supply chain should perform with respect to efficiency and responsiveness. The supply chain must then use the supply chain drivers to reach the performance level the supply chain strategy dictates.

Role in the supply chain Facilities are the where of the supply chain. There are the locations to or from which the inventory is transported. Within a facility, inventory is either processed or transformed into another state (Manufacturing) or its is store before being shipped to the next stage (warehousing)

Components of facilities decisions

Location Deciding where a company will locate its facilities constitutes a large part of the design of a supply chain. A basic trade off here is whether to centralize to gain economies of scale or decentralize to become more responsive by being closer to the customer Capacity Companies must also decide what a facilitys capacity to perform its intended function or functions will be. A large amount of excess capacity allows the facility to be very flexible and to respond to wide swings in the demands placed on it. A facility with little excess capacity will likely be more efficient per unit of product it produces than one with a lot of unused capacity. Operations Methodology Companies must a major decision regarding the operations methodology that a facility will use. A product focused facility performs many different functions (e.g. fabrication and assembly) in producing a single type of product. A functional focused facility perform few functions (e.g. only fabrication or only assembly) on many types if products. A product focus tends to result in more expertise about a particular type of product at the expense of the functional expertise that comes from a functional methodology. Flexible capacity can be used for many types of products but is often less efficient while dedicated capacity can be used for only a limited number of products but it is more efficient.

Role in the supply chain Inventory exist in the supply chain because of a mismatch between supply and demand. An important role that inventory plays in the supply chain is to increase the amount of demand that can be satisfied by having product ready and available when the customer wants it. Another significant role inventory plays is to reduce cost by exploiting any economies of scale that may exist during both production and distribution Inventory also has a significant impact on the material flow time in a supply chain. Material flow time is the time that elapses between the point at which material enters the supply chain to the point at which it exist. For a supply chain, throughput is the rate at which sales occur. If inventory is represented by I, flow time by T and throughput by D, the three can be related using littles law as follows: I = D.T

Role in the competitive strategy If a firms competitive strategy requires a very high level of responsiveness, a company can use inventory to archieve this responsiveness by locating large amounts of inventory close to the customer. Conversely, a company can also use inventory to make itself more efficient by reducing inventory through centralized stocking.

Components of inventory decisions o Cycle inventory Cycle inventory is the average amount of inventory used to satisfy demand between receipt of supplier shipments. The size of the cycle inventory is result of the production or purchase of material in large lots. o Safety Inventory Safety inventory is inventory held in case demand exceeds expectation: it is held to counter uncertainty. o Seasonal Inventory Seasonal inventory is inventory that is built up to counter predictable variability in demand. o Sourcing Sourcing is the set of business Processes required to purchase goods and services.

Transportation Transportation moves product between different stages in a supply chain. Faster transportation, whether in the form of different modes of transportation or different amounts being transported, allows a supply chain to be more responsive but reduces its efficiency. Role in the competitive Strategy If a firms competitive strategy targets a customer that demands a very high level of responsiveness and that customer is willing to pay for his responsiveness then a firm can use transportation as one driver for making the supply chain more responsive.

Components of Transportation Decisions

Mode of Transportation The mode of transportation is the manner in which a product is moved from one location in the supply chain network to another. Each mode has different characteristics with respect to the speed, size of shipments (individual parcels to pallets to full trucks to entire ships), cost of shipping and flexibility that lead companies to choose one particular mode over the others. Route and Network Selection

A route is the path along which a product is shipped and a network is the collection of locations and routes along which a product can be shipped. Inhouse or Outsource Much of transportation (and even entire logistics system) is out-sourced. Having to choose between bringing parts of transportation inhouse or outsourcing leads to another dimension of complexity Overall Trade-Off: Responsiveness versus Efficiency The fundamental trade-off for transportation is between the cost of transporting a given product (efficiency) and the speed with which that product is transported

Role in the Supply Chain Information deeply affects every part of the supply chain: 1. Information serves as the connection between the supply chains various stages, allowing them to coordinate and bring about many of the benefits of maximizing total supply chain profitability 2. Information is also crucial to the daily operations of each stage in a supply chain. For instance, a production scheduling system uses information on demand to create a schedule that allows a factory to produce the right products in an efficient manner. Role in the Competitive Strategy Information is a driver whose importance has grown as companies have used it to become both more efficient and more responsive. The tremendous growth of the importance of information technology is a testimony to the impact information can have on improving a company. Another key decision involves what information is most valuable in reducing cost and improving responsiveness within a supply chain.

