¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸

--+-''
PART II- Substation Grounding System – IEEE Grounding 2000
Introduction
The intent of this guide is to provide guidance and information pertinent to safe grounding
practices in AC substation design.
The specific purposes of this guide are to
a) Establish, as a basis for design, the safe limits of potential differences that can exist in
a substation under fault conditions between points that can be contacted by the
human body.
b) Review substation grounding practices with special reference to safety, and develop
criteria for a safe design.
c) Provide a procedure for the design of practical grounding systems, based on these
criteria.
d) Develop analytical methods as an aid in the understanding and solution of typical
gradient problems.
Earthing System for Substation :
An effective substation earthing system typically consists of earth rods, connecting cables from
the buried earthing grid to metallic parts of structures and equipment, connections to earthed
system neutrals, and the earth surface insulating covering material. Current flowing into the
earthing grid from lightning arrester operation, impulse or switching surge flashover of
insulators, and line to ground fault current from the bus or connected transmission lines all
cause potential differences between earthed points in the substation.
A good grounding system provides a low resistance to remote earth in order to minimize the
ground potential rise. For most transmission and other large substations, the ground resistance is
mostly specified >1C .
Unless proper precautions are taken in design, the maximum potential gradients along the earth’s
surface may be of sufficient magnitude during ground fault conditions to endanger a person in the
area. Moreover, dangerous voltages may develop between grounded structures or equipment
frames and the nearby earth. Without a properly designed earthing system, large potential
differences can exist between different points within the substation itself.
Safety in grounding Basic problem
In principle, a safe grounding design has the following two objectives:
a) To provide means to carry electric currents into the earth under normal and fault
conditions without exceeding any operating and equipment limits or adversely
affecting continuity of service.
b) To assure that a person in the vicinity of grounded facilities is not exposed to the
danger of critical electric shock.
An Effective Grounding System Has The Following Objectives:
1. Ensure such a degree of human safety that a person working or walking in the vicinity of
grounded facilities is not exposed to the danger of a critical electric shock. The touch and
step voltages produced in a fault condition have to be at safe values. A safe value is one
that will not produce enough current within a body to cause ventricular fibrillation.
2. Provide means to carry and dissipate electric currents into earth under normal and fault
conditions without exceeding any operating and equipment limits or adversely affecting
continuity of service.
3. Provide grounding for lightning impulses and the surges occurring from the switching of
substation equipment, which reduces damage to equipment and cable.
4. Provide a low resistance for the protective relays to see and clear ground faults, which
improves protective equipment performance, particularly at minimum fault.
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Effect of magnitude and duration
The most common physiological effects of electric current on the body, stated in order of
increasing current magnitude, are threshold perception, muscular contraction, unconsciousness,
fbrillation of the heart, respiratory nerve blockage, and burning
where
IB is the rms magnitude of the current through the body in A
ts is the duration of the current exposure in s
SB is the empirical constant related to the electric shock energy tolerated by
a certain percent of a given population
Effective grounding (solid or direct)
Effective grounding is usually obtained by a direct connection between system neutral and the
earth with no intentional impedance. When the system neutral is effectively grounded, the
transient overvoltages are held to a minimum as compared to the other grounding methods. The
high fault current, if not cleared promptly, causes maximum fault damage and mechanical stress
on equipment. It may also be sufficiently greater than three-phase currents to become a
consideration in the selection of circuit breaker interrupting ratings.
Importance of high-speed fault clearing
Considering the significance of fault duration both in terms of Equation (6) and implicitly as an
accident-exposure factor, high-speed clearing of ground faults is advantageous for two reasons
a) The probability of exposure to electric shock is greatly reduced by fast fault
clearing time, in contrast to situations in which fault currents could persist for several
minutes or possibly hours.
b) Tests and experience show that the chance of severe injury or death is greatly reduced
if the duration of a current flow through the body is very brief. The allowed current
value may, therefore, be based on the clearing time of primary protective devices, or
that of the backup protection
Duration formula
The duration for which a 50 Hz or 60 Hz current can be tolerated by most people is related to its
magnitude in accordance with Equation (6). it is assumed that 99.5% of all persons can safely
withstand, without ventricular fbrillation, the passage of a current with magnitude and duration
determined by the following formula:
where, in addition to the terms previously defined in Equation (6)
Equation (8) results in values of 116 mA for ts = 1 s and 367 mA for ts = 0.1 s.
Users of this guide may select k = 0.157 provided that the average population weight can be
expected to be at least 70 kg.
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Definitions:
Soil Resistivity
The electrical characteristic of the soil with respect to conductivity . The value is typically given in
ohmmeters.
Earth Current
The current that circulates between the grounding system and the ground fault current source that
uses the earth as the return path .
Ground Potential Rise (GPR)
The maximum electrical potential that a substation grounding grid may attain relative to a distant
grounding point assumed to be at the potential of remote earth. This voltage, GPR, is equal to the
maximum grid current times the grid resistance.
NOTE—Under normal conditions, the grounded electrical equipment operates at near zero ground
potential. That is, the potential of a grounded neutral conductor is nearly identical to the potential
of remote earth. During a ground fault the portion of fault current that is conducted by a substation
grounding grid into the earth causes the rise of the grid potential with respect to remote earth.
Grounding grid:
A system of horizontal ground electrodes that consists of a number of interconnected, bare
conductors buried in the earth, providing a common ground for electrical devices or metallic
structures, usually in one specific location.
NOTE—Grids buried horizontally near the earth’s surface are also effective in controlling the
surface potential gradients. A typical grid usually is supplemented by a number of ground
rods and may be further connected to auxiliary ground electrodes to lower its resistance with
respect to remote earth.
Influence of Potential Gradiant :
Around every earth electrode a so called Potential Gradiant area develops during the flow of an
electric current .It is the soil resistivity that mainly affects the diameter of the potential gradiant
area .It must be assured that the testing probes is set outside the potential gradiant area .
Normally , a distance of 20 m to the earth electrode and to the probes to each other is sufficient to
minimize or eliminate the potential gradiant effect
Maximum grid current:
A design value of the maximum grid current, defined as follows:
where
IG is the maximum grid current in A
Df is the decrement factor for the entire duration of fault tf , given in s
Ig is the rms symmetrical grid current in A
Symmetrical grid current:
That portion of the symmetrical ground fault current that flows between the
grounding grid and surrounding earth. It may be expressed as
Where
Ig is the rms symmetrical grid current in A
If is the rms symmetrical ground fault current in A
Sf is the fault current division factor
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Symmetrical ground fault current:
The maximum rms value of symmetrical fault current after the instant of a ground fault initiation.
As such, it represents the rms value of the symmetrical component in the first half-cycle of a
current wave that develops after the instant of fault at time zero. For phase-to-ground faults
Where
If(0+) is the initial rms symmetrical ground fault current
I"0 is the rms value of zero-sequence symmetrical current that develops
immediately after the instant of fault initiation, reflecting the subtransient
reactances of rotating machines contributing to the fault
This rms symmetrical fault current is shown in an abbreviated notation as I
f
, or is referred to only
as 3I
0
. The underlying reason for the latter notation is that, for purposes of this guide, the initial
symmetrical fault current is assumed to remain constant for the entire duration of the fault.
Effective asymmetrical fault current:
The rms value of asymmetrical current wave, integrated over the interval of fault duration
Where
IF is the effective asymmetrical fault current in A
If is the rms symmetrical ground fault current in A
Df is the decrement factor
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Fault current division factor:
A factor representing the inverse of a ratio of the symmetrical fault current to that portion of the
current that fows between the grounding grid and surrounding earth.
where
Sf is the fault current division factor
Ig is the rms symmetrical grid current in A
I0 is the zero-sequence fault current in A
NOTE—In reality, the current division factor would change during the fault duration, based on the
varying decay rates of the fault contributions and the sequence of interrupting device operations.
However, for the purposes of calculating the design value of maximum grid current and
symmetrical grid current per definitions of symmetrical grid current and maximum grid current, the
ratio is assumed constant during the entire duration of a given fault.
Enclosure currents:
Currents that result from the voltages induced in the metallic enclosure by the current(s) flowing in
the enclosed conductor(s).
Mesh Voltage
The maximum touch voltage within a mesh of a ground grid .
Step Voltage
The difference in surface potential experienced by a person bridging a distance of 1 meter with his
feet without contacting any other grounded object.
Touch Voltage
The potential difference between the ground potential rise and the surface potential at the point
where a person is standing while at the same time having his hands in contact with a grounded
structure.
Substation Equipments Grounding
Neutral Grounding:
In the normal case there is no current flow in or from the neutral point, but when an earth fault
occurs the previous case will be change and a large fault current flow in the system, this current
has dangerous effect on power transformers and other equipments, so it must be eliminated or
rejected out of the system, and that achieved by grounding the system neutral. The neutral point
of the three phase system can be grounded directly or through an impedance to limit the fault
current.
Substation Fence Grounding:
The grounding of the substation fence is critical because the fence is generally accessible to the
public. The substation grounding design should be such that the touch potential on both sides of
the fence is within the calculated tolerable limit of touch potential.
Earthing of fences can follow either of the following two procedures.
a) Independent earthing. This method has the advantage that a person on the outside of the
fence can come into contact with a lower potential than that associated with method b).
b) Connection to the station earthing system. Where a fence is situated within the area of a
station earthing system or cannot be separated from it by at least 2 m, the fence, its stays
and anti-climbing fittings should be bonded to the earthing system at intervals not
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
exceeding 50 m with additional bonds at the fence corners and wherever an overhead
conductor passes over the fence. Gate posts should be bonded together by a conductor
laid below ground. Metal gates should be bonded by flexible connections to adjacent
fence sections. The substation fence should be connected to the main ground grid by the
outer grid conductor which installed a minimum of 0.91 meter (approximately one arm’s
length) outside the substation fence .
Metallic Cable Sheaths Grounding:
Metallic cable sheaths in power cable have to be effectively grounded to prevent dangerous
voltages resulting from insulation failure, electrostatic and electromagnetic induction, flow of fault
current in the sheath, and voltage rise during fault current flow in the substation ground system to
which the sheaths are connected. Cable sheaths should be grounded at two or more locations: at
cable terminations and at splices and taps. Control cable shields are not intended to carry
significant current and thus should only be grounded at one end.
Surge Arrester Grounding:
Surge arresters are designed to pass surge energy from lightning and switching transients to
ground and so are frequently subjected to abnormal current flow to ground. They have to be
reliably grounded to ensure protection of the equipment they are protecting and to minimize high
potential gradients during operation.
A. Soil Resistivity Measurements:
Before the design process can begin, soil resistivity measurements should be taken at the
substation site. Make these at a number of places within the site. Substation sites where the soil
may possess uniform resistivity throughout the entire area and to a considerable depth are seldom
found.
For the new installations , it is recommended that a multi-layer model for apparent
resistivity be generated. A two layer model yields significant benefits in both cost,
accuracy and safety, these should identify the surface layer to about 1m and the average
deep layer to the grid diagonal dimension. The multi-layer model is useful in providing
more accurate information regarding the presence of lower resistivity layers, and hence
optimizing rod driving depths. However, the two layer model is considered sufficiently
accurate for modeling the behavior of grids in the majority of cases. If more than two
layers are identified, the lower layers are usually combined to form a two layer equivalent
model. This is done because the surface potentials are closely related to the upper layer
resistivity, whilst the grid resistance, which is primarily effected by the deeper layers, is
not usually adversely affected by this simplification.
The most-widely used method for the soil resistivity measurement is the Wenner four-pin
method:
The four-pin method obtains the soil resistivity data for deeper layers without driving the test pins
to those layers. No heavy equipment is needed to perform the four-pin test. The results are not
greatly affected by the resistance of the test pins or the holes created in driving the test pins into
the soil.
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Figure 5-1: Wenner Four-Pin Method.
2 2 2 2
4
2
1
4
b a
a
b a
a
aR

