¡m

¡³ coordinated lateral motion is a lateral motion with zero sideslip, or β = 0 . A

Basic Lateral Controllers (II) – Lateral coordination controller¡n ¡· Preliminaries about coordination of lateral motion¡·

¡ Coordination of lateral flights will reduce adverse sideslip, thereby minimizing the coupling between the yaw and the roll motions, and enhancing the yaw responsiveness. ¡ It is much desirable to suppress sideslip in most lateral maneuvers. ¡³Dutch roll/yaw damper along will not achieve coordination. ¡ Closed-loop response of an A/C controlled by a Dutch roll damper with washout filter.
2.5 2 0.4

0 -1

A pulse δa 1 sec δr Open-loop Aircraft

φ(t)

0.3

β(t)

1.5 0.2

Rudder er Servo

φ β r

1 0.5 0 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 0 5 10 15 20 0.1

0

5

10

15

20

0 0.3 0.25

0

5

10

15

20

s 0.635 s+0.4

r(t)

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 0 5 10 15 20

Washed out

δr(t)

--- A pulse aileron input is used for this closed-loop response simulation. --- A pulse aileron input is a typical pilot’s input to initiate a turn, a typical lateral maneuver. ==>Substantial sideslip still remains. ==>Other means of control is needed to suppress the sideslip. ==>We will seek only reduction in sideslip. In general, it is not practical to expect β ≡ 0 .
83

The Dutch roll damper is included as the innerloop of this design. The same will be true for any filter pole(s) placed in the feedback loop. ¡³A/C model -.0584 + 0.335 + 1.Dutch roll damper design: er ( s ) = K d × × ez ( s ) s + 1 /τ --. δ r ( s) = er ( s ) ( s − 0.97 j ] s + 10 s --.692 )( s + 6.Open-loop rudder to yaw transfer function: − 3.The controlling input is still the rudder.Feedback of β is used to suppress the sideslip. --.305 j ] 10 δr ( s ).06) r ( s) = --.305 j ] = e z ( s ) ( s − 0.0584 + 0.31)[ s + 2.471[ s + 0.for the example plant in¡i¨Ò¤K¡j ¡ Closed-loop system of the Dutch roll damper: --.5 : and K d = 0.Closed-loop system of the Dutch roll damper (with τ = 2.635 ): r ( s) − 34. a most effective input for β .4 )[ s + 0.¡· ¡³ Typical block diagram: Lateral coordination controller – A basic design concept¡· Pilot's aileron command Pilot's rudder command er Aileron δa Servo Open-loop β Rudder δr Aircraft Servo s r Kd s+1/τ Kβ --. --.0017)( s + 0.01)( s + 2.0019 )[ s + 0.Note that the pole of the washout filter appears in the closed-loop system as a zero.71( s + 0. 84 .

Kd = 0.71( s − 0.017) = δr ( s ) ( s − 0. If we did not over damp the Dutch roll mode. we need to convert the plant output from r to β : --.97 j ] β (s ) s − 0. --.0017 = r ( s) [ s + 0.0017)( s + 0.42 -7 ez -6 -5 -4 -3 β -2 -1 − 34.06) Kβ 2 jω 1 σ -1 -2 85 .From the open-loop lateral dynamic: β (s ) 3.4 ) ( s + 0.¡ For the outer-loop design.0584 + 0 .31)[ s + 2.The plant model for the outer-loop design thus will be β ( s ) r( s) β ( s ) − 34. the ratio between r to β becomes: --.31)[ s + 2.71( s + 0.692)( s + 6.0017 )( s + 0.335 + 1. and will not be affected by this design.635 and Kβ = 0.As a result.01)( s + 2.692)( s + 6. Solution at τ = 2.4 ) = × = e z ( s ) e z ( s ) r( s) ( s − 0. we would not have chance to obtain a satisfactory design here.305 j ] è The roll mode remains nearly cancelled by a zero in the numerator.0019)[ s + 0.01)( s + 2.471( s − 0.06) è The spiral mode is also nearly cancelled.5. ¡³Outer-loop design analysis: Note that the dominant locus moves straight outward.

