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**Romeo Giuliano' and Franco Mazzenga'
**

'RadioLahs Consorzio Universita Industria, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome, Italy; 'University ofRome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome, Italy; email: romeo.eiiiliano(~.uniroma2.it , n~azzt.nea~,inr.uniromd~.it,

ABSTRACT Ultra WideBand (UWB) is a potential key technology for the development of future short-range indoor radio communication systems providing very high hit rates services, low power consumption and location capabilities. In this paper we provide a semi-analytic approach to evaluate the system outage probability for a master-slave network based on UWB direct sequence code division multiple access scheme. The proposed approach for system analysis is quite flexible and allows to easily include realistic path loss models, power control and multiple access interference. The technique has been validated by comparing the semi-analytic data with those from classical Monte Carlo simulation and obtaining results in v e q good agreement. The UWB coverage-capacity tradeoff is also investigated. I. INTRODUCTION Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is loosely defined as any wireless transmission scheme with bandwidth occupancy of more than 25% of the center frequency, or more than 1.5 GHz [I]. UWB has been identified as a potential key technology to enable the development of dynamic networks for future short-range indoor radio communication systems providing very high bit rates services, low power consumption and location capabilities. UWB signals are generated using suh-nanosecond pulses spreading energy over very large frequency hand. For this reason UWB spectrum cannot he allocated exclusively and UWB hand have to overlap with many other narrowband systems. Thus to guarantee existing systems from UWB emissions the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and also the European Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI) have practically restricted the UWB operating hands in the 3.1-10.6 GHz frequency range and regulated UWB power emission defining frequency-power masks for each UWB applicatioddevice [2]. Depending on the spectral characteristics of the considered UWB signals, the frequency-power mask limits the maximum UWB terminal transmission power and this should be accounted for in the calculation of the UWB system capacity. In general the evaluation of UWB system capacity is an important research topic and some results based on classical techniques of the information theory have been presented in [3]-[5] for the pulse position modulation UWB operating over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Differently from [3]-[5], in this paper we provide a semianalytic approach to evaluate the outage probability and then

the network capacity intended as the maximum number of users in the system that can he served with a fixed outage level. An UWB master-slave network based on UWB Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) is considered. The outage probability is first obtained in a closed form equation including unknown random parameters that in general depend on the network geometry and on path-loss. The statistics of the random parameters are then obtained by very fast simulation procedure and are used in the theoretical calculation of the outage probability, The proposed semi-analytical approach is very flexible and allows to easily include arbitrary network geometries, realistic path loss models, power control and multiple access interference from other UWB devices connected to the other masters in the area. This technique considerably extends the approach in [6] which is only applicable to hexagonal and regularly spaced cells. In indoor environment the assumption of regular hexagonal geometry is not applicable since masters can he arbitrarily located over the service area. In this paper only the upstream communication direction with ideal power control is considered. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 11, the UWB system architecture and reference scenario are described and a closed form expression for the outage probability is obtained. In Section 111, theoretical results are obtained and validated by comparing them with Monte Carlo simulated results. Besides UWB coverage-capacity analysis is introduced. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section IV. This work was developed within the IST ULTRAWAVES European research project.

11. UWB OUTAGE PROBABILITY A master-slave UWB system architecture is considered and it is illustrated in Fig.1. The UWB slaves, all transmitting at the same hit rate, are located over a rectangular service area in accordance to a uniform distribution. The UWB network includes N,,, masters regularly spaced on a rectangular grid (see Fig.1). The extension of the proposed approach to irregular geometries is straightforward. Time division duplex transmissions are considered and it is further assumed that masters and slaves are synchronized so to avoid interference between upstream and downstream transmissions. Finally ideal power control is considered.

0-7803-X523-3/04/$20.0002004 IEEE.