a
+
÷
+
+
=
Equation - 1
Where:
a = Apparent resistivity of the soil in C-m.
R = Measured resistance in ohms
a = Distance between adjacent electrodes in meters
b = Depth of the electrodes in meters
If b is small compared to a, as is the case of probes penetrating the ground only a short distance, Equation-1 can
be reduced to Equation – 2 :
aR
a
2 = Equation – 2
Testing several points or drawing up a curve will help the understanding of the area around the
electrode. It is always best to check results by using a different direction or a longer distance to
the test spikes. This will help to eliminate errors caused by nearby buried conductors and other
parts of the electrical system interfering with the results.
Grid Resistance Measurement in Operating Substations :
With Today's Increases in System Voltages and Power Plant Ratings, more attention is being
given to the safety of operational personnel in substations. When it comes to safety, the grounding
system must be an important consideration in a substation's design. Following the installation of a
new grounding system at a substation, testing is required to confirm the grounding resistance
complies with the design value. In addition, the substation grounding system should be tested
periodically to make certain no changes are required. It is therefore advisable to check the
resistance of an electrode both on installation and at regular intervals thereafter, preferably after
the end of the driest period in the year. In this way comparison between records will show if there
is a trend which may require attention at some time in the future. It will also give a worst case
value of resistance on which to check the proper functioning of circuit disconnection equipment.
In some cases the voltages involved when testing earth electrodes may present a risk of shock
and care should be exercised to take the necessary precautions. For existing installations it is not
permissible to disconnect earth electrodes unless the installation is also disconnected from all
sources of power. The problem can sometimes be solved by installing multiple electrodes so that,
with one disconnected for testing, the remaining electrodes provide an adequately low resistance
or use the modern Earth / Ground Tester which does not require any disconnection.
NOTE : Danger can arise when removing a conductor connected to earth unless suitable
precautions are taken.
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Some substations are located in cities , industrial zones, high rise commercial buildings and
towers making it increasingly difficult or impossible for the utility to find available space in more
than one direction to spread measuring wires so as to eliminate the coupling effect to have
accurate grid resistance measurement also when the cables sheaths , feeding transformers
neutrals are connected to the earthing grid .
At substations, the coupling effect between the current and potential leads can be considerable,
giving rise to measurement discrepancies of 100% or more.
Typically mutual impedance precise value is dependant on the test lead spacing and it is
recommended that this effect should always be accounted for when measuring earthing systems
with a resistance of < 1 D.
Normally , the mutual coupling reaches a maximum value when the auxiliary potential test lead is
laid in parallel with the auxiliary current test lead , and the coupling reduces as the spacing
between the circuits is increased and falls to a minimum when the auxiliary potential test lead is a
90º to the auxiliary current test lead .
GROUNDING TEST METHOD
Fall of Potential Testing :
The fall-of-potential method is the most-widely adopted test used on the majority of grounding
systems. By this method, the impedance measurements of a high-voltage substation grounding
system are determined by passing an alternating current between the grounding grid and a
remote current electrode. The potential electrode is placed at various positions between the
current electrode and grounding system. The ratio of voltage to current, known as the apparent
resistance, is then plotted against the distance from the substation. The resultant curve, if the
measurements are accurate, has a relatively flat segment in the middle section of this
characteristic. The required value of the grounding system resistance is then determined from the
characteristic at a position that is approximately 50% to 70% of the current wire length.
The best method of measurement and the test connections is illustrated in Figure 11. A measured
current is passed between electrode X, the one being tested, and an auxiliary current electrode Y.
The voltage drop between electrode X and a second auxiliary electrode Z is measured and the
resistance of the electrode X is then the voltage between X and Z divided by the current flowing
between X and Y. The source of current and the means of metering either the current and voltage
or their ratio are often, but not necessarily, combined in one device. . For single electrode earths,
such as domestic earths and lightning conductors, the influence on the surrounding soil is limited
and current test spikes can be quite close (typically 10 to 20 m) to the electrode under test. It is
usually quite easy to find a flat portion of the earth resistance curve which should be close to the
resistance of the electrode.
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
Fig.4 shows an example of a small earth system with a test spike at 50 m. Using a potential spike
distance of between 10 and 40 m, a reading close to the earth resistance will be measured. At
distances less than 10 m the influence of the electrode under test will affect the measurement.
Above 40 m the "resistance area" of the current spike will give a higher measured value than
expected.
This measured value consists of two components:
- The actual voltage difference between grounding system under test and the auxiliary
potential electrode
- The inducted potential due to alternating current flowing in the current test loop, known as
the coupling effect.
If no available space in more than one direction to spread measuring wires so as to eliminate the
coupling effect and other interferences and a classic Earth / Ground Tester is used , and based on
experience , the measurement can be taken at the most convenient spacing distance between the
current and potential wires in this substation . The potential electrode is placed at various
positions between the current electrode and grounding system. The ratio of voltage to current,
known as the apparent resistance, is then plotted against the distance from the substation. The
resultant curve, if the measurements are accurate, has a relatively flat segment in the middle
section of this characteristic.
The resistance value can be verified by taking same measurement arrangement at other
substations where convenient spacing is available and more than one testing method
measurement can be taken and results can be compared and verified .
This measured value consists of two components:
The actual voltage difference between grounding system under test and the
auxiliary potential electrode
The inducted potential due to alternating current flowing in the current test loop,
known as the coupling effect.
These forms of interference can be minimized or eliminated by the followings :
1. Testing with modern Earth / Ground tester which has Automatic Frequency
Control Option which identifies existing interferences and chooses a measurement
frequency to minimize its effect.
2. When the alternating current at a frequency different from that of the interfering
power currents and their harmonics. This is usually achieved by using a frequency
generator with 60 Hz to 90 Hz frequency range .
3. If there is enough available space , to repeat each measurement with
repositioned probes and only to regard a measurement as successful and accurate if
several subsequent measurements result in the same values .
¸,-=- »,'='' --= ¸-= ¸=-- --=- ¸--+-''
B. Basic Design procedures of Substation Grounding System as per IEEE –
Grounding 2000 :
Computer simulation :Most major engineering project companies and designers now have the in-
house computer programs to design and evaluate different substation earthing arrangements .
The step by step approach to design a substation earthing system :
Ground Conductor Sizing
The ground conductor for both the grid and equipment connections should be sized according to
Equation - 3 and the only difference will be the value of the current I , where I value will be the S/S
short circuit current rating for the equipment grounding conductor and 60% of the S/S short circuit
current rating for the grid conductor .
The required conductor size as a function of conductor current is given in the following equation :
Equation – 3
Where:
I = Isc is the rms Switchgear rated short circuit current in kA for equipment conductor .
= 0.6 – 0.8 Isc for Grid conductor sizing .
Amm² is the conductor cross section in mm2
Tm is the maximum allowable temperature in °C
Ta is the ambient temperature in °C
Tr is the reference temperature for material constants in °C
do is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C in 1/°C
dr is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr in 1/°C
pr is the resistivity of the ground conductor at reference temperature Tr in µD-cm
Ko 1/do or (1/dr) – Tr in °C
tc is the duration of current in s .( if not specified , the substation Switchgear rated
duration time shall be considered ) which is normally 1sec. as per the new IEC
standard . Since , some clients specify 3 sec as per the previous IEC Switchgear
rating and some Clients accept 0.5 sec because of the use of the new Numerical
protection relays .
TCAP is the thermal capacity per unit volume from Table 1, in J/(cm3·°C)
Note : Only copper conductors are considered in the above table , for other materials please refer to
table 1 of the IEEE – Grounding 2000 .
Alternate formulations :
As per British Standard BS 7430 , The corresponding conductor cross-sectional area (A
c
) in square
millimeters can be simplified and given by Equation -4:
k
t I
A
c
=
Equation -4
where
I is the average fault current, in A r.m.s;
t is the fault current duration, in s.
k is the r.m.s. current density, in A/mm2 (given in Table 10).
Table 10 provides a guide to acceptable maximum fault current temperatures for bare earthing
conductors, according to the environmental conditions and the type of connections used. For a
conductor covered to provide corrosion or mechanical protection, or an insulated conductor, the
maximum temperature may be limited by the covering or insulating material. The current densities (k)
in r.m.s. amperes per square millimeter, for a 1 s duration, are given in Table 10 for copper, aluminum
and steel conductors assuming an initial temperature of 30 °C.
For other durations the fault current capacity (I) in amperes r.m.s. can be calculated from one of the
following equations:
or
t
kA
I =
Where ,
I1 is the fault current for 1 s duration, in A r.m.s. (given in Table 11 and Table 12);
A is the conductor cross-sectional area, in mm²;
k is the r.m.s. current density, in A/mm2 (given in Table 10).
t is the fault current duration, in s.
Table 10 — Earth fault current densities for 1 s duration for earthing conductors
with initial conductor temperature of 30 °C
Fault current capacities, for 1 s and 3 s durations, for a selection of standard sizes of copper and
aluminum strips are given in Table 11 and Table 12.
Table 11 — Earth fault currents (in kA) for copper strip earthing conductors
For other initial and final temperatures the current density k for 1 s duration can be obtained from the
following equation:
Where ,
T1 is the initial temperature, in °C;