Components of Information Decisions

Push versus Pull Push systems generally require information in the form Material Requirements Planning (MRP) systems to take the master production schedule and roll it back, creating schedules for suppliers with part types, quantities and delivery dates. Pull systems require information on actual demand to be transmitted extremely quickly throughout the entire chain so that production and distribution of parts and products may accurately reflect the real demand. Coordination and Information Sharing Lack of coordination can result in a significant loss of supply chain profit. Managers must decide how to create this coordination in the supply chain and what information must be shared in order to accomplish this goal. Information sharing is thus crucial to the success of a supply chain.

Forecasting and Aggregate Planning Forecasting is the art and science of making projections about what future demand and conditions will be. Aggregate planning transforms forecasts into plans of activity tom satisfy the projected demand. Pricing and Revenue Management Pricing is the process by which a firm decides how much to charge customers for its goods and services. Revenue management is the use of differential pricing over time or customer segments to maximize profits from a limited set of supply chain assets. Enabling Technologies Many technologies exist that share and analyze information in the supply chain. Some of these technologies include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) The Internet Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems Supply Chain Management (SCM) Software

Obstacles to Achieving Strategic Fit

Increasing Variety of Products The increase in product variety complicates the supply chain by making forecasting and meeting demand much more difficult. Increased variety tends to raise uncertainty and uncertainty frequently results in increased cost and decreased responsiveness within the supply chain. Decreasing Product Lifecycles This decrease in product life cycles makes the job of achieving strategic fit more difficult as the supply chain must constantly adapt to manufacture and deliver new products in addition to coping with these products demand uncertainty. Increasingly Demanding Customers Customers are demanding faster fulfillment, better quality, and better performing products for the same price they paid years ago. This tremendous growth in customer demands means that the supply chain must provide more just to maintain its business. Fragmentation of Supply Chain Ownership New ownership structure has made managing the supply chain more difficult. With the chain broken into many owners, each with its own policies and interests, the chain is more difficult to coordinate. Globalization Increase in globalization has had two main impacts on the supply chain. The first is that supply chains are now more likely than ever to be global. The second is an increase in

competition as once protected national players must compete with companies from around the world. Difficulty Executing New Strategies Skillful execution of a strategy can be as important as the strategy itself. Many obstacles, such as growing product variety and shorter life cycles, have made it increasingly difficult for supply chains to achieve strategies. Overcoming these obstacles offers a tremendous opportunity for firms to use supply chain management to gain competitive advantage.

Jawaban Soal 1. Grocery retailer dapat memaksimalkan kepuasan pelanggan terhadap produk produk yang dijual oleh retailer tersebut. Karena menggunakan hitungan rata rata produk yang telah dijual setiap harinya. 3. a. Pabrik sepeda tersebut harus dibangun di tempat yang strategis supaya distribusinya dapat lebih baik b. Pabrik sepeda ini sebaiknya memproduksi sepeda dalam jumlah yang kecil sehingga mengurangi biaya produksi dan meningkatkan keefisienan produksi. c. Menggunakan metode Functional Focused sehingga bahan bahan yang digunakan untuk membuat sepeda didapatkan dengan membeli dari supplier lain. d. Menggunakan job lot storage. 5. Karena globalisasi membuat produk dapat dipasarkan sampai ke seluruh dunia sehingga dapat menambah jumlah customer. 7. Fasilitas a. Perusahaan tersebut tersebut harus dibangun di tempat yang strategis supaya distribusinya dapat lebih baik. b. Perusahaan tersebut memproduksi dengan kapasitas yang besar. c. Menggunakan metode Functional Focused sehingga bahan bahan yang digunakan untuk membuat sepeda didapatkan dengan membeli dari supplier lain. d. Menggunakan job lot storage. Inventory e. menggunakan metode cycling Transportation f. Mode of transportation : truck and ship g. Route and network selection: Siapa yang memesan duluan, akan dikirimkan duluan. h. Menggunakan transportasi outsource Information i. Push j. Koordinasi harus dilakukan dengan baik agar lebih efisien dalam mengerjakan tugas masing masing dan mendapatkan keuntungan yang lebih besar k. Forecasting adalah meramalkan bagaimana keadaan pasar nantinya, sedangkan untuk agregat planning adalah mengubah hasil forecasting menjadi sebuah rencana untuk menanggulangi hasil dari forecasting

l. Menentukan harga sesuai dengan harga pasar. m. Mengadakan jasa layanan service dan menjual sparepart n. Gunakan semua teknologi yang dapat mendukung perusahaan