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CHAPTER III METHOD AND PROSEDURES OF RESEARCH

This chapter divide into pour subchapter, approach, source of data, the procedure of data collection, and procedure of data analysis.

3.1 Approach The writer uses Qualitative Approach in his research because the data in the research filled with quotation had he analysis the phenomenon that appear. In the novel that is ambition. Bogdan and Biklen (1992:29) in Qualitative Research for Education stated that: Qualitative research is descriptive. The data collected are in the form of word picture rather than number, they often contains quotation and try to describe that particular situation of view of the world is like in the narrative form. Based on the explanation above, Qualitative Research is a way to analyze the data which are in the form of words. It has the natural setting as the direct source of data. It also tries to understanding human action, social behavior, and evidences. On the other hand, Bogdan and Steve in Introduction to Quolitative Research Method (1975:4), States that: Qualitative methodologists refer to research procedures that produce descriptive data; peoples own written or spoken words and observable behaviors, Qualitative method allow us to know people personally to see as they are developing their own definition of the word. Finally qualitative method enable us to explove concepts whose essence in cost in other research.

From above statement, the writer can say that qualitative approach produces descriptive data which are collected in from of word. The qualitative research very useful for literary appreciation such as, assessing character, analyzing plot, conflict or theme a drama, poem, short story or even a song. Based on the explanation above, qualitative research is a way to analyze the data which are in the form of words. It has the natural setting as the direct source of data. It also tries to understanding human action social behavior, an evidence.

3.2 Method The writer also uses the kinds of objection in content analysis method according to Borg and Gall : 1. To produce descriptive information that gives better or clearer understanding to the problem. 2. To cross validate research finding, content analysis is useful in order to check research finding obtained from studies using a different methodology. 3. To test hypothesis. It is used to explore the relationship and theories. The writer uses the first objectives whose utilization is to give clearer description to the problem and gives a better understanding of an ambition faced by the main character. Also to produce descriptive that gives better understanding of what the main problem and order to avoid the misunderstandings that occur in the communication. 3.3 Technique The writer uses qualitative approach in his study to find of out the ambition faced by the main character in Great Expectation. Meanwhile, to support his thesis, the writer

also was content analysis method according to Borg and Gall (1983:511) in their book Educational Research an Introduction Content Analysis a research technique for the objective, systematic and qualitative description of the manifest content in communication and it is usually used to analyze the raw material of any from written material such as in text book, novel, newspaper, magazine, and advertisement and political speeches and often used conjunction observational studies. From the statement above the writer uses technique such as in content analysis in order to analyze novel Great Expectation by Charles Dickens.

3.4 Source of Data The source of Data in this study is novel entitled Great Expectation by Charles Dickens, first published 1861. Published in Penguin Popular Classics 1994.

3.5 The Procedures of Data Collection In collecting the data the writer applies the following step: 3.5.1 Reading Novel Carefully The writer reads the carefully and completely in order to know and understanding every detail the story such as what is the main character wants, he said that: As I was loitering along the High Street, looking in disconsolately at the shop windows, and thinking what I would buy if I were a gentleman. Based on the quotation above the writer can understand what the main characters ambition, after he reads the novel for many times.

3.5.2 Quoting the Evidences Related to the Topic The writer then quots the evidence containing of the ambition faced by the Main characters has efforts to achieve his ambition and how are the result. 3.5.3 Identifying the Data After Reading the Novel, the writer takes the evidences and sentences which show Ambition faced by the main character, the efforts to reach his ambition, and the result of pips ambition. For instance: Biddy, said I, after binding her to secrecy, I want to be a gentleman. From the quotation above the writer takes the evidences from the novel which show ambition faced by the main character.

3.6 The Procedures of Data Analysis In analyzing the Data, the writer takes the following steps: 3.6.1 Classifying the Data In this case, the writer wants to classify the kinds of ambition found in pips ambition in Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. 3.6.2 Describing the Causes After the writer analyzing the novel he found some causes of ambition faced by the main character. 3.6.3 Explaining the Effect The writer also wants to find the effect of ambition in pips life as the main character in Great Expectation by Charles Dickens