T2 is the final temperature, in °C;
K and µ have the values given in Table 13.
Tolerable Touch and Step Voltages
The tolerable touch and step voltages are the criteria that have to be met to ensure a safe design. In
most cases the tolerable touch voltage will be the limiting factor. Figures5-5 through 5-8 are used to
derive the equations for maximum touch and step voltage
Figure 5-5: Exposure to Touch Voltage.
Figure 5-6: Touch Voltage Circuit.
Figure 5-7: Exposure to Step Voltage.
Figure 5-8: Step Voltage Circuit.
The equations for the maximum touch and step voltages are as follows:
, , I R R E
f B step
. 2 + = Equation -5
I
R
R E
f
B touch
.
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Equation -6
Where:
Estep = Step voltage in volts
Etouch = Touch voltage in volts
RB = Resistance of the human body to electric current. RB is generally estimated to be
1000 C.
Rf = Ground resistance of one foot
s s f
C R µ 3 = Equation -7
C
s
is the surface layer derating factor based on the thickness of the protective surface layer spread
above the earth grade at a substation. If no protective surface layer is used, then C
s
= 1.
p
s
is the resistivity of the protective surface layer used at the substation in C-m. If no protective
surface layer is used, then p
s
=p=resistivity of homogenous earth.
I is defined as:
t
K
I =
Equation -8
Where:
I = Maximum grid current in A.
t = Fault clearing time in s.
k = Constant related to electric shock energy
For a person weighing 50 kg (110 lbs), k = 0.116
For a person weighing 70 kg (155 lbs), k = 0.157
Substituting for I, R
B
, R
f
, and k in Equations -5, -6, and -7:
For body weight of 50 kg (110 lbs)
, ,
t
C E
s s step
116 . 0
6 1000
50
· + = µ
Equation-9
, ,
t
C E
s s touch
116 . 0
5 . 1 1000
50
· + = µ
Equation -10
For body weight of 70 kg (155 lbs):
, ,
s
s s step
t
C E
157 . 0
6 1000
70
· + = µ
Equation -11
, ,
t
C E
s s touch
157 . 0
5 . 1 1000
70
· + = µ
Equation -12
Actual Mesh Voltage (Touch Voltage):
Mesh voltage (a form of touch voltage) is taken as being from a grounded structure to the center of
a rectangle of the substation grounding grid mesh. Mesh voltages represent the highest possible
touch voltages that may be encountered within a substation’s grounding system and thus represent a
practical basis for designing a safe grounding system. The mesh voltage has to be less than the
tolerable touch voltage for the grounding system to be safe.
L
I K K
E
i m
m
µ
=
Equation -13
Where:
p = Soil resistivity, C-m.
Km = Spacing factor for mesh voltage.
Ki = Correction factor for grid geometry.
L = Effective length for mesh voltage in meters.
The geometrical factor K
m
is expressed by Equation -14:
, ,
, ,
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
· +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+ · =
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2
2
n K
K
d
h
d D
h D
d h
D
K
h
ii
m
t t
Equation -14
Where:
D = Spacing between parallel conductors in meters.
d = Diameter of grid conductors in meters.
h = Depth of ground grid conductors in meters.
n = Number of parallel conductors in one direction.
Kii=Corrective weighting factor that adjusts for the effects of inner conductors on the corner mesh
Kh=Corrective weighting factor that emphasizes the effects of grid depth.
For grids with ground rods along the perimeter, K
ii
= 1
For grids with no ground rods or grids with only a few ground rods:
, , n
ii
n
K
2
2
1
=
Equation -15
h K
h
+ = 1 Equation -16
The correction factor for grid geometry, K
i,
expressed by Equation -17:
n K
i
· + = 172 . 0 656 . 0 Equation -17
Actual Step Voltage (Es):
Step voltages within a grid system designed for safe mesh voltages will be well within tolerable limits.
This is because step voltages are usually smaller than touch voltages, and both feet are in series
rather than parallel. Also, the body can tolerate higher currents through a foot-to-foot path since the
current does not pass close to the heart. The step voltage has to be less than the tolerable step
voltage for the ground system to be safe.
L
I K K
E
i s
s
· · ·
=
µ
Equation -18
Where:
p =Soil resistivity, C-m.
Ks=Spacing factor for step voltage, simplified method.
Ki=Correction factor for grid geometry, simplified method.
I=Maximum grid current that flows between ground grid and surrounding earth in amperes.
L=Effective buried conductor length in meters
The maximum step voltage is assumed to occur over a distance of 1 meter. For the usual burial depth
of 0.25 m < h < 2.5 m, Ks is expressed by Equation -19.
, ,
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
+
+
·
=
÷2
5 . 0 1
1 1
2
1 1
n
s
D h D h
K
t
Equation -19
Determination of Maximum ground current:
The maximum grid current is the current that flows through the grid to remote earth, and is calculated
by Equation -20.
g f
I D I · =
Equation -20
Where:
I = Maximum grid current in amperes.
Df = Decrement factor to account for asymmetry of the fault current wave.
Ig = rms symmetrical grid current in amperes.
Symmetrical Grid Current (I
g
): The symmetrical ground fault current that flows between the grounding
grid and surrounding earth may be expressed by Equation -21.
f f g
I S I · = Equation -21
Where:
If = rms symmetrical ground fault current in amperes
Sf = Fault current division factor.
For the assumption of a sustained flow of the initial ground fault current, the symmetrical grid current
can be expressed by Equation -22:
, ,
°
· =
o f g
I S I 3 Equation -22
Where:
Io = Symmetrical rms value of Zero Sequence fault current in amperes
For grids with no ground rods, or grids with only a few ground rods scattered throughout the grid, the
effective buried length, L, is expressed by Equation -23:
R C
L L L + = Equation -23
Where:
Lc = Total length of grid conductor in meters.
LR = Total length of ground rods in meters.
For grids with ground rods along the perimeter, as well as along the perimeter and throughout the
grid, the effective buried length, L, is expressed by Equation -24:
R
y x
r
C M
L
L L
L
L L
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
2 2
22 . 1 55 . 1
Equation -24
Where:
Lr = Length of each ground rod in meters
Ground Potential Rise (GPR):
In all the above situations for step and touch voltage, the actual voltage potential encountered by the
person is related to the ground potential rise of the grounding system above remote earth.
This fact stresses the importance of keeping that value as low as possible.
Ground potential rise is the maximum electrical potential that a substation grounding grid may attain.
g GPR
R I V · = Equation -25
Where:
VGPR = Ground potential rise in volts
Rg = Ground grid resistance in C.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
A h A
L
R
g
/ 20 1
1
1
20
1 1
µ
Equation -26
Where:
A = Area occupied by the ground grid in m
2
Design of Substation Grounding System :
The grid system would be extended over the entire substation switchyard and often beyond
the fence line. Multiple ground leads or larger sized conductors would be used where high
concentrations of current may occur, such as at a neutral-to-ground connection of generators,
capacitor banks, or transformers.
The step by step approach to design a substation earthing system :
Design Procedures : as shown in the following block diagram :
Example for Substation Grounding Calculation:
1. Outdoor Substation with Air Insulated Switchgear :
We want to design an earthing grid for 400/132KV , I
sc
= 50 KA ,1s – Outdoor AIS ( Air Insulated
Switchgear ) substation by using the following data:
1. soil resistivity p=75C.m
2. resistivity at soil surface p
s
= 3000C.m
3. substation area =150m×200m=30000m
2
4. max. grid current I = 50 KA
5. fault clearing time t=0.5s
6. 4 rods x 6 m each on corners = 24 m .
7. 36 rods x 3 m each = 108 m
Grid and ground rod combinations
When a combination of grid conductors and ground rods are used in a grounding system, the number
and length of ground rods may have a great influence on the performance of the grounding system.
For a given length of grid conductor or ground rod, the ground rod discharges much more current into
the earth than does the grid conductor. This current in the ground rod is also discharged mainly in the
lower portion of the rod. Therefore, the touch and step voltages are reduced significantly compared to
that of grid alone.
Only Copper conductor is considered in the calculations to be used for the grid:
1. spacing between conductors D=10m as the maximum recommended spacing .
2. depth of ground grid conductors h=0.5m
Calculating Conductor Size:
As per IEEE - 2000
Tm = 1084 °C max. allowable fusing temp., see Table1 IEEE 80
Ta = 35 °C ambient temperature (earth)
dr = 0.00381 thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr at 20°C
see Table1 IEEE 80
pr = 1.777uDcm resistivity of the ground conductor at reference temperature Tr at 20°C
Ko = 242 see Table1 IEEE 80: 1/do or (1/dr) – Tr in °C )
tc = 0.50 s duration of currents ( if tc is not specified , switchgear rated duration time shall be taken.
TCAP = 3.422 thermal capacity per unit volume from
Table 1 IEEE 80, in J/(cm³ C°)
A
mm
² = 125.8 mm²
Or ,
As per BS 7430
176
5 . 0 10 50
3
× ×
= =
k
t I
A
c
= 200 mm²
From Table 10 , the current density K = 176 for copper conductor with 250º C max. temperature,
p=75 C.m and for p between 25-100 C.m a 15% corrosion allowance is recommended .
So Ac must be increased by 0.15 to be equal:
2
230 15 . 0 200 200 mm Ac = × + =
240 mm² copper conductor cable shall be used .
For the Grid conductors , the conductor size should be capable of carrying the maximum earth fault
current for 1s or 3s ( as specified ) .
Where multiple parallel paths are provided , each conductor should be capable of carrying 60% of
the maximum earth fault current for the same period of time .
Conductor diameter could calculate as:
m mm
A
d
C 3
10 5 . 17 49 . 17
14 . 3
240 4 4
÷
× ~ =
×
=
H
×
=
Preliminary Design:
Let the grid cover all the station area:
A =150×200 = 30000m
2
Total length of the used conductor to form the grid (L): L= 16×200+21×150 + 36 x 3 + 4 x 6 =6482m
n = n
c
. n
b
. n
e
. n
d
52 . 18
700
6482
2 = × = =
p
c
a
L
L
2 n
01 . 1
30000 4
700
= = =
A 4
L
n
p
b
n = 18.52 x 1.01x 1 x1 = 18.71
n
c
= 1 for square and rectangular grid.
n
d
= 1 for square
,
rectangular and L- shaped grid.
L
c
= is the total length of the conductor in the horizontal grid in m.
L
p
= is the peripheral length of the grid in m.
A = is the area of the grid m
2
.
Calculation of Grid Resistance:
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ × + =
A h A
L
R
20 1
1
1
20
1 1
µ
O =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ ×
×
+ = 204 . 0
30000 20 5 . 0 1
1
1
30000 20
1
6482
1
75
The Conductor Length for Gradient Control:
, ,, , 116 . 0 5 . 1 1000
. . . .
s
i m
t I K K
L
µ
µ
+
=
Ki = 0.644+0.148n=0.644+ (0.148×18.71) for n=18.71
= 3.413
Kii = 1
Kh = 225 . 1 5 . 0 1 1 = + = + h
, ,
, ,
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ H
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+
H
=
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2 2
n Kh
Kii
d
h
Dd
h D
Dh
D
Km
, ,
, ,
3504 . 0
1 43 . 18 2
8
ln
225 . 1
1
10 18 4
5 . 0
10 18 10 8
5 . 0 2 10
5 . 0 10 16
100
ln
2
1
3 3
2
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × H
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
÷
× × ×
× +
+
× × H
=
÷ ÷
, ,, ,
m L
L
4970
116 . 0 3000 5 . 1 1000
5 . 0 10 50 413 . 3 3504 . 0 75
3
=
× +
× × × × ×
=
Since the length of the conductor in preliminary design (6482m) is more than the conductor length
required (4970m), for control of gradient, the design of the grid is safe from the consideration of
mesh voltage.
Actual and Tolerable Step Voltage:
Tolerable E
step
=, ,
t
s
116 . 0
. 6 1000 µ +
=, , V 92 . 3116
5 . 0
116 . 0
. 3000 6 1000 = × +
Actual E
step
=
L
I
Ki Ks
