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5.1 The motion of vehicles on land

Two types:
V with engines V without engines- moved by natural energy (humans/animals) (eg. Bicycle or horse cart)
Metal rim sprocket brake


Iron chain


The principle of operations of vehicles with engines

Use fuels-petrol and diesel Combustion of fuel is based on internal combustion Eg. Cars and buses, lorry Two types of engines:
Four stroke petrol engine Four stroke diesel engine

Four stroke petrol engine

Use petrol 4-stroke means: the piston in each cylinder makes four movements up and down the cylinder in a cycle

Four stroke diesel engine

Comparison between the four stroke petrol and diesel engine


Spark plugs are used

Spark plugs are not used

Petrol enters the cylinder through the inlet valve

The compression ratio is lower The exhaust gases contain less pollutants It is lighter and cheaper The engine wall is thinner The engine is quieter It is used in cars

Diesel is injected into the cylinder by the fuel injector

The compression ratio is higher The exhaust gases contain more pollutants It is heavier and more expensive The engine wall is thicker The engine is noisier It is used in lorries

It has carburettor
It is more efficient in high speed

It does not have a carburettor

It is more efficient in low speed

5.2 Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

(a) Distance
(b) Displacement (c) Speed

Distance is the length of the path taken between two points.
Displacement is the distance directly from start point to finish. Speed is the rate of change of distance.

(d) Velocity

Velocity is the rate of change of displacement.

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. (e) Acceleration

The movement of the ticker tape

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

5.3 Inertia
Capability of an object to oppose its original state, whether the object is stationary or moving MASS:
Mass is defined as the amount of matter. The SI unit of mass is kilogram (kg). Mass is a scalar quantity.

Example 4

Example 5

Example 6

Example 7

Safety features in vehicles which are related o Inertia

1. Equip the car with seat belts 2. Equip the car with air bags 3. Equip the car with headrests

5.4 Momentum

Example 8

Principle of conservation momentum

Example 9: Both objects are in same direction before the collision

Example 10: Both objects are in opposite direction before the collision

Types of collision
i) Inelastic collisions-two objects collide and move together after the collision. ii) Elastic collisions- two objects are collide and then move separately after the collision.

Example 11: Inelastic collision

Application of momentum

5.5 Pressure

Example 12
500 Newtons
2m 4m 5m A box which is measures 2m x 5m x 4m and weighs 500 N is placed on the floor. Calculate the pressure exerted by the box when the area of its surface in contact with the floor is a) Minimum b) Maximum


4m b)

5m The minimum surface area is 2m x 4m Pressure = 500/ (2x 4) = 62.5 Pa


The maximum surface area is 4m x 5m Pressure = 500/ (4x5) = 25 Pa

Application of Pressure

5.6 Principle of Hydraulic system

Hydraulic system

Example 13

Application of Hydraulic system 1

Application of Hydraulic system 2

5.7 Motion of vehicles in water

Example: Rowing boat Sailing ship Ship

An object that moves in water, faces a resisting force that slows down its motion.
Designed of ships are streamlined shape and flat surface

Archimedess Principle

Example 14

Relationship between upthrust and weight

Relationship between upthrust and weight

Example 15

5.8 Motion of vehicles in Air

Example: -Hot air balloon -Helicopter - Aeroplane

Application of Bernoullis Principle