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. . 1 ' B 1 IS .7 l + ~ ~ ~ f i ~ " .) of the random variable: N M Po .: . ... ..b M. . ... The ( 3 ) are binary random variables accounting for the user activity e...7..P o X... Using (3) and (4) the outage probability can be rewritten as: r. ..."'l"-. Assuming that slaves served by the reference master are (quasi)synchronized.respectively. ">-a L(U.a... * e * .". .2.. I .. . I. lint is: (3) Assuming that the random variables I.. ICi---- I s .d. By definition 0 5 a 5 1 and in the following we consider the worst case interference assuming a = I ..'. they account for the reduction in the outage probability due to propagation and the network geometry. '......d...... .UWB system scenario. The external interference I.s . The Cil is: CC (2) ~ C mi.I__. .*wvN-=. Assuming a reference master in the area_ the outage urobabilitv is defined as: whereJ(x) is the probability density function (p....8 After simple algebra. is the interference due to UWB slaves connected to other masters and 7 is the thermal noise power which can also include the interference power due to narrowband systems with bands overlapping the UWB band... I .fs of the normalized are internal and external interference random variables defined as i.(x) the p..a *-<a''..g... the where where L(U. .. ( ~ C where fi..2...Brim are . P r ( p l ) = p and P r { r O ) = q= 1 -p a n d p is the activity factor.. It is not difficult to extend the n=I. * ..Bnm 1 for every n. 7 I I. can be upper bounded as: x.PO x. . I. . From (14) the coefficients . .... . ( (9) ~ ) ~ ~ i ~ ~ .. ..... To calculate ."..d...... (6) can be rewritten as: Figure 1 ... the & 725 .....- ...J in following formulation to the a<l case. of the external interference when m active interfering users are present in the area. is the loss ratio from the interferer to M reference master and it can be calculated as: not the g.... +I=..~ . ...... The m=1...'..... i .. + 7 where C is the received power level...... ic Due to the statistical independence of internal and external interferinr users we have: and where a is the fraction of interfering power due to (possible) loss of orthogonality due to multipath..=N+M+l is total number of UWB slaves in the system.. rn and < due to their dependence on the statistics of g. Since we assume that the m-th interfering user is always connected to the master with the lowest loss from ( S ) . Substituting (10) and (11) in (9) after some algebra we obtain: Using (12) the outage probability in (7) is: where M is the number of interfering users in the area served by the reference master and N......... g..f. and ia. . ~ ...f.. . =poi... (1) are in statistically independent.g.. ..s 1. j . ... is the internal interference due to users connected to the reference UWB master... we obtain: ~ ( ~ ) = ~ ~ Po . where is the p. u*yn.17 (8) z=l. ". I C .. and ler.(x) and hpr.=poi. nil where C/I is the signal to thermal noise plus interference ratio as measured at the reference master receiver and po is the target signal to noise ratio which is commonly selected to account for the degradations due to fast fading effects.. p I r + : - f: n : . among the N+l UWB slaves served by the same reference master.+SM) is the path loss between the m-th interfering terminal and its serving master (SM).+RM) is the path loss between the m-th interfering user and the considered reference master (RM). -5 I I tb $7.