sc
× × × µ
, , , ,
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
+
+
H
=
÷2
5 . 0 1
1 1
2
1 1
n
D h D h
Ks
, , , , 3806 . 0 5 . 0 1
10
1
5 . 0 10
1
5 . 0 2
1 1
2 71 . 18
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
+
+
× H
=
÷
Ks
Actual E
step
=75×0.3806×3.413× (
6482
10 50
3
×
) =751.497
Actual E
step
is less than the Tolerable E
step
, so that the grid is safe from the consideration of step
voltage.
Actual and Tolerable Touch voltage (mesh voltage):
Tolerable E
touch
=, ,
t
s
116 . 0
5 . 1 1000 µ +
=, , V 26 . 902
5 . 0
116 . 0
3000 5 . 1 1000 = × +
Actual E
touch
=
L
I
Ki Km
sc
× × × µ
=75×0.3504×3.413×(
6482
10 50
3
×
)= 691.87 V
Actual E
touch
is less than the Tolerable E
touch
, so that the grid is safe from the consideration of touch
voltage.
Ground Potential Rise (GPR):
GPR=I
sc
× R
grid
= 50 ×10
3
× 0.204 = 10200 V
Fig (5-9) shows the final layout.
Now, it is certain that considerable and therefore dangerous potentials can arise between the soil, the
floors of buildings on one side, and the metallic parts of the plant during the time of faults. Potential
differences which may endanger cable insulation and low-voltage apparatus and facilities may be
eliminated by metallic interconnection of equipment housing, sheaths of control and service cables
and their neutral conductors, and the construction parts in the control house.
Therefore one must also consider the safety of operating personnel who in the course of their work
must touch such metal parts. For this purpose the operating position may be provided either with an
insulated floor capable of withstanding the high potential or with a metallic grid in the floor and tied to
the ground mat or provided with both. For protection of personnel at the danger points, narrow
meshed ground mats with mesh spacing of about 1 m will serve
Such metallic foot grids have been previously used for protection in some plants with ungrounded star
neutral. They consisted of small meshed wire netting cemented into the floor and tied to the
grounding system, and provided absolute protection to persons standing thereon and grasping
operating controls in that a highly conducting shunt path was provided between hands and feet.
The measurements show, as might be expected, that by using a fine mesh a considerable reduction
in potential differences within the mat area can be obtained. Further, it is apparent that small
protected areas can be produced by partial matting without completely matting the entire grounding
area. Practical application of such finer meshing can be found principally in outdoor stations in the
neighborhood of accessible equipment where the hazard is greatest.
2. Indoor Type Substation with Gas Insulated Switchgear ( GIS ) :
For the Indoor Type Substations with GIS ( Gas Insulated Switchgear ) , the same shall be followed
with special care for the GIS switchgear which should have separate earthing grid to be followed
strictly as per the GIS manufacturer and to be connected to the above main grid .
GIS characteristics
GIS are subjected to the same magnitude of ground fault current and require the same low-
impedance grounding as conventional substations. Typically, the GIS installation necessitates 10–
25% of the land area required for conventional equipment.
Because of this smaller area, it may be difficult to obtain adequate grounding solely by
conventional methods. Particular attention should be given to the bonding of the metallic enclosures
of the GIS assembly, as these enclosures carry induced currents of significant magnitude,
which must be confined to specific paths. In this respect, grounding recommendations by the
manufacturer of a given GIS usually need to be strictly followed.
As a result of the compact nature of GIS and its short distances, electrical breakdown in the insulating
gas, either across the contacts of a switching device during operation or in a fault that generates very
high frequency transients that can couple onto the grounding system. In some cases, these transients
may have to be considered in the overall grounding design. These transients may cause high
magnitude, short duration ground rises and are also the source of electromagnetic interference (EMI)
in the GIS. EMI is beyond the scope of this document.
Cooperation between GIS manufacturer and user
Usually it is the GIS manufacturer who defines clearly what constitutes the main ground bus of the
GIS and specifies what is required of the user for connecting the GIS assembly to the substation
ground..
Usually the GIS manufacturer also provides, or is responsible for
a) Providing the subassembly-to-subassembly bonding to assure safe voltage
gradients between all intentionally grounded parts of the GIS assembly and between
those parts and the main ground bus of the GIS.
b) Furnishing readily accessible connectors of sufficient mechanical strength to withstand
electromagnetic forces and normal abuse, and that are capable of carrying the
anticipated maximum fault current in that portion of the circuit without overheating.
c) Providing ground pads or connectors, or both, allowing, at least, for two paths to ground
from the main ground bus, or from each metallic enclosure and auxiliary piece of GIS
equipment designated for a connection to the substation ground if the main ground bus of
the GIS assembly does not actually exist.
d) Recommending proper procedures for connections between dissimilar metals, typically
between a copper cable or a similar ground conductor and aluminum enclosures.
Touch voltage criteria for GIS
Although the GIS manufacturer generally designs the equipment to meet the already
mentioned requirements for safe operation and usually performs most.
In contrast to the general wisdom that a large ground connection necessarily equals a good
grounding practice, the circulating currents generated in the GIS enclosures during a fault should also
be taken into account.
To be considered are:
1) Where these currents will circulate, and
2) Where and to what degree the design engineer or GIS manufacturer, or both, prefer these
currents to circulate.
Typically in a continuous enclosure design, the path of enclosure currents includes some structural
members of the GIS frame and the enclosures themselves. With each phase enclosure tied to the
enclosures of adjacent phases at both ends, several loops are formed.
For the hand-to-feet contact made by a person standing on a nonmetallic surface (for instance, a
concrete slab or the soil layer above the grounding grid), only a minor modification of the application
criterion of Equation (32) and Equation (33) of the IEEE – 2000 standard is required in order to take
into account the maximum inductive voltage drop occurring within the GIS assembly.
The touch voltage criterion for GIS is
where
E
t
: is the maximum touch voltage, as determined for the point underneath a person’s feet
E '
to max
: is the (predominantly inductive) maximum value of metal-to-metal voltage difference on and
between GIS enclosures, or between these enclosures and the supporting structures,
including any horizontal or vertical members for which the GIS assembly is designed
In practical situations, as shown in Figure 16, a multiplicity of return paths and considerable cross-
coupling occurs. As a rule, because of a great variety in possible physical arrangements of the
GIS assembly, the GIS manufacturers perform detailed calculations for determining the basic
design parameters, such as spacing and location of bonds.
Recommendations
The following recommendations should be considered for GIS installations:
a) When applying the touch voltage criterion Equation (36), the following facts should be
considered. The case of an internal fault with ground return requires the addition of the
resistive and inductive voltage drop to the resistive drop representing the difference of
potentials between the substation ground and the point beneath a person’s feet. This
generally is not necessary for faults external to the GIS. For an external line-to-ground
fault, the voltages induced on the sheath should be checked for a hand-to-hand metal-
to-metal contact, but the calculation of step and touch voltages at the earth’s surface is
the same as that for conventional installations [i.e., the inductive term E' to max
in Equation (36) is zero].
b) In evaluating the magnitude of induced voltages caused by faults external to the GIS,
only the case of a close-in fault [case (B) in Figure 16] needs to be analyzed because
remote external faults will cause less of a problem.
Figure - 16
Conclusions :
In general, a uniformly spaced grounding system consisting of a grid and ground rods
is superior to a uniformly spaced grounding system consisting only of a grid with the same
total conductor length. The variable spacing technique discussed earlier might be used to
design a grounding system consisting of a grid only, with lower step and touch voltages than
a uniformly spaced grid and ground rod design of equal length. However, this variable
spacing technique might also be used to design a better grounding system using non-
uniformly spaced grid conductors and ground rods. It shall be emphasized that this type of
design shall be analyzed using the detailed analysis techniques in the references.
The sheaths of the control cables provide a connection between the controlled apparatus in
the high-voltage bays and the control point. Thereby, a fault to ground in the station can
cause a very large current to fow through the sheath and melt it. Communication cables
which leave the plant will also conduct ground currents away since intentionally or
unintentionally they come into contact with building construction parts. Thereby, the sheaths
acquire the high potential of the station in their vicinity while the conductors approximate
the potential of the more-distant surroundings, so that insulation failures may occur.
So likewise the cables of the low-voltage plant and the windings of control motors
among others may be endangered by large potential differences. To this all cable sheaths
within the plant must also be connected; so likewise the control mechanisms in the switching
station to which the control cables are connected.
Basically the entire plant should be provided with a built-up ground mat for the ground-fault
current, to which all equipment parts in the plant are connected. So likewise, the existing
neutral conductors of independent low-voltage systems should be tied to the ground mat. By
this method there will be the least worry that signifcant potential differences will arise
between the accessible metallic parts of the plant and the plant equipment so protected will
be safe from failure.
Ungrounded system : when an ungrounded system experiences a fault to ground,
transient voltage on the un-faulted phases can exceed normal line-to-ground voltage.
The sustained voltages to ground on the un-faulted phases will reach line-to-line values.
Grounding reduces the deleterious effects of lightning surges in two ways. The grounding
system will frequently help to dissipate and distribute the surge energy between the phases,
thus reducing the severity of the insulation stress. In an indirect but more important manner,
by holding system overvoltages down, the grounding system permits application of surge
arresters with lower sparkover values and a higher protective margin for the equipment. The
influence of lightning is minimal in the choice of grounding methods for station auxiliary
systems. The surges transferred through transformers from overhead lines are dissipated to
a very low value among the multiple circuits emanating from station service buses.
Reference Documents :
1) IEEE – Grounding 2000 .
2) BS 7430 .
3) Engineer Al – Ghawanmeh , Ahmad Graduation Project .