5 1 0.Reduction in β is also limited.1 0.5 3 2.15 0.5 0 0 0. ρ = 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.1 0 r(t) σ = 0.05 . --. the value of σ were chosen small to preserve the dominant locus.35 0.β feedback does not change φ and r very much.4 0.25 0.05.2 0.1 0 5 10 15 20 -0.7 0.15 0.2 0. we have used σ = 0.1 0 0. the filter becomes an integrator: 3. ¡ Inclusion of a lag filter.2 0.5 and σ = 0 .4 0.5 0 0 0.5 . ( s + ρ) /( s + σ ).05 0 0 β(t) 5 10 15 20 --. ρ = 0. Note that hen σ = 0 .1 0 β(t) 5 10 15 20 β feedback through a filter --.25 0.5 2 1.The steady state β (red curve) has been greatly reduced with the inclusion of the lag filter. 0 ≤ σ << 1.The transient activity of β remains large ==>Other method is needed to reduce it.5 σ = 0.1 0.3 r(t) No β feedback With β feedback 5 10 15 20 0.The slow climb of β in steady sate is due to the still unstable spiral mode.¡³ Closed-loop response of the coordination controller – to a pulse aileron input: 3 2.3 0.3 φ(t) 0. may help in decreasing β in the steady state.05 0 5 No β feedback 10 15 20 -0.05 0 -0. --.Normally. ρ = 0.5 0. 86 . ρ = 0.5 1 0.5 Direct β feedback 5 10 15 20 0.35 φ(t) 0.6 0. ==>In the plot shown. especially as the steady state value is concerned. --.4 0.4 0.5 2 1.5 0. --. ρ > σ .

due to the following difficulties: (a) Implementation of the method will be in trouble if Ba (s ) is non-Hurwitz. Br ( s ). β ( s ) = r = − ≡0 ∆( s ) ∆( s ) ∆ (s ) --. --. Ba ( s ) : Polynomials of s . complete elimination of β(s ) is not possible. ¡³In reality. The approximation decreases the effectiveness of the design. a Hurwitz approximate of Ba (s ) will be used in place of the real Ba (s ) . -. and therefore will be highly sensitive to error in the parameters of Ba (s ) and Br (s ) . ¡³ Nevertheless. the use of this control. B (s ) ¡³A tactic to remove β(s ) : Actuating the aileron so that δa ( s ) = − r × δ r ( s) Ba ( s) B ( s)δr ( s ) + Ba ( s)δa ( s) Br ( s)δ r ( s) Br ( s )δr ( s) ==>Then. even with an erroneous Br (s ) and an approximated Ba (s ) . Method for removing transient sideslip¡j ¡·Lateral coordination control with a matching aileron input¡· ¡i ¡³ From open-loop lateral dynamics: β ( s ) = (b) The proposed method is a feed forward control approach.In general. ¡³ This feed forward control can work in conjunction with the feedback method discussed previously. 87 .In theory.Br ( s)δr ( s) + Ba ( s )δa ( s) ∆( s ) --.When Ba (s ) do have RHP root(s). we can completely eliminate β(s ) with this control. may help in reducing the peak value of β during the transient. errors in the parameters of Ba (s ) and Br (s ) are inevitable and large.∆ ( s ).

please refer to Section 4.True lateral acceleration is difficult to measure <==The drawback of the mothod. (2) Using computed yaw rate to achieve coordination: .¡i ¡³ spiral motion remains unstable.Coordinated motion means no lateral acceleration.3 of the textbook. denoted as rdes = ( g / U 0 ) sin φ . ¡°For details of these methods. The Further discussions about the lateral coordination control¡j ¡ The problem with the opposite-signed deflection prohibits the stabilization of the spiral mode through actuation of the rudder. 88 . and be used as a reference signal to a yaw rate holding control system.For an A/C with a certain bank angle and air speed. --. L --.This desired value of r . && --. & a) L sin φ = mU 0 Ψ and L cos φ = mg φ φ & ⇒ Ψ = ( g × tan φ ) / U 0 & Z b) r = Ψ cos φ ⇒ r = ( g / U 0 ) sin φ --. these two methods are rarely used. ¡°Due to the implementation difficulties and other problems. a feedback design to suppress lateral acceleration can be used to improve coordination. Ψ mg . ¡ The spiral mode will be stabilized by actuation of the aileron.See the¡uYaw Orientation Autopilot¡vdesign ¡³Other approaches for lateral coordination control exist: (1) Feedback lateral acceleration to achieve coordination: Replace the β feedback with v . can be computed from the known values of φ and U 0 . Therefore. there is only one value of yaw rate for which mU0Ψ Y coordination can be achieved. --.

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