(13) in can be obtained assuming /?. NXlmes. From (14) Pnrn rapidly tends to unity as n and/or m increase. the frequencies of the random variables are obtained after normalization of the I.0.System outage probability vs number of slaves in the area. (dB) (16) where MCL indicates the minimum coupling loss... <O.4. the master with the lowest capacity is located in the center of the service area..conditional p. could he penalizing while the design based on the masters located in the proximity of the borders could be too optimistic. Also Monte Carlo results have been indicated in Fig. In general. 2 and 8 (central master).4 we plot the outage probability calculated for different positions of the reference master indicated in Fig.(xlm) m E C K ~ . 1.. 111. RESULTS To obtain the results reported in this Section the following one slope propagation model is considered L(di = mm{MCL. which is the mnst interfered..g.M i=n L (15) where q.. Starting from the simulated histograms a particle approximations of the p. The MCL in (16) is calculated assuming free space propagation for distance d d o e... Except in very few cases. different margin m. the network should he designed starting from some "average capacity" performance figure where the average should be obtained considering the different positions of the serving masters in the area.=I when 1 -fin). The accuracy of the approximation is related to the selection of nln# in that general are not uniformly spaced.. Finally.3 we plot the outage probability as a function of the active UWB slaves in the area for different values of N. As expected the increase of m. As expected the increase of the number o f masters in the area leads to a significant increase in the system capacity at the expense of an increased cost and complexity of the UWB network.. L. due to the complexity of the path loss formulation describing the propagation characteristics of a realistic indoor environment.2 we plot the outage probability as a function of the overall number e.4. N... .~ . Validation o ihe proposed approach f The proposed calculation procedure was validated with the results obtained from standard Monte Carlo snapshot simulation...d. C W k = i=.in (15) were nl =ITo+IA flo=-120dBmandA=1 dB. The Monte Carlo results (dots) in Fig. The masters located in the borders proximity experience a reduced interference.. In general it was observed that a good approximation of the Po. are required. I as 1 . d e l m was considered.I. 1. in (14) are calculated only once and are used in (13) to evaluate the outage probability for different values of the activity factor p . The constant Lo in (16) is evaluated in order to ensure continuity in the path loss model at d = do. n. w is a normal random Gaussian variable with zero mean and unit variance and q is the standard deviation of the shadowing ( 0 5 4 dB is considered).. with approximation .g. the bins' centers of the histograms used for the particle [dB].=) . we approximate: fi. corresponding Monte Carlo histograms with bins' centers nIn..g. The p. allows to improve the system capacity The largest deviation between simulated and theoretical results shown in Fig. For this reason we resort to a fast snapshot based Monte Carlo simulation whose main goal is to evaluate the histograms of the random variables appearing in the outage probability in (14).d" + o s w ] .=lS. As expected the most interfered master e.. it can be very difficult to evaluate in closed fonn the statistics of the random variables appearing in (8).2 have been obtained with UWB slaves activity factorp =I and referring to the master in the center of the service area. From Fig. the design based on the central reference master. y is the path loss exponent. MCL+rrdd k2 where h is the wavelength associated to the UWB center frequency. In order to prove the strong dependence of the outage probability by the position of the AP in the area in Fig.2 are in very good agreement with theoretical results for each margin mg. particle approximation in (IS) is very useful The allowing to transform integrals into sums. e. 726 .. In order to simplify calculations a unique set for is considered disregarding m. Different values of the margin m.=C/rlpo have been considered.fs of the external interference I. withI=O..g. 130..2 is obtained for very low values of the outage probability and are mainly due to instabilities in the Monte Carlo simulation.... J ( X . In the free space propagation case y=2 and us=O dB. reference master in the center of the service area. For validation purposes also Monte Carlo results have been plotted (dots). The curves in Fig... In Fig. Figure 2 . In Fig. .d.fs are then derived and used in (14) to calculate fin". active UWB of slaves in the service area.2.

&P.. and then to an increase in the AP capacity is independent of C..........._... indicating with Pr the maximum UWB transmitter power.. .** e 'mi . different values of system outage probability and path loss exponents. is: UWB Coverage-Capacity analysis In Fig. F=5 dB Given the propagation model.. the minimum allowable path loss L..... Wgfi. As expected.. L. #AP=8continuous lines.6 refer to the central master (#AP=8) and to the peripheral master (#AP=l). This is confirmed in (7) that coverage radius R. different values ofN.... L.... I N..... indicated with C.. y.... . .2 . is very large radius of the A for different system outage probability P (infinite m the limit).System outage probability as function of the number of UWB slaves in the area... . ....-... (17) Furthermore we assumed pp-15 dB and the UWB system C.. #Ap=Idashed lines. Data in Fig.. Data refer to the central master and 727 .... the &/No =3 dB and 7 = -74 dBm... /. F4dbe. Figure 4 . In every case o =O dB.. In F i g 3 we plot the outage probability referred to the central master for different values of the path loss exponent.... .System outage probability as function of the number of UWB slaves in the area for three different APs in the area... _.. above which capacity saturates is an important parameter to evaluate the coverage area corresponding to the maximum capacity. s increase in the outage probability requirements can lead to a From Fig." = p.UWB System capacity vs the received power level C....System outage probability as function of the number of UWB slaves in the area for different values of the path loss exponent y. ... N-=>s Figure 5 . noise figure.6 it can be observed that as C increases the system lower value for C.... .... capacity increases with the path loss exponent and this is due to the reduction of the external interference power due to other slaves not connected to the reference master. Since the UWB transmission power is limited by the FCC masks..... In fact. . In the ideal power control conditions.bnh-._-_-.......Figure 3 ....~rg= 3 GHz.n can be related to the corresponding lo a hit rate of 50 Mb/s and the reference coverage radius of the selected AP. In Table 1 we indicate the coverage becomes practically independent of C when m. Figure 6 .. *-..oas m- rb : i .F ......... the minimum value of C.*ill **=.." bandwidth.6 we plot the capacity of the UWB system as a function of the received signal power threshold C for two values of the outage probability.. C. . requirements in the simple case of free space propagation with os=O dB.