Effect of magnitude and duration The most common physiological effects of electric current on the body, stated in order of increasing current magnitude, are threshold perception, muscular contraction, unconsciousness, brillation of the heart, respiratory nerve blockage, and burning

where
IB ts SB is the rms magnitude of the current through the body in A is the duration of the current exposure in s is the empirical constant related to the electric shock energy tolerated by a certain percent of a given population

Effective grounding (solid or direct) Effective grounding is usually obtained by a direct connection between system neutral and the earth with no intentional impedance. When the system neutral is effectively grounded, the transient overvoltages are held to a minimum as compared to the other grounding methods. The high fault current, if not cleared promptly, causes maximum fault damage and mechanical stress on equipment. It may also be sufficiently greater than three-phase currents to become a consideration in the selection of circuit breaker interrupting ratings. Importance of high-speed fault clearing Considering the significance of fault duration both in terms of Equation (6) and implicitly as an accident-exposure factor, high-speed clearing of ground faults is advantageous for two reasons a) The probability of exposure to electric shock is greatly reduced by fast fault clearing time, in contrast to situations in which fault currents could persist for several minutes or possibly hours. b) Tests and experience show that the chance of severe injury or death is greatly reduced if the duration of a current flow through the body is very brief. The allowed current value may, therefore, be based on the clearing time of primary protective devices, or that of the backup protection Duration formula The duration for which a 50 Hz or 60 Hz current can be tolerated by most people is related to its magnitude in accordance with Equation (6). it is assumed that 99.5% of all persons can safely withstand, without ventricular brillation, the passage of a current with magnitude and duration determined by the following formula:

where, in addition to the terms previously defined in Equation (6)

Equation (8) results in values of 116 mA for ts = 1 s and 367 mA for ts = 0.1 s.

Users of this guide may select k = 0.157 provided that the average population weight can be expected to be at least 70 kg.

That is. is equal to the maximum grid current times the grid resistance. given in s is the rms symmetrical grid current in A Symmetrical grid current: That portion of the symmetrical ground fault current that flows between the grounding grid and surrounding earth. Ground Potential Rise (GPR) The maximum electrical potential that a substation grounding grid may attain relative to a distant grounding point assumed to be at the potential of remote earth. Influence of Potential Gradiant : Around every earth electrode a so called Potential Gradiant area develops during the flow of an electric current . the potential of a grounded neutral conductor is nearly identical to the potential of remote earth. This voltage. A typical grid usually is supplemented by a number of ground rods and may be further connected to auxiliary ground electrodes to lower its resistance with respect to remote earth. Grounding grid: A system of horizontal ground electrodes that consists of a number of interconnected. the grounded electrical equipment operates at near zero ground potential. During a ground fault the portion of fault current that is conducted by a substation grounding grid into the earth causes the rise of the grid potential with respect to remote earth.Definitions: Soil Resistivity The electrical characteristic of the soil with respect to conductivity . a distance of 20 m to the earth electrode and to the probes to each other is sufficient to minimize or eliminate the potential gradiant effect Maximum grid current: A design value of the maximum grid current.It must be assured that the testing probes is set outside the potential gradiant area . Normally . NOTE—Grids buried horizontally near the earth’s surface are also effective in controlling the surface potential gradients. GPR. providing a common ground for electrical devices or metallic structures. usually in one specific location. defined as follows: where IG Df Ig is the maximum grid current in A is the decrement factor for the entire duration of fault tf . bare conductors buried in the earth.It is the soil resistivity that mainly affects the diameter of the potential gradiant area . NOTE—Under normal conditions. Earth Current The current that circulates between the grounding system and the ground fault current source that uses the earth as the return path . It may be expressed as Where Ig If Sf is the rms symmetrical grid current in A is the rms symmetrical ground fault current in A is the fault current division factor . The value is typically given in ohmmeters.

As such. it represents the rms value of the symmetrical component in the first half-cycle of a current wave that develops after the instant of fault at time zero. the initial symmetrical fault current is assumed to remain constant for the entire duration of the fault. reflecting the subtransient reactances of rotating machines contributing to the fault This rms symmetrical fault current is shown in an abbreviated notation as If . for purposes of this guide. integrated over the interval of fault duration Where IF If Df is the effective asymmetrical fault current in A is the rms symmetrical ground fault current in A is the decrement factor .Symmetrical ground fault current: The maximum rms value of symmetrical fault current after the instant of a ground fault initiation. Effective asymmetrical fault current: The rms value of asymmetrical current wave. For phase-to-ground faults Where If(0+) I0 is the initial rms symmetrical ground fault current is the rms value of zero-sequence symmetrical current that develops immediately after the instant of fault initiation. or is referred to only as 3I0. The underlying reason for the latter notation is that.

This method has the advantage that a person on the outside of the fence can come into contact with a lower potential than that associated with method b). but when an earth fault occurs the previous case will be change and a large fault current flow in the system. a) Independent earthing. its stays and anti-climbing fittings should be bonded to the earthing system at intervals not . based on the varying decay rates of the fault contributions and the sequence of interrupting device operations. Substation Fence Grounding: The grounding of the substation fence is critical because the fence is generally accessible to the public. for the purposes of calculating the design value of maximum grid current and symmetrical grid current per definitions of symmetrical grid current and maximum grid current. Touch Voltage The potential difference between the ground potential rise and the surface potential at the point where a person is standing while at the same time having his hands in contact with a grounded structure. However.Fault current division factor: A factor representing the inverse of a ratio of the symmetrical fault current to that portion of the current that ows between the grounding grid and surrounding earth. The substation grounding design should be such that the touch potential on both sides of the fence is within the calculated tolerable limit of touch potential. Earthing of fences can follow either of the following two procedures. The neutral point of the three phase system can be grounded directly or through an impedance to limit the fault current. this current has dangerous effect on power transformers and other equipments. Substation Equipments Grounding Neutral Grounding: In the normal case there is no current flow in or from the neutral point. Step Voltage The difference in surface potential experienced by a person bridging a distance of 1 meter with his feet without contacting any other grounded object. Mesh Voltage The maximum touch voltage within a mesh of a ground grid . where Sf is the fault current division factor Ig is the rms symmetrical grid current in A I0 is the zero-sequence fault current in A NOTE—In reality. b) Connection to the station earthing system. Enclosure currents: Currents that result from the voltages induced in the metallic enclosure by the current(s) flowing in the enclosed conductor(s). and that achieved by grounding the system neutral. the ratio is assumed constant during the entire duration of a given fault. the fence. so it must be eliminated or rejected out of the system. the current division factor would change during the fault duration. Where a fence is situated within the area of a station earthing system or cannot be separated from it by at least 2 m.

is not usually adversely affected by this simplification. these should identify the surface layer to about 1m and the average deep layer to the grid diagonal dimension. However. If more than two layers are identified. electrostatic and electromagnetic induction.91 meter (approximately one arm’s length) outside the substation fence .exceeding 50 m with additional bonds at the fence corners and wherever an overhead conductor passes over the fence. Metal gates should be bonded by flexible connections to adjacent fence sections. No heavy equipment is needed to perform the four-pin test. whilst the grid resistance. The results are not greatly affected by the resistance of the test pins or the holes created in driving the test pins into the soil. the lower layers are usually combined to form a two layer equivalent model. flow of fault current in the sheath. it is recommended that a multi-layer model for apparent resistivity be generated. soil resistivity measurements should be taken at the substation site. This is done because the surface potentials are closely related to the upper layer resistivity. accuracy and safety. A. Cable sheaths should be grounded at two or more locations: at cable terminations and at splices and taps. A two layer model yields significant benefits in both cost. The multi-layer model is useful in providing more accurate information regarding the presence of lower resistivity layers. Make these at a number of places within the site. and voltage rise during fault current flow in the substation ground system to which the sheaths are connected. Surge Arrester Grounding: Surge arresters are designed to pass surge energy from lightning and switching transients to ground and so are frequently subjected to abnormal current flow to ground. The substation fence should be connected to the main ground grid by the outer grid conductor which installed a minimum of 0. Gate posts should be bonded together by a conductor laid below ground. Substation sites where the soil may possess uniform resistivity throughout the entire area and to a considerable depth are seldom found. The most-widely used method for the soil resistivity measurement is the Wenner four-pin method: The four-pin method obtains the soil resistivity data for deeper layers without driving the test pins to those layers. . Soil Resistivity Measurements: Before the design process can begin. and hence optimizing rod driving depths. For the new installations . which is primarily effected by the deeper layers. They have to be reliably grounded to ensure protection of the equipment they are protecting and to minimize high potential gradients during operation. Control cable shields are not intended to carry significant current and thus should only be grounded at one end. the two layer model is considered sufficiently accurate for modeling the behavior of grids in the majority of cases. Metallic Cable Sheaths Grounding: Metallic cable sheaths in power cable have to be effectively grounded to prevent dangerous voltages resulting from insulation failure.

This will help to eliminate errors caused by nearby buried conductors and other parts of the electrical system interfering with the results. In this way comparison between records will show if there is a trend which may require attention at some time in the future. the remaining electrodes provide an adequately low resistance or use the modern Earth / Ground Tester which does not require any disconnection.Figure 5-1: Wenner Four-Pin Method. When it comes to safety. the grounding system must be an important consideration in a substation's design. Following the installation of a new grounding system at a substation. For existing installations it is not permissible to disconnect earth electrodes unless the installation is also disconnected from all sources of power. Grid Resistance Measurement in Operating Substations : With Today's Increases in System Voltages and Power Plant Ratings. In addition. preferably after the end of the driest period in the year. It is therefore advisable to check the resistance of an electrode both on installation and at regular intervals thereafter. . It is always best to check results by using a different direction or a longer distance to the test spikes.1 -m. more attention is being given to the safety of operational personnel in substations. NOTE : Danger can arise when removing a conductor connected to earth unless suitable precautions are taken. as is the case of probes penetrating the ground only a short distance. It will also give a worst case value of resistance on which to check the proper functioning of circuit disconnection equipment. The problem can sometimes be solved by installing multiple electrodes so that. testing is required to confirm the grounding resistance complies with the design value. 4 aR a 1 Where: 2a a2 4b 2 a2 a b2 Equation . the substation grounding system should be tested periodically to make certain no changes are required. with one disconnected for testing. a = Apparent resistivity of the soil in R = Measured resistance in ohms a = Distance between adjacent electrodes in meters b = Depth of the electrodes in meters If b is small compared to a. In some cases the voltages involved when testing earth electrodes may present a risk of shock and care should be exercised to take the necessary precautions. Equation-1 can be reduced to Equation – 2 : a 2 aR Equation – 2 Testing several points or drawing up a curve will help the understanding of the area around the electrode.

For single electrode earths. the impedance measurements of a high-voltage substation grounding system are determined by passing an alternating current between the grounding grid and a remote current electrode. but not necessarily. giving rise to measurement discrepancies of 100% or more. The ratio of voltage to current. if the measurements are accurate. the mutual coupling reaches a maximum value when the auxiliary potential test lead is laid in parallel with the auxiliary current test lead . The voltage drop between electrode X and a second auxiliary electrode Z is measured and the resistance of the electrode X is then the voltage between X and Z divided by the current flowing between X and Y. feeding transformers neutrals are connected to the earthing grid . and an auxiliary current electrode Y. the influence on the surrounding soil is limited and current test spikes can be quite close (typically 10 to 20 m) to the electrode under test. The best method of measurement and the test connections is illustrated in Figure 11. By this method. industrial zones. It is usually quite easy to find a flat portion of the earth resistance curve which should be close to the resistance of the electrode. combined in one device. A measured current is passed between electrode X. The source of current and the means of metering either the current and voltage or their ratio are often. The potential electrode is placed at various positions between the current electrode and grounding system. the one being tested. GROUNDING TEST METHOD Fall of Potential Testing : The fall-of-potential method is the most-widely adopted test used on the majority of grounding systems.Some substations are located in cities . The resultant curve. the coupling effect between the current and potential leads can be considerable. has a relatively flat segment in the middle section of this characteristic. . known as the apparent resistance. Typically mutual impedance precise value is dependant on the test lead spacing and it is recommended that this effect should always be accounted for when measuring earthing systems with a resistance of < 1 . high rise commercial buildings and towers making it increasingly difficult or impossible for the utility to find available space in more than one direction to spread measuring wires so as to eliminate the coupling effect to have accurate grid resistance measurement also when the cables sheaths . The required value of the grounding system resistance is then determined from the characteristic at a position that is approximately 50% to 70% of the current wire length. At substations. is then plotted against the distance from the substation. . and the coupling reduces as the spacing between the circuits is increased and falls to a minimum when the auxiliary potential test lead is a 90º to the auxiliary current test lead . such as domestic earths and lightning conductors. Normally .

The ratio of voltage to current. 2. if the measurements are accurate. If no available space in more than one direction to spread measuring wires so as to eliminate the coupling effect and other interferences and a classic Earth / Ground Tester is used . 3. has a relatively flat segment in the middle section of this characteristic. The potential electrode is placed at various positions between the current electrode and grounding system.Fig. a reading close to the earth resistance will be measured. and based on experience . known as the coupling effect. Using a potential spike distance of between 10 and 40 m. known as the apparent resistance. Testing with modern Earth / Ground tester which has Automatic Frequency Control Option which identifies existing interferences and chooses a measurement frequency to minimize its effect. the measurement can be taken at the most convenient spacing distance between the current and potential wires in this substation . The resistance value can be verified by taking same measurement arrangement at other substations where convenient spacing is available and more than one testing method measurement can be taken and results can be compared and verified . is then plotted against the distance from the substation. Above 40 m the "resistance area" of the current spike will give a higher measured value than expected. This measured value consists of two components: The actual voltage difference between grounding system under test and the auxiliary potential electrode The inducted potential due to alternating current flowing in the current test loop. . known as the coupling effect. At distances less than 10 m the influence of the electrode under test will affect the measurement. This measured value consists of two components: The actual voltage difference between grounding system under test and the auxiliary potential electrode The inducted potential due to alternating current flowing in the current test loop. If there is enough available space . When the alternating current at a frequency different from that of the interfering power currents and their harmonics. to repeat each measurement with repositioned probes and only to regard a measurement as successful and accurate if several subsequent measurements result in the same values . These forms of interference can be minimized or eliminated by the followings : 1. This is usually achieved by using a frequency generator with 60 Hz to 90 Hz frequency range . The resultant curve.4 shows an example of a small earth system with a test spike at 50 m.

B. Basic Design procedures of Substation Grounding System as per IEEE – Grounding 2000 : Computer simulation :Most major engineering project companies and designers now have the inhouse computer programs to design and evaluate different substation earthing arrangements . The step by step approach to design a substation earthing system : .

= 0. t is the fault current duration.m. for other materials please refer to table 1 of the IEEE – Grounding 2000 . k is the r.s.3 and the only difference will be the value of the current I .s. The required conductor size as a function of conductor current is given in the following equation : Equation – 3 Where: I Amm² Tm Ta Tr o r r Ko tc TCAP = Isc is the rms Switchgear rated short circuit current in kA for equipment conductor .6 – 0.5 sec because of the use of the new Numerical protection relays . the substation Switchgear rated duration time shall be considered ) which is normally 1sec.( if not specified . as per the new IEC standard . The corresponding conductor cross-sectional area (Ac) in square millimeters can be simplified and given by Equation -4: Ac where I t k Equation -4 I is the average fault current.m.8 Isc for Grid conductor sizing . . Since .Ground Conductor Sizing The ground conductor for both the grid and equipment connections should be sized according to Equation . in A r. is the thermal capacity per unit volume from Table 1. where I value will be the S/S short circuit current rating for the equipment grounding conductor and 60% of the S/S short circuit current rating for the grid conductor . in s. some clients specify 3 sec as per the previous IEC Switchgear rating and some Clients accept 0. in A/mm2 (given in Table 10). current density. is the conductor cross section in mm2 is the maximum allowable temperature in °C is the ambient temperature in °C is the reference temperature for material constants in °C is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at 0 °C in 1/°C is the thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature T r in 1/°C is the resistivity of the ground conductor at reference temperature T r in µ -cm 1/ o or (1/ r) – Tr in °C is the duration of current in s . Alternate formulations : As per British Standard BS 7430 . in J/(cm3·°C) Note : Only copper conductors are considered in the above table .

s. are given in Table 10 for copper. The current densities (k) in r.Table 10 provides a guide to acceptable maximum fault current temperatures for bare earthing conductors.m. amperes per square millimeter. the maximum temperature may be limited by the covering or insulating material. is the fault current duration. in mm². in A/mm2 (given in Table 10). For other durations the fault current capacity (I) in amperes r. for 1 s and 3 s durations. according to the environmental conditions and the type of connections used. for a 1 s duration. For a conductor covered to provide corrosion or mechanical protection.m.s. is the r. aluminum and steel conductors assuming an initial temperature of 30 °C. (given in Table 11 and Table 12). . current density.m. can be calculated from one of the following equations: or Where . in A r. I1 A k t is the fault current for 1 s duration.s. is the conductor cross-sectional area. in s.m. I kA t Table 10 — Earth fault current densities for 1 s duration for earthing conductors with initial conductor temperature of 30 °C Fault current capacities. for a selection of standard sizes of copper and aluminum strips are given in Table 11 and Table 12. or an insulated conductor.s.