[SI R.&. Intel Technology Journal Znd Quarter. Obviously in the presence of coverage holes we need to reduce the threshold level C below C. 40. K. CONCLUSIONS A semi-analytical approach for the calculation of UWB system outage probability has been presented. [3] M. on Information Theory. Win and R. May 1991.. A very good agreement was evidenced. pp.. Giuliano. Foerster. Lett.g. IEEE Trans. M. IV. R[m] (y=2) Nrim. [5] 0. Leeper (INTEL Architecture Labs).OdB I 39..@P. [4] L. “Revision of Part 15 of the Commission’s Rules Regarding UltraWideband Transmission Systems. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was tested by comparing the results with those obtained through classical Monte Carlo simulation. 2.=l%. The data in Fig. Jacobs et al. IEEE ICC 2001. “Capacity of M . 6. thus leading to an increase of the maximum tolerable path loss and to a corresponding reduction in the overall system capacity.. 2003. “On the Capacity of a Pulse-Position-Hopped CDMA System”. The UWB system coverage-capacity analysis was discussed in terms of the minimum threshold level C. No. [6] K. pp. Mazzenga..7 refer to the case of a bipolar pulse amplitude modulated UWB signal with baseband Gaussian pulses [7]. “Impulse radio: How it works”.2. No. Green. 1. UMTSMiCDMA and GPS”. serving masters in the area may help in reducing the C requirements.PF -5. “On the Capacity of a Cellular CDMA System”. S. V. Virginia (US). The value of PF -5. Zigangirov et al.6 dBm used to obtain the data in Table 1 is indicated in the graph plotted in Fig..Vol. The increase in the number of the ..7 where the maximum UWB transmission power is plotted as a function of the UWB signal center frequency. Vatalaro: “On the Interference between UMTS and UWB Systems”.” First Report & Order.. Hamalainen. F.9. For each center frequency the power spectral density of the UWB signal was recalculated and positioned inside the FCC frequency-power mask in order to evaluate the maximum transmission power obtainable without trespassing the mask limits. Released April 22. No. 1998. Hovinen et al. “Ultra-Wideband Technology for Short or Medium-Range Wireless Communications”.1712-1721.303-312. E. If no coverage holes are present the UWB system is optimally designed and we obtain the maximum capacity. Figure 7 . 47. F. M.1 165 Data in Fig. Scholtz. 2001.y=2. power control and multiple access interference. O m I b Rb.1191-1195. Z. V01. IEEE Journal on Selected areas in Communications. September 2001. Sept. D.pp.4 I I 110 I 150 I 7.20. cr. Adopted: February 14. lEEE Commun. The calculation of R allows to evaluate the percentage of covered service area. wus”cm.. lEEE Trans. Vol.. required to obtain the system capacity and the maximum allowable path loss (e.q PPM Ultrawideband Communications over AWGN Channel”. December2002. ET Docket 98-153.6 dBm. Haimovich... [7] M. Table 1 -Coverage radius of the central AP for different calculation procedure allows to easily include arbitrary network geometries. Vol.. S. realistic path loss models. [2] Federal Communications Commission (FCC). “On the UWB coexistence with GSMYOO. Somayazulu. Those data also accounts for the frequency dependent distortion effects due to the antenna on the transmitted UWB signal IS].8 I 22. 2002. on Veichular Technology. coverage) accounting for the FCC limitations on the UWB transmission power. Wintzell.Maximum UWB transmission power P7 as a function of the UWB center frequency.A. IEEE UWB Systems and Technologies (UWBST03).. The 728 .as I I REFERENCES [I] J. D. Gilhousen.7 were obtained through computer calculation by varying the position of the UWB signal center frequency. Zao. 2002. A. FCC 0 2 4 8 .

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