T1 is the initial temperature. in °C. . K and have the values given in Table 13.Table 11 — Earth fault currents (in kA) for copper strip earthing conductors For other initial and final temperatures the current density k for 1 s duration can be obtained from the following equation: Where . in °C. T2 is the final temperature.

. Figure 5-6: Touch Voltage Circuit. Figure 5-7: Exposure to Step Voltage. Figure 5-8: Step Voltage Circuit. In most cases the tolerable touch voltage will be the limiting factor.Tolerable Touch and Step Voltages The tolerable touch and step voltages are the criteria that have to be met to ensure a safe design. Figures5-5 through 5-8 are used to derive the equations for maximum touch and step voltage Figure 5-5: Exposure to Touch Voltage.

Rf = Ground resistance of one foot Rf 3Cs s Equation -7 Cs is the surface layer derating factor based on the thickness of the protective surface layer spread above the earth grade at a substation. RB is generally estimated to be 1000 . then s =resistivity of homogenous earth.157 s Equation -11 t Equation -12 . k = Constant related to electric shock energy For a person weighing 50 kg (110 lbs).116 For a person weighing 70 kg (155 lbs). I Equation -5 Etouch Where: RB Rf 2 . -6. k = 0. RB.157 Substituting for I.116 s t Equation-9 Etouch50 1000 1. and -7: For body weight of 50 kg (110 lbs) E step50 1000 6 C s 0. then Cs = 1.116 s t 0. If no protective s is the resistivity of the protective surface layer used at the substation in surface layer is used.157 Equation -10 For body weight of 70 kg (155 lbs): E step 70 1000 6 C s s E touch70 1000 1. I is defined as: I Where: K t Equation -8 I = Maximum grid current in A.The equations for the maximum touch and step voltages are as follows: E step RB 2R f . k = 0. t = Fault clearing time in s. and k in Equations -5.I Equation -6 Estep = Step voltage in volts Etouch = Touch voltage in volts RB = Resistance of the human body to electric current.5 C s 0. Rf. -m. If no protective surface layer is used.5 C s ts 0.

Em Where: K m Ki I L Equation -13 = Soil resistivity. and both feet are in series rather than parallel. simplified method. The mesh voltage has to be less than the tolerable touch voltage for the grounding system to be safe. L = Effective length for mesh voltage in meters. Km = Spacing factor for mesh voltage. d = Diameter of grid conductors in meters. L=Effective buried conductor length in meters . h = Depth of ground grid conductors in meters.656 0. The step voltage has to be less than the tolerable step voltage for the ground system to be safe. I=Maximum grid current that flows between ground grid and surrounding earth in amperes. n = Number of parallel conductors in one direction. This is because step voltages are usually smaller than touch voltages. the body can tolerate higher currents through a foot-to-foot path since the current does not pass close to the heart. Mesh voltages represent the highest possible touch voltages that may be encountered within a substation’s grounding system and thus represent a practical basis for designing a safe grounding system. Ki. For grids with ground rods along the perimeter. Kii=Corrective weighting factor that adjusts for the effects of inner conductors on the corner mesh Kh=Corrective weighting factor that emphasizes the effects of grid depth. -m. Also. Ki=Correction factor for grid geometry. Ki = Correction factor for grid geometry.Actual Mesh Voltage (Touch Voltage): Mesh voltage (a form of touch voltage) is taken as being from a grounded structure to the center of a rectangle of the substation grounding grid mesh. Es Where: Ks Ki I L Equation -18 =Soil resistivity. simplified method. The geometrical factor Km is expressed by Equation -14: Km Where: 1 2 D2 ln 16 h d D 2h 8Dd 2 h 4d K ii ln Kh 8 2n 1 Equation -14 D = Spacing between parallel conductors in meters. expressed by Equation -17: Ki 0.172 n Equation -17 Actual Step Voltage (Es): Step voltages within a grid system designed for safe mesh voltages will be well within tolerable limits. Kii 1 For grids with no ground rods or grids with only a few ground rods: K ii 1 2n 2 n Equation -15 Kh 1 h Equation -16 The correction factor for grid geometry. Ks=Spacing factor for step voltage. -m.

L. Symmetrical Grid Current (Ig): The symmetrical ground fault current that flows between the grounding grid and surrounding earth may be expressed by Equation -21. Df = Decrement factor to account for asymmetry of the fault current wave. is expressed by Equation -23: L Where: LC LR Equation -23 Lc = Total length of grid conductor in meters. This fact stresses the importance of keeping that value as low as possible. Ig = rms symmetrical grid current in amperes. the symmetrical grid current can be expressed by Equation -22: Ig Where: Sf 3 Io Equation -22 Io = Symmetrical rms value of Zero Sequence fault current in amperes For grids with no ground rods. 5 n D 2 Equation -19 Determination of Maximum ground current: The maximum grid current is the current that flows through the grid to remote earth. LR = Total length of ground rods in meters.55 1. Ks 1 1 2 h D 1 h 1 1 0. the effective buried length.22 Lx Lr 2 Ly 2 LR Equation -24 Lr = Length of each ground rod in meters Ground Potential Rise (GPR): In all the above situations for step and touch voltage. the effective buried length. Ig Where: Sf If Equation -21 If = rms symmetrical ground fault current in amperes Sf = Fault current division factor. For the usual burial depth of 0. L. or grids with only a few ground rods scattered throughout the grid. and is calculated by Equation -20. is expressed by Equation -24: LM Where: LC 1. Ks is expressed by Equation -19. the actual voltage potential encountered by the person is related to the ground potential rise of the grounding system above remote earth. For the assumption of a sustained flow of the initial ground fault current. I Where: Df I g Equation -20 I = Maximum grid current in amperes. VGPR I Rg Equation -25 .25 m < h < 2.5 m. For grids with ground rods along the perimeter. as well as along the perimeter and throughout the grid.The maximum step voltage is assumed to occur over a distance of 1 meter. Ground potential rise is the maximum electrical potential that a substation grounding grid may attain.

capacitor banks. Rg Where: 1 L 1 20 A 2 1 1 1 h 20 / A Equation -26 A = Area occupied by the ground grid in m Design of Substation Grounding System : The grid system would be extended over the entire substation switchyard and often beyond the fence line. The step by step approach to design a substation earthing system : Design Procedures : as shown in the following block diagram : .Where: VGPR = Ground potential rise in volts Rg = Ground grid resistance in . Multiple ground leads or larger sized conductors would be used where high concentrations of current may occur. or transformers. such as at a neutral-to-ground connection of generators.

Example for Substation Grounding Calculation: 1. fault clearing time t=0.777u cm resistivity of the ground conductor at reference temperature Tr at 20°C 242 see Table1 IEEE 80: 1/ o or (1/ r) – Tr in °C ) 0. Only Copper conductor is considered in the calculations to be used for the grid: 1. 4 rods x 6 m each on corners = 24 m .m and for I t k 50 10 3 0. 7.m 3.2000 Tm Ta r r Ko tc TCAP = = = = = = = max. soil resistivity =75 . the ground rod discharges much more current into the earth than does the grid conductor.5 = 200 mm² 176 .. see Table1 IEEE 80 ambient temperature (earth) thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr at 20°C see Table1 IEEE 80 1. depth of ground grid conductors h=0.5s 6. the current density K = 176 for copper conductor with 250º C max.m 2. substation area =150m×200m=30000m 2 4. 2.422 thermal capacity per unit volume from Table 1 IEEE 80. As per BS 7430 = 125. resistivity at soil surface s = 3000 . I sc = 50 KA . . For a given length of grid conductor or ground rod.50 s duration of currents ( if tc is not specified . temperature. Therefore.8 mm² Ac =75 . spacing between conductors D=10m as the maximum recommended spacing . between 25-100 So Ac must be increased by 0. max.15 230mm 2 240 mm² copper conductor cable shall be used .15 to be equal: Ac 200 200 0. 3. in J/(cm³ C°) 1084 °C 35 °C 0.5m Calculating Conductor Size: As per IEEE .00381 Amm² Or . the touch and step voltages are reduced significantly compared to that of grid alone. From Table 10 . Outdoor Substation with Air Insulated Switchgear : We want to design an earthing grid for 400/132KV .1s – Outdoor AIS ( Air Insulated Switchgear ) substation by using the following data: 1.m a 15% corrosion allowance is recommended . grid current I = 50 KA 5. allowable fusing temp. This current in the ground rod is also discharged mainly in the lower portion of the rod. 36 rods x 3 m each = 108 m Grid and ground rod combinations When a combination of grid conductors and ground rods are used in a grounding system. the number and length of ground rods may have a great influence on the performance of the grounding system. switchgear rated duration time shall be taken.

Lc = is the total length of the conductor in the horizontal grid in m.204 20 30000 . Lp = is the peripheral length of the grid in m. the conductor size should be capable of carrying the maximum earth fault current for 1s or 3s ( as specified ) . ne .71 nc = 1 for square and rectangular grid. rectangular and L.For the Grid conductors .shaped grid.5 20 30000 0. Conductor diameter could calculate as: d 4 AC 4 240 3.01 4 A 4 30000 n = 18. nd = 1 for square.52 700 1. each conductor should be capable of carrying 60% of the maximum earth fault current for the same period of time .49mm 17.01x 1 x1 = 18. nb . A = is the area of the grid m2.5 10 3 m Preliminary Design: Let the grid cover all the station area: A =150×200 = 30000m2 Total length of the used conductor to form the grid (L): L= 16×200+21×150 + 36 x 3 + 4 x 6 =6482m n = nc . nb Calculation of Grid Resistance: Lp R 1 L 75 1 6482 1 20 A 1 1 1 1 h 20 A 1 1 1 0.52 x 1. nd na 2 Lc Lp 2 6482 700 18.14 17. Where multiple parallel paths are provided .

Actual and Tolerable Step Voltage: Tolerable Estep= 1000 0.5 10 50 10 3 Actual Estep=75×0.K i . the design of the grid is safe from the consideration of mesh voltage.116 4970m 0. so that the grid is safe from the consideration of step voltage.148×18.5 I Actual Estep= Ks Ki sc L 1 1 1 1 n 2 Ks 1 0.K m .71 1 0.116 t 0.644+0.I .148n=0.3806 Actual Estep is less than the Tolerable Estep.92V = 1000 6 3000 .413× ( ) =751. for control of gradient. 0.5 Since the length of the conductor in preliminary design (6482m) is more than the conductor length required (4970m).413 Kii = 1 Kh = 1 h 1 2 ln 1 0.5 8 10 18 10 0.497 6482 Ks 1 2 0.5 2h D h D 6 s .3806×3.225 D2 ln 16 Dh D 2h 8 Dd 2 Km 1 2 h 4d 2 3 Kii ln Kh 8 2n 1 3 100 16 10 0.5 2 0.3504 3.116 3116.5 4 18 10 1 ln 1.71) = 3. .43 1 0.5 1.116 for n=18.3504 L L 75 0.644+ (0.5 10 0.5 3000 0.71 Ki = 0.The Conductor Length for Gradient Control: L .225 8 2 18.413 50 10 3 1000 1.5 10 2 0.5 s 0. 1 1 1 18. t 1000 1.

413×( 50 10 3 )= 691.204 = 10200 V Fig (5-9) shows the final layout.116 t 1. so that the grid is safe from the consideration of touch voltage.5 902. .5 3000 I sc L 0.26V Km Ki =75×0.116 0.87 V 6482 Actual Etouch is less than the Tolerable Etouch.3504×3. Ground Potential Rise (GPR): GPR=Isc × Rgrid = 50 ×103 × 0.Actual and Tolerable Touch voltage (mesh voltage): Tolerable Etouch= 1000 1.5 = 1000 Actual Etouch= s 0.

the floors of buildings on one side. For this purpose the operating position may be provided either with an insulated floor capable of withstanding the high potential or with a metallic grid in the floor and tied to the ground mat or provided with both. EMI is beyond the scope of this document. In some cases. these transients may have to be considered in the overall grounding design. Because of this smaller area. and that are capable of carrying the anticipated maximum fault current in that portion of the circuit without overheating. For protection of personnel at the danger points. Typically. As a result of the compact nature of GIS and its short distances. Practical application of such finer meshing can be found principally in outdoor stations in the neighborhood of accessible equipment where the hazard is greatest. that by using a fine mesh a considerable reduction in potential differences within the mat area can be obtained. GIS characteristics GIS are subjected to the same magnitude of ground fault current and require the same lowimpedance grounding as conventional substations. sheaths of control and service cables and their neutral conductors. and the construction parts in the control house. as these enclosures carry induced currents of significant magnitude. electrical breakdown in the insulating gas. short duration ground rises and are also the source of electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the GIS. the GIS installation necessitates 10– 25% of the land area required for conventional equipment. b) Furnishing readily accessible connectors of sufficient mechanical strength to withstand electromagnetic forces and normal abuse. In this respect. as might be expected.Now. They consisted of small meshed wire netting cemented into the floor and tied to the grounding system. Indoor Type Substation with Gas Insulated Switchgear ( GIS ) : For the Indoor Type Substations with GIS ( Gas Insulated Switchgear ) . Particular attention should be given to the bonding of the metallic enclosures of the GIS assembly. narrow meshed ground mats with mesh spacing of about 1 m will serve Such metallic foot grids have been previously used for protection in some plants with ungrounded star neutral. Potential differences which may endanger cable insulation and low-voltage apparatus and facilities may be eliminated by metallic interconnection of equipment housing. the same shall be followed with special care for the GIS switchgear which should have separate earthing grid to be followed strictly as per the GIS manufacturer and to be connected to the above main grid . or is responsible for a) Providing the subassembly-to-subassembly bonding to assure safe voltage gradients between all intentionally grounded parts of the GIS assembly and between those parts and the main ground bus of the GIS.. 2. it may be difficult to obtain adequate grounding solely by conventional methods. These transients may cause high magnitude. and the metallic parts of the plant during the time of faults. The measurements show. Cooperation between GIS manufacturer and user Usually it is the GIS manufacturer who defines clearly what constitutes the main ground bus of the GIS and specifies what is required of the user for connecting the GIS assembly to the substation ground. . and provided absolute protection to persons standing thereon and grasping operating controls in that a highly conducting shunt path was provided between hands and feet. Usually the GIS manufacturer also provides. it is certain that considerable and therefore dangerous potentials can arise between the soil. Therefore one must also consider the safety of operating personnel who in the course of their work must touch such metal parts. which must be confined to specific paths. it is apparent that small protected areas can be produced by partial matting without completely matting the entire grounding area. grounding recommendations by the manufacturer of a given GIS usually need to be strictly followed. either across the contacts of a switching device during operation or in a fault that generates very high frequency transients that can couple onto the grounding system. Further.

only the case of a close-in fault [case (B) in Figure 16] needs to be analyzed because remote external faults will cause less of a problem. Typically in a continuous enclosure design. the following facts should be considered. For an external line-to-ground fault. such as spacing and location of bonds. the circulating currents generated in the GIS enclosures during a fault should also be taken into account. Recommendations The following recommendations should be considered for GIS installations: a) When applying the touch voltage criterion Equation (36). This generally is not necessary for faults external to the GIS. or both. only a minor modification of the application criterion of Equation (32) and Equation (33) of the IEEE – 2000 standard is required in order to take into account the maximum inductive voltage drop occurring within the GIS assembly. the inductive term E' to max in Equation (36) is zero]. including any horizontal or vertical members for which the GIS assembly is designed In practical situations. as shown in Figure 16.c) d) Providing ground pads or connectors. b) In evaluating the magnitude of induced voltages caused by faults external to the GIS. because of a great variety in possible physical arrangements of the GIS assembly. prefer these currents to circulate. Recommending proper procedures for connections between dissimilar metals. The case of an internal fault with ground return requires the addition of the resistive and inductive voltage drop to the resistive drop representing the difference of potentials between the substation ground and the point beneath a person’s feet. the path of enclosure currents includes some structural members of the GIS frame and the enclosures themselves. . Touch voltage criteria for GIS Although the GIS manufacturer generally designs the equipment to meet the already mentioned requirements for safe operation and usually performs most.e. In contrast to the general wisdom that a large ground connection necessarily equals a good grounding practice. for two paths to ground from the main ground bus. at least. As a rule. as determined for the point underneath a person’s feet E ' to max : is the (predominantly inductive) maximum value of metal-to-metal voltage difference on and between GIS enclosures. The touch voltage criterion for GIS is where Et : is the maximum touch voltage. a concrete slab or the soil layer above the grounding grid). To be considered are: 1) Where these currents will circulate. the GIS manufacturers perform detailed calculations for determining the basic design parameters. several loops are formed. With each phase enclosure tied to the enclosures of adjacent phases at both ends. allowing. typically between a copper cable or a similar ground conductor and aluminum enclosures.. but the calculation of step and touch voltages at the earth’s surface is the same as that for conventional installations [i. and 2) Where and to what degree the design engineer or GIS manufacturer. the voltages induced on the sheath should be checked for a hand-to-hand metalto-metal contact. or from each metallic enclosure and auxiliary piece of GIS equipment designated for a connection to the substation ground if the main ground bus of the GIS assembly does not actually exist. a multiplicity of return paths and considerable crosscoupling occurs. or both. or between these enclosures and the supporting structures. For the hand-to-feet contact made by a person standing on a nonmetallic surface (for instance.

To this all cable sheaths within the plant must also be connected. to which all equipment parts in the plant are connected. By this method there will be the least worry that signi cant potential differences will arise between the accessible metallic parts of the plant and the plant equipment so protected will be safe from failure. The sheaths of the control cables provide a connection between the controlled apparatus in the high-voltage bays and the control point. thus reducing the severity of the insulation stress. by holding system overvoltages down. Thereby. transient voltage on the un-faulted phases can exceed normal line-to-ground voltage. The variable spacing technique discussed earlier might be used to design a grounding system consisting of a grid only. However. a uniformly spaced grounding system consisting of a grid and ground rods is superior to a uniformly spaced grounding system consisting only of a grid with the same total conductor length. Grounding reduces the deleterious effects of lightning surges in two ways. In an indirect but more important manner. So likewise the cables of the low-voltage plant and the windings of control motors among others may be endangered by large potential differences. the existing neutral conductors of independent low-voltage systems should be tied to the ground mat. the grounding system permits application of surge . this variable spacing technique might also be used to design a better grounding system using nonuniformly spaced grid conductors and ground rods. The grounding system will frequently help to dissipate and distribute the surge energy between the phases.16 Conclusions : In general. It shall be emphasized that this type of design shall be analyzed using the detailed analysis techniques in the references. So likewise. with lower step and touch voltages than a uniformly spaced grid and ground rod design of equal length. Thereby. Communication cables which leave the plant will also conduct ground currents away since intentionally or unintentionally they come into contact with building construction parts. a fault to ground in the station can cause a very large current to ow through the sheath and melt it. Ungrounded system : when an ungrounded system experiences a fault to ground. so that insulation failures may occur.Figure . so likewise the control mechanisms in the switching station to which the control cables are connected. Basically the entire plant should be provided with a built-up ground mat for the ground-fault current. The sustained voltages to ground on the un-faulted phases will reach line-to-line values. the sheaths acquire the high potential of the station in their vicinity while the conductors approximate the potential of the more-distant surroundings.

arresters with lower sparkover values and a higher protective margin for the equipment. . Ahmad Graduation Project . The influence of lightning is minimal in the choice of grounding methods for station auxiliary systems. The surges transferred through transformers from overhead lines are dissipated to a very low value among the multiple circuits emanating from station service buses. 2) BS 7430 . 3) Engineer Al – Ghawanmeh . Reference Documents : 1) IEEE – Grounding 2000 .

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